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					Digital Image Development
Class 1                                                                                          Handouts & Activities
Handouts: 6                                                                                          The Elements of Design
                                                                                                     In order to make anything, you have to start with the basic materials. You need bricks and mortar to build a wall; flours eggs,
                                                                                                     butter, etc. to bake a cake.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The formal principles of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              design:
Introduce syllabus, students, teacher, set tone for class                                                  The ingredients for making a good layout are the elements of design:
                                                                                                                     line, shape, texture, space, size, value and color.

                                                                                                     When you understand what it is that each ingredient adds to a recipe, then you can make up your own. If you make the right
                                                                                                     choices about what to put in your new recipe, you will succeed in making a good dish. The same is true of using the ingre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              The following is a brief overview of the formal design principles—balance, emphasis, rhythm and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              unity. They influence every decision you make when creating a composition. Once you understand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              how these principles work, you can start applying them to your own work, or notice how youʼve intui-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              tively applied them already.



Technical:
                                                                                                     dients of design. once you understand what the elements of design are and how they work, you can make the right choices
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Balance
                                                                                                     to create your own good layouts.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              An equal distribution of weight. There are two approaches to balance. You can arrange elements
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              so theyʼre evenly distributed to the left and to the right of the center (one side mirrors the other just like
                                                                                                     Line: (rule): any mark connecting 2 points. Lines are everywhere. They can be used to do many things. Rules organ-                       a face). This is called symmetry. The other type of balance is asymmetry. You can arrange dissimilar
                                                                                                     ize, direct, separate, they can even suggest an emotion or speed.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              objects of equal weight on each side of a composition. You can use color, value, size, shape, line and



               Introduction to Illustrator
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              texture as balancing elements in an asymmetrical design. Because dark areas look heavier than light
                                                                                                     Shape: Anything that has height and width. Shapes are also everywhere: everything has a shape. In design shapes                          areas, a small black shape on the left would balance a large white space on the right.
                                                                                                     define objects but they can also communicate ideas. A circle in a logo can indicate the earth, a system, a cycle. A heart can
                                                                                                     mean love, etc. There are geometric shapes which are regular and structured (triangles, squares, rectangles, etc.) and organ-            Rhythm
                                                                                                     ic shapes which are irregular.                                                                                                           A pattern created by repeating elements that are similar or varied. Repetition (repeating similar
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              elements in a consistent manner) and variation (a change in form, size. color or position of elements)



               Overview of workspace: Interface, menu, palettes, save/ save as
                                                                                                     Texture: The look or feel of a surface. There is tactile texture which can actually be felt (embossed type, glossy                       are the keys to visual rhythm in design. Repetition unifies a piece. However, without variation, repeti-
                                                                                                     paper) and visual texture where the illusion of of texture has been created. Texture can be used for many reasons: To embue              tion can become boring. Balance repetition and variation, giving the viewer/reader enough repeated
                                                                                                     a piece with mood (a soft texture can indicate warmth). To create contrast. To create richness and depth. To fool the eye (give          elements to bind the piece together, but a least vary some elements to keep interest high.
                                                                                                     the appearance of something else - a flat piece of paper can be made to look like a cube, etc.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Emphasis
                                                                                                     Space: The distance or area around things. WHen designing a layout you need to consider not only where you’ll                            What stands out most get noticed first. In order to attract viewers/readers every composition needs



               Tool Box: arrows, mark-making tools
                                                                                                     place each rule and shape, but where they will be relative to each other. When arranging furniture in a room, it’s wise to con-          a focal point. Without one, viewers quickly move on. But if you have too many points of interest, your
                                                                                                     sider how much space you have. Once items are placed, consider whether the room is easy to navigate, functional, and                     viewer will not know where to look first and might give up. In other words emphasizing everything
                                                                                                     pleasant to be in. The metaphor works for designing a good layout as well. Even when there are many elements in a piece,                 means youʼve emphasized nothing. Therefore, you must choose the most important element based
                                                                                                     it’s important to include white space as it is used to organize the page and give the eye a rest. The placement and the value            on the message youʼre trying to communicate and on your target audience. After youʼve chosen the
                                                                                                     of shapes on a page create spatial relationships and focal point.                                                                        element to emphasize, you can choose any of several methods to call attention to it. As a general rule,



               basic text tool - write 2 paragraphs about yourself (acquire a man-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              a focal point is created when one element differs from the rest. For example, in a composition where
                                                                                                     Size: How big or small something is. Size can indicate importance. Provide depth by making some elements recede                          everything is vertical, a horizontal element will stand out.
                                                                                                     and some some forward. Draw attention to an element. Establish consistency (all subheaders the same size). Create tension
                                                                                                     and break up space in an interesting way.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Unity
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              All elements look like they belong together. This helps determine how many elements you use and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              how to use them. Imagine a grocery store where the detergent was mixed in with the cabbages. You
                                                                                                     Value: The darkness or lightness of an area.Every element in a layout has value. Because value is relative, the value


               datory writing sample) in Illustrator include contact info, print out.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              wouldnʼt know where to find what you are looking for and you might be inclined to shop somewhere
                                                                                                     of an element can be affected by it’s background and other elements around it. Setting lots of type in a small area of white
                                                                                                     paper will make the paper appear gray. Value is an important tool in expressing your theme. Slight variations (low contrast)             else. Layouts and compositions need unity also. How do you unify type and images? Grouping:
                                                                                                     from light to dark can create a calm, quiet mood (grainy photos on a pastel background). Great variations from light to dark             Elements that are grouped close together look like they belong together. Repeating: A color, shape
                                                                                                     (high contrast) can convey a feeling of drama or excitement.                                                                             or texture repeated in the design pulls it together. A grid: The subdivision of a space into columns,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              margins and spaces. It establishes a framework for spacing and proportions of type and pictures in
                                                                                                     Color: The ultimate tool for symbolic communication. Color does many things in our lives. It helps us identity objects                   a piece. Variety keeps unified layouts/compositions from being boring. Begin with a theme such as
                                                                                                     (apple), understand things (green means go), and it can communicate feelings are moods (blue=sad)                                        circles and ovals in different sizes and shapes. Use unity to hold a piece together and variety to give
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              it life.
                                                                                                      The principles of design determine what to do with each of the                                                                                                                                                                          02.2004 ICG/DTP
                                                                                                                            elements of design                                                                                                                                                                                         Sources: Robin Williams,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lori Siebert, Lisa Ballard




Theoretical:
            Elements of art & design                                                          Ass. 1: Line Assignment
            Principles of art & design                                                        Syllabus
            Gestalt Theory                                                                    What is an “A”
Class activity:                                                                               Field Trip Form
            Assignment 1: line assignment — parts that make up a mark (vec-                   Visit Lab
            tor) in illustrator; anchor points, lines, arcs
Homework:
            Finish line assignment — present printed. Read all handouts.; pur-
            chase all necessary supplies; text book.




Class 2
Handouts: 4
Discussion:
                                                                                                                                                                    *
            Assignment 1: similarities of interpretations supports the idea that
            there exists a visual currency - a system of visual language for com-
            munication - elements and principles are the vocabulary to describe
            “how our eyes perceive and experience the world”
            Positive /Negative Space
Theoretical:                                                                                 The ILLUSTRTOR Workspace:
                                                                                                                                                                                There are more than 40 tools in the tool box—even experienced Illustrator users can be over-
                                                                                                                                                                                whelmed with an updated interface. We will focus on the most useful tools. Below are also
                                                                                                                                                                                tips for working in Illustrator.
                                                                                                                 Tool Box

            Types of Images (handout)
                                                                                                                                                                 Frequently Used Operations and                      Moving Around                                   Selecting
                                                                                                                                                                 their Corresponding Keystrokes                      Space Bar                                       In order to manipulate an object in Illustra-
                                                                                                                                                                 (Shortcuts)                                         When working in a zoomed-in view, mov-          tor, it must be selected first.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ing around the document is easy if you use      Selected Path/Objects
                                                                                                                                                                 Open                                                the space bar and mouse combo instead of
                                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) + O                                                                               When a path or object is selected, the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     looking for the scroll bars. Hold the space     path or bounding box becomes colored.
                                                                                              Selection                                 Direct Selection         Opens files                                          bar down and click and drag with the            By default, if you are working in Layer 1,



            What is an Illustration? Why use Illustrator:
                                                                                                                                                               Save                                                  mouse to navigate the work space.               all selected objects will appear light blue.
                                                                                           Magic Wand                                   Direct Selection Lasso Command (Control) + S                                                                                 In Layer 2 all selected objects appear red.
                                                                                                                                                                 Develop a habit of saving frequently.               Paths and Points                                In Layer 3 these selected objects appear
                                                                                               Pen Tool                                 Type Tool                Save As                                             Understanding paths and                         green, and so on. See diagram below.
                                                                                                                                                                 Shift + Command (Control) + S                       anchor points                                   Select All
                                                                                         Line Segment                                                            This is a way to save your changes without          In Illustrator, you create and edit drawings    Command (Control) + A
                                                                                                                                        Rectangle



            (tracing the duck: pixels vs. vectors but pixels will be explained
                                                                                                                                                                 overwriting your original. Also a way to            by defining anchor points and the paths          Selects all objects on the artboard (your
                                                                                                                                                                 make a copy with a new name.                        between them. The tools in Illustrator es-      page) and all objects on the scratch area.
                                                                                             Paintbrush                                 Pencil
                                                                                                                                                                 Undo Last Step                                      sentially manipulate paths, anchor points
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     and fills.                                       Black Arrow Selection Tool
                                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) + Z                                                                               An easy way to select several objects ir-
                                                                                                 Rotate                                 Scale                    This key stroke combo along with the one            Paths                                           regardless of which layer they are in is to
                                                                                                                                                                 for Save, should be frequently used while           Paths are lines which can be straight or        click and drag a marquee around all the
                                                                                                   Warp                                  Free Transform          working in Illustrator (and many other soft-        curved.



            further later).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     objects you wish to select.
                                                                                                                                                                 ware applications as well).                         Closed Paths                                    Deselect
                                                                                        Symbol Sprayer                                  Graph                    Zoom In                                             Closed paths are objects such as circles or     In order to stop a path or deselect an
                                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) +                                 stars, in which the start and end of the path   object, you must select the black arrow
                                                                                                  Mesh                                  Gradient                 Zoom Out                                            are the same point.                             tool and click in an empty space or choose
                                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) -                                 Open Paths                                      Select>Deselect.
                                                                                                                                        Blend                                                                        Open paths do not have the same start and



Technical:
                                                                                           Eyedropper                                                            Fit in Window                                                                                       White Arrow Direct Selection
                                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) + 0                               end point. A fill applied to such an object      Tool
                                                                                                                                                                 While working on detail (zoomed in), it is          will create a straight edge from the initial    Use the white arrow tool to manipulate
                                                                                                   Slice                                Scissors
                                                                                                                                                                 very helpful to keep perspective on the             point and last point (see diagram).             individual anchor points. You must click di-
                                                                                                   Hand                                 Zoom                     whole picture by toggling between views:            Anchor Points                                   rectly on the outline of an object and make
                                                                                                                                                                 zoom in then fit to window. A painter us-            Anchor points are the start and end points      sure the anchor points are white.
                                                                                                                                                                 ing an actual canvas will work on a small           in a path as well as other points along the



            Types of Shapes: Organic and geometric shapes; open shapes,
                                                                                                                                                                 part and then stand back to see the overall         path that control the direction and curva-
                                                                                                                                          Swap Fill &            progress.                                           ture of that path.
                                                                                                                                          Stroke
                                                                                                   Fill
                                                                                                                                                                 Note: There are tools in back of the ones currently visible. Hold down while selecting a tool to see other
                                                                                         Default Fill &
                                                                                                                                                                 tools available. For instance, the Circle is behind the Rectangle. You can view all the tools in a single
                                                                                                                                         Stroke (Outline)        category by creating a “tear-off” palette. Click on the tool, hold down the mouse button and scroll to the
                                                                                              Stroke




            versus closed shapes; FILL/STROKE/NONE - color tools, tear-offs;
                                                                                            Gradient                                                             end of the options and let go of the mouse button.
                                                                                                Color                                    None
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tear-Off
                                                                                            Standard                                     Full Screen
                                                                                              Screen




            perfect circles, perfect squares. Layers, locking layers, moving layers,
                                                                                                           Full Screen with Menu Bar




            file>place.                                                                  Shape to Volume Handout
                                                                                        Items for Still-Life
Class Activity:                                                                         Ass. 2: Still Life Illustration
           Part 1: Trace the duck. Hand it in.                                          * - any simple image for tracing
           Part 2: Still Life. Create Thumbnails.
Homework:
           Ass. 2 - Render still-life in Illustrator




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     did 05.2005 page 1
                                                                                                                                                         Project 1: Illustrate the Design Principles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Design Process
Class 3
                                                                                                                                                         illustrate each principle as a separate frame (drawing). Use handouts and the text book to


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Handout
                                                                                                                                                         remind you of the definitions.

                                                                                                                                                         This project is an exercise to investigate and understand the principles of design. You
                                                                                                                                                         will use the elements of design to create drawings that illustrate the principles of design.


Handouts: 3                                                                                                                                              1.

                                                                                                                                                         2.
                                                                                                                                                                   Each frame will be 5” x 5” and will be presented cropped.

                                                                                                                                                                   As there are 4 design principles and 1 with 2 parts alance), you must create 5
                                                                                                                                                                   drawings/compositions.


Review Ass. 2 - further discussion of pos/neg space                                                                                                      3.        The 5 cropped drawings will be presented together on 1 piece of black matte
                                                                                                                                                                   board. Each principle must be named.



Introduce Project 1                                                                                                                                                             5“




Objective:                                                                                                                                                       5“


                                                                                                                                                                        Symmetrical                Asymetrical                 Emphasis                   Rhythm                   Unity


           Introduction to AI; expanding on Design Elements and Principles;
                                                                                                                                                                          Balance                    Balance




           mark making tools, shapes, scaling, rotating, grouping, pathfinder, etc.
                                                                                                                                                         4.       Use only geometric and organic shapes, curves and lines. No obvious symbols,
                                                                                                                                                                  signs, words, representational images, stars, flares or any art work that belongs to
                                                                                                                                                                  Illustrator. Each drawing must encorporate at least 2 elements including figure
                                                                                                                                                                  and ground.


           Learn presentation (mounting, etc.)                                                                                                           5.

                                                                                                                                                         6.
                                                                                                                                                                  Only use black, grey (50 % black) and white.

                                                                                                                                                                 This project will be sumitted in 2 parts:
                                                                                                                                                         Part 1: Thumbnails of your ideas, hand-drawn with pencil and paper (you are encouraged
                                                                                                                                                                 to used your sketch book, but loose paper is acceptable). Thumbnails can be the
                                                                                                                                                                 same size (5” x 5”) as the final drawing, but not biggger and no smaller than 3” x
                                                                                                                                                                 3”.



