Historical Eras

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  California
  Florida                General Interest
  New York
  Oregon                       TIME PERIOD    HISTORICAL ERA
  Washington                                  Early America
                                              Pre-contact. Native American Origins and Cultures.
                                              Early Exploration. The Spanish. The French. The
  Read and Post                    To 1630
                                              English. Roanoke Island. Jamestown. Leif Ericksson.
  Comments                                    Christopher Columbus. John Cabot. Sir Francis
                                              Drake. Jacques Cartier. Henry Hudson.
                                              The Colonial Period
                                              Original Inhabitants. King Philip's War. Bacon's
                                              Rebellion. Mayflower Compact. First Thanksgiving,
                                  1630-1763                                                                  Top 10 Most Viewed Pages
                                              Wampanoags. Marquette and Joliet. Plymouth
                                              Colony. Massachusetts Bay Colony. Cotton Mather.               1. The Progressive Movement
                                              Benjamin Franklin. French and Indian War.
                                              Revolutionary America                                          2. Eastern Woodland Culture
                                              Stamp Act. Boston Massacre. Sons of Liberty.
                                              Boston Tea Party. Taxation and Representation.                 3. First Continental Congress
                                  1763-1783   Phillis Wheatley. 1st Continental Congress. Common
                                              Sense. American Revolution. 2nd Continnental                   4. Roaring Twenties
                                              Congress. Paul Revere's Ride. War for Independence.
                                              Yorktown. Treaty of Paris.                                     5. Quartering Act
                                              The Young Republic                                             6. Historical Eras
                                              Articles of Confederation. Constitutional Convention.
                                              Washington. Hamilton and Federalists. Shays'                   7. Stamp Act
                                              Rebellion. Jefferson and Republicans. Eli Whitney.
                                  1783-1815   Samuel Slater. Whiskey Rebellion. Battle of Fallen             8. Proclamation of 1763
                                              Timbers. Alien and Sedition Acts. Revolution of
                                              1800. Louisiana Purchase. Lewis and Clark. Battle of           9. Jacques Cartier
                                              Tippecanoe. War of 1812. Treaty of Ghent. Battle of
                                              New Orleans.                                                   10. The Temperance Movement
                                              Expansion, Political Reform, and Turmoil
                                              Era of Good Feelings. First Industrial Revolution.
                                              Henry Clay's Missouri Compromise. Monroe
                                              Doctrine. Jackson and the Revolution of 1828. Nat
                                  1815-1860   Turner Rebellion. Panic of 1837. Emerson.
                                              Longfellow. Whitman. Manifest Destiny. The Alamo.
                                              Frederick Douglass. California Gold Rush.
                                              Compromise of 1850. Dred Scott. Lincoln-Douglas
                                              Debates.
                                              Sectional Controversy, War, and Reconstruction
                                              Slavery. Underground Railroad. Bleeding Kansas.
                                  1830-1876   Lincoln. Civil War. Gettysburg. 13th Amendment.
                                              Radical Republicans. Reconstruction. Disputed
                                              Election of 1876. Little Big Horn.
                                              Second Industrial Revolution
                                              Railroad Era. Thomas Edison. Nikola Tesla. Henry
                                              Ford. George Westinghouse. Immigration. Labor
                                  1871-1914
                                              Movement. Sherman Antitrust Act. Closing the
                                              Frontier. Wounded Knee Massacre. Spanish-


