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					      Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service
      Comité de Coordination du Service Volontaire International
                  CCIVS – UNESCO House – 1, rue Miollis – 75732 Paris Cedex 15 France
Tel: (33.1) – Fax: (33.1) – E-mail: –

                                                TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................... 3
2. THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST CONTEST .......................................................................... 4
   JOIN THE BEAUTY AND THE BEAST CONTEST 2007!.......................................................................... 4
3. 14 OTHER IDEAS FOR ACTION............................................................................................... 5
   SET UP AN ART EXHIBITION! .............................................................................................................. 5
   DO A CONCERT FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ............................................................................ 5
   DO A THEATRE PLAY ......................................................................................................................... 5
   BEFORE THE CAMP, IN THE INFOSHEET .............................................................................................. 5
   CONCRETE IDEAS FOR THE DAILY LIFE AT THE CAMP ........................................................................ 5
   WASTE AND RECYCLING ................................................................................................................... 6
   MONITOR CONSUMPTION AND RECYCLING AT THE CAMP .................................................................. 6
   GO ON AN EXCURSION OUT OF THE CAMP .......................................................................................... 7
   INVITE A SPEAKER ............................................................................................................................. 7
   READ A BOOK.................................................................................................................................... 7
   WRITE A DIARY (OR NEWSPAPER) ABOUT SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT ........................................... 7
   WATCH A FILM .................................................................................................................................. 7
   PLANT A TREE ................................................................................................................................... 8
   RUN EXERCISES, DISCUSSIONS AND WORKSHOPS............................................................................... 8
4. EXAMPLES OF A RECYCLE-ART PROJECT IN ARGENTINA ...................................... 10
5. DIDACTICS ................................................................................................................................. 18
   PEDAGOGICAL APPROACH ............................................................................................................... 18
   PERSPECTIVES ................................................................................................................................. 18
   3 ZONES ........................................................................................................................................... 18
   IN-DEPTH DIDACTICS ...................................................................................................................... 21
6. EXERCISES ................................................................................................................................. 27
   MEASURING CO2 EMISSIONS .......................................................................................................... 27
   DISCUSSION TECHNIQUES ................................................................................................................ 29
7. BACKGROUND MATERIAL ................................................................................................... 38
   BACKGROUND: SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND DESD .............................................................. 38
   THE CCIVS ESD CAMPAIGN .......................................................................................................... 39
   USEFUL LINKS ON SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND ESD ............................................................. 40



The climate is changing, the summers are getting warmer, the icecaps and mountain glaciers are
melting. Within a few decades we may see ocean where countries like Bangladesh and the
Netherlands used to be. Countries having difficulties with a hot, dry climate may see their harvest
getting dried out. Millions of people may become “climate refugees”. And much else.

The time to act is now. And you can be a part of the solution.

This kit can help you to turn your workcamp (or another international volunteer project) into a
sustainable development laboratory. We have collected various methods to educate yourself and
your volunteers and local community in Sustainable Development.

So, feel free to consume, and produce, as much as you like from the kit.
     Check out The Beauty and the Beast Contest! It‟s in Chapter 2 and you can read what it‟s
        about in just 1 page. Join the contest, it‟s fun! In other words: BUY NOW!
     If you want a list of concrete ideas to make your camp more sustainable, then check out
        Chapter 3 - 5 pages packed with things you can do for sustainable development in your
        camp, complete with links to lots of great educational resources!
     Chapter 4 contains a Welsh volunteer‟s reflections from a Recycle-art project in
        Argentine – with fantastic pictures - !
     Chapter 5 on Didactics allows you to reflect on a more theoretical level on how to use a
        volunteer project as a space for education.
     Chapter 6 features more background material and exercises (how to measure CO2
        emissions in the camp, and how to facilitate democratic discussions), submitted by
        CCIVS member organisations.
     And Chapter 7 elaborates on why CCIVS and UNESCO work with Education for
        Sustainable Development now.

As with all CCIVS kits, this one is meant to be a living document - a piece of work-in-progress.
We are looking forward to hearing your responses and additions to the kit on

The kit was edited by Morten Sigsgaard (CCIVS volunteer, MS Denmark), Simona Costanzo Sow,
Régis Colin and Maja Jacobsson (CCIVS secretariat), and features input from Sam Powell (CCIVS
board member, UNA Exchange, Wales), Gumah Salifu (VOLU volunteer on behalf of WAVAN)
and KAIZAWA Shinichiro (CCIVS President, NICE, Japan).