Discussion:                                                                                                                                              Part 2: Once you have discussed your ideas with the class, render these ideas using Illus-
                                                                                                                                                                 trator.




            Design process: problem definition, information gathering, idea finding,                                                                      Terms: Figure/ground (text book) - positive/negative spaces - organic vs. geometric shapes
                                                                                                                                                             elements of design - principles of design - silhouette - representation - contour



            solution finding, implementation.
            Traditional Composition: Gestalt analysis, golden mean, etc. Show art
                                                                                                                                                                                      original

                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The Pathfinder

            work of masters
Class activity:                                                                                                                                                            Add t o S hape           Subtract F rom S hape A rea     Inters ect F rom S hape A rea      Ex clude O verlapping A reas




            begin work on thumbnails; provide demos
Homework:                                                                                                                                                                  Divide                                Trim                                 Merge




            create 10 thumbnails; 2 for each art principle                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Minus B ack




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 C rop                Outline
                                                                                                                                                                AFTER APPLYING A SHAPES MODE After you apply a Shape Modes tool, the resulting path is a
                                                                                                                                                                compound shape. Compound shapes are kind of like grouped shapes, but Shape Modes tools more thoroughly
                                                                                                                                                                combine the selected objects. Selecting the expand button after applying a mode will delete excess points and
                                                                                                                                                                paths and make the new shape editable.
                                                                                                                                                                AFTER APPLYING A PATHFINDER After you apply one of the Pathfinders, the result is a grouped
                                                                                                                                                                object. You can split that group and edit the newly generated shapes by choosing the group and selecting
                                                                                                                                                                Object>Ungroup from the menu bar.




Class 4
Handouts: 0                                                                                                                                               Have extra credit project ready
Critiques of Thumbnails                                                                                                                                   if there is down-time for more
           Introduce critiquing methods, etiquette.                                                                                                       advanced students.
Technical:
           Repeat of pertinent information; demonstrate mounting and board
           cutting techniques.
Class Activity:
           Begin work on rendering illustrations in Illustrator
Homework:
           finish PROJECT 1. Present mounted.. Extra credit option for those
           with extra time.


Class 5                                                                                                                                                       Class 4
                                                                                                                                                              Intro to Computer Graphics
                                                                                                                                                              Assignment 3
                                                                                                                                                              Word Sets - Word Dichotomies
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 COLOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ���������������

Handouts: 4, Color Theory.ppt
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RGB vs. CMYK                                                                      Spot Color vs. Process Color
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RGB stands for Red, Green, & Blue. Color is a form of light energy that           So, if RGB is light, and CMYK is ink, then what is all this talk about spot and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                comes in waves. The visual spectrum is continuous, but for convenience we         process? Well remember that CMYK can produce thousands of colors, and
                                                                                                                                                              hot/cold wet/dry good/evil                                                                                                                        divide it into red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The most
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                dominant colors in the spectrum are red, green, and blue.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  is sufficient for most color projects. But what if your project calls for a very
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  specific color, one that CMYK can’t quite match?

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                So when we talk about RGB color, we are in fact referring to color as we          It was for just such a purpose that the Pantone Matching System was cre-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                see it. Specifically, we are talking about light waves, such as the ones that      ated. It allows you to specify exactly what color you want to use in an area
                                                                                                                                                              Each word should be "illustrated" in a 4"x 4" space (a square). Each set should be presented on an 11" x 8.5"

Review of Critiquing method
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                come from your computer monitor. When you are designing for the Internet,         of your project. Most commonly, it is used for logos. That way you know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RGB is the color space that you use. Desktop color printers (such as              that “Uncle Bob’s Orange Soda” labels will always be that exact shade of
                                                                                                                                                              (horizontal orientation ) sheet of paper, printed in color. Below is an example. Beneath each illustration type                                   inkjet & color laser printers,) are designed to interpret RGB color, and          orange, no matter when or where the labels are printed.


                                                                                                                                                              the word you are illustrating.You will be handing in 3 sheets of paper. This is due class 5 (Oct. 28, 2004).
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                translate it into ink on a page.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 *
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key (black). These refer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                to the ink colors used in the CMYK or “4 color process” type of printing.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  So, when you print using CMYK, you are using Process Color. (The ink is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  laid down in a 4 step process, one ink color at a time. Colors are built up us-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ing the combination of the inks, and the way they interact with each other.)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Combining these colors of ink allows for reproduction of thousands of col-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A Spot color, on the other hand is a specific color, usually a Pantone color,




Critiques of PROJECT 1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                ors, and is sometimes called “full color” printing. This can be deceptive, be-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                cause there are colors that cannot be reproduced using the CMYK process.          that is mixed to specifications and printed by running it through the press
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                However, for most purposes, such as photographic reproduction, CMYK is            one time.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                completely sufficient.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Many publications are printed using two spot colors, as this can provide a

                                                                                                                                                                                                                          4"                                                                                    So if you plan to send a color job out to be printed, most likely you will need
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                to supply CMYK art. This type of art can be ‘separated’ by page layout
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  pleasing addition of color to a project without the expense of full process
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  color.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                programs, (printing a separate image for each ink color) and used to create
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                film, which in turn is used to create the final “plate” that actually transfers     If you want to add a Spot color to a CMYK job, then the paper must go




Discussion:
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                the ink to the paper.                                                             through the press a fifth time (or run on a 5 color press,) making it literally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  a five color job. You can add multiple spot colors, however be aware that
                                                                                                                                                                                                               4"                                                                                                        NOTE: RBG color mode is also better to compose
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  each additional color will significantly increase the cost and difficulty of the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  job in question. For practical purposes, you should plan for no more than
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  five ink colors.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          in because digital file sizes are smaller (one less
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         color channel) and therefore editing the files won’t                      For further advice regarding ink colors, contact your print service provider to
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     bog down your computer.                                      find out the types of jobs their printing presses can produce.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          hot            cold

            Denotation/Connotation:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             *    Most non-PostScript® printers (read: inexpensive printers, like inkjets) must convert CMYK files to RGB before they are
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     sent to the printer driver, which means it’s best to print them from RGB mode. That’s right—even though these printers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     have CMYK inks built in, it’s best to print to the files from RGB mode and let the printer driver make the conversion,




            words, images, color, typography; color and typography (refer to line
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     instead of feeding them CMYK files that the printer will convert twice (once to RGB, then again to CMYK in the printer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     driver). I know it sounds odd, but that’s how it works.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               — Ben Willmore, author Adobe Photoshop Studio Techniques



                                                              http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/vision/rodcone.html                                                                                                                                                                                                                         In short:


                                                                 values
            assignment) also carry connotative and denotativeHello Dave, - discussion
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              RGB = light. Use for Web & personal desktop printers.
                                                              http://psychology.about.com/library/weekly/aa031501a.htm                                         dichotomy: 1. division into two parts, kinds...subdivision                                                                                                  CMYK = ink. HOWEVER, use for COMMERCIAL printing projects only.

                                                                                                                                                                          into halves or pairs
                                                                                                                                                                          2. division into two mutually exclusive, opposed
                                                              Above are two sites we visited in class. Also shown were these attachements:
            should reinforce the lesson of understanding visual communication
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       This company is an authorized
                                                                                                                                                                          or contradictory groups                                                                                                                      Adobe Print Service Provider                                                                   SOURCE: http://www.printstop.com/tips/tips_color.html
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ICG/DTP 05.2004 CML




                                                              Color Theory in general
            system                                            Meanings of color
                                                              Showed powerpoint presentation on color

Introduction to Color Theory                                  On the board:
                                                              Color is the most relative medium in art.
            Color is the most relative art element            (J. Albers exercises) on computer
                                                                                                      a and b and one other


Technical:                                                                                            Denotation
                                                                                                              actiual meaning
                                                                                                                                                            a                                                                                                  b
                                                                                                      Connotation
            manipulating color, saving colors, RGB vs. CMYK, manipulating type                                implied or secondary meaning - discussed symbolism in color

Class activity:                                               Both terms are discussed relative to typography, images, words, colors


            Begin work on Assignment 3: words dichotomies In classan illustration of the palm tree scene using only 1 color and its complement and various values (tints) of each. Basically, a more
                                                              Create
                                                                      assignment:

                                                              exciting value study.
Homework:                                                     (Palm tree scene from Photoshop sample files - I know you donʼt like to use those, but - ya know, itʼs easy to access. I also think for
            Finish word dichotomies. Hand in printed out.     some assignments itʼs helpful untimately if the students are all working on the same thing. Then, when they look at what their fel-
                                                              low students are doing, they can see for themselves how many possibilities there are. This always strengthens my argument that there
                                                                                                      is never only one solution to a challenge: make many thumbnails when you are thinking about a composition. I find that beginners
                                                                                                      always think their first idea is the only one).

                                                                                                      Homework:
                                                                                                      Write 250 words about these three individuals explaining how they contributed to the field of color theory:
                                                                                                      Sir Isaac Newton
                                                                                                      Johannes Itten
                                                                                                      Josef Albers                                            Color Theory.ppt
                                                                                                                                                              Connotation and Denotation Handout
                                                                                                      Explained the practical differences and purposes of RGB vs. CMYK (pre-press vs. online distribution), why those acronyms are what
                                                                                                      they are and why theyʼre used.
                                                                                                                                                              Info on Albers, Itten
                                                                                                      note: rm 507 was “under construction” - all the tables were piled on top of each other. So I requested a room with computers because
                                                                                                      1. No one could find me a color printer to make handouts - itʼs a color theory class - heloooo - xerox copies will not work
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           did 05.2005 page 2
                                                                                                      2. what as I going to do with them for 4 hrs without any materials, a projector, etc. ( Rosa ?) was very accomodating. Put materials I
                                                                                                      showed on server “room4” for them to access at a later time if they wanted.

                                                                                                      Kevin left after less than an hour of class - came in like an hour late. Everyone else said they needed to go to work at around 3 pm so I
                                                                                                      packed up also and left.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       example of possible
Class 6                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “life scene” assign-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       ment. palm tree is
Handouts: 3                                                                                                                                                                                                                            source file, tom riffle
Word Dichotomies Critique                                                                                                                                                                                                              is student rendition
Introduce Assignment 4: Expressive Typography                                                                                                                                                                                          using own gradients,
Discussion:                                                                                                                                                                                                                            symbols, filters)
            juxtaposition: what it is, how it affects meaning/creates new meaning.
            Real/surreal                                                             Palm Tree Tom Riffle 2005
Technical:                                                                          Intro to Computer Graphics - Quiz 1
                                                                                    Illustrator Review


            Scanning, create/save gradients, symbols, transparency, filters, clippingPart 1: Computer Task:
                                                                                    1. Open Illustrator and create a new 8.5” x 11 document with a landscape (horizontal) orientation. Place the
                                                                                        file “quiz part 1” located in the “quiz” folder provided to you.




            masks, patterns. Construction of illustration in Illustrator: back-
                                                                                    2. Lock layer one and trace the object: First create a closed contour drawing of the object, then on another
                                                                                       layer draw the eyes. On another layer draw the beak. Name each layer accordingly. Color in the shapes you
                                                                                       have made so that the results look as much like the original as possible. This is worth 20 points. You will
                                                                                       only get full credit if you are using the pen tool correctly—that is—dragging to create arcs that accurately
                                                                                       depict the curves of your objectʼs contour. Creating a drawing with more anchor points than needed will


            ground/middleground/foreground.
                                                                                       not receive full credit.

                                                                                    3. Save the file as your name and add the number 1. Make sure the file has the Adobe Illustrator file extension.
                                                                                       In the space below this line, write down this extension.



Class activity:                                                                     4. Open a new Illustrator file with a portrait (vertical) orientation. For this portion of the exam do not rename
                                                                                       any layers.

                                                                                    5. Draw a star about 2 inches wide.


            Expressive Typography. Illustrate a “life scene”.                       6. Give the star a red fill and a green stroke.

                                                                                    7. Make the stroke 4 points thick.



Introduction of Project 2:                                                          8. Copy and paste this star twice. On the last star copied, use the appropriate tool to make the points of the star
                                                                                       longer and varied from each other.

                                                                                    9. Create a perfect square. Give it a yellow fill and a pink, 3 point stroke.


            TYPE AND IMAGE: Assemblage. Surrealist assemblage. Give stu-            10. Group these objects.

                                                                                    11. Create another layer. Create three perfect circles and give them all the same fill and stroke (stroke and fill
                                                                                        should be different). Make the stroke 3 points thick.


            dents text and they find 3 images to trace and juxtapose.                12. Select one of the circles and apply the default fill and stroke to it.

                                                                                    13. Move this layer below layer 1.


AI MIDTERM REVIEW                                                                   14. Make a new layer on the top of the stack.

                                                                                    15. In this layer, insert your name. You can choose any typeface. Make your name 23 points large.

                                                                                    Save the file as your name and add the number 2. Save this second file as an Illustrator file and make sure both
                                                                                    files are placed in the quiz folder provided to you.




Homework:
        Finish “life scene”, print out; collect references for assemblage, create       Ass. 4: Expressive Typography
        3 thumbnails                                                                    Project 2: Type and Image
        Study for Midterm



Class 7                                                                                     Midterm
Handouts: 0
Review of Project 2 thumbnails
            View palm trees; discuss expressive type
            Take questions about “midterm”
Discussion:
            Using the Design principles with complex images, color
            Images should support the theme
            Assemblage specs
MIDTERM - 90 mins/end of class

Homework:
        Finish Project 2 (assemblage), present mounted


                                                                                              The Photoshop Workspace:
Class 8
                                                                                                                                                                   There are more than 40 tools in the tool box—even experienced Photoshop users
                                                                                                                                                                   seldom use all of them. We will focus on the most useful tools. Below are also tips for
                                                                                                                                                                   working in Photoshop.
                                                                                                        Tool Box
                                                                                                                                                 Frequently Used Operations and                Moving Around                                   Lasso
                                                                                                                                                 their Corresponding Keystrokes                Space Bar                                       Allows one to make irregularly shaped
                                                                                                                                                 (Shortcuts)                                   When working in a zoomed-in view, mov-          selections. Holding down the options key


Handouts: 4
                                                                                                                                                                                               ing around the document is easy if you use      while clicking allows one to make straight
                                                                                                                                                 Open                                          the space bar and mouse combo instead of        selections.
                                                                                         Marquee                            Move                 Command (Control) + O                         looking for the scroll bars. Hold the space
                                                                                                                                                 Opens files                                                                                    Magic Wand
                                                                                                                                                                                               bar down and click and drag with the            This tool is great for selecting solid (or
                                                                                            Lasso                           Magic Wand           Save                                          mouse to navigate the work space.               almost solid) colored areas because it


Project 2 Critiques
                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) + S                                                                         selects areas based on color. This is very
                                                                                             Crop                                                Develop a habit of saving frequently.         Options Bar                                     helpful for changing the color of an area or
                                                                                                                                                 Save As                                       Most tools have settings associated with        removing a simple background.
                                                                                                                                                 Shift + Command (Control) + S                 them To access these settings, locate the       The Select Menu
                                                                                                                            Brush/Pencil         This is a way to save your changes without    Options Bar that extends across the top of      This menu offers many choices that
                                                                                                                                                                                               your document window.