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                                                  American War.
                                                  Political Reform II
                                                  Populist Party. Free Silver. Jim Crow Laws. Harry
                                  1880-1920
                                                  Houdini. Progressive Party aka the Bull Moose Party.
                                                  Mark Twain. Theodore Roosevelt. Taft. Wilson.
                                                  War, Prosperity, and Depression
                                                  "Big Stick" Diplomacy. Panama Canal. World War I.
                                                  Versailles. The Negro Leagues. League of Nations.
                                  1914-1933
                                                  Black Sox Scandal. Harding Scandals. Charles
                                                  Lindbergh. Stock Market Crash. Babe Ruth.
                                                  "Satchmo" Armstrong. Amelia Earhart.
                                                  The New Deal and World War II
                                                  Franklin D. Roosevelt. First One Hundred Days.
                                                  Albert Einstein. Manhattan Project. J. Edgar Hoover.
                                  1933-1945
                                                  War in Europe. Adolph Hitler. The Holocaust. Jesse
                                                  Owens. Pearl Harbor. World War II. War in the
                                                  Pacific. Rosie the Riveter. Truman and the Bomb.
                                                  Postwar America
                                                  Marshall Plan. Berlin Airlift. Korean War. McCarthy.
                                                  Hollywood Blacklist. Cold War. Eisenhower. Brown
                                  1945-1960
                                                  v. Board of Education. Rosa Parks. Julius and Ethel
                                                  Rosenberg. Elvis. Buddy Holly. Space Race. Nixon
                                                  and Kennedy.
                                                  The Vietnam Era
                                                  Bay of Pigs. JFK Assassination. Lyndon B. Johnson
                                                  and Civil Rights. Martin Luther King Jr..
                                  1960-1980       Muhammad Ali. Hank Aaron. Nixon, Kissinger, and
                                                  Vietnam. Roe v. Wade. Watergate. Oil Embargo.
                                                  Carter. Iran Hostage Crisis. Reagan and
                                                  Conservatism.
                                                  End of the Century
                                                  Marines in Lebanon. Iran-Contra Scandal. Fall of
                                  1980-2000
                                                  Berlin Wall. Persian Gulf War. Clinton and
                                                  Impeachment. Election Turmoil in 2000.
                                                  The New Millenium
                                                  September 11, 2001. Terrorism. Afghanistan and
                                    2001-
                                                  Iraqi wars. Election of 2004. Bush. Economic
                                                  downturn. Illegal Immigrants.

                         Early America

                         Most authorities believe that the Western hemisphere was populated at the end of
                         the last ice age when a lowered ocean level exposed a land bridge that Asian
                         peoples traversed to North America.

                         Later, the arriving European settlers discovered the existence of extensive
                         civilizations. In the southern reaches of North America (present-day Mexico and
                         Central America) the Mayan civilization built sophisticated stone structures,
                         developed an advanced numerical system and maintained extensive agricultural
                         complexes. The Aztecs established a far-reaching empire that controlled much of
                         present-day Mexico.

                         In the northern portions of North America the early native peoples are commonly
                         divided into the following regional groups:

                               The Eastern Woodland culture was located in the drainage area of the
                               Mississippi River east to the Atlantic Ocean and south from the Great Lakes
                               to the Gulf of Mexico. Various groups of mound builders existed in this
                               region.

                               The Plains culture existed on the open expanses of present-day Canada and
                               the United States.

                               The Southwest culture occupied areas in present-day northern Mexico and the
                               southwestern United States. Notable within this grouping were the Pueblo
                               societies in present-day New Mexico and Arizona.

                               The Far West culture ranged from the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean.



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                               The Northwest culture inhabited the coastal regions of the northwestern
                               United States and western Canada

                               The Subarctic culture stretched across Canada north of the Great Lakes and
                               south of the Arctic tree line, and across much of Alaska

                               The Arctic culture occupied the treeless expanses in the extreme northern
                               portions of Alaska, Canada, and Greenland

                         Historical evidence for early European ventures to the New World is in dispute, but
                         it appears that Norsemen, including Leif Eriksson, made voyages to the area toward
                         the end of the 10th century.

                         Europe lacked the technological skills and motivation to immediately follow the
                         Vikings into the New World. Conditions changed, however, during the 1400s.
                         Portugal emerged as the first nation-state to engage in an organized effort to reach
                         the lucrative Far Eastern markets by means of an all-water route.

                         Next, Spanish exploration of the New World followed the voyages of Christopher
                         Columbus, 1492-1504. Settlements were established in the hope of finding mineral
                         wealth, converting the native populations to Christianity, and for the thrill of a great
                         adventure.

                         England and France followed Spain into the Americas in the early 17th century, later
                         to be joined by Holland and, briefly, Sweden.

