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					                                          Biomedicine
                           Vol 29; No 4 (October-December): 2009


                                              Contents


Topics and Authors                                                                          Page(s)

I. Editorial
     1. Best wishes for Biomedicine                                                         397
     2. Health promotion hospitals and health promoting campuses                            298-301
        (Guest Editorial)
           Ashok Kumar Das

II. Review / Special Articles
     3. Use of monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer: a mini review         302-304
          Gunaseelan Karunanithi, Pooja Sethi, K. Sathyanarayana Reddy,
          S. Vivekanandan and Sathish Srinivasan
     4. Heavy metal toxicity and herbal plants                                              305-311
          E. Ann Susan, Manisha Mishra and Lokesh Upadhyay
     5. Role of dietary fibers in health and diseases                                       312-314
          Nivedita Nanda, Pravati Pal and G. K. Pal

III. Full Research Paper
      6. Effects of scopolamine on a novel alternated dual task                             315-321
            Praveen Kottath Veetil and Joseph Kurian Mukkadan
      7. Liver enzyme status in children with protein energy malnutrition                   322-326
            Mridul Das, Ng. Arunkumar Singh, Th. Ibetombi Devi, M.
            Amuba Singh and W. Gyaneshwar Singh
      8. Larvicidal and wormicidal efficacy of methanolic extracts of five macrolichens
            collected from Bhadra wildlife sanctuary                                        327-331
            K. S. Vinayaka, Y. L. Krishnamurthy, T. R. Prashith Kekuda,
            S. V. Praveen Kumar, S. J. Sudharshan and A. Chinmaya
      9. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in pregnancies complicated by pre-eclampsia   332-335
            Asha Yadav, Sarita Kanojia, Rashmi Babbar and Y. M. Mala
      10. Cerebrosinal fluid enzyme markers in meningitis                                   336-339
            Sumangala Kadi, Prakash B. Desai, K. Chetana and S. Manjunath
      11. A cross sectional study to determine pain threshold and tolerance among
            I MBBS students at Belgaum                                                      340-344
            Neha Kulkarni, R. G. Latti and S. S. Goudar
     12. Effect of gender in the assessment of pulmonary functions in prehypertensives
            and hypertensives subjects                                                      345-348
            Awalpreet Singh Chadha, Pravati Pal, D. Amudharaj and G. K. Pal
      13. A Comparative study of lipid-profile and signal averaged electrocardiography
            (SAECG) at menopause                                                            349-352
            Anil Kumar Pandey, Asim Das and Amal Kumar Bhattacharya
IV. Short Communications
     14. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of Solanum xanthocarpum         353-356
          N. Hemashenpagam, Lali Growther, Sankar, T. Selvaraj and A. Panneerselvam
     15. Development of reference ranges for biochemical parameters of liver and
          renal functions in Bangalore city population                                     357-359
          Roopa Murgod, Sultana Furruqh and T. Venkatesh
     16. Visual contrast sensitivity function in school children                           360-364
          Sharan B. Singh M, H. B. Veeranna and N. Sathyapremakumari
     17. Study of influence of meals on QT interval in healthy individuals                 365-366
          K. Subha Revathi and N. Neelambikai
     18. Gender difference in the prevalence of myocardial infarction in
         pre-diabetic individuals                                                          367-369
          Nivedita Nanda, Sanat Kumar Sen and Mark C. Arokiaraj
     19. Relation of body fat percentage and fasting blood sugar level in the
          Gujarati adolescents                                                             370-372

         Minal Patel, Wasim Shaikh and Sushil Kumar Singh
    20. gmh A gene expression and virulence in Haemophilus ducreyi from chancroid cases    373-375
         M. Reenaa and P. Rajendran
    21. A study of sialic acid and antioxidant status in Indian type 2 diabetes mellitus
         patients in and around mangalore                                                  376-379
         N. Suchetha Kumari, Manjula Shantharam, Vinayachandra,
         K. M. Damodara Gowda, A. Veena Shetty
    22. Abnormal branching of arch of aorta                                                380-382
         Melani Rajendran and Preeyanka Rubina Sundar
    23. Comparative evaluation of antioxidant properties of Cassava
        varieties (CO5 and H226)                                                           383-385
         S. Suresh, M. Suriyavathana, J. Aranganathan, and B. Naveenbabu
    24. Body mass index in adult Indian Punjabi male Jat-Sikhs and Banias                  386-388
         M. Singla, A. Jain, R. Ghai, P. Goel, M. Kumar and S. Khare
    25. Antimicrobial studies on the rhizome of Smilax China Linn                          389-391
         A. Vijayalakshmi, V. Ravichandiran, Udaykishan, Swathi,
         Malarkodi Velraj and S. Jayakumari
    26. Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of four medicinal plants in caecectomized mice          392-395
         F. Gricilda Shoba and Molly Thomas

V. Case Reports
    27. Orbital Burkitt’s lymphoma in a non-immunocompromized adult                        396-397
         Benjamin Nongrum, Renuka Srinivasan, Nirupama Kasturi, Debdatta Basu,
         Tarun K. Dutta, Cherian Akkarrappatty

VI. Letter to Editor
     28. Responsibility of a teacher in physiology                                         398
          S. Karthik
Editorial                                                     Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 297