Discuss Midterm results
                                                                                                                                                 overwriting your original. Also a way to                                                      supplement the basic selection tools.
                                                                                                                                                 make a copy with a new name.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Select All
                                                                                                                                                 Escape                                        Changing the Background                         Command (Control) + A
                                                                                            Erase                           Paint Bucket/                                                      Layer
                                                                                                                            Gradient             Esc                                                                                           Selects the entire document
                                                                                                                                                 Use this key to exit modes (crop mode for     Double click on the background layer
                                                                                                                                                 example) or dialog boxes if you decide not    to make it editable. By default it will be      Deselect/Reselect
                                                                                                                                                 to apply an effect or change.                 renamed Layer 0.                                If you’re done using a selection and want
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               to work on the entire image, choose
                                                                                                                            Type                 Undo Last Step                                                                                Select>Deselect. Choose Reselect if you
                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) + Z
                                                                                                                                                                                               Other Important Things to know
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               want to use the last active selection.
                                                                                                                            Shape Tool           This key stroke combo along with the one      What is a selection?
                                                                                                                                                 for Save, should be frequently used while     A selection is an area that can be ma-          Inverse



Introduction to Photoshop:
                                                                                                                                                 working in Photoshop (and many other          nipulated in an isolated manner. The            This command chooses the exact opposite
                                                                                                                            Eye Dropper          software applications as well).               border of a selection looks like “marching      of what you originally selected. Sometimes
                                                                                                                                                                                               ants”. Once a selection has been made,          it’s easier to choose something you don’t
                                                                                                                                                 Zoom In                                                                                       want and then choose Select>Inverse
                                                                                                                            Zoom                                                               the selected area can be moved, copied,
                                                                                                                                                 Command (Control) +                           painted or have numerous special effects        to select what you really want to isolate.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Sounds backwards, right? It is, but it works


           Interface, image size, canvas size, mark making-tools, pixels, resolu-
                                                                                                                            Switch Colors        Zoom Out                                      applied to it.
                                                                                       Foreground                                                Command (Control) -                                                                           great.
                                                                                             color
                                                                                                                                                 Fit in Window                                 Basic Selection Tools: Marquee
                                                                                                                            Background                                                         Lasso, Magic Wand
                                                                                           Default                          color                Command (Control) + 0                                                                         The select menu is continued
                                                                                            colors                                               While working on detail (zoomed in), it is    Marquee                                         on the next page
                                                                                                                                                 very helpful to keep perspective on the


           tion (ongoing topic), rulers, grids, guides, discuss TEXTURE, color
                                                                                                                                                                                               This selection tool allows one to make rect-
                                                                                         Standard                           Quick Mask Mode      whole picture by toggling between views:      angular, square (if constrained by holding        Note: If many menu items are not
                                                                                            Mode                                                 zoom in then fit to window. A painter us-      down the shift key while dragging), ellipti-     selectable (greyed-out) it means you
                                                                                                                                                 ing an actual canvas will work on a small     cal, circular (if constrained by holding down     are currently in a mode and either
                                                                                                                                                 part and then stand back to see the overall   the shift key while dragging), and single           need to execute a command or
                                                                                                                                                 progress.                                     pixel (columns or rows) selections.                      press esc to get out.


           change. etc.                                                                                    Note: There are tools in back of the ones currently visible. Hold down while selecting a tool to see other tools available.
                                                                                                           For instance, the Rectangle Marquee is behind the Ellipse Marquee.




Acquire Image of Master Work                                                                 Bit Depth
          1. Go to Art Inst. (extra credit)                                                  Resolution/scanning
          2. Scanning from art book                                                          Ass. 5: Artist Copy
          3. Internet                                                                        Slide show of master art work

Homework:
        Finish Ass. 5: Copy master work in Photoshop

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        did 05.2005 page 3
Class 9                                                                                  File Formats
Handouts: 5                                                                              Bits and Bytes
Theoretical:                                                                             Anti-aliasing
                Bits, Bytes, Pixels and Resolution: piecing it all together.             Contiguous/Non-contiguous Selection
Technical:                                                                               Ass 6: Micro View
                Re-investigating scanning: scan a quarter in at 10 DPI, 72 DPI,
                150 DPI, 300DPI and 600DPI                                               Bits and Bytes
                                                                                         Bits
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  FILE FORMATS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PSD
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Photoshop format (PSD) is the default file format and the only format that supports most Photoshop features besides the




                Go over black and white scans, threshold filter and descreen filters
                                                                                         Computers happen to operate using the base-2 number system, also known as the binary number system (just like the                                        Large Document Format (PSB). Due to the tight integration between Adobe products, other Adobe applications like Adobe
                                                                                         base-10 number system is known as the decimal number system). The word bit is a shortening of the words “Binary                                          Illustrator, Adobe InDesign, Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, and Adobe GoLive can directly import PSD files and pre-
                                                                                         digIT.” Whereas decimal digits have 10 possible values ranging from 0 to 9, bits have only two possible values: 0 and 1.                                 serve many Photoshop features.
                                                                                         Therefore, a binary number is composed of only 0s and 1s, like this: 1011.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  JPEG or JPG
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format is commonly used to display photographs and other continuous-tone im-
                                                                                         Bytes                                                                                                                                                    ages in hypertext markup language (HTML) documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. JPEG format




                Introduce zoom tool, hand tool, navigator palette, all selection tools
                                                                                         Bits are rarely seen alone in computers. They are almost always bundled together into 8-bit collections, and these collec-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  supports CMYK, RGB, and Grayscale color modes, and does not support alpha channels. Unlike GIF format, JPEG retains
                                                                                         tions are called bytes. Why are there 8 bits in a byte? A similar question is, “Why are there 12 eggs in a dozen?” The 8-bit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  all color information in an RGB image but compresses file size by selectively discarding data.
                                                                                         byte is something that people settled on through trial and error over the past 50 years.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  A JPEG image is automatically decompressed when opened. A higher level of compression results in lower image quality,
                                                                                         Bit-Depth                                                                                                                                                and a lower level of compression results in better image quality. In most cases, the Maximum quality option produces a
                                                                                         With 8 bits in a byte, you can represent 256 values ranging from 0 to 255. We are now talking about bit depth. Bit depth-                                result indistinguishable from the original.
                                                                                         -also called pixel depth or color depth--measures how much color information is available to display or print each pixel




                and fill command
                                                                                         in an image. Greater bit depth (more bits of information per pixel) means more available colors and more accurate color                                  TIFF
                                                                                         representation in the digital image. For example, a pixel with a bit depth of 1 has two possible values: black and white. As                             Tagged-Image File Format (TIFF) is used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms. TIFF is a flexible
                                                                                         stated previously, a pixel with a bit depth of 8 has 28, or 256, possible values. And a pixel with a bit depth of 24 has 224, or                         bitmap image format supported by virtually all paint, image-editing, and page-layout applications. Also, virtually all desktop
                                                                                         roughly 16 million, possible values. Common values for bit depth range from 1 to 64 bits per pixel.                                                      scanners can produce TIFF images. TIFF documents can have a maximum file size of 4 GB. Photoshop CS supports large
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  documents saved in TIFF format. However, most other applications and older versions of Photoshop do not support docu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ments with file sizes greater than 2 GB. For more information on saving large documents in TIFF format, see Saving large
                                                                                         Recap:                                                                                                                                                   documents (Photoshop).
                                                                                         • Bits are binary digits. A bit can hold the value 0 or 1.




Class Activity/Homework:
                                                                                         • Bytes are made up of 8 bits each.
                                                                                         • Binary math works just like decimal math, but each bit can have a value of only 0 or 1.                                                                TIFF format supports CMYK, RGB, Lab, indexed-color, and grayscale images with alpha channels and Bitmap-mode im-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ages without alpha channels. Photoshop can save layers in a TIFF file; however, if you open the file in another application,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  only the flattened image is visible. Photoshop can also save annotations, transparency, and multiresolution pyramid data in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  TIFF format.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EPS




Ass 5: Micro View - Reduction and Abstraction
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) language file format can contain both vector and bitmap graphics and is supported by virtu-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ally all graphic, illustration, and page-layout programs. EPS format is used to transfer PostScript-language artwork between
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  applications. When you open an EPS file containing vector graphics, Photoshop rasterizes the image, converting the vector
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  graphics to pixels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EPS format supports Lab, CMYK, RGB, Indexed Color, Duotone, Grayscale, and Bitmap color modes, and does not support
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  alpha channels. EPS does support clipping paths. Desktop Color Separations (DCS) format, a version of the standard EPS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  format, lets you save color separations of CMYK images. You use DCS 2.0 format to export images containing spot chan-




                  Enlarge a small section of a drawing or scanned/ downloaded im-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  nels.To print EPS files, you must use a PostScript printer.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  AI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Adobe Illustrator files
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  GIF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is the file format commonly used to display indexed-color graphics and images in hypertext markup language (HTML)




                  age on the computer. Find the composition that interests you by
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. GIF is an LZW-compressed format designed to minimize file size and electronic transfer
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  time. GIF format preserves transparency in indexed-color images; however, it does not support alpha channels.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  PDF
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Portable Document Format (PDF) is a flexible, cross-platform, cross-application file format. Based on the PostScript imaging model, PDF files accurately
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  display and preserve fonts, page layouts, and both vector and bitmap graphics. In addition, PDF files can contain electronic document search and naviga-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  tion features such as electronic links. PDF supports 16-bit-per-channel images.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Generic PDF files




                  using the hand tool to move over the images surface then cut and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sources:        Are created using applications other than Photoshop, such as Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Illustrator, and can contain multiple pages and images. When you
                                                                                                                                                                                               http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bytes.htm        open a Generic PDF file, Photoshop rasterizes the image.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          By Marshall Brain
                                                                                                                                                                                                           Adobe Photoshop CS Help Menu           PICT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          “About Bit Depth”       PICT format is used in Mac OS graphics and page-layout applications as an intermediary file format for transferring images between applications. PICT
                                                                                                                                                                            file:///Applications/Adobe%20Photoshop%20CS/Help/help.html             format supports RGB images with a single alpha channel, and indexed-color, grayscale, and Bitmap-mode images without alpha channels. PICT format is
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  especially effective at compressing images with large areas of solid color.




                  save as the final composition. Save multiple versions (at least 4).                                                  Anti-aliasing
                                                                                                  Take a look at these images. The letter a on the left is un-anti-aliased and looks coarse compared
                                                                                                  with the letter on the right.




Color Studies: Make minimum of 2 different color versions of Assignment 2 using
                                                                                                  If we zoom in we can see better what’s happening. Look at how the un-anti-aliased example below
                                                                                                  left breaks up curves into steps and jagged outcrops. This is what gives the letter its coarse ap-
                                                                                                  pearance. The example on the right is the same letter, same point size and everything, but with
                                                                                                  anti-aliasing turned on in Photoshop’s text tool. Notice how the program has substituted shades of
                                                                                                  grey around the lines which would otherwise be broken across a pixel.




                  the magic wand and/or select tools to isolate different areas. Cre-
                  ate 8 images; have them printed out.                                                       But anti-aliasing is more than just making something slightly fuzzy so that you can’t see the jagged
                                                                                                             edges: it’s a way of fooling the eye into seeing straight lines and smooth curves where there are
                                                                                                             none.

                                                                                                             To see how anti-aliasing works, let’s take a diagonal line drawn across a set of pixels. In the exam-
                                                                                                             ple left the pixels are marked by the grid: real pixels don’t look like that of course, but the principle
                                                                                                             is the same.




** for critique, save all versions on you zip to discuss with the class.
                                                                                                             Pixels around an un-anti-aliased line can only be part of the line or not part of
                                                                                                             it: so the computer draws the line as a jagged set of pixels roughly approximat-
                                                                                                             ing the course of our original nice smooth line. (Trivia fact: anti-aliasing was
                                                                                                             invented at MIT’s Media Lab. So glad they do do something useful there....)




Homework:                                                                                                                When the computer anti-aliases the line it works out how much of each in-between
                                                                                                                         pixel would be covered by the diagonal line and draws that pixel as an intermediate
                                                                                                                         shade between background and foreground. In our simple-minded example here this is
                                                                                                                         shades of grey. This close up the anti-aliasing is obvious and actually looks worse than




                  Finish Ass. 5
                                                                                                                         the un-anti-aliased version, but try taking your glasses off, stepping a few yards back
                                                                                                                         from the screen and screwing up your eyes a bit to emulate the effect of seeing the line
                                                                                                                         on a VGA monitor covered in crud at its right size. Suddenly a nice, smooth line pops
                                                                                                                         into view.

                                                                                                                         So how does one go about anti-aliasing an image? Just be grateful you don’t have
                                                                                                                         to do it by hand. Most screen design programs, including Photosop and Paintshop
                                                                                                                         Pro include anti-alias options for things like text and line tools. The important thing is
                                                                                                                         simply to remember to do it, and to do it at the appropriate time.