                         Northern European interest in exploration was fueled by the search for a Northwest
                         Passage. Later, attention was turned to the establishment of permanent colonies. The
                         English failed in an effort at Roanoke Island in the 1580s, but succeeded at
                         Jamestown in 1607. In 1620, a Pilgrim colony was established at Plymouth in
                         present-day Massachusetts, followed in 1630 by the Puritan colony of Massachusetts
                         Bay.

                         The white settlements in New England sparked interaction with local Native
                         Americans, notably the Narragansett and the Pequot. The ultimate failure of the
                         relationships was seen in the Pequot War (1637) and King Philip’s War (1675-76).

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                         Colonial Period

                         The following are the 13 original colonies, plus Maine, listed alphabetically with the
                         generally recognized founding dates in parentheses:

                               Connecticut (1636): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Thomas Hooker, New England Confederation, Dominion of New England,
                               Connecticut and the American Revolution

                               Delaware (1638): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement, Delaware
                               and the American Revolution

                               Georgia (1732): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement, Georgia
                               and the American Revolution

                               Maryland (1634): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Maryland and the American Revolution

                               Massachusetts (1620): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Plymouth Colony, Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Great Awakening,
                               Massachusetts and the American Revolution.

                                       Maine (developed as part of Massachusetts and was not an original
                                       colony): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement, Maine and
                                       the American Revolution

                               New Hampshire (1630): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               New Hampshire and the American Revolution

                               New Jersey (1660): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement, New
                               Jersey and the American Revolution



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                               New York (1626): Original Inhabitants, Exploration, the Dutch in New York,
                               the English in New York, Leisler's Rebellion, John Peter Zenger, New York
                               and the American Revolution

                               North Carolina (1653): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Culpeper’s Rebellion, Tuscarora War, Blackbeard, Regulator Movement,
                               North Carolina and the American Revolution

                               Pennsylvania (1682): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement, New
                               Sweden, William Penn, Society of Friends, Early Pennsylvania, Warfare with
                               Native Americans, Pennsylvania and the American Revolution

                               Rhode Island (1636): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Roger Williams, Rhode Island and the American Revolution

                               South Carolina (1670): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Regulator Movement, South Carolina and the American Revolution

                               Virginia (1607): Original Inhabitants, Exploration and Settlement,
                               Jamestown, the slave trade, the West, Patrick Henry, Virginia and the
                               American Revolution

                         On two occasions in the 17th century, efforts were made to formulate a rudimentary
                         union among the New England colonies: The New England Confederation and the
                         Dominion of New England.

                         Britain ruled her worldwide empire, including the American colonies, under the
                         terms of an economic theory known as mercantilism. It was the attempt to enforce
                         this system that provided fuel for the American Revolution.

                         All of the colonies were to some degree impacted in the 18th century by a Contest
                         for Empire, which pitted the great world powers, France and England, against one
                         another. The most significant North American phase of this conflict was the French
                         and Indian War (1754-63).

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                         Revolutionary America

                         The government of George III introduced a plan of imperial reorganization in 1763.
                         These reforms were not welcomed in many parts of America, where the cry of “no
                         taxation without representation” was heard.

                         Beginning in the mid-1760s, Britain attempted to fine-tune its colonial control
                         through the Stamp Act (1765), the Quartering Act (1765), and Townshend Duties
                         (1767)—all of which tended to inflame public opinion rather than dampen it. Boston
                         became the focus of colonial opposition in the Boston Massacre (1770), the Boston
                         Tea Party (1773) and the Parliamentary response in the Coercive Acts (1774).

                         Further colonial resistance was put up by the Sons of Liberty and the Committees of
                         Correspondence. Formal opposition came from the First Continental Congress and
                         the Second Continental Congress.

                         America and Britain entered the conflict with differing strategies and strengths.
                         Hostilities erupted at Lexington and Concord in April 1775. (See chronology of the
                         War for Independence.) George Washington was appointed commander of the
                         Continental Army in June 1775. Public opinion was coaxed to acceptance of
                         independence by Thomas Paine’s Common Sense in early 1776. The formal break
                         with the mother country came in the Declaration of Independence (July 1776),
                         largely the work of Thomas Jefferson.