Happy reading!

With globally warm regards from
The CCIVS team
                                  “Our biggest challenge in this new century is to take an
                                  idea that seems abstract – sustainable development –
                                  and make it into a reality for all the world’s people.”
                                            Kofi Annan former Secretary-General of the United Nations


Join the Beauty and the Beast Contest 2007!
Turn garbage into a work of art! That‟s what CCIVS‟ Beauty and the
Beast contest is all about! Read below for a list of rules and ideas and
jump into it!

The contest was endorsed by David Bowie as early as 1977, when he,
“standing by the Wall” in Berlin, told volunteers of the future that “We
can be “heroes” – just for one day!”1
                                                                                                   ”My, my! (..)
- See also the report and the sparkling pictures from Argentine in chapter                     You can’t say no
4, page 10.                                                                                       to the Beauty
                                                                                                and the Beast”,
Rules and ideas:
   1. Any materials can be used: cans, bottles, wrapping, plastic bags,                – David Bowie,
       used tea bags, soil, leftover food, milk sachets…
                                                                                       from the album
   2. Any form of expression is welcome: sculpture, “painting”, collage,
       installation, a manifesto, origami, even a piece of culinary art… or                     “Heroes”
       how about artistically designed items for daily use, like shoes, a purse, a fashion jacket, a
       hat, an umbrella, a flower pot… your imagination is the limit!
   3. Include the local community and get access to more creative ideas, and much more garbage!
   4. CCIVS gives you the rights to use the logo for the UNESCO Decade of Education for
       Sustainable Development.
           a. You can use this logo to highlight the project towards the local press (the logo looks
               good in a press release), local politicians, local donors (as a fundraising tool) etc.
           b. You can also use this to connect with your national UNESCO commission (find its
               address at ).
               Your national UNESCO commission might not know that you are a part of CCIVS,
               which has consultative status at the UNESCO headquarters, the highest official body
               in the UNESCO system. Often, your UNESCO commission is not even aware of the
               existence of your organisation, so this is your opportunity to connect. This might
               lead to better fundraising and lobbying possibilities for you – we cannot guarantee
               anything, but it‟s always a good idea to be connected.
   5. When the camp is finished, please either
           a. take one or more photos (or videos) of the artwork and post or email them to CCIVS;
           b. send the artwork by post to CCIVS (Address: CCIVS; UNESCO House; 1, rue
               Miollis; 75732 Paris Cedex 15; France) or
           c. ask a French volunteer (if there is one) on the project to bring the artwork to CCIVS
               in Paris.
           d. You are welcome to (but not obliged to) include as much info as you like about what
               happened during the project.
   6. Participants in the project will be invited to a follow-up seminar organised by CCIVS in late
       January 2008 at UNESCO in Paris, where this toolkit will be elaborated, and where good
       practices on ESD will be shared.
   7. The artwork (or the photo/video of it) will be displayed in the UNESCO headquarters in
       January 2008 as a part of the follow-up-seminar.
   8. If you have questions or comments, do not hesitate to email CCIVS at

    And Bowie continued; “… Maybe we‟re lying – then you‟d better not stay… but we can be safer - just for one day”.


Set up an art exhibition!
The idea of the Beauty and the Beast contest is to be creative and make something beautiful out of
something wasteful. So why not make a show of it: invite the local population, serve (organic/fair
trade/locally produced) cocktails and canapés on toothpicks, drape the artwork with a sheet and
unveil it at the sound of a trumpet fanfare…

Do a concert for sustainable development
If there are performers among the participants, why not do a concert for sustainable development?
This can also be an event where results from the camp are exhibited, such as the Beauty and the
Beast artwork.
Again, try to involve the local community. Those who can‟t perform can carry out some of the
following tasks: advertising the event, selling/making food and drinks (locally
produced/organic/fair trade preferably!), presenting the acts, etc.
PS. If you have instruments but no amplifiers, then perform acoustically and claim that you‟re
doing it to save electricity! Remember to recycle the cups/glasses/plates.

Do a theatre play
Do a theatre play. You can involve the local community. You may consider using the techniques
from Theatre of the Oppressed (check developed by
Augusto Boal or similar techniques. If you have not tried it before, then maybe some of the
participants or someone from your organisation has.