                                                                                                                                                                            Source: www.widearea.co.uk/designer/anti.html 02.2005




                                                                                             Authorization forms
Class 10                                                                                     Project 3: Pop Art
Handouts: 3                                                                                  LPI vs. DPI vs. PPI
Discussion of Micro View Assignment
Expand on Resolution                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           12
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   PAGE 12CYANMAGENTAYELLOWBLACK


                                                                                         It is a moot point as to whether the most extraordinary innovation of 20th-century art was Cubism or Pop Art. Both arose from a rebellion                                                                                                                                 I know there are lots of new folks at newspapers who need this article on scanning. Some of you more
                                                                                         against an accepted style: the Cubists thought Post-Impressionist artists were too tame and limited, while Pop Artists thought the Ab-                                                                                                                                 seasoned computer people may also find the review helpful. I was confused about this until a very wonderful
                                                                                         stract Expressionists pretentious and over-intense. Pop Art brought art back to the material realities of everyday life, to popular culture                                                                                                                            camera guy, Tom Sparks at the Norman Transcript, took me back to the camera room and showed me a
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                halftone screen. Suddenly, all the lights went on and I understood the diference between DPI and LPI.
                                                                                         (hence ``popʼʼ), in which ordinary people derived most of their visual pleasure from television, magazines, or comics.                                                                                                                                                 Sometimes I just need a visual. The tip from the road is also scanning related. It was hard won information
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                with lots of trial and error. If you have a good quick way to do a troublesom job, e-mail me and I will put it
                                                                                         Pop Art emerged in the mid 1950s in England, but realized its fullest potential in New York in the ʻ60s where it shared, with Minimalism,                                                                                                                              in my article.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Thanks, see you soon. Wilma                      E-mail me at wmelot@okpress.com




Introduce digital cameras and authorize class for check out
                                                                                         the attentions of the art world. In Pop Art, the epic was replaced with the everyday and the mass-produced awarded the same significance
                                                                                         as the unique; the gulf between ``high artʼʼ and ``low artʼʼ was eroding away. The media and advertising were favorite subjects for Pop
                                                                                         Artʼs often witty celebrations of consumer society. Perhaps the greatest Pop artist, whose innovations have affected so much subsequent
                                                                                         art, was the American artist, Andy Warhol (1928-87).                                                                                                                                  DPI vs LPI: How to scan                                                                                                                                           Web Links
                                                                                         The term ``Pop Artʼʼ was first used by the English critic Lawrence Alloway in a 1958 issue of Architectural Digest to describe those
                                                                                         paintings that celebrate post-war consumerism, defy the psychology of Abstract Expressionism, and worship the god of materialism. The
                                                                                         most famous of the Pop artists, the cult figure Andy Warhol, recreated quasi-photographic paintings of people or everyday objects.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               and output good photos                                                                                                                                                 I found a new little Mac utility
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 that helps view art files from any
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Although many of you already know this information, there are           will be much better than if you have to enlarge it in any program.                   program. It’s called Lets See 1.7 and
                                                                                          Pop Art - An art movement and style that had its origins in England in the 1950s and made its way to the United States during the 1960s.                                             probably just as many who don’t. Whichever side of the fence you’re          However, bigger is not always better becouse your file size gets too                 can be downloaded at
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               on, I hope all of you get something out of this article on photo             large for an easy work flow.                                                              http://www.irony.biz/letssee/
                                                                                         Pop artists have focused attention upon familiar images of the popular culture such as billboards, comic strips, magazine advertisements,                                             resolution.                                                                       But before I start tossing out formulas, you need to understand the                  Like utilities that come with
                                                                                         and supermarket products. Leading exponents are Richard Hamilton (British, 1922-), Andy Warhol (American, 1928?1930?-1987), Roy                                                            With many of us using digital photos more and more, some of this                               printer end of the lingo so it all makes sense.               camera programs, it lets you see any
                                                                                         Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997), Claes Oldenburg (American, 1929-), Jasper Johns (American, 1930-), and Robert Rauschenberg                                                        output information will also help when you size downsize photos and                                        LPI is the number of rows of DPI in the                type of art file on your drive or CD




Technical:
                                                                                         (American, 1925-).                                                                                                                                                                    choose a print resolution.                                                                          halftone screen. It’s a term people who work in the           with one program. It’s under $20 and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    When using flatbed scanners to input a photo, there’s a couple of                              camera room understand, but your computer                     gives you 20 free uses — just enough
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               terms you need to become familiar with. The first is DPI (dots per inch);                           person may not. Another way to explain LPI is                 to get you hooked.
                                                                                         Popular culture - Low (as opposed to high) culture, parts of which are known as kitsch and camp. With the increasing economic power                                                   the other is LIP (lines per inch). These are very different terms and I’ll                          screen frequency: the density of halftone screens                                •••
                                                                                         of the middle- and lower-income populace since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, artists created vari-                                                                   deal with each one separately.                                               which are patterns of ink drops used for printing                  Looking for Mac games your
                                                                                         ous new diversions to answer the needs of these groups. These have included pulp novels and comic books, film, television, advertising,                                                                             Dots per inch (scanner lingo) is how your                              most pages that come off a press. Think of LPI as             kids can play on an old machine?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      scanner samples the photo and turns it to pixels per                         a screen that is applied to the entire photo.                 Use veriontracker.com to look up
                                                                                         “collectibles,” and tract housing. These have taken the place among the bourgeois once taken among the aristocracy by literature, opera,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      inch (PPI) after scanning. The photo editing          Changing the dot size changes the intensity                                          some of these.
                                                                                         theater, academic painting, sculpture, and architecture. But modernist artists rarely cultivated the popular success of these new cultural



            Photoshop Continued- Adjustments and filters, cloning and healing;
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      programs see the image in PPI. This setting is        of the color and each dot has a density.                                                  Mike’s Cards 1.8A
                                                                                         forms. Modernist works were little appreciated outside of a small elite. Life magazineʼs 1950s articles on the abstract expressionist                                                                        critical to a good quality output.                         The reason you need a screen on photos                                               Macname 0.58
                                                                                         Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), and the silkscreened paintings by Andy Warhol (American, 1928?-1987) of soup cans and                                                                                       In grayscale, an image includes only            that go to a press is called dot gain. When the                                           kkgames 1.0
                                                                                         celebrities signaled unprecedented fusions between high and low art and the transition to the postmodern age.                                                                                                                                                      ink drop hits the paper for that dot it bleeds
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      brightness data; each pixel reqires 8 bits (also called                                                                                         mworkd .1.1
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               a byte) to store this brightness information. In                             into absorbent newsprint. If there’s no white                                             baby games. 2.02
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               other words, each one of the pixels has a                                    space around the dot, it becomes a big muddy blob, which is why you                       Hyper Games 3.3
                                                                                         Quotations:                                                                                                                                                                           coded level of gray color.                                                   should use a high gloss paper when you want to print a color photo on                     Kid games 1.0
                                                                                         ■ “Popularity is the crown of laurel which the world puts on bad art. Whatever is popular is wrong.” Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), Anglo-                                                       It gets more complicated in color scans.                                an inkjet printer — no absorbsion, just smooth color.                                     Load at your own risk. If you




            burn, dodge, smudge
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Red, green and blue each store 8 to 12 bits of                                    When going from PPI or DPI on the scanner, it changes to LPI to                 have a computer just for the kids, it
                                                                                           Irish playwright, author. Lecture, June 30, 1883, to students of the Royal Academy, London (published in Aristotle at Afternoon Tea:                                                brightness information, which means a color                                  print. Let’s cut to the chase and look at the formulas:                              should be OK to experment with
                                                                                           The Rare Oscar Wilde, 1991).                                                                                                                                                        scan requires 24 to 36 bits of information per                                    To calculate the scan resolution, multiply the print resolution                 these. Use caution if you’re loading it
                                                                                         ■ “The fact is popular art dates. It grows quaint. How many people feel strongly about Gilbert and Sullivan today compared to those                                                   pixel. To print the image successfully, you                                  (number of LIP in the halftone screen) by 1.5 or 2. The 1.5 multiplier               on a production machine. As always,
                                                                                           who felt strongly in 1890?” Stephen Sondheim (1930-), contemporary American composer, lyricist. International Herald Tribune                                                        must gather the right amount of information.                                 works well for photos of natural scenery without geometric patterns,                 there can be extention problems, but
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               If you scan the right size for output, the photo                             sharp color boundaries or fine details; 2 works well for everything,                 these come highly recommended.
                                                                                           (Paris, June 20, 1989).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      including graphics and photos of manmade                      There are also emulators for
                                                                                         ■ “Popular art is the dream of society; it does not examine itself.” Margaret Atwood (1939-), Canadian novelist, poet, critic. “A                                                                                                                                                              structures. Multiplying above two increases              Nintendo and Gameboy for the Mac.




Introduce Pop Art - Project 3
                                                                                           Question Of Metamorphosis,” interview in Malahat Review, no. 41 (1977; reprinted in Conversations, edited by Earl G. Ingersoll,                                                                                                              One thing I often show people on the            the file size but doesn’t significantly improve          Look for Virtual Gameboy 2.0 and
                                                                                           1990).                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  road is how to get the moiré out of a photo          the photo. If your press uses an 85 LIP screen,          iNes 1.2.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   that’s already been halftoned.                       multiply 85 x 2 = 170 DPI. Designate the 85                     Thanks for that question go to
                                                                                         ■ “Popular culture is the new Babylon, into which so much art and intellect now flow. It is our imperial sex theater, supreme temple of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        First, scan the photo a very high               LPI screen in one of the print dialogue boxes.           Kelly from the Tonkawa News. She
                                                                                           the western eye. We live in the age of idols. The pagan past, never dead, flames again in our mystic hierarchies of stardom.” Camille                                                                                                    resolution: 800-1200 DPI. This means                      Most scanners now offer 36-bit scanning,            has five kids — brave lady!
                                                                                           Paglia (1947-), American author, critic, educator. Sexual Personae, chapter 4 (1990).                                                                                                                                                   you’re working with a very large file and            which is better for color photos. This setting                              •••
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   need a good, fast machine to handle it.              gives you more color depth for each pixel you               If you are looking for camera
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In      Photoshop,         use      the         scan. Look for this feature when purchasing a            comparison sites try these:




Homework:
                                                                                         Andy Warhol                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Filter>Blur>Gaussian Blur. Use a setting             new scanner.                                             http://www.steves-digicams.com/
                                                                                         Born in 1928 at Pittsburgh of Czechoslovak immigrant parents. In 1954 he left school with a high school diploma. Between 1945 and                                                                                                         of 0.5 and zoom way in so you can see the                 Grayscale images scanned in RGB color               http://www.dcresource.com/
                                                                                         1949 he studied pictorial design and art history, sociology and psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. Met Philip                                                                                                dots. Keep                                           turn out better. Collect the color information in                           •••
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    reapplying the blur untill you see the dots go away. Then,                                          the scan, then convert to grayscale. Grayscale                I like to look at this website
                                                                                         Pearlstein and moved to New York with him in 1949. He worked for “Vogue” and “Harperʼs Bazaar”, did window displays for Bonwit
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    sharpen the photo and zoom out until you see the entire photo.                                      works best for black and white line art.                 when I have questions on PDF’s.
                                                                                         Teller and his first advertisements for I. Miller shoe company.                                                                                                                             Go to Filter>Sharpen>Unsharp mask. Use the setting in the                                                If you need to resize a photo at more than          Hope you like it.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    example at right and then move the amount slider until you                                          100 percent, I recommend using Photoshop.                     http://www.pdfzone.com/
                                                                                         In 1952 he had his first one-man exhibition at the Hugo Gallery, New York. He designed stage sets, dyed his hair straw-blond and moved                                                                                                                                                          Although you can use your scanner,




            Collect 4 images (photos, drawings, pictures, ads) and 4 objects that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    once again view a sharp photo. Now go directly to image size
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and use the formula above to calculate the resolution of your                                       Photoshop still works better.
                                                                                         into a house in Lexington Avenue with his mother and several cats. In 1954 he was in a collective exhibition at the Loft Gallery, New
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    photo and lower it to that size.                                                                         Hopefully, this clears up some of the
                                                                                         York. In 1956 he had an individual exhibition of his drawings for Boy Book at the Bodley Gallery, and his Golden Shoes were exhibited                                                           This makes your file size smaller and easier to work                                           confusion about DPI and LIP.
                                                                                         in Madison Avenue. He travelled in Europe and Asia.                                                                                                                                        with. Do a “Save As” and correct the photo as you normally
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    would.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             POP ART ttaylor 05.2005 page 1




            describe the popular culture we live in now and your personal
            relation to it. Start by paying close attention to the objects you use
            everyday but do not really pay attention to: coca cola bottles, hair
            products, cell phones, diet foods etc. You will be working with these
            images for a few classes, so collect what captures your interest. A
            variety of images will make for a more interesting image/collage. Try
            to think in specifics. Scan all 7 images at 300 dpi and save to Zip.
            Using the selection tools in Photoshop select, size and clean each of
            your images and copy them into 1 PSD file each as a layer.
Due week 12
Brief Field Trip to take photos for project; hone “ocular recon-
            naissance” skills




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           did 05.2005 page 4
Class 11:
Technical:
                                                                                           Use Adobe Help menu for
                Layers and Blending Modes
                                                                                           information about blending
Theoretical:
                                                                                           modes
                Reduction - Editing information
Homework:
                Using all of the tools you have learned in class, construct an image
                that describes your ideas of current popular culture. The layers
                must work independently and in relation with each other to make
                a visually interesting whole image. Use adjustments and filters.
                Reduce if necessary. This is the final step for Project three, due
                next week printed, and ready to present at the beginning of class.
                Be prepared to talk about your work: how you constructed the
                image and its meaning.



Class 12:                                                                              Digital Image Development
                                                                                       final assignment: make a small book
                                                                                       due week 15

Critique of Pop Art Project                                                            content
                                                                                       Choose a word and tell a four page visual story about it. Investigate the meanings (connota-

Introduce final DID project - Narrative Book                                            tions, denotations) of this word as it is used in a particular culture. You may also investigate
                                                                                       personal meanings of this word. Demonstrate these meanings visually.

                                                                                       minimum technical criteria
                                                                                       Photoshop: Show proficiency in scanning and manipulating a photo. Also use painting and
                                                                                       brush tools to create painterly or hand drawn images.

Technical:                                                                             Illustrator: Use line, shape, curve and transformation tools to create images. Demonstrate your
                                                                                       ability to create text-based images and format text where needed.


            Story-boarding (expanding on the thumbnail-to-final design pro-             presentation
                                                                                       Use a visual theme to bind your images. Use a combination of grommets, ribbon, velobind,
                                                                                       mat board, cloth, paper, cardboard or other materials for your book's physical structure. Your

            cess)                                                                      binding materials may be consistent with the theme of your book.

                                                                                       do's and don'ts
Final Project:                                                                         •   You will be graded on the content, the minimum technical criteria, your ability to create a
                                                                                           somewhat complex yet consistent visual style that includes color, and your finished book

            For your final project, you will take all of the knowledge you have
                                                                                           object.

                                                                                       •   The word you choose—whether it is a noun, verb or adjective—will impact the eventual

            gathered in this class thus far (design concepts, idea generation, and
                                                                                           imagery you use. While your imagination may develop multiple potential renderings of each
                                                                                           image, think of each rendering as both a separate entity and as part of a whole book. In
                                                                                           developing a visual style, remember that simplicity can look organized and elegant.

            technical skills learned in Photoshop and Illustrator), to create your     •   You do not have to write any running copy if you choose to use it.
                                                                                           lipsum.com.

            own narrative and illustrated book. This book can be about any-            •   You must use images that you have "created". No 72ppi JPEGS taken from the internet
                                                                                           allowed! Assignments will not be accepted with images that do not have appropriate

            thing. It can be a remake of a children’s story, a graphic novel, you          resolution for this project! Scan photos from books, magazines—take your own photos!
                                                                                           Scan them in at least with 240 dpi (not higher than 400). Images can be presented
                                                                                           in color, greyscale or duotone.

            can illustrate a poem or song lyrics, or write your own story. This        •   Do go above and beyond the minimum technical criteria in order to develop a stronger
                                                                                           visual style.

            project will be done in both Photoshop and Illustrator and must            •   Simple functional book bindings will be graded accordingly, as will complicated structures
                                                                                           that fail to enhance the work. Do not use clear or matte plastic, pre-made report covers.

            include text, so keep that in mind during the brainstorming process.