                         Early military engagements occurred at Bunker Hill (June 1775), in the Canadian
                         campaign (1775-76) and in the South. Later, action shifted to the New York
                         campaign (1776). Washington temporarily reversed a series of defeats at Trenton
                         and Princeton (late 1776 and early 1777), but British forces succeeded in taking
                         Philadelphia in late 1777.

                         The turning point of the War came at Saratoga (1777), a victory that enabled
                         American diplomats to negotiate a French Alliance (1778). Hostilities continued in
                         the Western Theater and the Southern Theater. The main British force surrendered at
                         Yorktown in October 1781.


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                         Peace was achieved in the Treaty of Paris (1783) with Benjamin Franklin playing a
                         prominent role.

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                         The Young Republic

                         Following independence, the American states began the process of drafting new
                         state constitutions, many of which reflected increased democratic elements (women
                         and slaves excepted).

                         The nation’s governing document was the Articles of Confederation whose
                         weaknesses led to a “critical period” in the 1780s. Conservative elements in the
                         country were especially disturbed by Shays' Rebellion in western Massachusetts.

                         The end of the War for Independence led to rapid settlement in the West.

                         Desire for a strong central government led to the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
                         The completed document was submitted to the states for ratification. The Federalist,
                         largely the work of Alexander Hamilton, remains the most cogent analysis of the
                         U.S. Constitution.

                         George Washington’s election in 1789 ushered in the Federalist Era, which
                         witnessed the process of translating the Constitution’s ideas into actual practice. A
                         Bill of Rights was drafted by Congress and submitted to the states. Other early
                         activity included the Tariff of 1789 and consideration of Hamilton’s economic
                         program.

                         Much to Washington’s disapproval, partisan politics emerged, pitting the Federalists
                         against the Jeffersonian Republicans. A challenge to the new government was posed
                         by the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794.

                         Foreign affairs under Washington found the nation proclaiming neutrality, but seeing
                         it threatened by French minister Edmond Genêt. Outstanding issues with Spain and
                         Britain were addressed in Pinckney’s Treaty and the controversial Jay’s Treaty.

                         Washington provided advice for his fellow citizens in his Farewell Address in 1796.

                         The Election of 1796 brought John Adams to power; his administration was marred
                         by problems in the relationship with France and the divisive Alien and Sedition
                         Acts.

                         The Election of 1800 exposed a weakness in the constitutional provision for electing
                         a president. Thomas Jefferson’s triumph is sometimes regarded as the Revolution of
                         1800. The Jefferson administration dealt with far-reaching issues involving the
                         Supreme Court, a war with the Barbary pirates, further westward expansion, the
                         Louisiana Purchase, and diplomatic issues with Britain and France.

                         The Election of 1808 ushered in the administration of James Madison, who grappled
                         with neutral rights issues, culminating in the War of 1812.

                         Young authors began to emerge with a style that said "Americana": Ralph Waldo
                         Emerson, Walt Whitman, and Louisa May Alcott embraced Transcendentalism,
                         Edgar Allan Poe, James Fenimore Cooper, Washington Irving, and others made
                         their marks in the "Golden Age of American Literature."

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                         Expansion, Political Reform, and Turmoil

                         Following the War of 1812, there existed a superficial “Era of Good Feelings” in
                         which partisan issues declined. The Election of 1816 brought in James Monroe, who
                         made his major mark in foreign affairs. Much of the country’s energy was channeled
                         into westward movement. Postwar prosperity ended abruptly in the Panic of 1819.
                         Henry Clay and others touted an “American System” that was supposed to unite the
                         country, but probably shortchanged the South.

                         A Transportation Revolution was under way, featuring a canal craze, the first
                         railroads and steamboats. America also was experiencing the beginnings of its First
                         Industrial Revolution.

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                         The Election of 1824 was another disputed contest; the House of Representatives
                         supported John Quincy Adams, which enraged Andrew Jackson's followers. The
                         Election of 1828, sometimes referred to as the “Revolution of 1828," was Jackson's
                         revenge, ushering in the age of the common man. Major issues included problems
                         with the spoils system, the tariff, the nullification crisis, and the Second Bank of the
                         United States.

                         Martin van Buren entered office after the Election of 1836; major occurrences
                         included tensions with Britain, the Panic of 1837 and an ongoing dispute with John
                         C. Calhoun.