Best wishes for Biomedicine

Biomedicine is now an international journal in the field of biomedical sciences, which is publishing all
types of papers in the filed of medicine, and biology & technology related to medicine. The scope of
Biomedicine is now unlimited as it publishes all varieties of articles in the form of review papers, special
papers of public health importance, full research papers, brief research reports in the form of short
communication, clinical case reports and commentaries on the recently published reports as letters to
editor, covering all branches of biomedical sciences. The hard copy of the journal is available not only in
the libraries of most of the medical colleges, but also in the libraries of dental colleges, veterinary colleges,
pharmacy colleges and other paramedical institutes. With or without subscription, the first issue of each
year has been supplied as complimentary copy to the library of all these institutes with the primary
objective of attracting papers from researches in the various fields of Biomedicine and we have achieved
this goal to a great extent. In fact, Biomedicine is now fulfilling the aspiration of researchers, especially of
the emerging scientists in all the fields of biomedical sciences.
      Any journal as an official publication of a scientific body is the true index of that association, and the
relevance and dignity of the association in the scientific community is cherished through the standard of
the journal of that association. The present echelon of Biomedicine in its getup, content and the quality of
papers it publishes is at par with any other international journal. Now, Biomedicine has its own active
official website, which is working energetically to cater the need of all concerned, and this itself is a
landmark achievement in the history of Biomedicine. The journal is published very regularly and has
been highly appreciated by all. We have served Biomedicine for last three years with full sincerity and
dignity, and the present form of Biomedicine is due to the sincere effort of our dedicated team that has
been working tirelessly to maintain and further elevate the standard of the journal. Nevertheless to
mention, the present Editor-in-Chief has not availed any leave or vacation in last three years to ensure the
regular processing of papers, and printing, publication and circulation of the journal.
      Ever since the publication of last issue of Biomedicine, our readers and contributors have come to
know the end of tenure of the incumbent Editor-in-Chief following the publication of fourth issue of 2009
and there are sincere requests from all quarters for the present Editor-in-Chief to continue for at least
another term. We highly appreciate the appreciation of our service rendered to Biomedicine by our
readers, authors, contributors and well wishers. We sincerely thank them for their kind gestures and
good wishes, and we request them no to be disappointed for the present Editor-in-Chief not keen to
extend his tenure. Though we strongly believe that the Editor of a journal should be dedicated to the
cause of the journal, we also believe that no individual is indispensable for such a work. We are sure that
the next Editor-in-Chief will be a sincere and responsible biomedical scientist dedicated to the progress of
Biomedicine. We sincerely thank the members of Indian Association of Biomedical Scientists (IABMS) for
giving us the opportunity to serve Biomedicine for last three years and we hope we have performed to
the best of their expectation. We express our humble gratitude at the feet of the Divine Mother, whose
Blessings have guided us to achieve so much for Biomedicine. However, the foremost achievement of
Biomedicine will be its indexing in Pubmed/Medline, for which we have initiated the steps and we
believe this will be accomplished by end of the year 2010. We shall extend our full cooperation to the
next editor and his/her editorial team to attain this goal. We wish Biomedicine all the best.

Dr. G. K. Pal,
Editor-in-Chief.
Guest Editorial                                         Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 298-301



Health promotion                         hospitals             and         health   promoting
campuses

Dr. Ashok Kumar Das,
Medical Superintendent, and Senior Professor of Medicine,
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER),
Puducherry – 605 006, India.
E-mail: ashkdas@gmail.com
Review Paper                                                      Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 302-304



Use of monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal
cancer: a mini review


Gunaseelan Karunanithi, Pooja Sethi, K. Sathyanarayana Reddy,
S. Vivekanandan and Sathish Srinivasan

Department of Radiotherapy, Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and
Research (JIPMER), Puducherry – 605 006, India.


(Received: 20th August, 2009; Modified: 10th September, 2009; Accepted: 22nd September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Gunaseelan Karunanithi
    E-Mail: gunapgi@yahoo.co.in



……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Recently, improved outcomes have been achieved with the introduction of targeted therapies in metastatic colorectal cancer
(mCRC). Three monoclonal antibodies -- bevacizumab, cetuximab, and panitumumab - are currently approved by the US Food
and Drug Administration (FDA) and European Agency for the evaluation of medicinal products, for patients with advanced
colorectal cancer. Bevacizumab, antiangiogenesis agent, is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the vascular
endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Cetuximab (a chimeric monoclonal antibody) and panitumumab (a humanized monoclonal
antibody) bind to the external domain of the EGFR and block cell signaling, which interferes with cell proliferation. Patients with
wild K-Ras do better with anti EGFR targeted therapy comapared to patients with K-Ras mutation in codon 12 & 13.
Pretreatment testing of K-Ras in patients with mCRC offers valuable information in deciding treatment options.


Key words: Bevacizumab, Cetuximab, Colorectal cancer, Panitumomab, K-Ras.
………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Review Paper                                                        Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 305-311



Heavy metal toxicity and herbal plants


E. Ann Susan1, Manisha Mishra2 and Lokesh Upadhyay3


1
 Research Fellow, Centre for Advanced Research in Indian System of Medicine (CARISM),
SASTRA University, Thanjavur - 613 402, Tamilnadu, India.
2
 Department of Biotechnology, Amity University, Lucknow, India.
3
 CARISM, SASTRA University, Thanjavur.


(Received: 20th June, 2009; Modified: 25th August, 2009; Accepted: 29th September, 2009)

Corresponding author:
     Dr. Lokesh Upadhyay,
     E mail:lokeshbhu@rediffmail.com



…………………………………………………………………………………………………........
Abstract
Heavy metal pollution arises from various sources especially from the purification of metals. They enter our body through food,
water and air leading to toxicity. These, further bioaccumulate leading to various diseases, which affect the quality of life. So
there is urgent need to detoxify these metals for maintaining the normal health. Major method of detoxification includes the
chelation therapy which shows deleterious effects leading to nephrosis and other adverse effects. So, it’s necessary to detoxify the
body without any side effects. On the other hand, indigenous drugs showed effective and progressive relief without any side
effects. Therefore, it is possible to use indigenous drugs for the detoxification of metal ions. In this review we are focusing on the
detoxifying activity of herbal plants which may be helpful for detoxifying heavy metal ions without any side effects.

Key words: Chelation therapy, Detoxification, Heavy metals, Indigenous drugs, Side effects, Toxicity.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Special Paper                                                                  Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 312-314



Role of dietary fibers in health and diseases

Nivedita Nanda1, Pravati Pal2 and G. K. Pal2
1
 Department of Biochemistry, Pondicherry Institute of Medical                                                             Sciences,           Kalapet,
Pondicherry – 605 006, India.
2
 Department of Physiology, JIPMER, Pondicherry – 605 006, India.

(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    Nivedita Nanda
    E-mail: ananda31@rediffmail.com

......................................................................................................................................................
Absract
Recently in our society there has been a striking rise in the incidence of diseases such as obesity, cardio vascular disorder,
diabetes mellitus, cancer etc. Economic revolution leading to a decreased trend in physical activity, an easy access to unhealthy
food habits and a lifestyle burdened with stress are ascribed to theses diseases. A lot of research all around the world has been
conducted to deal with this modern health problems. Results from all these reports converge towards life style modification
where exercise and healthy diet is the common slogan. Irrespective of the disease whenever we speak of healthy diet the term
dietary fiber often makes a common phrase. This led us to write this special article in order to remind our readers once again the
crucial role dietary fibers play in our health and make them more familiar with various common sources and several types of the
fibers with special reference to the functions of each.
......................................................................................................................................................
Research Paper                                                   Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 315-321



Effects of scopolamine on a novel alternated dual task


Praveen Kottath Veetil and Joseph Kurian Mukkadan

Little Flower Medical Research Centre, Angamaly – 683 572, Kerala, India.