Homework:
        Brainstorm ideas for three different book projects. Type a one para-
        graph description of each. Create storyboards of the book, creat-
        ing thumbnail sketches of each page in the book. Consider page
        layout, where the text will go etc.



Class 13:
Technical:
                Layer masks, quick masks, channels, layers
                Book Binding and paper options
Discussion:
                Working between Photoshop and Illustrator-when to use what
                and in what order?
Homework:
            Using digital camera, shoot photos for your location shots. You
            may also use scanned imagery (maximum of 3 scans), and your
            own drawings to collage the material into the preliminary pages in
            Photoshop.
Review for final




                                                                                                                                                                                          did 05.2005 page 5
Class 14                                                                              Final Exam - mostly Photo-
Final exam                                                                            shop

In class assignment:
             Continue working on final projects
Homework:
             Use Photoshop and Illustrator, to create your book. Add text.
             Print out your pages and using one of the examples discussed in class,
             bind your book.



Class 15:
Final Critique
Discuss Final Exam
Last day of class!
All work due




                                                                                                              did 05.2005 page 6
    3




a       b
What constitutes an “A” project:
derived from the Artists Book of Lists

1. Elements of Design.
   Principles of Design.
   You plan carefully, make several sketches, show an awareness of the above elements, choose an appro-
   priate color scheme, techniques and use space effectively.

2. Creativity/Originality
   You explore several choices before deciding on one, generate many ideas, try unusual combinations,
   make connections to previous knowledge and demonstrate outstanding problem-solving skills.

3. Effort/ Perseverance
   You take the project as far as you can take it and take PRIDE in going beyond the requirements.

4. Craftsmanship/Skill/Consistency
   The work is beautifully/patiently done showing a clear understanding of the information presented in
   class—it is as good as you could make it.

5. Attitude
   Sensitive to the feelings and knowledge levels of others, make a clear statement according to your own
   goals.

  I grade on a system of personal growth within the following criteria;
           time and effort, interpretation of the assignment,
        aesthetics and technical expertise, critique participation,
                       professional presentations.
                        Assignment 1: Interpreting Line
Part One:
Using line as a descriptive and expressive tool, explore some of your own intuitive capabilities by interpreting
each of the following adjectives. Try to create marks that act as visual counterparts to each word. Be sensitive
and attentive to the following when making your lines:
        -Thickness of the stroke/line
        -Arm and hand movements
        -Length, width and direction of mark
        -Location within picture plane

Many of the words will have an easy and direct relationship to mark making (anger can easily be implied with
a physically emphatic and direct attack on the paper), while other words resist easy interpretation. Work intui-
tively; let the material direct your decisions.


Words:
-Fluid / liquid                                           -Harsh / aggressive
-Broken / Implied                                         -Hesitant / tentative / timid
-Quiet / hushed                                           -Rigid / stiff
-Whimsical / mischievous                                  -Mechanical / systematic / technological
-Childlike                                                -Lyrical / musical / dancing
-Analytical / measured                                    -Quick / fast / hurried
-Angry / tense / passionate                               -Decisive / directed
-Serpentine / snakelike                                   -Free / unbound / lightweight
-Slow / restrained / static                               -Smooth / graceful
-Crazed / excited                                         -Writhing / twisting


Each mark should be autonomous and occupy its own space. In order to keep the meaning and intent of each
line clear, keep them from overlapping or from becoming confused. Make some discreet note to yourself desig-
nating the word association for each.



Part Two:
After you have filled a couple of pages with your marks, create a new composition that allows all of the twenty
marks to coexist in a way that energizes the page. Play with scale, repetition, rotation, balance and imbalance
and overlapping. Spend a lot of time moving your pieces around until you achieve a composition that is dynam-
ic and visually active. Be sensitive to how your eyes move throughout the image by creating areas of emphasis
and contrast.
Digital Image Development
Assignment 2: Shape to Volume                                         (prep for)
Still Life Illustration
Objective:
Using black and white, interpret volumes and forms of your subject. Learn how positive shapes
become defined and affected by negative space. Consider the abstract possibilities of your final
image when determining its composition and structure.

Shape refers to the flat, two-dimensional aspects of a form as opposed to volume. When a three-
dimensional form is reduced to silhouette we become conscious of its shape. When the form
is illuminated, the highlight and shadow produced helps us to see the volume and mass of that
object. In this project we will use flat shapes to describe volumetric forms in the reduced terms
of black and white.

A shape cannot exist alone in a drawing; it can only be seen in relation to adjacent shapes and
the space that surrounds it. Composition therefore, involves positive shapes defined by negative
space. It is as necessary to compose the negative space, as it is to be concerned with positive
shapes.

For this project, create a simple still life of three of four objects. Use a viewfinder to help you
compose a portion of the set up, looking for the most dynamic and varied relationships between
forms, light and shadow. Interpret this by reducing the values you see within the subject to
simple black and white. Because your image will become generalized through the reduction of
values, be sensitive to the abstract possibilities of your image. You can get a better idea of how
this would work by blurring your eyes when looking at your subject.

Start by doing a number of sketches with pencil and paper until you feel you have achieved the
best composition and have been able to clearly delineate the contours of your drawing, and then
transfer that general information to Illustrator, using the pencil, pen and/or the paintbrush tool.
Digital Image Development
Assignment 3
Word Sets - Word Dichotomies

                       hot/cold wet/dry good/evil
Each word should be "illustrated" in a 4"x 4" space (a square). Each set should be presented
on an 11" x 8.5" (horizontal orientation ) sheet of paper, printed in color. Below is an
example. Beneath each illustration type the word you are illustrating. You will be handing in 3
sheets of paper.




                                      4in.


                              4in.

                                      hot      cold




dichotomy: 1. division into two parts, kinds...subdivision
           into halves or pairs

                2. division into two mutually exclusive, opposed
                or contradictory groups
Digital Image Development
Assignment 4: Expressive Typography
Using various type styles and manipulations, visually communicate the following words using only the
letters which make up the word.

Pick two of the following words and do a one page composition for each.

Brittle
Tranquil
Popcorn
Chaotic
Massive
Substantial
Wandering
Reflection
Swift
Dominant
Frugal
Lightning
Intense
Lush
Passive
Transparent
Active
Contemplate

■ try out scaling, rotating, reflecting and shearing

■ make your type into outlines and manipulate

■ besides using existing typefaces, consider creating your own letterforms

■ use individual letters as individual objects so you can manipulate them separately

■ think about composition and use the entire 8 1/2” X 11”

Two separate compositions are due at the beginning of the next class.
                         Digital Image Development
                                  Assignment 6: Micro View

                                            Due next week.
Enlarge a small section of a drawing or scanned/ downloaded image on the computer. Find the com-
position that interests you by using the hand tool to move over the images surface then cut and save
as the final composition. Save multiple versions (at least 4).

Color Studies: Make several different color versions of Assignment 2 using the magic wand and/or
select tools to isolate different areas.
** for critique, save all versions on you zip to discuss with the class.




                                                                                          ttaylor 05.2005
                 original

                                            The Pathfinder



        Add to Shape         Subtract From Shape Area    Intersect From Shape Area      Exclude Overlapping Areas




        Divide                           Trim                             Merge


                                                                                                                              Minus Back




                                                                                                  Crop              Outline
AFTER APPLYING A SHAPES MODE After you apply a Shape Modes tool, the resulting path is a
compound shape. Compound shapes are kind of like grouped shapes, but Shape Modes tools
more thoroughly combine the selected objects. Selecting the expand button after applying a
mode will delete excess points and paths and make the new shape editable.

AFTER APPLYING A PATHFINDER After you apply one of the Pathfinders, the result is a grouped
object. You can split that group and edit the newly generated shapes by choosing the group and
selecting Object>Ungroup from the menu bar.
It is a moot point as to whether the most extraordinary innovation of 20th-century art was Cubism or Pop Art. Both arose from a rebellion
against an accepted style: the Cubists thought Post-Impressionist artists were too tame and limited, while Pop Artists thought the Ab-
stract Expressionists pretentious and over-intense. Pop Art brought art back to the material realities of everyday life, to popular culture
(hence ``popʼʼ), in which ordinary people derived most of their visual pleasure from television, magazines, or comics.

Pop Art emerged in the mid 1950s in England, but realized its fullest potential in New York in the ʻ60s where it shared, with Minimalism,
the attentions of the art world. In Pop Art, the epic was replaced with the everyday and the mass-produced awarded the same significance
as the unique; the gulf between ``high artʼʼ and ``low artʼʼ was eroding away. The media and advertising were favorite subjects for Pop
Artʼs often witty celebrations of consumer society. Perhaps the greatest Pop artist, whose innovations have affected so much subsequent
art, was the American artist, Andy Warhol (1928-87).

The term ``Pop Artʼʼ was first used by the English critic Lawrence Alloway in a 1958 issue of Architectural Digest to describe those
paintings that celebrate post-war consumerism, defy the psychology of Abstract Expressionism, and worship the god of materialism. The
most famous of the Pop artists, the cult figure Andy Warhol, recreated quasi-photographic paintings of people or everyday objects.

 Pop Art - An art movement and style that had its origins in England in the 1950s and made its way to the United States during the 1960s.
Pop artists have focused attention upon familiar images of the popular culture such as billboards, comic strips, magazine advertisements,
and supermarket products. Leading exponents are Richard Hamilton (British, 1922-), Andy Warhol (American, 1928?1930?-1987), Roy
Lichtenstein (American, 1923-1997), Claes Oldenburg (American, 1929-), Jasper Johns (American, 1930-), and Robert Rauschenberg
(American, 1925-).

Popular culture - Low (as opposed to high) culture, parts of which are known as kitsch and camp. With the increasing economic power
of the middle- and lower-income populace since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the nineteenth century, artists created vari-
ous new diversions to answer the needs of these groups. These have included pulp novels and comic books, film, television, advertising,
“collectibles,” and tract housing. These have taken the place among the bourgeois once taken among the aristocracy by literature, opera,
theater, academic painting, sculpture, and architecture. But modernist artists rarely cultivated the popular success of these new cultural
forms. Modernist works were little appreciated outside of a small elite. Life magazineʼs 1950s articles on the abstract expressionist
Jackson Pollock (American, 1912-1956), and the silkscreened paintings by Andy Warhol (American, 1928?-1987) of soup cans and
celebrities signaled unprecedented fusions between high and low art and the transition to the postmodern age.

Quotations:
■ “Popularity is the crown of laurel which the world puts on bad art. Whatever is popular is wrong.” Oscar Wilde (1854-1900), Anglo-
  Irish playwright, author. Lecture, June 30, 1883, to students of the Royal Academy, London (published in Aristotle at Afternoon Tea:
  The Rare Oscar Wilde, 1991).
■ “The fact is popular art dates. It grows quaint. How many people feel strongly about Gilbert and Sullivan today compared to those
  who felt strongly in 1890?” Stephen Sondheim (1930-), contemporary American composer, lyricist. International Herald Tribune
  (Paris, June 20, 1989).
■ “Popular art is the dream of society; it does not examine itself.” Margaret Atwood (1939-), Canadian novelist, poet, critic. “A
  Question Of Metamorphosis,” interview in Malahat Review, no. 41 (1977; reprinted in Conversations, edited by Earl G. Ingersoll,
  1990).
■ “Popular culture is the new Babylon, into which so much art and intellect now flow. It is our imperial sex theater, supreme temple of
  the western eye. We live in the age of idols. The pagan past, never dead, flames again in our mystic hierarchies of stardom.” Camille
  Paglia (1947-), American author, critic, educator. Sexual Personae, chapter 4 (1990).

Andy Warhol
Born in 1928 at Pittsburgh of Czechoslovak immigrant parents. In 1954 he left school with a high school diploma. Between 1945 and
1949 he studied pictorial design and art history, sociology and psychology at the Carnegie Institute of Technology, Pittsburgh. Met Philip
Pearlstein and moved to New York with him in 1949. He worked for “Vogue” and “Harperʼs Bazaar”, did window displays for Bonwit
Teller and his first advertisements for I. Miller shoe company.

In 1952 he had his first one-man exhibition at the Hugo Gallery, New York. He designed stage sets, dyed his hair straw-blond and moved
into a house in Lexington Avenue with his mother and several cats. In 1954 he was in a collective exhibition at the Loft Gallery, New
York. In 1956 he had an individual exhibition of his drawings for Boy Book at the Bodley Gallery, and his Golden Shoes were exhibited
in Madison Avenue. He travelled in Europe and Asia.
                                                                                                     POP ART ttaylor 05.2005 page 1
In 1960 he made his first pictures based on comic-strips and company trade names. In 1962 he produced his silkscreen prints on canvas
of dollar notes, Campbellʼs Soup cans, Marilyn Monroe, etc. He was also included in the exhibition The New Realists at the Sidney Ja-
nis Gallery, New York, and started his series of disaster pictures: Car Crash, Plane Crash, Suicide, Tunafish Disaster and Electric Chair.
Between 1962 and 1964 he produced over 2,000 pictures in his “Factory”.

In 1963 he made the movies Sleep (6 hours long) and Empire (8 hours long). In 1964 his Flower Pictures were exhibited at the Galerie
Sonnabend, Paris. He was also forced for political reasons to paint overhis Thirteen Most Wanted Men which he had attached to the wall
of the New York State Pavilion for the Worldʼs Fair in New York. He made his first sculptures with affixed silkscreen prints of company
cartoons. In 1965 he had an exhibition at the Institute of Contemporary Art, Philadelphia.

In 1967 he produced the first record of the rock band “Velvet Underground” and between 1966 and 1968 made several films with them.
His Cow Wallpaper and Silver Pillows were shown at the Leo Castelli Gallery. In 1968 he had an exhibition at the Moderna Museet,
Stockholm. In July of the same year he was shot down, and dangerously wounded, by Valerie Solanis, the only member of S.C.U.M.
(The Society for Cutting Up Men). In 1968 he brought out his novel “a”, which consisted of telephone calls recorded in his Factory. He
made the first movie for the cinema, Flash, with Paul Morissey, followed by Trash in 1970.