                         The Election of 1840 ushered in the short term of William Henry Harrison and his
                         successor John Tyler. The Webster-Ashburton Treaty (1843) was the leading
                         accomplishment. The Manifest Destiny passions helped sweep James K. Polk into
                         office, where he faced issues regarding Texas, the Oregon boundary, and the
                         Mexican War (1846-48).

                         War hero Zachary Taylor emerged as the victor in the Election of 1848. His
                         shortened term in office nevertheless yielded positive diplomatic results in the
                         negotiation of the Clayton-Bulwer Treaty (1850) with Britain. Taylor did not
                         support the Compromise of 1850, but his successor, Millard Fillmore, signed its
                         provisions into law.

                         A spirit of reform was evident in America during the first half of the 19th century,
                         touching such areas as religion in the second Great Awakening, women’s issues,
                         educational reform, the temperance movement, utopianism, and abolitionism.

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                         Sectional Controversy, War, and Reconstruction

                         The institution of slavery changed from an economic issue to a political issue in the
                         first half of the 19th century. Particularly perplexing was the question of extending
                         slavery into the new territories. Southern partisans attempted to justify the existence
                         of slavery.

                         Various events and issues sharpened the controversy: the Fugitive Slave Act; the
                         novel, Uncle Tom’s Cabin; the Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854); the Dred Scott case
                         (1857); and the actions of John Brown.

                         The Election of 1860 and Abraham Lincoln's victory led many wavering
                         Southerners to support secession. Compromise efforts failed and a crisis developed
                         at Fort Sumter.

                         The Union and the Confederate States of America each had advantages at the
                         inception of the conflict and each side had an initial war strategy. Both sides
                         attempted to exert diplomatic pressure to influence the course of the war.

                         The military aspects of the Civil War were conducted primarily by ground soldiers
                         in the Eastern and Western theaters with some ancillary naval action.

                         The year 1865 brought the end of the war, and thus, slavery; the death of a
                         president; and extremely grave postwar conditions in the South. The great peacetime
                         challenge was the nation's reconstruction with various political factions advancing
                         widely differing reconstruction plans. Union hero U.S. Grant won the Election of
                         1868 and headed an administration marred by scandals.

                         The disputed Election of 1876 brought Rutherford B. Hayes to office and an end to
                         reconstruction.

                         The Battle of Little Big Horn, also known as "Custer's Last Stand," was fought in
                         Montana in 1876.

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                         Second Industrial Revolution

                         American politics in the last third of the 19th century was dominated by the spoils
                         system and the emergence of political machines and bosses, particularly in the


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                         burgeoning urban areas. Political abuses set the stage for reform efforts.

                         The Election of 1880 brought the short tenure of James A. Garfield, who was
                         succeeded by his vice president Chester A. Arthur, whose administration was noted
                         for the passage of the Pendleton Act (1883).

                         The Election of 1884 ushered in the first administration of Grover Cleveland. The
                         Interstate Commerce Act was passed in 1887.

                         Benjamin Harrison took office after the Election of 1888 and oversaw the enactment
                         of the Sherman Antitrust Act, the Sherman Silver Purchase Act and the McKinley
                         Tariff, all in 1890.

                         Cleveland returned for a second term following the Democratic victory in 1892,
                         making him the only president elected to non-consecutive terms.

                         Major labor strife erupted in the Homestead Strike (1892) and the Pullman Strike
                         (1894).

                         The post-Civil War years witnessed a new industrial era with advances in industrial
                         technology, the building of the transcontinental railroads, and the development of
                         the corporation. The growth of the industrial society depended on the cheap labor of
                         the poor and the immigrants, groups that turned to unions to improve their lives.
                         Opposing sides debated the relative merits of the new capitalism.

                         The new industrial age featured such titans as John D. Rockefeller, who organized
                         oil trusts to ensure greater profits and less competition; Henry Ford, "father of mass
                         production and the assembly line;" Andrew Carnegie, who built the modern steel
                         industry with the integration of all phases of the process; and J.P. Morgan, who
                         marshaled financial resources to form the world’s first billion dollar corporation.