(Received: 27th July, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 5th October, 2009)



Corresponding author:
    Dr. J. K. Mukkadan
    E-mails: lfmrcang@satyam.net.in ; praveen.kottathveetil@gmail.com



……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract
Background & Objectives: A novel alternated dual task (ADT) was designed to clarify whether increasing novelty and
alternation factors in a task will increase or decrease the short term and long term memory in rats. Rats were made to learn T-
maze spontaneous alternation task and radial arm maze (RAM) task alternatively. Another group of rats were made to learn both
the task separately without any alternation. For assessing the involvement of hippocampus in ADT we used the administration of
anticholinergic drug scopolamine (SC). By aiming at resolving the ambiguity of whether SC impairs long term memory or not, a
second retention phase was introduced, which was done ten days after first retention phase.
Methods: Behavioural experiments consisted of three phases as acquisition, first retention and second retention phases. Different
groups were assigned by administering SC (intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 1mg/Kg body weight) during different phases,
and control groups received saline injection.
Results: Group of rats performing ADT could acquire the tasks more easily than non alternated dual task group. Also retention
capacity of ADT group was significantly more. SC administration decreased acquisition capacity, but the effect was less in ADT
group. Second retention was never influenced by SC, but first retention showed a deficit.
Interpretations & Conclusions: It may be concluded that alternated dual task help to learn a complex task faster than learning it
in isolation from other tasks. The influence of anticholinergic drugs like SC can be decreased by adapting procedures like
alternated dual task, especially for earlier retention. And the ambiguity of whether SC influence retention is better clarified by
this study, mentioning that SC deficit is not seen for a well learned procedure, but can be observed during retention if the
procedure is not well consolidated in long term memory.

Key words: Long term memory, Radial arm maze, Retention, Scopolamine, T-maze.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Paper                                                  Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 322-326


Liver enzyme status in children with protein energy
malnutrition

Mridul Das, Ng. Arunkumar Singh, Th. Ibetombi Devi, M. Amuba Singh and
W. Gyaneshwar Singh

Department of Biochemistry, Regional Institute of Medical Sciences, Imphal – 795 004,
Manipur, India

(Received: 12th July, 2009; Modified: 15th September, 2009; Accepted: 10th October, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    Prof. W. Gyaneshwar Singh
    E-mail: wg_singh@yahoo.co.in




…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Background & Objectives: Protein Energy Malnutrition (PEM) is associated with many biochemical disturbances in the body.
Assay of certain enzyme activities proves very useful in the diagnosis of organ involvement in PEM before clinical
manifestations are established. Therefore, the objective of this study is to assess the serum level of amino-transferases (ALT,
AST), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) along with serum protein in PEM cases so as to facilitate early diagnosis and management of
PEM.
Methods: A group of 100 children (<12 yrs) suffering from different grades of PEM along with age and sex matched 30
apparently healthy children taken as controls were included in the present study. Serum ALT and AST were estimated by
Photometry based on Kinetic method, as described by IFCC(1980,1976), Alkaline Phosphatase by Optimised standard method as
described by Bower GN Jr and Mc Comb RB, 1975 and Serum Albumin by Photometry based on Bromocresol-green method as
described by Spencer K and Price, 1977.
Results: Out of total 100 cases of PEM, maximum cases (36) were between 1-3 years of age followed by 26 cases in range of 3-6
years of age. Distribution of cases among different grades shows that there were 22 cases of Undernutrition (UN), whereas
Kwashiorkor (KW), Nutritional Marasmus (NM) and Marasmic Kwashiorkor (MK) constituted 20 cases, 40 cases and 18 cases
respectively. The mean ± SD value of serum ALT (36.32 ± 3.36 IU/L) and AST (39.41 ± 4.59 IU/L) in PEM cases significantly
increased when compared with values of control group (p < 0.001). Significant increases of these enzymes were also observed in
all grades of PEM, however the values of these enzymes were highest in undernutrition followed by kwashiorkor, when
compared with values of nutritional marasmus and marasmic kwashiorkor. Alkaline phosphatase level showed significant
increase in PEM irrespective of grades of PEM when compared to controls. There was a marked reduction in serum albumin
level in all grades of PEM compared to control.
Interpretation & Conclusion: The present study indicates increase ALT, AST and ALP in PEM, which vary according to
severity of the disease.

Key words: Alanine amino-transferase, Alkaline Phosphatase, Aspartate amino-transferase, Protein energy malnutrition.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Paper                                                   Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 327-331


Larvicidal and wormicidal efficacy of methanolic extracts
of five macrolichens collected from Bhadra wildlife
sanctuary

K. S. Vinayaka1, Y. L. Krishnamurthy1, T. R. Prashith Kekuda2, S. V. Praveen
Kumar3, S. J. Sudharshan4 and A. Chinmaya4

1
 Dept. of Studies and Research in Applied Botany, and 4Dept. of Studies and Research in
Biochemistry, Jnana Sahyadri, Shankaraghatta-577451, Karnataka, India
2
 Dept. of Microbiology, S.R.N.M.N College of Applied Sciences, NES Campus, Balraj Urs
Road, Shivamogga-577201, Karnataka, India
3
 Dept. of Studies and Research in Microbiology, Shivagangothri, Tholhunase, Davangere,
Karnataka, India


(Received: 18th August, 2009; Modified: 15th September, 2009; Accepted: 10th October, 2009)

Corresponding author:
   Prashith Kekuda T. R.
   E-mail: prashith_kekuda@rediffmail.com

……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Background & Objectives: Mosquitoes are the most important single group of insects acting as vector for many tropical and
subtropical diseases. Helminthes are recognized as a major problem to livestock production throughout the tropics. The larvicidal
and wormicidal potential of methanolic extracts of five macrolichens Ramalina nervulosa (Mull. Arg.) Abbayes (Ramalinaceae),
Ramalina pacifica Asahina (Ramalinaceae), Roccella montagnei Bel. Em. D.D. Awasthi (Roccellaceae) and Usnea galbinifera
Asahina (Parmeliaceae) and a foliose lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Despr. ex nyl.) Hale (Parmeliaceae) collected from Bhadra
wildlife sanctuary were investigated.
Methods: The crude methanolic extracts of the lichens were subjected to analysis of secondary metabolites using TLC. The
larvicidal potential was evaluated using the second instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. The percentage mortality and the LC50 values
for various concentrations of the lichen extracts were determined. Indian earth worm model was employed to determine
wormicidal potential of the lichen extracts.
Results: The different lichen extracts showed the presence of secondary metabolites such as Usnic acid, Lecanoric acid, Sekikaic
acid etc in TLC. All the extracts were found to possess good larvicidal potential. A marked wormicidal activity was observed in
case of lichen extracts. The results showed dose dependent activity of lichen extracts. Among lichens tested, more potent activity
was observed in case of P. tinctorum. The wormicidal efficacy of extract of P. tinctorum was found to be greater when compared
to standard piperazine citrate.
Interpretation & Conclusion: The larvicidal and wormicidal activity of lichen extracts may be due to the presence of active
metabolites. The lichen metabolites could be used against mosquitoes and intestinal worms. Further studies are to be carried to
isolate and to subject the metabolite against larvae and worms.