Before the camp, in the infosheet
      Ask the volunteers to take train, bus or car-share to get to the camp (if possible) - because
       air transport leads to much bigger CO2 emissions than land transport.
      Write a chapter about the sustainable development challenges of the country/region of the
       project, and link to websites where the volunteer can get informed.
      Ask the participants to think about/prepare ideas/bring items related to sustainable
       development from their country/culture

Concrete ideas for the daily life at the camp
      Collect rain water (for dishwashing etc.)
      Make a water saving-rule for showering, shaving, and hand-washing on the camp. Take
       short showers, turn off the water while soaping, use a cup instead of running water when
       shaving. Read more in the CCIVS Freshwater Kit on (English) and (French)
      Make a solar water-heater, see
      Sort the camp‟s garbage, recycle materials that are re-useable, compost organic materials –
       and make a Beauty and the Beast artwork of the rest.
      Make a shopping policy for the camp: Buy food which is organic, fair trade and/or locally
       produced. Reduce the meat consumption.

You are what you eat: Local, organic, fair trade, less meat
Buy locally produced products. This reduces food miles (one of the biggest sources of greenhouse gas
emissions to the atmosphere) and supports the local economy.

Try to buy organic products, support organic farmers and reduce the amount of meat eaten. Meat
production uses far more land than vegetable production as crops must first be grown to feed the
livestock and rearing livestock on large, modern farms also creates a large amount of manure which can
be hard to dispose of and causes a lot of methane (a greenhouse gas far more potent than carbon
dioxide) to be released into the atmosphere.

Buying fair-trade products, such as tea, coffee and bananas, means your volunteer project is supporting
more equitable trading practices. Although fair-trade products usually cost more money than non Fair-
trade products, it is only a difference of a few pounds and so should not be too big a strain on a volunteer
project budget.
                                                                             Source: UNA Exchange, Wales

       Many shopkeepers and supermarkets throw out food when it, according to the expiration
        date, is too old. But it is often perfectly fine food that can be eaten. Contact the local
        baker/greengrocer/supermarket/restaurant and tell them about the workcamp and sustainable
        development. Ask them if they are willing to donate their “food trash” to the workcamp.
        Then make a free feast for the local community (possibly for marginalised groups, e.g.
        homeless, refugees etc) out of it. You can also go dumpster-diving and steal the wasted food
        from the garbage containers behind the supermarket. (NB: CCIVS cannot endorse this
        action everywhere, since it is, from the point of view of the law, illegal in many countries!)
        But, if you can get to talk with the shopkeepers in the local community, it is better – you
        want to change their attitudes too. Read more on and check the
        manual on

Food Not Bombs in Finland
For several years, KVT (the Finnish branch of SCI) has carried out a Food Not Bombs workcamp. Check
out the report at and read a participant’s
impressions at

Waste and recycling
Follow the Waste Hierarchy:

The Waste Hierarchy
● Reduce, e.g. buy products with less packaging, buy one large bottle rather than lots of small cans of
● Re-use, e.g. re-fill plastic bottles with tap water rather than buying new ones.
● Recycle – recycling should be a last option as, although far better than simply burying in a landfill site,
recycling can be energy intensive and often involves waste and the products made from that waste
travelling long distances. Especially think about recycling toxic waste, like batteries.
                                                                               Source: UNA Exchange, Wales

And then, of course, don‟t forget to turn the beast into a beauty: make a work of art out of the rest!

Monitor consumption and recycling at the camp
Assign two persons per day to be in charge of monitoring the camp‟s daily resource consumption.
This task should rotate on a daily basis, just like a kitchen team or a cleaning team, so that everyone

gets involved. Assign another two persons per day to be in charge of recycling. Monitor the amount
of recycled material as well.

Keep track of the resource consumption on a flipchart and review it in the group on a daily basis. If
the camp is getting more environmentally aware, then resource consumption should decrease and
recycling should increase as the camp progresses. Does it?

Go on an excursion out of the camp
      Visit companies/corporations in the local area/the region. Set up a meeting with the
       management and/or workers. What are their views on sustainable development and what do
       they do about it?
      Visit a supermarket, or local producers or shopkeepers. Again, try to talk to workers and/or
       management. Do they sell locally produced products? Organic products? Fair trade
      Visit sustainable development projects like sustainable housing, a wind turbine. Or, if
       possible, more controversial ones, such as: a nuclear power plant; or a hydroelectric
       (water/dam-powered) power plant.

Invite a speaker
If the camp/project leaders are not already experts on sustainable development, then invite a
resource person to do it. Most countries have NGO‟s that work with sustainable development.
Consider the concept of “the expert”: it could be anyone from a local farmer to an NGO
campaigner, and anyone in between.