                         As the railroads began to tie the continent together, the West experienced
                         unparalleled growth that featured mining booms, the growth of a cattle culture and
                         plains farming. The relentless westward push increased friction with resident Native
                         Americans. The Wounded Knee Masacre (1890) became the last major uprising of
                         American Indians.

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                         Political Reform II

                         Rural America attempted to better the lot of the farmer through such organizations
                         as the Grange and a series of farm alliances. Farm concerns took on a clearly
                         political cast in the rise of Populism. Conditions for all elements of society
                         worsened during the Panic of 1893.

                         The silver question dominated economic discussions and led to the rise of William
                         Jennings Bryan, a frequent presidential contender. However, the Election of 1896
                         was a conservative victory, bringing William McKinley to power. His first term was
                         dominated by the war with Spain and the second was cut short by assassination.

                         A national reform movement known as Progressivism emerged and included
                         advocates of women’s suffrage, municipal reform, state reform, temperance,
                         immigration reform and a host of social reforms. The need for these changes was
                         often expressed in terms of the “Social Gospel” or in the vivid prose of the
                         muckrakers.

                         McKinley’s assassination in 1901 brought the American hero, Theodore Roosevelt,
                         to the presidency. Breaking with his party, TR pursued a startling array of domestic
                         reform legislation. The Election of 1908 brought in a more conservative leader,
                         William Howard Taft. His domestic policy featured succcessful trust busting, but
                         Taft broke with his predecessor over conservation issues. This split led to the
                         emergence of the Bull Moose Party in the Election of 1912.

                         Woodrow Wilson benefited from the split between Roosevelt and Taft and
                         continued with Progressive legislation: Federal Reserve Act (1913), Clayton
                         Antitrust Act (1914) and Federal Trade Commission Act (1914).

                         The Supreme Court acted to counter the Progressives' liberalism in such decisions as
                         Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and Lochner v. New York (1905). However, Muller v.
                         Oregon (1908) revealed a Court more willing to challenge its laissez faire past.


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                         War, Prosperity, and Depression

                         In the years following the Civil War, the United States played an increasing role on
                         the world stage. Motivation for foreign involvement was largely for trade and profit,
                         but Social Darwinism also offered a rationale. Early steps involved America in
                         Samoa, Hawaii and the Caribbean. More serious problems developed with the
                         Spanish in Cuba, culminating in the Spanish American War (1898).

                         Emerging from the war as a hero, Roosevelt followed an activist foreign policy,
                         reinterpreting the Monroe Doctrine and engineering the independence of Panama.
                         Taft continued the interventionist policies by sending soldiers to Nicaragua in 1912,
                         in a display of Dollar Diplomacy. Wilson also was a foreign affairs activist,
                         intervening in Santo Domingo and coming close to war with Mexico.

                         In the Far East, the United States proclaimed an "Open Door" policy for trade with
                         China and mediated the Russo-Japanese War (1905).

                         The U.S. also dabbled in European affairs by participating in the Algeciras
                         Conference in 1906.

                         War erupted in Europe in August 1914. The U.S. attempted to remain neutral, but its
                         resolve was tested by German submarine warfare. Wilson was returned to office in
                         the Election of 1916, reluctantly using the slogan, “He kept us out of war.”
                         Nevertheless, the U.S. entered World War I in April 1917, and more than 1.4 million
                         American soldiers served in Europe.

                         Wilson proposed his "Fourteen Points" as the basis for peace and personally
                         attended the conference, which drafted the Treaty of Versailles. The U.S. Senate,
                         however, rejected the Treaty and American membership in the League of Nations.

                         The U.S. sent soldiers to Russia during a civil war following the Bolshevik
                         Revolution.

                         Postwar efforts were made by the major powers to secure disarmament and extract
                         reparations from the defeated powers.

                         On the home front, America experienced a Red Scare and the Palmer Raids. Warren
                         G. Harding assumed office after the Election of 1920, an administration tainted by
                         the Teapot Dome Scandal. Calvin Coolidge became president upon Harding’s death
                         and was elected in his own right in 1924. Major trends and events included efforts
                         to limit immigration, the growth of American industry, the Roaring Twenties, and
                         the stock market crash of 1929.