In 1969 the first number of the magazine “Interview” appeared, which Warhol helped bring out. Between 1969 and 1972 he was com-
missioned to do a number of portraits. In 1972 he showed at the Kunstmuseum, Basle. The first edition of his book THE Philosophy of
Andy Warhol (From A to B and Back Again) was published in 1975. In 1976 the Württembergischer Kunstverein showed The Graphic
Work - 1942-1975, also shown in Düsseldorf, Bremen, Munich, Berlin and Vienna. In 1978 he showed at the Kunsthaus, Zurich, and at
the Louisiana Museum, Humblebaek. The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, showed The Portraits of the 70s in 1979. In
1980 he became production manager of the cable TV station “Andy Warholʼs TV”. In the same year Joseph Beuys by Andy Warhol was
shown at the Centre dʼArt Contemporain, Geneva, he showed Ten Portraits of Jews of the Twentieth Century at the Lowe Art Museum,
University of Miami, and at the Jewish Museum, New York, and POPism, The Warhol ʻ60s was published. In 1981 the exhibition Andy
Warhol - Paintings 1961-1968 was shown at the Kestner-Gesselschaft, Hanover, and at the Städtische Galerie im Lenbachhaus, Munich.
The Museum des 20. Jahrhunderts, Vienna, showed Warhol ʻ80.

From 1982 to 1986 he made pictures of disasters. In 1982 he exhibited a series of oxidations and pictures of Nazi architecture at the
documenta “4” exhibition, Kassel. He exhibited Guns, Knives, Crosses at the Leo Castelli Gallery, and at the Galeria Fernando Vijande,
Madrid. He exhibited Warholʼs Animals: Species at Risk at the American Museum of Natural History, New York, and at the Cleveland
Museum of Natural History, Cleveland. In 1986 he made portraits of Lenin and self-portraits. In 1987 he died as a result of an operation.
In 1988 the Hamburger Kunstverein showed Death Pictures. In 1989 the Museum of Modern Art, New York, organized the hitherto
largest retrospective exhibition of his work. His estate was auctioned at Sothebyʼs. His will provided for an endowment fund for the
patronage of art.




                                                                                                    POP ART ttaylor 05.2005 page 2
 Project 1: Illustrate the Design Principles

 Illustrate each principle as a separate frame (drawing). Use handouts and the text book to
 remind you of the definitions.

 This project is an exercise to investigate and understand the principles of design. You
 will use the elements of design to create drawings that illustrate the principles of design.

 1.     Each frame will be 5” x 5” and will be presented cropped.

 2.     As there are 4 design principles and 1 with 2 parts balance), you must create 5
        drawings/compositions.

 3.     The 5 cropped drawings will be presented together on 1 piece of black matte
        board. Each principle must be named.



                5“


       5“


            Symmetrical   Asymmetrical    Emphasis        Rhythm         Unity
              Balance       Balance




 4.     Use only geometric and organic shapes, curves and lines. No obvious symbols,
        signs, words, representational images, stars, flares or any art work that belongs to
        Illustrator. Each drawing must incorporate at least 2 elements including figure and
        ground.

 5.     Only use black, grey (50 % black) and white.

 6.     This project will be submitted in 2 parts:

 Part 1: Thumbnails of your ideas, hand-drawn with pencil and paper (use your sketch
         book). Thumbnails can be the same size (5” x 5”) as the final drawing, but not
         bigger and no smaller than 3” x 3”.

 Part 2: Once you have discussed your ideas with the class, render these ideas using
         Illustrator.


Terms: Figure/ground (text book) - positive/negative spaces - organic vs. geometric shapes
     elements of design - principles of design - silhouette - representation - contour
Bits and Bytes
Bits
Computers happen to operate using the base-2 number system, also known as the binary number system (just like the
base-10 number system is known as the decimal number system). The word bit is a shortening of the words “Binary
digIT.” Whereas decimal digits have 10 possible values ranging from 0 to 9, bits have only two possible values: 0 and 1.
Therefore, a binary number is composed of only 0s and 1s, like this: 1011.

Bytes
Bits are rarely seen alone in computers. They are almost always bundled together into 8-bit collections, and these collec-
tions are called bytes. Why are there 8 bits in a byte? A similar question is, “Why are there 12 eggs in a dozen?” The 8-bit
byte is something that people settled on through trial and error over the past 50 years.


Bit-Depth
With 8 bits in a byte, you can represent 256 values ranging from 0 to 255. We are now talking about bit depth. Bit depth-
-also called pixel depth or color depth--measures how much color information is available to display or print each pixel
in an image. Greater bit depth (more bits of information per pixel) means more available colors and more accurate color
representation in the digital image. For example, a pixel with a bit depth of 1 has two possible values: black and white. As
stated previously, a pixel with a bit depth of 8 has 28, or 256, possible values. And a pixel with a bit depth of 24 has 224, or
roughly 16 million, possible values. Common values for bit depth range from 1 to 64 bits per pixel.


Recap:
• Bits are binary digits. A bit can hold the value 0 or 1.
• Bytes are made up of 8 bits each.
• Binary math works just like decimal math, but each bit can have a value of only 0 or 1.




                                                                                                                                  Sources:
                                                                                               http://computer.howstuffworks.com/bytes.htm
                                                                                                                          By Marshall Brain
                                                                                                           Adobe Photoshop CS Help Menu
                                                                                                                          “About Bit Depth”
                                                                            file:///Applications/Adobe%20Photoshop%20CS/Help/help.html
                                    Anti-aliasing
Take a look at these images. The letter a on the left is un-anti-aliased and looks coarse compared
with the letter on the right.

If we zoom in we can see better what’s happening. Look at how the un-anti-aliased example below
left breaks up curves into steps and jagged outcrops. This is what gives the letter its coarse ap-
pearance. The example on the right is the same letter, same point size and everything, but with
anti-aliasing turned on in Photoshop’s text tool. Notice how the program has substituted shades of
grey around the lines which would otherwise be broken across a pixel.




           But anti-aliasing is more than just making something slightly fuzzy so that you can’t see the jagged
           edges: it’s a way of fooling the eye into seeing straight lines and smooth curves where there are
           none.

           To see how anti-aliasing works, let’s take a diagonal line drawn across a set of pixels. In the exam-
           ple left the pixels are marked by the grid: real pixels don’t look like that of course, but the principle
           is the same.

           Pixels around an un-anti-aliased line can only be part of the line or not part of
           it: so the computer draws the line as a jagged set of pixels roughly approximat-
           ing the course of our original nice smooth line. (Trivia fact: anti-aliasing was
           invented at MIT’s Media Lab. So glad they do do something useful there....)




                       When the computer anti-aliases the line it works out how much of each in-between
                       pixel would be covered by the diagonal line and draws that pixel as an intermediate
                       shade between background and foreground. In our simple-minded example here this is
                       shades of grey. This close up the anti-aliasing is obvious and actually looks worse than
                       the un-anti-aliased version, but try taking your glasses off, stepping a few yards back
                       from the screen and screwing up your eyes a bit to emulate the effect of seeing the line
                       on a VGA monitor covered in crud at its right size. Suddenly a nice, smooth line pops
                       into view.

                       So how does one go about anti-aliasing an image? Just be grateful you don’t have
                       to do it by hand. Most screen design programs, including Photosop and Paintshop
                       Pro include anti-alias options for things like text and line tools. The important thing is
                       simply to remember to do it, and to do it at the appropriate time.


                                                                          Source: www.widearea.co.uk/designer/anti.html 02.2005
The formal principles of
design:
The following is a brief overview of the formal design principles—balance, emphasis, rhythm and
unity. They influence every decision you make when creating a composition. Once you understand
how these principles work, you can start applying them to your own work, or notice how youʼve intui-
tively applied them already.
Balance
An equal distribution of weight. There are two approaches to balance. You can arrange elements
so theyʼre evenly distributed to the left and to the right of the center (one side mirrors the other just like
a face). This is called symmetry. The other type of balance is asymmetry. You can arrange dissimilar
objects of equal weight on each side of a composition. You can use color, value, size, shape, line and
texture as balancing elements in an asymmetrical design. Because dark areas look heavier than light
areas, a small black shape on the left would balance a large white space on the right.
Rhythm
A pattern created by repeating elements that are similar or varied. Repetition (repeating similar
elements in a consistent manner) and variation (a change in form, size. color or position of elements)
are the keys to visual rhythm in design. Repetition unifies a piece. However, without variation, repeti-
tion can become boring. Balance repetition and variation, giving the viewer/reader enough repeated
elements to bind the piece together, but a least vary some elements to keep interest high.
Emphasis
What stands out most get noticed first. In order to attract viewers/readers every composition needs
a focal point. Without one, viewers quickly move on. But if you have too many points of interest, your
viewer will not know where to look first and might give up. In other words emphasizing everything
means youʼve emphasized nothing. Therefore, you must choose the most important element based
on the message youʼre trying to communicate and on your target audience. After youʼve chosen the
element to emphasize, you can choose any of several methods to call attention to it. As a general rule,
a focal point is created when one element differs from the rest. For example, in a composition where
everything is vertical, a horizontal element will stand out.
Unity
All elements look like they belong together. This helps determine how many elements you use and
how to use them. Imagine a grocery store where the detergent was mixed in with the cabbages. You
wouldnʼt know where to find what you are looking for and you might be inclined to shop somewhere
else. Layouts and compositions need unity also. How do you unify type and images? Grouping:
Elements that are grouped close together look like they belong together. Repeating: A color, shape
or texture repeated in the design pulls it together. A grid: The subdivision of a space into columns,
margins and spaces. It establishes a framework for spacing and proportions of type and pictures in
a piece. Variety keeps unified layouts/compositions from being boring. Begin with a theme such as
circles and ovals in different sizes and shapes. Use unity to hold a piece together and variety to give
it life.
                                                                                                02.2004 ICG/DTP
                                                                                         Sources: Robin Williams,
                                                                                         Lori Siebert, Lisa Ballard
     The ILLUSTRTOR Workspace:
                                                                                There are more than 40 tools in the tool box—even experienced Illustrator users can be over-
                                                                                whelmed with an updated interface. We will focus on the most useful tools. Below are also
                                                                                tips for working in Illustrator.
                        Tool Box                                   Frequently Used Operations and                 Moving Around                                   Selecting
                                                                   their Corresponding Keystrokes                 Space Bar                                       In order to manipulate an object in Illustra-
                                                                   (Shortcuts)                                    When working in a zoomed-in view, mov-          tor, it must be selected first.
                                                                                                                  ing around the document is easy if you use      Selected Path/Objects
                                                                   Open                                           the space bar and mouse combo instead of
                                                                   Command (Control) + O                                                                          When a path or object is selected, the
                                                                                                                  looking for the scroll bars. Hold the space     path or bounding box becomes colored.
      Selection                                Direct Selection    Opens files                                    bar down and click and drag with the            By default, if you are working in Layer 1,
                                                                      Save                                        mouse to navigate the work space.               all selected objects will appear light blue.
   Magic Wand                                  Direct Selection Lasso Command (Control) + S                                                                       In Layer 2 all selected objects appear red.
                                                                   Develop a habit of saving frequently.          Paths and Points                                In Layer 3 these selected objects appear
       Pen Tool                                Type Tool           Save As                                        Understanding paths and                         green, and so on. See diagram below.
                                                                   Shift + Command (Control) + S                  anchor points                                   Select All
 Line Segment                                                      This is a way to save your changes without     In Illustrator, you create and edit drawings    Command (Control) + A
                                               Rectangle           overwriting your original. Also a way to       by defining anchor points and the paths         Selects all objects on the artboard (your
                                                                   make a copy with a new name.                   between them. The tools in Illustrator es-      page) and all objects on the scratch area.
     Paintbrush                                Pencil
                                                                   Undo Last Step                                 sentially manipulate paths, anchor points
                                                                                                                  and fills.                                      Black Arrow Selection Tool
                                                                   Command (Control) + Z                                                                          An easy way to select several objects ir-
         Rotate                                Scale               This key stroke combo along with the one       Paths                                           regardless of which layer they are in is to
                                                                   for Save, should be frequently used while      Paths are lines which can be straight or        click and drag a marquee around all the
           Warp                                Free Transform      working in Illustrator (and many other soft-   curved.                                         objects you wish to select.
                                                                   ware applications as well).                    Closed Paths                                    Deselect
Symbol Sprayer                                 Graph               Zoom In                                        Closed paths are objects such as circles or     In order to stop a path or deselect an
                                                                   Command (Control) +                            stars, in which the start and end of the path   object, you must select the black arrow
          Mesh                                 Gradient            Zoom Out                                       are the same point.                             tool and click in an empty space or choose
                                                                   Command (Control) -                            Open Paths                                      Select>Deselect.
   Eyedropper                                  Blend
                                                                   Fit in Window                                  Open paths do not have the same start and       White Arrow Direct Selection
                                                                   Command (Control) + 0                          end point. A fill applied to such an object     Tool
                                                                   While working on detail (zoomed in), it is     will create a straight edge from the initial    Use the white arrow tool to manipulate
           Slice                               Scissors
                                                                   very helpful to keep perspective on the        point and last point (see diagram).             individual anchor points. You must click di-
           Hand                                Zoom                whole picture by toggling between views:       Anchor Points                                   rectly on the outline of an object and make
                                                                   zoom in then fit to window. A painter us-      Anchor points are the start and end points      sure the anchor points are white.
                                                                   ing an actual canvas will work on a small      in a path as well as other points along the
                                                                   part and then stand back to see the overall    path that control the direction and curva-
                                                Swap Fill &        progress.                                      ture of that path.
                                                Stroke
           Fill
                                                                   Note: There are tools in back of the ones currently visible. Hold down while selecting a tool to see other
 Default Fill &
                                                                   tools available. For instance, the Circle is behind the Rectangle. You can view all the tools in a single
                                                Stroke (Outline)   category by creating a “tear-off” palette. Click on the tool, hold down the mouse button and scroll to the
      Stroke
    Gradient                                                       end of the options and let go of the mouse button.
         Color                                 None
                                                                                                                                                                   Tear-Off
    Standard                                    Full Screen
      Screen