Read a book
Set off time in the camp to study. Ask participants to bring books and/or films about sustainable
development. You could read/study together, mixing people with different social/cultural
backgrounds. And present the findings.

Write a diary (or newspaper) about sustainable development
      The collective diary: Introduce a diary that rotates among the participants in the camp. In the
       diary, the participants can write about their reflections on sustainable development.
      The individual diary: Another variant is to give a diary to each participant and set off time
       each day for reflection in the diary, for instance after work and before dinner.
      The newspaper: If you have access to a typewriter or a computer and printer, the participants
       can write a newspaper, otherwise they can write it in hand on flipcharts (or, as a recycling
       effort, cut out letters from old newspapers and recycle them – this recycling of old news
       anyway happens a lot in the media…). The participants can interview each other, or people
       in the local community.

Watch a film
Watching films in the project depends on having access to the films themselves plus a
video/computer/DVD player and a TV/projector. If you can do it, it can be a cool way to raise
awareness, also for the local community.

A short list of films about sustainable development include:
       We Feed the World (in French: La Marché de la Faim)
       Koyaanisquatsi
       An Inconvenient Truth
       Black Gold
       China Blue
       Wal-Mart: The high Cost of Low Price
       Maquilapolis

Read more about the films on by searching on or

Plant a tree
Plant income-generating trees. Trees are good for the environment – they convert CO2 to oxygen,
prevent erosion, boost the bacterial flora in the soil, and can be the basis of a mini-ecosystem on
which animals can live. The fruit on the trees (for instance olives, mango, apples, oranges, almonds,
cashew etc.) can be harvested to generate food or an income for the local community. If you can‟t
plant trees, you may be able to plant vegetables instead.

Priorities for ESD in Western Africa
- as defined by WAVAN (Western African Voluntary Associations Network), Kordiabe, Ghana, May 2007

1) Waste management in the area
- Separation of waste into plastics, bottles and biodegradable
- A way forward is to adopt appropriate technologies such as digging of pits for different waste
components in rural communities
- This can be achieved through a summer workcamp
- Educational campaign on waste management - waste separation

2) Preservation of eco-system
- Leadership and skills training. Prevent bush burning to kill snakes and other practices which are
dangerous for wild species which are about to get extinct to ensure sustainable development.
- Training on rearing of fishes in ponds to ensure fish species are allowed to breed and grow before
harvest in rivers, lakes and dams.

3) Planting of economic trees
- Economic trees such as mango, cashew and teak etc. have the potential of sustaining the livelihood of
rural communities in a sustainable pattern.
- A way forward for volunteer organisations is to incorporate economic tree planting in their workcamp
- Educational campaigns on the need to plant economic trees in all member countries.
- Reclamation of degraded land by mining companies, sand winning and others etc.
- Voluntary organisations to organise workcamps in affected areas and plant trees. The tree planting in
such areas should go alongside with an educational campaign on the need for members in affected areas
to reclaim their lands from degradation, rather than waiting on government interventions which never
come true.

Run exercises, discussions and workshops
Several exercises can be used to spark the learning in the group. CCIVS has already published
several training kits and modules, see for instance:

       CCIVS Globalization Kit: “The fair trade game”, “Are you a global citizen”.
       CCIVS Freshwater Kit: “Emmet in Ethiopia”
       CCIVS Module on Cultural Diversity “No size can fit all”.

The Module on Cultural Diversity is an interactive module that contains reflections and discussion
on the theme of cultural diversity and a big number of exercises, that aim at raising the awareness of
related issues (available in French and English)

The Kit of Globalisation contains articles on different globalisation themes, as well as games to be
introduce to enhance the understanding of the globalisation (available in French and English)

The Freshwater Kit is a practical tool that helps you to understand what the freshwater issue is
about, and how it can be introduced to a project. (French) (English)

Or use the excellent resources at the following websites:
(thanks to UNA Exchange, Wales, for providing links)

1. The Federation for Community Development Learning in the UK have produced sample training materials on
sustainable development which can be used with community group members, activists, people working in the
community and community development

2. Fair trade games:

3. A role play activity game to spread in workcamps:

4. A very extensive toolkit on Education for Sustainable Developent:

5. Oxfam (a large NGO) teaching resources:

6. UNESCO‟s resources for Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future:

7. The UK Department for International Development - Bringing the World To Your Classroom -

8. UNEP and UNESCO‟s training kit on sustainable consumption:

9. UNESCO‟s list of useful sites on ESD:

10. The UNEP Resource Kit on Sustainable Consumption and Production. Contains 12 fact sheets on different topics,
such as water, energy and life styles. User-friendly and pedagogical if you want to raise awareness on a specific issue in
a project. Available in English and French.