Key words: Aedes aegypti, Bhadra wildlife sanctuary, Lichens, Larvicidal activity, Methanolic extracts, Wormicidal activity.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Research Paper                                                  Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 332-335


Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in pregnancies
complicated by pre-eclampsia

Asha Yadav1, Sarita Kanojia1, Rashmi Babbar1 and Y. M. Mala2
1
 Deptt. of Physiology, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi – 110 002, India.
2
 Deptt. of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Lok Nayak Hospital, New Delhi – 110 002, India.

(Received: 25th July, 2009; Modified: 28th August, 2009; Accepted: 17th September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Asha Yadav
    E-mail: drashayadav@yahoo.co.in




……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Background & Objectives: Electrophysiological correlates of sensory function in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension
(PIH) and pre-eclampsia have been least studied. Central Nervous System is adversely affected if the disease progresses and
complications may occur.
Methods: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs) were recorded from Cz-A1 and Cz-A2 position by using Ag/AgCl disc
electrodes in 20 pre-eclamptic female. An equal number of age and gestational age matched normal pregnant females served as
controls. All the parameters of BAEPs in both the groups were analyzed by using student’s unpaired T- test. Results: Peak
latencies of wave IV & V and interpeak latencies of III-V & I-V were found to be prolonged in pre-eclamptic females when
compared to their normal contemporizes. Ratio of V/I was also found to be significantly low in pre-eclamptic pregnancy although
no change was seen in absolute amplitudes of these waves. No parameter of BAEPs was found to be significantly correlated with
blood pressure.
Interpretation & Conclusions: Our results indicate that central brainstem transmission time is prolonged in pregnancies
complicated with pre-eclampsia. This could be because of angiogenic changes in brain due to vascular endothelial dysfunction or
due to oxidative stress.

Key words: Brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), Central nervous system, Endothelial dysfunction, Pre-eclampsia
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Paper                                                 Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 336-339



Cerebrosinal fluid enzyme markers in meningitis

Sumangala Kadi, Prakash B. Desai, K. Chetana and S. Manjunath

Department of Biochemistry, Jawaharlal                          Nehru       Medical       College,      Nehru      Nagar,
Belgaum – 590 010, Karnataka State, India.


(Received: 5th August, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 2nd October, 2009)



Corresponding author:
    Dr. Sumangala Kadi
    Email: drsumangalamk@yahoo.com



……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract
Background & Objectives: To assess the diagnostic and prognostic usefulness and to evaluate the relationship between
cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine deaminase (ADA) and aspartate transaminase (AST) in
differentiating meningitis.
Methods: Forty (40) subjects served as controls and 40 patients of meningitis of different    types (tubercular, pyogenic and
viral) served as cases. The controls and cases were from both sexes and age above 18 years. The parameters were estimated by
standard biochemical methods.
Results: The activities of LDH, ADA and AST in the CSF of meningitis cases were significantly increased as compared to
controls (p<0.000). A highly significant increase in CSF LDH (p < 0.000) and AST (p< 0.001) activities were observed in
tubercular meningitis (TBM) and pyogenic meningitis (PM) as compared to controls, while their increase was non-significant in
viral meningitis (VM) (p > 0.05) as compared to controls. A highly significant increase in CSF ADA activity (p< 0.000) was
observed only in TBM as compared to controls, while the increase was non-significant in PM and VM as compared to controls (p
> 0.05).
Interpretation & Conclusion: The study concludes that the above mentioned parameters would be sensitive biochemical
markers for diagnosing and differentiating meningitis.

Key words: Adenosine deaminase, Aspartate transaminase, Lactate dehydrogenase, Meningitis.
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Paper                                                  Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 340-344



A cross sectional study to determine pain threshold and
tolerance among I MBBS students at Belgaum

Neha Kulkarni, R. G. Latti and S. S. Goudar

Department of Physiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Belgaum – 590 010,
Karnataka, India.

(Received: 5th July, 2009; Modified: 28th August, 2009; Accepted: 25th September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. R. G. Latti
    E-mail : ramachandra.latti@rediffmail.com

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Background and Objectives: Pain has been underlying cause for many of health related problems. Present study was undertaken
to compare the gender difference in pain threshold and pain tolerance in the different phases of menstrual cycle among MBBS
phase I students of J N Medical College, Belgaum admitted in the year 2007-08.
Mehtods: 105 students of MBBS phase I were screened of which 70 boys & 35 girls were taken. Among the girls pain threshold
& pain tolerance in different phases of menstrual cycle were studied.Pain threshold & pain tolerance were measured by cold
pressure task. The pain threshold & tolerance were higher in males as compared to females.
Results: Comparison in females in different menstrual cycle shows pain threshold & tolerance in proliferative phase was higher,
lower pain threshold & tolerance in secretory phase due to the fluctuation of gonadal hormones. These results were statistically
significant.
Interpretation & Conclusion: Gender differences in pain threshold & tolerance & fluctuation of hormonal levels are to be
considered for novel strategy for effective treatment for advising analgesics.

Key words: Cold pressure task, Medical students, Pain threshold, Pain tolerence,
……………………………………………………………………………………..
Research Paper                                                 Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 345-348


Effect of gender in the assessment of pulmonary functions
in prehypertensives and hypertensives subjects


Awalpreet Singh Chadha1, Pravati Pal2, D. Amudharaj2 and G. K. Pal2
1
 MBBS Student, 2Department of Physiology, JIPMER, Puducherry – 605 006, India.