                   Full Screen with Menu Bar
The ILLUSTRTOR Workspace:
                                                                                                                                          Terms to Know
                                                                              Continued & a list of
                                                                              terms to know                                               Gestalt         A unified configuration having proper-
                                                                                                                                                          ties that cannot be derived from it’s
                                                                                                                                                          parts
The Math of Paths                                             Organizing files cont.
Without the math underlying Illustrator, you’d be
                                                                                                                                          Resonance       a heightened expression
                                                              computer to computer. To embed files, make sure
without the freedom to create beautiful, accurately           LINK is NOT selected when placing a file.                                   Emphasis        see hand out
defined curved paths. An Illustrator vector object is a                                                                                   Balance         see hand out
combination of anchor points and the line segments
between those points. Illustrator saves programming                                                                                       Unity           see hand out
code (called PostScript, a page description language)                 Control point direction line/handle
                                                                                                            Anchor point                  Rhythm          see hand out
that defines the nature of each path. This vector-
based method of saving graphic files is rooted in the                                                                                     Contour         book
mathematical formulas for defining curves pioneered                                                                                       Form            book
by a French engineer named Pierre Bezier.
                                                                                                                                          Mass            book
Illustrator vs. Photoshop                                                                                                                 CMYK            cyan, magenta, yellow and black - the
To Refresh Your Memory                                                             Closed path         Open path                                          color system used for print
Adobe Illustrator is often compared and contrasted to                             Each path has three anchor points                       RGB             red, green blue - the color system
it’s graphical sibling, Adobe Photoshop. Photoshop                                                                                                        used for online presentation
allows artists to create or edit images by defining and                                                                Selecting with
editing individual pixels. A pixel (from picture + ele-       Selecting with                                           white arrow tool   Resolution      the number and size of pixels in a
ment) is the tiny dot that is the smallest element of a       black arrow tool                                         (archor points                     given space
                                                              (bounding box                                            become white)
graphical object. A file that records the location, color     and anchor                                                                  Pixel-based     Photoshop Images
and quality of a bunch of pixels is called a bitmap or        points are solid)
raster file, and images generated using pixel editing                                                                                     Vector based    Illustrator Images
software (Photoshop) are called bitmap or raster im-                                                                                      Raster          bitmap - see explanation on page
ages. These images are by their nature resolution
dependent.                                                                                                                                Collage         book
                                                                                           The red paths of this selected
Vector based graphics                                                                        star tell me it is in Layer 2                Aesthetics      book
Vector based graphics are quite different. Vector art is                                                                                  Negative Space space around/outside the subject
defined by line segments that are controlled by an-
chor points. Vector art is scalable or in other words,                                                                                    Hue             book
vector art is not resolution dependent. The files you                                                                                     Value           book
create in Illustrator can be printed on a postage stamp,
a business card, a poster or even a huge billboard on                                                                                     Saturation      Intensity or vibrancy of a color
the side of a bus—all without losing quality or even                                                                                      Icon            book
increasing in file size!
                                                                                                                                          Opaque          Impervious to light
Organizing your files
Most art in Illustrator is initially conceived and gener-                                                                                 Transparent     opposite of opaque
ated in the usual, old-fashioned way. Artists will sketch                                                                                 File extensions a 3 or 4 letter code followed by a dot
out an idea or find a photo they wish to use as refer-                                                                                                    that identifies the file type (psd, jpeg,
ence, scan it, place it in Illustrator and begin tracing to                                                                                               tiff, ai)
create a digital illustration. Before you bring files into
Illustrator, you need to decide whether to embed them                    WHEN BEGINNING TO DRAW WITH THE PEN                              Critique        book
or link them. Embedded images are saved to your Il-                      TOOL, NEVER DRAG ON THE FIRST CLICK                              Elements
lustrator file as a part of your illustration. Linked files
remain separate and are independent files. Always                                                                                         of Design       see handout
keep all your source files along with your Illustrator                        IN ORDER TO CHANGE DIRECTION
document in the same folder. If your source files are                          OF A PATH, CLICK ON THE LAST
not embedded, they may be lostduring transit from                                ANCHOR POINT YOU MADE.
Digital Image Development
final assignment: make a small book
due week 15

content
Choose a word and tell a four page visual story about it. Investigate the meanings (connota-
tions, denotations) of this word as it is used in a particular culture. You may also investigate
personal meanings of this word. Demonstrate these meanings visually.

minimum technical criteria
Photoshop: Show proficiency in scanning and manipulating a photo. Also use painting and
brush tools to create painterly or hand drawn images.
Illustrator: Use line, shape, curve and transformation tools to create images. Demonstrate your
ability to create text-based images and format text where needed.

presentation
Use a visual theme to bind your images. Use a combination of grommets, ribbon, velobind,
mat board, cloth, paper, cardboard or other materials for your book's physical structure. Your
binding materials may be consistent with the theme of your book.

do's and don'ts
s   You will be graded on the content, the minimum technical criteria, your ability to create a
    somewhat complex yet consistent visual style that includes color, and your finished book
    object.

s   The word you choose—whether it is a noun, verb or adjective—will impact the eventual
    imagery you use. While your imagination may develop multiple potential renderings of each
    image, think of each rendering as both a separate entity and as part of a whole book. In
    developing a visual style, remember that simplicity can look organized and elegant.

s   You do not have to write any running copy if you choose to use it.
    lipsum.com.

s   You must use images that you have "created". No 72ppi JPEGS taken from the internet
    allowed! Assignments will not be accepted with images that do not have appropriate
    resolution for this project! Scan photos from books, magazines—take your own photos!
    Scan them in at least with 240 dpi (not higher than 400). Images can be presented
    in color, greyscale or duotone.

s   Do go above and beyond the minimum technical criteria in order to develop a stronger
    visual style.

s   Simple functional book bindings will be graded accordingly, as will complicated structures
    that fail to enhance the work. Do not use clear or matte plastic, pre-made report covers.
The Elements of Design
In order to make anything, you have to start with the basic materials. You need bricks and mortar to build a wall; flours eggs,
butter, etc. to bake a cake.

    The ingredients for making a good layout are the elements of design:
              line, shape, texture, space, size, value and color.

When you understand what it is that each ingredient adds to a recipe, then you can make up your own. If you make the right
choices about what to put in your new recipe, you will succeed in making a good dish. The same is true of using the ingre-
dients of design. once you understand what the elements of design are and how they work, you can make the right choices
to create your own good layouts.

Line: (rule): any mark connecting 2 points. Lines are everywhere. They can be used to do many things. Rules organ-
ize, direct, separate, they can even suggest an emotion or speed.

Shape: Anything that has height and width. Shapes are also everywhere: everything has a shape. In design shapes
define objects but they can also communicate ideas. A circle in a logo can indicate the earth, a system, a cycle. A heart can
mean love, etc. There are geometric shapes which are regular and structured (triangles, squares, rectangles, etc.) and organ-
ic shapes which are irregular.

Texture:            The look or feel of a surface. There is tactile texture which can actually be felt (embossed type, glossy
paper) and visual texture where the illusion of of texture has been created. Texture can be used for many reasons: To embue
a piece with mood (a soft texture can indicate warmth). To create contrast. To create richness and depth. To fool the eye (give
the appearance of something else - a flat piece of paper can be made to look like a cube, etc.)

Space:             The distance or area around things. WHen designing a layout you need to consider not only where you’ll
place each rule and shape, but where they will be relative to each other. When arranging furniture in a room, it’s wise to con-
sider how much space you have. Once items are placed, consider whether the room is easy to navigate, functional, and
pleasant to be in. The metaphor works for designing a good layout as well. Even when there are many elements in a piece,
it’s important to include white space as it is used to organize the page and give the eye a rest. The placement and the value
of shapes on a page create spatial relationships and focal point.

Size:      How big or small something is. Size can indicate importance. Provide depth by making some elements recede
and some some forward. Draw attention to an element. Establish consistency (all subheaders the same size). Create tension
and break up space in an interesting way.

Value: The darkness or lightness of         an area.Every element in a layout has value. Because value is relative, the value
of an element can be affected by it’s background and other elements around it. Setting lots of type in a small area of white
paper will make the paper appear gray. Value is an important tool in expressing your theme. Slight variations (low contrast)
from light to dark can create a calm, quiet mood (grainy photos on a pastel background). Great variations from light to dark
(high contrast) can convey a feeling of drama or excitement.

Color: The ultimate tool for symbolic communication. Color does many things in our lives. It helps us identity objects
(apple), understand things (green means go), and it can communicate feelings are moods (blue=sad)

The principles of design determine what to do with each of the
                      elements of design
FILE FORMATS
PSD
Photoshop format (PSD) is the default file format and the only format that supports most Photoshop features besides the
Large Document Format (PSB). Due to the tight integration between Adobe products, other Adobe applications like Adobe
Illustrator, Adobe InDesign, Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, and Adobe GoLive can directly import PSD files and pre-
serve many Photoshop features.

JPEG or JPG
Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) format is commonly used to display photographs and other continuous-tone im-
ages in hypertext markup language (HTML) documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. JPEG format
supports CMYK, RGB, and Grayscale color modes, and does not support alpha channels. Unlike GIF format, JPEG retains
all color information in an RGB image but compresses file size by selectively discarding data.

A JPEG image is automatically decompressed when opened. A higher level of compression results in lower image quality,
and a lower level of compression results in better image quality. In most cases, the Maximum quality option produces a
result indistinguishable from the original.

TIFF
Tagged-Image File Format (TIFF) is used to exchange files between applications and computer platforms. TIFF is a flexible
bitmap image format supported by virtually all paint, image-editing, and page-layout applications. Also, virtually all desktop
scanners can produce TIFF images. TIFF documents can have a maximum file size of 4 GB. Photoshop CS supports large
documents saved in TIFF format. However, most other applications and older versions of Photoshop do not support docu-
ments with file sizes greater than 2 GB. For more information on saving large documents in TIFF format, see Saving large
documents (Photoshop).

TIFF format supports CMYK, RGB, Lab, indexed-color, and grayscale images with alpha channels and Bitmap-mode im-
ages without alpha channels. Photoshop can save layers in a TIFF file; however, if you open the file in another application,
only the flattened image is visible. Photoshop can also save annotations, transparency, and multiresolution pyramid data in
TIFF format.

EPS
Encapsulated PostScript (EPS) language file format can contain both vector and bitmap graphics and is supported by virtu-
ally all graphic, illustration, and page-layout programs. EPS format is used to transfer PostScript-language artwork between
applications. When you open an EPS file containing vector graphics, Photoshop rasterizes the image, converting the vector
graphics to pixels.

EPS format supports Lab, CMYK, RGB, Indexed Color, Duotone, Grayscale, and Bitmap color modes, and does not support
alpha channels. EPS does support clipping paths. Desktop Color Separations (DCS) format, a version of the standard EPS
format, lets you save color separations of CMYK images. You use DCS 2.0 format to export images containing spot chan-
nels.To print EPS files, you must use a PostScript printer.

AI
Adobe Illustrator files
GIF
Graphics Interchange Format (GIF) is the file format commonly used to display indexed-color graphics and images in hypertext markup language (HTML)
documents over the World Wide Web and other online services. GIF is an LZW-compressed format designed to minimize file size and electronic transfer
time. GIF format preserves transparency in indexed-color images; however, it does not support alpha channels.

PDF
Portable Document Format (PDF) is a flexible, cross-platform, cross-application file format. Based on the PostScript imaging model, PDF files accurately
display and preserve fonts, page layouts, and both vector and bitmap graphics. In addition, PDF files can contain electronic document search and naviga-
tion features such as electronic links. PDF supports 16-bit-per-channel images.

Generic PDF files
Are created using applications other than Photoshop, such as Adobe Acrobat and Adobe Illustrator, and can contain multiple pages and images. When you
open a Generic PDF file, Photoshop rasterizes the image.

PICT
PICT format is used in Mac OS graphics and page-layout applications as an intermediary file format for transferring images between applications. PICT
format supports RGB images with a single alpha channel, and indexed-color, grayscale, and Bitmap-mode images without alpha channels. PICT format is
especially effective at compressing images with large areas of solid color.
    PAGE 12CYANMAGENTAYELLOWBLACK

12

                                                                                    I know there are lots of new folks at newspapers who need this article on scanning. Some of you more
                                                                                 seasoned computer people may also find the review helpful. I was confused about this until a very wonderful
                                                                                 camera guy, Tom Sparks at the Norman Transcript, took me back to the camera room and showed me a
                                                                                 halftone screen. Suddenly, all the lights went on and I understood the diference between DPI and LPI.
                                                                                 Sometimes I just need a visual. The tip from the road is also scanning related. It was hard won information
                                                                                 with lots of trial and error. If you have a good quick way to do a troublesom job, e-mail me and I will put it
                                                                                 in my article.
                                                                                           Thanks, see you soon. Wilma                      E-mail me at wmelot@okpress.com