11. Greenpeace‟s booklet How to Save the Climate:

Thanks to UNA Exchange, Wales, for submitting the report, and to Subir al Sur, Argentina, for
hosting the project.


Costumes made for a short play with a recycling theme, the play was written by a local volunteer
and performed in the market place in Clorinda.

Paper Mache shoes, made around the shape of plastic drink bottles

Recycling egg boxes, plastic containers,
old rags etc to make hats!


Origami birds and flowers made by a Korean and Japanese volunteers
Paper baskets made by rolling and gluing triangular shaped strips cut from old magazines.


Recycling plastic bottles into flower pots made by children and volunteers during workshops in El
Porteno Sur. The workshops were held outdoors next to the „vivero‟ (plant nursery) built by the
local association. The sale of the plants help fund the „copa de leche‟ - a social project that provides
milk twice a week for the children in the neighbourhood. The plant pots were especially made to
hold the plants grown in the nursery.

Plant pots painted and decorated with paper, wooden and hand-made paper beads threaded onto
wire handles. A mixture of glue and sand, painted onto the bottles creates an interesting texture
which can then be painted with acrylic based paints.


Workshops in the „Porteno Sur‟ neighbourhood (on the outskirts of Clorinda), and along the river
bank next to the pasarella - a small pedestrian bridge linking Clorinda with Paraguay.


Plastic bags cut into strips and knitted, knotted or crocheted together to make sturdy shopping bags.

This activity became part of the recycling workshops that took place alongside the Pilcomayo river
„clean up‟ operation in Clorinda. The plastic bags collected from the river bank were washed, hung
to dry and used for the workshop. The knotted bags were easier for the younger children and could
be made without knitting needles or knitting lessons. The strips of plastic bags were attached to a
twig and tied together one by one from left to right.

Local women sell crocheted and knitted products made from recycling plastic carrier bags.

Handles for the bags can be made from e.g. plastic pipes, rubber hose pipes or organic material such
as bendy twigs, e.g. willow.

Some handles were made using clear plastic tubes made colourful and more interesting by being
stuffed with sweet wrappers. This is an easy job for the younger children; they can eat the sweets
and stuff the wrappers into the tubes with a stick.


Pieces of paper are folder into triangular shapes and slotted together to create different forms.

Paper bowl and duck made by local craftspeople in Clorinda Square

Bunting made from triangular shapes cut from plastic wrappers

                                           Recycling project
I propose to present one perspective on recycling, based on a community project in El Porteno Sur,
Clorinda. Formosa. Northern Argentina.

A craft and design based project, in the production of a marketable product, involving recycling
plastic milk and yoghurt sachets. A healthy example of social alimentation, in the form of:

- milk
- environmental education
- craft, design and marketing skills.

The product

A money purse made by cutting empty milk or yoghurt sachets into strips and crocheting them
together, the purse costs the equivalent price of the milk or yoghurt bought to obtain the sachets. To
make one purse, approx 6 sachets of milk are needed, each 1 litre sachet costs approx 2 Argentine
pesos, the zip costs 50 centavos, therefore the cost of the purse will be 12.50 pesos.

The purse is called 'La vaquita', (the little cow). It is given this name because 'la vaquita' is the name
given to what in English would be called a 'kitty'; a means of pooling funds and an example of a
collaboration within a group of people. This reference applies to the concept of the project in
the way that it unites people within the community, relying on a contribution from everyone in
achieving a common goal. In the same way that every penny counts, in caring for the environment,
every small action in which we participate is equally important. The name also applies to the idea
that the product will become a source milk and money for families with economic difficulties.

The design of 'La vaquita' is based on a circular form and there are two different models; the first is
made up of two small circles crocheted together and the later is a large circle folded in half, both
close with a zip The circular shape relates to the cycle of recycling and also the milk cycle that is
the result of the sale of the purse. The purse is lined with fabric, recycled from off cuts of fabric or
old clothes. Each has a name tag, 'la vaquita', made from cutting up an empty milk carton and using
letters cut from newspapers and magazines. The name tag is laminated with plastic recycled from
old bottles. Apart from time, motivation and patience, the only cost being the zip at 50 centavos,
and the plastic lamination process.