(Received: 25th July, 2009; Modified: 28th August, 2009; Accepted: 26th September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Pravati Pal
    E-mail: drppal@rediffmail.com



…………………………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract

Background & Objectives: Hypertension and prehypertension states have been found to be associated with metabolic syndrome
and altered FEV1 and FVC values. However, the detailed pulmonary function test (PFT) parameters as well as the gender
difference have not been studied in hypertensive and prehypertensive subjects.
Methods: Prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects were recruited from Medicine out patient department of JIPMER based on
the blood pressure values recorded from them. PFT parameters were recorded in them with the help of a spirometer and
comparison was made between prehypertensive and hypertensive and between male and female prehypertensive subjects.
Results: The heights of females were found to be significantly less than males (p <0.01). In female prehypertensive subjects,
there was significant decrease in EVC (p<0.05), FEV1 (p<0.0001), FVC (p<0.0001), PEF (p<0.05), FEF 25 (p<0.05), FEF 50 (p
<0.05), FEF 25-75 (p<0.05), MVV (p<0.0001), and FIF50 (p<0.01) compared to male prehypertensive subjects. No significant
change was found between the general and PFT parameters between male hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects.
Interpretation & Conclusion: We conclude that hypertensive subjects show a greater decrease in PFT values compared
to prehypertensive subjects. Also, female prehypertensive subjects are more prone to respiratory dysfunction than
male prehypertensive subjects.

Key words: Gender, Hypertensives, Pre-hypertensives, Pulmonary functions.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Research Paper                                                    Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 349-352


A Comparative study of lipid-profile and signal averaged
electrocardiography (SAECG) at menopause

Anil Kumar Pandey1, Asim Das2 and Amal Kumar Bhattacharya3


1
 Dept. of Physiology, GSL Medical College & General hospital, Rajahmundry, A.P., India.
2
 Dept. of Physiology, and 3 Dept. of General Medicine, M. P. Shah Medical College,
Jamnagar, Gujarat, India.

(Received: 12th August, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 3rd October, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    Dr. Anil Pandey,
    E-mail: drpandeyak@yahoo.co.in



…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Background & Objectives: The female sex steroids Estrogen and Progesterone have been shown to influence Lipid metabolism
and cardiovascular functions. Until the time of menopause, it appears that women enjoy some protection from early coronary
heart disease that men do not. However, once menopause is established the risk of coronary heart disease may either promptly
escalate to the same or cross the rate as in men. As women age, and natural estrogen levels fall, the incidence of coronary heart
disease increases. The aim of this study was to compare the lipid profile and signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG) as
predictors of future cardiovascular complication in post menopausal women.
Methods: The study was carried out in 57 randomly selected postmenopausal (Natural/ Surgical) women attending the New Civil
Hospital and Govt. Medical College, Surat during the period January to June 2003. Subjects were examined clinically and a
thorough cardiovascular evaluation was performed. The instrument used for SAECG recording was HYPEC HA- 200 System
analyzer. For lipid profile blood samples were collected after 12 to16 hours of overnight fasting. Data was analyzed by using
“epi–info 6” package.
Results: When we compared the lipid profile and SAECG based on blood pressure status, BMI and duration of menopause, it
was found that all the parameters of the lipid profile were within the normal limits in both the groups but it was towards abnormal
side in hypertensive, overweight and duration of menopause <5 years ( surgical menopause) and >15 years.
Interpretation & Conclusion: Signal averaged ECG can not be used as a screening test for future prediction of arrhythmia or
IHD in all cases of menopause. However, in selected cases such as early menopause (surgical), and all menopausal women above
65 year old or duration of menopause > 15 years, it can be used as a screening test for further electrophysiological studies.

Key words: Lipid- Profile, Menopause, Signal averaged electrocardiography (SAECG).
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                           Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 353-356


Phytochemical analysis                                  and         antimicrobial                   activity           of
Solanum xanthocarpum

N. Hemashenpagam1,                      Lali     Growther1,           Sankar1,         T.    Selvaraj2         and      A.
Panneerselvam3


1
 Department of Microbiology, Hindusthan College of Arts and Science College, Coimbatore,
Tamilnadu, India.2 Department of Botany and Microbiology, Ambo University, Ethiopia.
3
 Department of Botany and Microbiology, A. V. V. M. Sri Pushpam College, Poondi,
Tamilnadu, India.


(Received: 30th July, 2009; Modified: 20th September,, 2009; Accepted: 28th September, 2009)



Corresponding author:
  Dr.N.Hemashenpagam,
  E-mail: nhema10@yahoo.co.in


……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Since plants possess many medicinal properties, the present study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial activities and
phytochemical profile of extracts from leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum. The in vitro antimicrobial activity was performed by
agar disc diffusion method against bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Klebisella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas
aeruginosa and fungi Aspergillus niger, Penicillium Sp., Candida albicans. The n-butanol, methanol and aqueous extracts of
fresh leaves of S.xanthocarpum showed maximum activity against P.aeurginosa, followed by S.aureus and E.coli among the
other organisms have been observed. This shows that the plant can be used for medicinal purposes. Solanum xanthocarpum were
observed to have antimicrobial activity and can be used for medicinal purposes.

Key words: Antimicrobial activity, Leaf extracts, Phytochemicals, Solanum xanthocarpum.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                                Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 357-359



Development of reference ranges for biochemical
parameters of liver and renal functions in Bangalore city
population

Roopa Murgod1, Sultana Furruqh and Venkatesh T.
                                            1
Department of Biochemistry, Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre,
Bangalore – 560 066, and St. John’s Medical College, Bangalore - 560 034, India.

(Received: 25th August, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 3rd October, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Roopa Murgod
    E-mail : roopamurgod@gmail.com




……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
It is mandatory for any laboratory to adopt “Reference Ranges”. As on date, most of our laboratories are using the text book
values, which give reference ranges of the western population. Hence there is a pressing need for the establishment of reference
ranges and reference limits for various parameters in routine biochemistry in an Indian population. In this study, reference ranges
for biochemical parameters of liver and renal function in a Bangalore City population were determined. 153 healthy subjects
were chosen from the Health Plan Department of St. Johns Medical College Hospital after clearly defining inclusion and
exclusion criteria and their samples were analyzed for FBS, liver and renal function tests. The results obtained were compared
with the values that are currently being used. It was found that there was a shift in the reference range for the analytes-FBS, total
protein, albumin, AST, ALT, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin. The reference range for blood urea had remained the same, whereas
the reference range for creatinine had widened. It was concluded that the reference ranges for each population varies and
therefore it necessitates the need to establish reference ranges for various parameters in each clinical laboratory.