DPI vs LPI: How to scan                                                                                                                                           Web Links
and output good photos                                                                                                                                                 I found a new little Mac utility
                                                                                                                                                                  that helps view art files from any
     Although many of you already know this information, there are           will be much better than if you have to enlarge it in any program.                   program. It’s called Lets See 1.7 and
probably just as many who don’t. Whichever side of the fence you’re          However, bigger is not always better becouse your file size gets too                 can be downloaded at
on, I hope all of you get something out of this article on photo             large for an easy work flow.                                                              http://www.irony.biz/letssee/
resolution.                                                                       But before I start tossing out formulas, you need to understand the                  Like utilities that come with
     With many of us using digital photos more and more, some of this                               printer end of the lingo so it all makes sense.               camera programs, it lets you see any
output information will also help when you size downsize photos and                                        LPI is the number of rows of DPI in the                type of art file on your drive or CD
choose a print resolution.                                                                          halftone screen. It’s a term people who work in the           with one program. It’s under $20 and
     When using flatbed scanners to input a photo, there’s a couple of                              camera room understand, but your computer                     gives you 20 free uses — just enough
terms you need to become familiar with. The first is DPI (dots per inch);                           person may not. Another way to explain LPI is                 to get you hooked.
the other is LIP (lines per inch). These are very different terms and I’ll                          screen frequency: the density of halftone screens                                •••
                       deal with each one separately.                                               which are patterns of ink drops used for printing                  Looking for Mac games your
                             Dots per inch (scanner lingo) is how your                              most pages that come off a press. Think of LPI as             kids can play on an old machine?
                       scanner samples the photo and turns it to pixels per                         a screen that is applied to the entire photo.                 Use veriontracker.com to look up
                       inch (PPI) after scanning. The photo editing          Changing the dot size changes the intensity                                          some of these.
                       programs see the image in PPI. This setting is        of the color and each dot has a density.                                                  Mike’s Cards 1.8A
                       critical to a good quality output.                         The reason you need a screen on photos                                               Macname 0.58
                             In grayscale, an image includes only            that go to a press is called dot gain. When the                                           kkgames 1.0
                                                                             ink drop hits the paper for that dot it bleeds
                       brightness data; each pixel reqires 8 bits (also called                                                                                         mworkd .1.1
a byte) to store this brightness information. In                             into absorbent newsprint. If there’s no white                                             baby games. 2.02
other words, each one of the pixels has a                                    space around the dot, it becomes a big muddy blob, which is why you                       Hyper Games 3.3
coded level of gray color.                                                   should use a high gloss paper when you want to print a color photo on                     Kid games 1.0
     It gets more complicated in color scans.                                an inkjet printer — no absorbsion, just smooth color.                                     Load at your own risk. If you
Red, green and blue each store 8 to 12 bits of                                    When going from PPI or DPI on the scanner, it changes to LPI to                 have a computer just for the kids, it
brightness information, which means a color                                  print. Let’s cut to the chase and look at the formulas:                              should be OK to experment with
scan requires 24 to 36 bits of information per                                    To calculate the scan resolution, multiply the print resolution                 these. Use caution if you’re loading it
pixel. To print the image successfully, you                                  (number of LIP in the halftone screen) by 1.5 or 2. The 1.5 multiplier               on a production machine. As always,
must gather the right amount of information.                                 works well for photos of natural scenery without geometric patterns,                 there can be extention problems, but
If you scan the right size for output, the photo                             sharp color boundaries or fine details; 2 works well for everything,                 these come highly recommended.
                                                                                                         including graphics and photos of manmade                      There are also emulators for
                                                                                                         structures. Multiplying above two increases              Nintendo and Gameboy for the Mac.
                                                         One thing I often show people on the            the file size but doesn’t significantly improve          Look for Virtual Gameboy 2.0 and
                                                    road is how to get the moiré out of a photo          the photo. If your press uses an 85 LIP screen,          iNes 1.2.
                                                    that’s already been halftoned.                       multiply 85 x 2 = 170 DPI. Designate the 85                     Thanks for that question go to
                                                         First, scan the photo a very high               LPI screen in one of the print dialogue boxes.           Kelly from the Tonkawa News. She
                                                    resolution: 800-1200 DPI. This means                      Most scanners now offer 36-bit scanning,            has five kids — brave lady!
                                                    you’re working with a very large file and            which is better for color photos. This setting                              •••
                                                    need a good, fast machine to handle it.              gives you more color depth for each pixel you               If you are looking for camera
                                                         In      Photoshop,         use      the         scan. Look for this feature when purchasing a            comparison sites try these:
                                                    Filter>Blur>Gaussian Blur. Use a setting             new scanner.                                             http://www.steves-digicams.com/
                                                    of 0.5 and zoom way in so you can see the                 Grayscale images scanned in RGB color               http://www.dcresource.com/
                                                    dots. Keep                                           turn out better. Collect the color information in                           •••
     reapplying the blur untill you see the dots go away. Then,                                          the scan, then convert to grayscale. Grayscale                I like to look at this website
     sharpen the photo and zoom out until you see the entire photo.                                      works best for black and white line art.                 when I have questions on PDF’s.
     Go to Filter>Sharpen>Unsharp mask. Use the setting in the                                                If you need to resize a photo at more than          Hope you like it.
     example at right and then move the amount slider until you                                          100 percent, I recommend using Photoshop.                     http://www.pdfzone.com/
     once again view a sharp photo. Now go directly to image size                                        Although you can use your scanner,
     and use the formula above to calculate the resolution of your                                       Photoshop still works better.
     photo and lower it to that size.                                                                         Hopefully, this clears up some of the
          This makes your file size smaller and easier to work                                           confusion about DPI and LIP.
     with. Do a “Save As” and correct the photo as you normally
     would.
       The Photoshop Workspace:
                                                                 There are more than 40 tools in the tool box—even experienced Photoshop users
                                                                 seldom use all of them. We will focus on the most useful tools. Below are also tips for
                                                                 working in Photoshop.
              Tool Box
                                               Frequently Used Operations and                Moving Around                                   Lasso
                                               their Corresponding Keystrokes                Space Bar                                       Allows one to make irregularly shaped
                                               (Shortcuts)                                   When working in a zoomed-in view, mov-          selections. Holding down the options key
                                                                                             ing around the document is easy if you use      while clicking allows one to make straight
                                               Open                                          the space bar and mouse combo instead of        selections.
  Marquee                    Move              Command (Control) + O                         looking for the scroll bars. Hold the space
                                               Opens files                                                                                   Magic Wand
                                                                                             bar down and click and drag with the            This tool is great for selecting solid (or
     Lasso                   Magic Wand        Save                                          mouse to navigate the work space.               almost solid) colored areas because it
                                               Command (Control) + S                                                                         selects areas based on color. This is very
      Crop                                     Develop a habit of saving frequently.         Options Bar                                     helpful for changing the color of an area or
                                               Save As                                       Most tools have settings associated with        removing a simple background.
                                               Shift + Command (Control) + S                 them To access these settings, locate the       The Select Menu
                             Brush/Pencil      This is a way to save your changes without    Options Bar that extends across the top of      This menu offers many choices that
                                               overwriting your original. Also a way to      your document window.                           supplement the basic selection tools.
                                               make a copy with a new name.
                                                                                                                                             Select All
                                               Escape                                        Changing the Background                         Command (Control) + A
     Erase                   Paint Bucket/                                                   Layer
                             Gradient          Esc                                                                                           Selects the entire document
                                               Use this key to exit modes (crop mode for     Double click on the background layer
                                               example) or dialog boxes if you decide not    to make it editable. By default it will be      Deselect/Reselect
                                               to apply an effect or change.                 renamed Layer 0.                                If you’re done using a selection and want
                                                                                                                                             to work on the entire image, choose
                             Type              Undo Last Step                                                                                Select>Deselect. Choose Reselect if you
                                               Command (Control) + Z
                                                                                             Other Important Things to know
                                                                                                                                             want to use the last active selection.
                             Shape Tool        This key stroke combo along with the one      What is a selection?
                                               for Save, should be frequently used while     A selection is an area that can be ma-          Inverse
                                               working in Photoshop (and many other          nipulated in an isolated manner. The            This command chooses the exact opposite
                             Eye Dropper       software applications as well).               border of a selection looks like “marching      of what you originally selected. Sometimes
                                                                                             ants”. Once a selection has been made,          it’s easier to choose something you don’t
                                               Zoom In                                                                                       want and then choose Select>Inverse
                             Zoom                                                            the selected area can be moved, copied,
                                               Command (Control) +                           painted or have numerous special effects        to select what you really want to isolate.
                             Switch Colors     Zoom Out                                      applied to it.                                  Sounds backwards, right? It is, but it works
Foreground                                     Command (Control) -                                                                           great.
      color
                                               Fit in Window                                 Basic Selection Tools: Marquee
                             Background                                                      Lasso, Magic Wand
    Default                  color             Command (Control) + 0                                                                         The select menu is continued
     colors                                    While working on detail (zoomed in), it is    Marquee                                         on the next page
                                               very helpful to keep perspective on the       This selection tool allows one to make rect-
  Standard                   Quick Mask Mode   whole picture by toggling between views:      angular, square (if constrained by holding        Note: If many menu items are not
     Mode                                      zoom in then fit to window. A painter us-     down the shift key while dragging), ellipti-     selectable (greyed-out) it means you
                                               ing an actual canvas will work on a small     cal, circular (if constrained by holding down     are currently in a mode and either
                                               part and then stand back to see the overall   the shift key while dragging), and single           need to execute a command or
                                               progress.                                     pixel (columns or rows) selections.                      press esc to get out.



               Note: There are tools in back of the ones currently visible. Hold down while selecting a tool to see other tools available.
               For instance, the Rectangle Marquee is behind the Ellipse Marquee.
The Photoshop Workspace:
                                                                          Continued                                  Terms to Know Up to Class 5
                                                                          Terms to know by Class 5                   Gestalt         A unified configuration having proper-
                                                                                                                                     ties that cannot be derived from it’s
                                                                                                                                     parts
Feather                                                   How do Layers Work?
Unlike the Feather option in the selection tools, this    Layers allow you to isolate different parts of your
                                                                                                                     Resonance       a heightened expression
version only affects the selection that’s currently ac-   image onto independent layers. These layers act as         Emphasis        see hand out
tive and has no effect on further selections. Feather-    if they are separate documents stacked one on top          Balance         see hand out
ing blurs the edges of the selection. However, this is    of the other. By putting each image on it’s own layer,
not always obvious just by looking at the marching        you can freely change the document’s look and              Unity           see hand out
ants. Most people think the marching ants indicate        layout with out committing to the changes. If you          Rhythm          see hand out
the edge of a selection, which is true EXCEPT in          paint, apply a filter, or make an adjustment, it affects
the case of feathering. In this case the marching         only the layer you’re working on. Photoshop will           Contour         book
ants indicate where a feathered selection is halfway      automatically make a new layer each time you copy          Form            book
faded out.                                                and paste or drag from another psd document. The
                                                          checkerboard indicates areas that are transparent.         Mass            book
Grow
This command will search for colors that are similar      Resolution and File Size                                   CMYK            cyan, magenta, yellow and black - the
to an area that has already been selected.                Resolution is basically how many pixels fit in a                           color system used for print
Similar                                                   square inch. However, the higher the resolution, the       RGB             red, green blue - the color system
The Select>Similar command works just like the            more pixels exist in a given space, the smaller they                       used for online presentation
grow command except that it looks over the entire         actually become. Thus, more pixels can fit in a given
document for similar colors.                              area, and the clearer the image. The fewer pixels          Resolution      the number and size of pixels in a
                                                          in a square inch, the larger they become (to fill the                      given space
Transform Selection                                       space) and therefore the more visible (as square
After making a selection you can scale, rotate or         units) they become. The image looks “jaggy”, blurry
                                                                                                                     Pixel           a picture element - the fundamental
distort it by choosing Select>Transform Selection.        and flat. Choosing the right resolution depends on                         unit used to create digital images in
This command places handles around the image. To          the output. Printers have different output limits. It’s                    Photoshop
distort the image in this mode, hold down the Com-        useless to print something that is 1200 ppi on a           ppi             pixels per inch
mand (Control) key then drag a corner. Using this         printer that can only output 750 ppi. Large images
combo, you can move the corner independently.             on web pages can take a long time to download,             pixel-based     Photoshop Images
Using Quick Mask                                          causing the surfer to become impatient and move to         vector based    Illustrator Images
The quick-mask icon is located is located directly        another site. Generally, for this class, remember 240      Collage         book
below the foreground and background colors in the         - 300 ppi for print and 72 ppi for online presentation.
Tool box. When the left icon is selected, you are in                                                                 Aesthetics      book
standard mode which means you create selections           There are 2 numbers separated by a forward slash           Negative Space space around/outside the subject
using the normal selection tools. When the right icon     on the bottom center of a Photoshop document (for
is selected you are have enabled quick-mask mode.         example): Doc: 6.18M/816K. The number on the left          Hue             book
Here the selections will show up as a translucent         should remain relatively constant (unless you crop         Value           book
overlay. In other words, once you make a selec-           or scale the image); it indicates how much memory
tion, switch to quick-mask mode, the selected area        your image would use if all the layers were merged.        Saturation      Intensity or vibrancy of a color
should look normal and all the nonselected areas          The number on the right indicates how much memo-           Marching Ants the border of an active selection
should be covered with a translucent color.               ry the image is using with all the layer included. This
In quick-mask mode you no longer use selection            number changes as you add and modify your layers.          Icon            book
tools to modify a selection. Instead, you use stan-       Keep an eye on it so that you can see how memory           Opaque          Impervious to light
dard painting tools: paint with black to take away        intensive the different layers are. The number on
from the selection and white to add to it. When you       the right may get huge if you’re using a lot of layers;    Transparent     opposite of opaque
want to check on your selection, switch to standard       however, keep in mind that you’ll know exactly how         File extensions a 3 or 4 letter code followed by a dot
mode, and you’re back to the marching ants. By            large the image will be when you’re all done by                            that identifies the file type (psd, jpeg,
using the paint brush you can make very precise           glancing at the left number.                                               tiff)
modifications depending on the type of brush you
select.                                                                                                              Critique        book
                 COLOR & print
                     digital
RGB vs. CMYK                                                                      Spot Color vs. Process Color
RGB stands for Red, Green, & Blue. Color is a form of light energy that           So, if RGB is light, and CMYK is ink, then what is all this talk about spot and
comes in waves. The visual spectrum is continuous, but for convenience we         process? Well remember that CMYK can produce thousands of colors, and
divide it into red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. The most     is sufficient for most color projects. But what if your project calls for a very
dominant colors in the spectrum are red, green, and blue.                         specific color, one that CMYK can’t quite match?

So when we talk about RGB color, we are in fact referring to color as we          It was for just such a purpose that the Pantone Matching System was cre-
see it. Specifically, we are talking about light waves, such as the ones that      ated. It allows you to specify exactly what color you want to use in an area
come from your computer monitor. When you are designing for the Internet,         of your project. Most commonly, it is used for logos. That way you know
RGB is the color space that you use. Desktop color printers (such as              that “Uncle Bob’s Orange Soda” labels will always be that exact shade of
inkjet & color laser printers,) are designed to interpret RGB color, and          orange, no matter when or where the labels are printed.
translate it into ink on a page.
                                 *
CMYK stands for Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, and Key (black). These refer
to the ink colors used in the CMYK or “4 color process” type of printing.
                                                                                  So, when you print using CMYK, you are using Process Color. (The ink is
                                                                                  laid down in a 4 step process, one ink color at a time. Colors are built up us-
                                                                                  ing the combination of the inks, and the way they interact with each other.)
Combining these colors of ink allows for reproduction of thousands of col-
ors, and is sometimes called “full color” printing. This can be deceptive, be-    A Spot color, on the other hand is a specific color, usually a Pantone color,
cause there are colors that cannot be reproduced using the CMYK process.          that is mixed to specifications and printed by running it through the press
However, for most purposes, such as photographic reproduction, CMYK is            one time.
completely sufficient.
                                                                                  Many publications are printed using two spot colors, as this can provide a
So if you plan to send a color job out to be printed, most likely you will need   pleasing addition of color to a project without the expense of full process
to supply CMYK art. This type of art can be ‘separated’ by page layout            color.
programs, (printing a separate image for each ink color) and used to create
film, which in turn is used to create the final “plate” that actually transfers     If you want to add a Spot color to a CMYK job, then the paper must go
the ink to the paper.                                                             through the press a fifth time (or run on a 5 color press,) making it literally
                                                                                  a five color job. You can add multiple spot colors, however be aware that
                                                                                  each additional color will significantly increase the cost and difficulty of the
                                                                                  job in question. For practical purposes, you should plan for no more than
         NOTE: RBG color mode is also better to compose                           five ink colors.
          in because digital file sizes are smaller (one less
         color channel) and therefore editing the files won’t                      For further advice regarding ink colors, contact your print service provider to
                     bog down your computer.                                      find out the types of jobs their printing presses can produce.




*    Most non-PostScript® printers (read: inexpensive printers, like inkjets) must convert CMYK files to RGB before they are
     sent to the printer driver, which means it’s best to print them from RGB mode. That’s right—even though these printers
     have CMYK inks built in, it’s best to print to the files from RGB mode and let the printer driver make the conversion,
     instead of feeding them CMYK files that the printer will convert twice (once to RGB, then again to CMYK in the printer
     driver). I know it sounds odd, but that’s how it works.
                                                                                               — Ben Willmore, author Adobe Photoshop Studio Techniques




                                     In short:
              RGB = light. Use for Web & personal desktop printers.
           CMYK = ink. HOWEVER, use for COMMERCIAL printing projects only.



       This company is an authorized
       Adobe Print Service Provider                                                                   SOURCE: http://www.printstop.com/tips/tips_color.html
                                                                                                                                              ICG/DTP 05.2004 CML

				
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