The idea

The sale of the purse directly enables families to buy milk for their children. It is concerned with
teaching and sharing crochet, sewing and marketing skills and developing self confidence, self
sufficiency and team work. It is an educational project focusing on the importance of caring and
respecting the environment, and more specifically offering an alternative to burning or throwing
plastic milk sachets. It will generate awareness of the importance of recycling and encourage a more
open-minded, resourceful approach to waste materials.

The concept and the product will be marketed in an exhibition in Buenos Aires, later in Cardiff,
Wales and eventually on the internet. 'La vaquita' will unite a group of people within a small
community, introducing a simple idea with a big vision. It has the potential of connecting people
and countries through international marketing relations, whilst closer to home providing an
opportunity to learn new skills, and earn a 'milk income' for the family.

Background and inspiration

'La vaquita' is a project that I have thought up myself. It is based in El Porteño Sur, a
neighbourhood that I have become very fond of and familiar with, having lived there for five
months last year as part of a international volunteering project.

The opportunity was organized though the Welsh NGO; UNA Exchange and the Argentinian host
organization 'Subir al Sur', as part of the EVS (European Voluntary Service) programme. It was a 7
month project in total and for the first 3 months I helped organize and coordinate 2, 2 week
'workcamps' with international and local volunteers. The first project was based in Clorinda and was
run in collaboration with the local Association 'Las Mujeres Clorindenses'.

The 'workcamp' in Clorinda consisted of a 'clean up' of one part of the river 'Pilcomayo', an
educational campaign concerned with communicating the importance of taking responsibility for
the disposal of waste materials and the problems connected to contaminating the river. I was
responsible for organizing art/recycling 'workshops' on the riverbank alongside the 'clean-up'
operation, we make knitted and knotted shopping bags by recycling plastic carrier bags and food
wrappers, and wallets by cutting and folding 'tetra' cartons. I also ran recycling workshops in the
'centre' that the association have established in the 'Porteño Sur' neighbourhood.

We made and decorated plant pots with handles using plastic bottles and old magazines. The plants
from the nursery are sold in a local market to help fund the centre's 'copa de leche', that provides
mate cocido, (hot milk prepared with toasted yerba mate and sugar), and bread for the local children
twice a week. We painted and installed rubbish bins alongside the river bank, we constructed a
stage and in costumes made using recycled materials we performed a short sketch with a recycling
message. The plant pots and plants were sold during the event and the performance was later
televised locally.

I investigated and was inspired by local craft techniques and products that are made by recycling
waste materials, especially drawn to beautiful crocheted and knitted products made out of old
plastic bags. The second workcamp took place in Villa Ana, further south in the Santa Fe region,
after which I returned to Clorinda, to live with a fellow volunteer in the 'centre', in 'El Porteño Sur'
and continued to help the association 'Las Mujeres Clorindenses with their social projects.

I finished the EVS volunteering project in November, but I have since returned independently with
fresh energy and the ambition to achieve the above mentioned project. I have returned to live in the

neighborhood, in the 'centre', but this time I am funding myself 'La copa de leche' Run twice a
week, Tuesdays and Fridays, by the association 'Las Mujeres Clorindenses', in El Porteño Sur.
Literally translated it means 'the cup of milk', and it consists of mate cocido and bread, and
approximately 30 children benefit from it. Recently, in collaboration with 'La vaquita' project, the 7
milk sachets that are bought are cut into strips by the children whilst the milk is heated over a fire
and the mate cocido is prepared.

There are three local ladies who help with the 'copa de leche', one of which has been taking the cut
up milk sachets home and crocheting the circles the make a purse.

Relevant experience

I have a textile art and design degree and experience of running educational art and craft workshops
often based around the recycling theme. I make my own clothes and have worked in theatre
costume departments in Britain and Barcelona. I have experience of organizing and mounting
exhibitions, and have exhibited my textile and jewellery art work in Britain and Finland.

The photos and purses will be exhibited in Buenos Aires, in the foyer of the venue where the Welsh
musician Gruff Rhys is due to perform in May. Gruff Rhys (Super Fury Animals), will be in
Buenos Aires as part of a solo tour to promote his new album and continue with the creation and
filming of a musical documentary he began in Argentina last November. I was fortunate enough to
have the opportunity to work as a member of the small crew in the making of this documentary last
year. My main role as part of the team being translating and interviewing, I also helped a little with
the filming and general organization. It was an amazing experience and on my return to Cardiff in
June I hope to help and am interested in learning a little about the editing process.