Key words: Reference limit, Reference population, Reference range.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                                 Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 360-364


Visual contrast sensitivity function in school children

Sharan B. Singh M1, H. B. Veeranna2 and N. Sathyapremakumari3
1
 Department of Physiology, Narayana Medical College, Nellore – 524 002, India.
2
 Department of Physiology, Bangalore Medical College, Bangalore – 560 002, India.
3
 Regional Institute of Ophthalmology, Minto Eye Hospital, Bangalore – 560 002.


(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
   Dr. Sharan B. Singh M
    E-mail: sharansreesid@gmail.com


………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Visual contrast sensitivity function is a better way of assessing a person’s visual capability than visual acuity testing by Snellen’s
(test) chart. This is especially so in diseases like glaucoma, neuro-ophthalmology, retinal disorders and anterior segment diseases,
where vision remains normal but visual contrast sensitivity function changes. Also early detection of visual problems is important
in children to prevent the development of irreversible, inappropriate neural circuitry, which is possible by visual contrast
sensitivity function testing. This study was undertaken to establish normal visual contrast sensitivity function data in school
children by use of Bailey-Lovie contrast sensitivity. This study was carried out in 297 school children and compared with 107
adults. High contrast (HC) and low contrast (LC) were tested and scored by LogMAR and VAR score. Visual contrast sensitivity
function increases progressively with age and reaches adults like values around (9-10 years) for HC and 12-13 years for low
contrast. This data may prove valuable to the clinician in evaluation of visual function in children.

Key words: Bailey chart, High contrast, LogMAR score, Low contrast, VAR score, Visual contrast sensitivity.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                             Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 365-366


Study of influence of meals on QT interval in healthy
individuals

K. Subha Revathi and N. Neelambikai

Department of Physiology, Coimbatore Medical College, Coimbatore – 641 014,
Tamilnadu, India

(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    K. Subha Revathi
    E-mail: subhanandha@gmail.com



……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract

The food we take regularly to sustain life produces many physiological changes, amongst the various changes the cardiovascular
system responds by producing mesenteric hyperemia which is found to be mediated through the sympathetic nervous system. The
influence of autonomic nervous system has been studied by various electrophysiological studies. In this study the influence of
meals (solids & liquids) on QT interval has been studied in healthy individuals.29 healthy subjects (males & females), aged 19 –
21 years were selected randomly and divided into three groups. Group A (11subjects) ingested a 500Kcal meal, Group B
(11subjects) who ingested fruit juice (500Kcal) and Group C (7 subjects) who ingested isovolumic amounts of water. The
Electrocardiogram was taken prior to the ingestion of meals/juice/water and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, 45minutes & 60 minutes
after the ingestion of meals/juice/water. The results showed lengthening of QTc 15 minutes after the ingestion meals/juice and
the lengthening persisted for the study period of 60 minutes and no such changes were seen in the subjects who ingested
isovolumic amounts of water (1). This indicates the influence of Sympathetic nervous system activity and the response of QTc
lengthening being directly related to energy value of food stuffs (2-4).

Key words: Meals, QTc interval, Sympathetic nervous system
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Short Communication                                               Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 367-369


Gender difference in the prevalence                                                              of       myocardial
infarction in pre-diabetic individuals


Nivedita Nanda1, Sanat Kumar Sen1 and Mark C. Arokiaraj                                             2



1
 Department of Biochemistry and 2Department of Cardiology, Pondicherry
Institute of Medical Sciences, Pondicherry – 605 014, India.

(Received: 25th July, 2009; Modified: 5th September, 2009; Accepted: 15th September, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    Nivedita Nanda,
    E-mail: anada31@rediffmail.com


………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract

Recently it has been suggested that individuals with pre-diabetes have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We collected
retrospectively the data of all patients admitted for the first time for acute myocardial infarction (MI) and analyzed the data of
patients diagnosed a pre diabetic based on their serum glucose values. Male gender is recognized as a risk factor for coronary
artery disease below the age of 45. Mean age of all our cases was above 55 years. However, after excluding patients with family
history for diabetes mellitus out of 26 cases which were found to be in pre diabetic state only 6 were females. We did not find any
difference in the severity of diseases and degree of biochemical alterations in male and female cases (except packed cell volume
in male patients) suggesting that gender difference might not exist in severity of the diseases pre diabetic MI patients. However,
our study also revealed that among pre diabetic subjects male gender is more associated with the incidence of myocardial
infarction especially after the age of forty. Contrarily, though the number of incidences of pre diabetic females of same age group
suffering from Mi is less they suffer from equal severity of the disease compared to males.

Key words: Male-female difference, Myocardial infarction, Pre-diabetes, Prevalence.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                              Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 370-372



Relation of body fat percentage and fasting blood sugar
level in the Gujarati adolescents

Minal Patel, Wasim Shaikh and Sushil Kumar Singh

Department of Physiology, Pramukhswami Medical college, Karamsad – 388 325, Gujarat,

India

(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)



Corresponding author:
    Dr. Minal C. Patel,
    E-mail: minalpatel78@rediffmail.com



………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Modernization, industrialization and better economic conditions have produced changes in the life style. These are more
favorable for the prediabetic conditions. So, main objective of the study was to find out the relation of body fat percentage (BF
%) with fasting blood sugar (FBS) level in the Gujarati adolescents. A randomized, non-experimental and cross sectional pilot
study was done on the 22 male and 16 female voluntary participants of age group 18-19 yrs. BF% was measured by bioelectrical
impedance and blood glucose was measured in the fasting state using the capillary blood. Pearson’s correlation coefficient and
Student’s unpaired t-test were used to find statistical significance. BF% showed a significant positive correlation (R=0.33) with
FBS independent of gender. When the significance was tested by gender, there was a significant high FBS in females with high
BF% as compared to those with low BF%. There was no significant difference in FBS among males with higher BF% as
compared to those with normal. A study shows that BF% affects FBS in adolescents.

Key word: Body fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar
……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Short Communication                                             Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 373-375


gmh A gene expression and virulence in Haemophilus
ducreyi from chancroid cases
M. Reenaa1 and P. Rajendran2
1
 Department of Microbiology, Dr. A. L. M. Post-Graduate Institute of Basic Medical Sciences,
  Univeristy of Madras, Taramani, Chennai – 600 113, India
2
 Department of Microbiology, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute,
  Chennai – 600 116, India.