                         Herbert Hoover was victorious in the Election of 1928 and preached “rugged
                         individualism” as the cure for the country’s economic woes.

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                         The New Deal and World War II

                         Franklin D. Roosevelt won the Election of 1932 and promised a “New Deal” for the
                         American people. In the administration’s first One Hundred Days, a series of
                         measures was presented dealing with banking, unemployment, farm policy, and
                         business reform.

                         Later programs were enacted to deal with social security and collective bargaining.
                         The Election of 1936 was regarded as a referendum on both FDR and the New Deal.
                         In 1937, the President was engaged in a Supreme Court fight.

                         The New Deal provoked critics and admirers, both in the 1930s and in the years
                         thereafter.

                         In foreign affairs, Roosevelt pledged the United States to be a “good neighbor” to
                         Latin America while strong sentiment for isolationism grew as problems deepened
                         in Europe and Asia. Pacifism was effectively ended by the Japanese attack on Pearl
                         Harbor in December 1941, and Japanese Americans were faced with internment.

                         America's entry into World War II necessitated mobilization efforts on a massive

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                         scale. Military action occurred in the Pacific, North Africa, Europe and the North
                         Atlantic.

                         Harry S. Truman, who assumed the office of the presidency when Roosevelt
                         succumbed to a cerebral hemorage in April 1945, faced a critical decision regarding
                         the use of the atomic bomb.

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                         Postwar America

                         In 1945, the United States participated in conferences at Yalta and Potsdam, which
                         exerted profound effects on the postwar world. Congress created the Atomic Energy
                         Commission, the president proclaimed the Truman Doctrine, and the Marshall Plan
                         was proposed for rebuilding war-torn Europe.

                         The Election of 1948 saw Truman elected in his own right and attempts were made
                         to revive the Fair Deal.

                         International tensions were heightened in the Berlin Blockade and by the
                         announcement that the Soviet Union had detonated an atomic bomb of their own. In
                         1950, the Korean War erupted and Truman dismissed General Douglas MacArthur.

                         Domestic highlights included the Alger Hiss and Julius and Ethel Rosenburg cases
                         and the anti-communist campaign of Sen. Joseph McCarthy.

                         The Election of 1952 brought the Republicans and Dwight D. Eisenhower to power.
                         Segregation and an emerging civil rights movement captured headlines throughout
                         the nation, while the Suez Crisis, the launch of Sputnik, the triumph of Fidel Castro
                         and the U-2 Spy Plane Incident were the prominent foreign affairs issues.

                         The Election of 1960 returned the Democrats to power with John F. Kennedy
                         narrowly defeating Richard M. Nixon.

                         In sports, Jackie Robinson broke the "color barrier" in baseball (1947), the Negro
                         Leagues were severly hurt by the drain of talent headed to the major leagues (see
                         also Significant African Americans).

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                         The Vietnam Era

                         President Kennedy faced foreign crises in the Bay of Pigs invasion when it became a
                         fiasco, the erection of the Berlin Wall and the Cuban Missile Crisis. In November
                         1963, President Kennedy was assassinated and was succeeded by Lyndon B.
                         Johnson, who launched a war on poverty and worked for the passage of the Civil
                         Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act.

                         The Gulf of Tonkin Resolution preceded the build up of American forces in
                         Vietnam, the emergence of an antiwar movement and the Tet Offensive. In 1968,
                         both Martin Luther King, Jr. and Robert F. Kennedy were assassinated. Civil Rights
                         issues came to a head. The Election of 1968 brought Richard M. Nixon to power
                         with a secret plan to end the war in Vietnam. "Ping Pong Diplomacy" opened the
                         door to China.

                         Despite anti-war turmoil in the colleges and universities, the war dragged on.
                         Cambodia was invaded and peace talks were opened. Nixon visited China and
                         negotiated the SALT I treaty with the Soviet Union. The Watergate burglary
                         occurred with little initial notice, and Nixon retained office after the Election of
                         1972.

                         U.S. forces were withdrawn from Vietnam and the Arabs imposed an oil embargo.
                         In August 1974, Nixon resigned from the presidency to avoid being impeached and
                         was followed in the office by Gerald R. Ford. Also in 1974, Hank Aaron broke Babe
                         Ruth's career home run record.