I am currently documenting the process of teaching and inspiring people to take part in the project,
and also the broader environmental issue of rubbish contamination, and general attitudes toward
recycling and waste disposal. As many of those participating have families with small children I
visit them in their homes, I generally teach on a one to one basis but I have also started to organize
open weekend workshops in the 'centre'. As things develop these meeting will become crucial in the
production and continuation of the project. I have been taking photos of the making process and
also of the children drinking milk or yoghurt.

Having returned only a month ago (middle of March), I have made good progress. I have many
friends who are collecting milk and yoghurt sachets, and to date 7 who are crocheting circles in
order to make the purses. We have 11 completed money purses and many more that are only
lacking the lining and finishing touches. Others are helping with the collection and cutting of the
sachets and one young neighbour is collecting the sachets that accumulate twice a week at school
when they are given yoghurt during the morning break. I hope to visit his school this week and take
photos of the children drinking yoghurt.

I'm hoping to generate interest in 'La vaquita', by displaying the photographs in an exhibition in
Buenos Aires and Cardiff, Wales. I was very excited to learn about this opportunity to make a 3
minute wonder film as I was hoping to make a short film/ animation to explain the concept and
promote the 'la vaquita' project. I had previously thought that a short film or animation would be a
perfect way of conveying the concept in an artistic way, to be displayed within a gallery context and
also on the internet as a means of marketing. I am very interested in a mixed media approach to art
and design, and in the powers of visual art and humour as a means of education.

I have asked the children who come to the 'copa de leche' to draw the recycling process that applies
to the milk sachets in the production of the money purse. I'd like them to draw a story board / comic

strip communicating the life of the milk sachet that is fortunate enough to become a money purse.
firstly containing milk and then money, and a contrasting storyboard/comic strip to convey the life
and destiny of a milk sachet that is useful for a much shorter period, containing milk and then
spending the rest of it's life polluting the river or the air in the form of toxic smoke, littering the
street or decomposing slowly in a landfill. As part of my three wonderful minutes I would like to
experiment with filming simple flips books made by the children, as a means of animating their
drawings. Each flip book will portray one action connected to 'La vaquita', be it milking a cow,
pouring milk from a sachet, drinking the milk, cutting the sachet, crocheting, or alternatively
throwing or burning the sachet.

At the beginning of June I shall return to Wales. I hope to continue to volunteer with the NGO;
UNA exchange, encouraging others to participate in similar adventures and sharing my experiences.
I have been asked to help run 'Global awareness' workshops linked to environmental issues,
recycling and international relations. The workshops will be for a mixed age group of young people
and will specifically relate to my project here. I hope to convey the reality of life here in Clorinda
and compare it with life in Cardiff, focusing on the attitude towards rubbish and recycling and the
consequences for nature and the environment. The workshops will be thought provoking, examining
the social benefits and exploring notions and motivations behind recycling and resourcefulness.


Pedagogical approach
The pedagogical approach in this kit is centred on these principles:
    Action-based/experience-based learning/learning by doing.
    Non-formal education
    The learning spiral of the reflective practitioner:
       1. Action – 2. Reflection – 3. Learning – 4. Strategy (which leads back to Action).
       In other words: we act in order to learn from it.
    The reflection process is important, and it is your task as facilitator to set the frame for it, by
       asking questions to the group etc.
    Use the different social backgrounds of the volunteer group as a resource.
    Think global, act local. Use the local community as a resource. They are the ones who know
       how sustainable development is (not) practiced in their community.

When we carry out practical educational activities at a volunteer project, we must keep in mind a
sense of perspective. It is not just about the internal life within the camp and about the personal
consumption patterns of the participants. There are bigger players in the game of sustainable
development, such as states and corporations.

The entire idea of economic growth in a conventional notion of capitalist economy is based on
money as the central thing - the environment is then a means to achieve growth, not a goal in itself.
In other words, under conventional capitalism, a tree doesn‟t have a value until you fell and sell it.

There are two main campaign strategies to reduce global consumption.
One strategy is to target the mentality of the consumers, and convince them to reduce their demand
for goods that are resource-heavy (such as conventional light bulbs, airplane travels or imported
fruits). This can be combined with campaigns to highlight the “bad” corporations or to promote the
good alternative corporations.

Another strategy is to target the state, i.e. politicians, with the aim to enforce legislation that
promotes sustainable development, for instance “green taxes”, public fair trade shopping policies
etc. Only the state has the power to affect the corporations though legislation.

A volunteer project can be a part of both strategies.