(Received: 25th August, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 4th October, 2009)



Corresponding author:
    Dr. P. Rajendran.
    E-mail: rajendranparam@hotmail.com


……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Haemophilus ducreyi is a Gram negative bacteria which causes chancroid, a soft chancre sexually transmitted disease. There are
various virulence factors associated with Haemophilus ducreyi and the progress of the disease. The present study is on gmh A
gene as one of the maker or virulence factor in chancroid cases from Tamilnadu. Information on chancroid and gmh A gene are
scanty in Indian Medical literature. Twelve strains of Haemophilus ducreyi were isolated from genital ulcer cases during 1999 –
2002 and were subjected to identification of gmh A gene by PCR according to the procedure of Bauer et al (1998). gmh A gene
(1.6 Kb M.wt) was identified in three out of twelve strains tested. This is the first report from Tamilnadu on the gmh A gene in
Haemophilus ducreyi. The study suggests that the gmh A gene may not be the only factor responsible for virulence and disease
progression in Haemophilus ducreyi.

Key words: Chancroid, gmh A gene, Haemophilus ducreyi, Virulence, PCR.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                               Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 376-379



A study of sialic acid and antioxidant status in Indian
type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in and around Mangalore

N. Suchetha Kumari1, Manjula Shantharam2,                                               Vinayachandra3,                 K.    M.
Damodara Gowda4, A. Veena Shetty5
1
 Dept.of Biochemistry, 4Dept. of Physiology, and 5Dept. of Microbiology, K.S.Hegde Medical
Academy, Deralakatte, Mangalore.
2
 Dept.of Biochemistry, Yenepoya Medical College, Mangalore.
3
 Research Scholar, Dept.of Applied Botany, Mangalore University, Mangalore.

(Received: 27th July, 2009; Modified: 28th Sepember, 2009; Accepted: 5th October, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Suchetha Kumari N.,
    E-mail: sucheetha49@gmail.com; suchetha.shetty@rediffmail.com




……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Serum Sialic acid is a marker for the acute phase response. The aim of the present study was to investigate the status of Sialic
acid and Total antioxidant in Indian type 2 diabetic patients. Fasting and postprandial blood samples are taken from 252 subjects
of which 132 were diabetes mellitus (DM) and 120 were healthy individuals without complication, diagnosed as per WHO
criteria. The case history of patients was taken and they were categorized according to the duration of the diabetes in to two
groups. The entire blood sample was analyzed for total Sialic acid, Total antioxidants, nitric oxide, SOD (super oxide dismutase)
Spectro photometrically. There was significant increase in serum Sialic acid (p=0.000) and significant decline in total antioxidant
(p=0.000) as the duration of diabetes increases. There was increase in nitric oxide level (p=0.000) and decrease in SOD level
(p=0.000) as increase in the duration of diabetes. The present study indicates that the elevated level of serum Sialic acid, Nitric
oxide and decline in total antioxidant status, SOD respectively, as the duration of diabetes increases.

Key words: Antioxidant, Diabetes Mellitus, Nitric oxide, Sialic acid, Superoxide dismutase.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                             Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 380-382


Abnormal branching of arch of aorta

Melani Rajendran and Preeyanka Rubina Sundar

Department of Anatomy, Sri Ramachandra Medical College & Research Institute, Porur,
Chennai – 600 116, India.


(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)



Corresponding author:
    Dr. Melani Rajendran
   E-mail: mel_rajendran@hotmail.com




……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
During routine dissection, an unusual branching pattern of arch of aorta was observed in a male cadaver. The arch of aorta gave
off only two branches viz. an united stem of brachiocephalic trunk and left common carotid artery and another branch, the left
subclavian artery. The knowledge of such variation is essential to the clinicians.

Key words: Arch of aorta, Brachiocephalic trunk, Common carotid artery
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                               Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 383-385


Comparative evaluation of antioxidant                                                              properties                 of
Cassava varieties (CO5 and H226)

S. Suresh, M. Suriyavathana, J. Aranganathan, and B. Naveenbabu

Department of Biochemistry, Periyar University, Salem – 636 011, India.


(Received: 15th July, 2009; Modified: 18th August, 2009; Accepted: 2nd September, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    Dr. M. Suriyavathana,
    E-mail: suriyaveda@yahoo.co.in



……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….
Abstract
The present Study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activities of Cassava varieties (CO5 and H226). Cassava (manihot
esculenta crantz) is a major source of dietary energy for human and domestic animals in many tropical countries. It’s starchy
staple roots are very rich in carbohydrates. Cassava plants have anti-cancer properties. In the present study we have explored the
importance of cassava varieties (CO5 and H226). Since Free radicals and related species have attracted a great deal of attention in
recent years. Free radicals can adversely alter lipids, proteins and DNA and have been implicated in aging and a number of
human diseases. The antioxidants were estimated (SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, Glu-6 phos dhase, Vit-E, Vit-C, GSH) in the Ethanolic
extract of cassava varieties (CO5 and H226) using standard protocol. Among the two varieties CO5 have good store of
antioxidants than H226.

Key words: Antioxidant, Carbohydrate, Ethanolic extract, Free radicals.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Short Communication                                             Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 386-388


Body mass index in adult Indian Punjabi male Jat-Sikhs
and Banias

M. Singla1, A. Jain2, R. Ghai 1, P. Goel1, M. Kumar                               3
                                                                                      and S. Khare1
1
 Department of Anatomy and 3Department of Physiology, Subharti Medical College, Meerut,
India.
Department of 2Anatomy, Christian Medical College, Ludhiana, India.


(Received: 5th September, 2009; Modified: 28th September, 2009; Accepted: 5th October, 2009)


Corresponding author:
      Dr. Mukesh Singla,
      E-mail: drmukesh_3173@rediffmail.com



……………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
Obesity is a disease in which excess body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected. It is a
well known fact that overweight and obesity lead to serious health consequences. Risk increases progressively as BMI increases.
The screening of population is important as after classifying, it brings overweight people under medical scanner and also ensure
that help can be provided to them before they go from fact to obese stage. BMI is defined as the individuals body weight divided
by the square of their height. The BMI mathematical formula is BMI – kg/m2. It is an inexpensive, easy to perform and one of the
best methods of screening of population for assessment of overweight and obesity. BMI prime is the modification of BMI
system. It is the ratio of actual BMI to upper limit BMI. It is useful clinically because individual can tell at a glance what
percentage they deviate from their upper weight limit. The present study is conducted on 300 adult male Jat Sikhs and 300 adult
male Banias of Punjab of Indian origin. The aim of present study is to investigate the epidemiology of BMI, overweight and
obesity among these populations. For this, weight and height was measured and BMI and BMI prime were calculated. The
prevalence of overweight and obesity is 25% in Jat Sikhs and 41% in Banias. These values are more than the national values
(12.1%). The results of present study indicates that obesity is becoming a problem of concern in Punjabis particularly Banias.