                         Jimmy Carter defeated Ford in the Election of 1976. The Panama Canal treaty
                         (1977) and Camp David Accords (1978) were signed. American citizens were seized
                         and held hostage in Iran. China and the U.S. restored relations after a long break.
                         The Election of 1980 brought Ronald Reagan to power with an anti-communist,


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                         conservative agenda.

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                         End of the Century

                         In an effort to wind down the Cold War, Ronald Reagan met with Soviet leader
                         Mikhail Gorbachev, who had been promoting "Glasnost" (Openness), at home. 1983
                         saw two major crises in foreign affairs: the U.S. invasion of Grenada and the Beirut
                         Bombing. The proposal for a Strategic Defense Initiative (“Star Wars”) drew mixed
                         reviews in Congress. The Iran-Contra Affair erupted in 1986, and the United States
                         bombed Libya in retaliation for an earlier bombing in West Berlin.

                         George H.W. Bush was the victor in the Election of 1988 and presided over the fall
                         of the Berlin Wall and the disintegration of the communist regimes, ending the Cold
                         War. In 1991, Bush organized a broad coalition that forced the invader Iraq from
                         Kuwait in the Persian Gulf War. Bush also sent American soldiers to Panama to
                         remove General Manuel Noriega.

                         The Election of 1992 brought Bill Clinton to the White House. He surfed the wave
                         crest of the country’s greatest bull market, but was politically hobbled by the Monica
                         Lewinsky and other scandals. The resulting impeachment by the House of
                         Representatives was followed by a vote for acquittal in the Senate, thus leaving
                         Clinton to finish out his term of office.

                         The Election of 2000 was hotly contested due to voting irregularities and required
                         the involvement of the U.S. Supreme Court to select the President.

                         top of page


                         The New Millenium

                         With the coming of the new millenium, the United States was greeted on September
                         11, 2001, by the worst attack by a foreign country on American soil. The terrorist
                         group al Qaeda claimed responsibility for the destruction of the World Trade
                         Center's twin towers in New York City and lesser damage to the Pentagon. George
                         W. Bush called for the invasions of Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003).

                         The National Museum of the American Indian opened in 2004, in Washington, D.C.
                         Corporations increased outsourcing jobs to elevate profits. Influence of labor unions
                         on political and economic policy continued to decline. The "middle class" began to
                         disappear.

                         top of page



                          Off-site search results for "Historical Eras"...
                          Giovale Library - Digital Collections: Historical Eras - Westminster College,
                          Salt Lake City, UT
                          ... Home > Additional Collections > Historical Eras Digital Collections: Specific
                          Historical Eras Ancient History Duke Papyrus Archive from Duke University "The
                          Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic access to texts about and imagHistorical
                          Eras Digital Collections: Specific Historical Eras Ancient History Duke Papyrus
                          Archive from Duke University "The Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic
                          access to texts about and imagHistorical Eras Ancient History Duke Papyrus
                          Archive from Duke University "The Duke Papyrus Archive provides electronic
                          access to texts about and images of 1,373 ...
                          http://www.westminstercollege.edu/library/digitization/digcol/hist_era ...

                          Rocky Mountains Historical Facts Fur Trade Era Maps Pictures
                          ... unless he was being paid why was he always leading brigades], he survived the
                          era of the Rocky Mountain Fur Trade, and was used as an army guide. Bridger
                          and Bonneville did not contribute any more to western history than a great many
                          others ...
                          http://www.thefurtrapper.com/fur_trade.htm

                          1851 to 1870/Railroad Era; shelby county ohio historical society


http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/eras.html                                                                           Page 10 of 11
Historical Eras                                                                                                   4/13/09 2:20 PM


                          Railroad Era - TransportationAn even bigger boost to Sidney, Ohio, as an
                          industrial hub came with the railroads. As early as 1848, local leadership, including
                          Sidney attorney Hugh Thompson, induced a railroad to build an east-west line
                          through ...
                          http://www.shelbycountyhistory.org/schs/industry/18511870railroa.htm



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