Key words: BMI, BMI prime, Banias, Jat Sikhs, Obesity, Overweight.
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                                      Biomedicine 2009; (4): 389-391



Antimicrobial studies on the rhizome of Smilax China Linn

A. Vijayalakshmi, V. Ravichandiran, Udaykishan, Swathi, Malarkodi Velraj
and S. Jayakumari

Department of Pharmacognosy, Vels University, Pallavaram, Chennai – 600 114, Tamilnadu,
India.


(Received: 27th August, 2009; Modified: 25th September, 2009; Accepted: 4th October, 2009)


Corresponding author:
    A. Vijayalakshmi
    E-mail: aviji_1975@rediffmail.com

………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Abstract
Development of microbial resistance to the available antibiotics, led us to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activity of
medicinal plant-rhizome of Smilax china by Disc diffusion technique. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was
determined using Agar streak dilution technique to determine the antimicrobial potency. Large zones of inhibition were observed
for both chloroform and ethanol extract of the rhizome of Smilax china in disc diffusion screening against three gram positive and
two gram negative bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli and
Salmonella typhi. The MIC values against these bacteria ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/ml. In antifungal screening, the extracts
showed large zone of inhibition against the fungus Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus fumigates and small zone of inhibition
against Candida albicans. Phytochemicals present in the extract was screened qualitatively. Thus the present study brought to
light the scientific data on the anti-infective property of the plant.

Key words: Antibacterial, Antifungal, Chloroform extract, Ethanol extract, Smilax china.
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Short Communication                                                            Biomedicine 2009; (4): 392-395

Anti-diarrhoeal evaluation of four medicinal plants in
caecectomized mice

F. Gricilda Shoba and Molly Thomas

Reader in Zoology, PG and Research Department of Zoology
Voorhees College, Vellore-632 001, Tamil Nadu, India

(Received: 10th August, 2009; Modified: 20th September, 2009; Accepted: 4th October, 2009)

Corresponding author:
    Dr. (Mrs.) F. Gricilda Shoba
    E-mail: gricildashoba@gmail.com



..............................................................................................................................................
Abstract
The present study examined the effect of methanol extracts of Acorus calamus rhizome, Pongamia glabra leaves, Aegle
marmelos unripe fruit and Psidium guyava rootbark for their anti diarrhoeal potential against castor oil induced diarrhoea in
normal and caecectomized mice. Caecectomized model is used as a means to evaluate drugs having antidiarrhoeal effect to treat
secretary diarrhoea.


Key words: Antidiarrhoeal activity, Caecectomized mice model, Indigenous plants.

…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Case Report                                                     Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 396-397



Orbital Burkitt’s lymphoma in a non-immunocompromized
adult

Benjamin Nongrum1, Renuka Srinivasan1, Nirupama Kasturi1, Debdatta
Basu2, Tarun K. Dutta3, Cherian Akkarrappatty3

1
 Department of Ophthalmology, 2 Department of Pathology, and 3 Department of Internal
Medicine, Jawaharlal Institute of Post Graduate Medical and Educational Research,
Pondicherry, India.


Corresponding author:
    Dr. Benjamin Nongrum
    E-mail: benjaminnongrum@yahoo.com



………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Abstract
A 55 year old Indian female non-immunocompromised patient, presented with an orbital mass in which the histopathological
examination were suggestive of Burkitt’s lymphoma. CT scan showed a 3x2 cm homogenous enhancing lesion in the
inferolateral part of the left orbit, with no calcification or bony erosion seen. Burkitt’s lymphoma is a poorly differentiated
lymphocytic lymphoma most commonly seen among children in tropical Africa. Orbital involvement is not an uncommon
finding in African form, especially in children. In adults, Burkitt’s lymphoma is not very common and is usually seen in
immunocompromised patient. This case report suggests that one should keep in mind the possibility of a sporadic case of
Burkitt’s lymphoma even in non-immunocompromised adult.

Key words: Burkitt’s lymphoma, Non-immunocompromised, Orbital
………………………………………………………………………………………………………
Letter to Editor                                                 Biomedicine 2009; 29 (4): 398


Responsibility of a teacher in physiology

(Received: 5th October, 2009)


Respected Sir,

I was delighted to read the editorial of third issue of 2009. You have rightly analyzed the present health problems of
our country, especially the cause for prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. Though the exact
etiology of increase in incidence of these lifestyle related dysfunctions in Indian subcontinent is not known, the
common factor that has contributed to the increased frequency of these disorders in India is the sedentary life that
presently we lead. When we were children, the economic situation in India was poor. With the rapid development,
and dramatic financial improvement, Indians suddenly became rich and started leading a luxurious and lazy life. We
have seen how our parents and grandparents used to walk miles to earn their basic livelihood. But, now absence of
walking or cycling has really contributed so much to our physical inactivity. In offices, at home, automatic machines
have added to our physical laziness. Physical inactivity is the main cause of our all problems.
      In physiology, we teach, regular physical exercise improves vagal tone, reduces sympathetic activity and
achieves a stable sympathovagal balance that ensures a stable visceral functions, endocrine functions, digestion and
absorption and metabolic activities. Physical exercises like morning walk, swimming, cycling etc. have reported to
reduce body weight and blood pressure and improve cardiac functions. Therefore, people performing regular
physical activities are usually protected from heart diseases, hypertension and diabetes, that are so common in
Indian subcontinent.
      I would like to emphasize that as teachers in Physiology we carry a bigger responsibility of making our
students learn the physiological basis of health improvement through physical exercises. We should encourage them
to practice exercises themselves regularly and become examples to their patient when they become doctors. A doctor
with a big belly can not advise effectively a patient to reduce the weight by doing exercise. Sir, you have encouraged
the millions of students and teachers in physiology not only as a great teacher in the subject of physiology, but also
as a true physiologist by example. You have been the constant source of inspiration to all of us. I wish the message
of your editorial of third issue of 2009 reaches the millions of Indians and help them to remain protected from
diabetes, hypertension and heart diseases. I sincerely congratulate you for your editorial and wish you all the best.

Dr. S. Karthik,
Assistant Professor, Departemt of Physiology,
Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital,
Madagadipet, Puducherry – 605 017.

				
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