3 zones

(Source: Else Hammerich (2001), Meeting conflicts mindfully, Copenhagen: DCCR, p.8, downloaded from

In order to figure out where and how we can work with conflicts [and with sustainable development
– which is also a conflict, between humans and “the environment”, along the dividing line of
species-ism, the idea that homo sapiens has more right to exist than other species –ed.], we can use
a model of three Zones. This model shows the link between local and global, between a workcamp
and greater society.

Zone 1 is the remote area in which we have no immediate influence or interaction. This is the Zone
of greater society, governments, world politics, and major socio-economic conditions. We hear of
the conflicts of this Zone through the media, and our daily lives are indeed influenced by what goes
on there. But if we have no position or influence in that world, we cannot directly work with its
conflicts. Indirectly we may have an impact by electing some of the actors of Zone 1, but we
ourselves are not actors. We may also increase our say in Zone 1 by working as grassroots or in
NGOs work – civil society work. There is a great hope and strength in civil societies, if many
people from Zone 2 join forces in order to influence and humanise the decisions of Zone 1.

Zone 2 is the area of face-to-face communication. This is the sphere where we have our relations
with family, friends, and co-workers. This is where we talk with the teachers of our children, the
social workers of our neighbourhood, the shopkeepers, the hospital nurse, the staff who takes care
of our old people, the policemen etc. It is here we encounter our day-to-day conflicts, and here we
can deal with them in ways that either enrich or deplete our lives. Here we are the actors, since here
we are in direct contact with people. [Meetings with the local community usually fit here or in zone

Zone 3 is the area of learning and training how to deal with conflicts taking place in Zone 2. It is the
workshop, the seminar, the training, the private study group or the supervision group. In this Zone
we prepare how to improve our everyday handling of human problems. In Zone 3 we talk about our
daily situations and in this zone we have the safety of mutual confidentiality and the benefit of
sympathetic support. In Zone 3 we can also learn to understand the remote, but vital discords of
Zone 1, and we can prepare strategies for gaining greater influence in the universe of politics.

[The workcamp and educational workshops on sustainable development fit here. Meetings with the
local community could possibly fit here too.]

The three zones are interrelated. People in Zone 2 bear the consequences of international frictions,
in the shape of defence expenses, sanctions, mobilisation and wars. Decisions on trade, health and
environment directly mark everybody‟s life in Zone 2.

The interaction also works inside – out (see model). The attitudes and skills we acquire in Zone 3
can lead to great changes in our own personal lives and also in community life. In South Africa
conflict management training took place in thousands of villages before the Change – and that may
definitely have played a role, when a civil war was avoided. This example shows that the training of
mindfulness in Zone 3 can make a difference not only in the everyday of Zone 2, but in the great
events of Zone 1 as well.

[The 3-zone model expresses a specific view on how to generate social change. Workcamps and
education for sustainable development (zone 2) aims to create learning within the participants (zone
3) and in the individual members of the local community (zone 3 too), so that they can create social
change in their local community (zone 2, on the border of zone 1).

However, all of this is embedded in a greater society (zone 1), which has to be changed to achieve
sustainable development on a global level. Individuals can contribute locally to this change in their
workcamps, local communities, families, workplaces, schools, supermarket, NGO, political party
etc. And all of these groups can connect to similar groups on a regional, national and global level.
Changing the greater society is a political task. Workcamps can be one step in this direction. There
are many other forms of action: education, campaigns, petitions, lobbying, letters to the editor, civil
disobedience, ethical consumption, running for parliament, etc. It would lead too far to go list all
possible forms of action for sustainable development here – since the focus is on what you can do in
a workcamp. But workcamps can very well be a tool in larger campaigns. – ed.]

In-depth Didactics
(Adapted from: Else Hammerich (2001), Meeting conflicts mindfully, Copenhagen: DCCR, p.8, 50-56,
downloaded from

- planning workshops with mindfulness

When we are going to give a workshop of conflict resolution [or ESD] there are so many things to
consider, and it can be quite confusing, especially when we are not yet very experienced. We would
of course very much like to create a delightful and useful experience for the participants, and we
also want to feel secure and calm while doing it. There are some traps to fall into, when you are
planning the event. One of them is too quickly to decide “oh they should learn active listening and
escalation”. But why should they? Because you find it interesting? Or because you think they will
enjoy it? Or because you feel safe with these tools? Or because you remember a good exercise to

supply with? These reasons are not sufficient to create a meaningful experience for the people, who
are giving their time to come to your workshop.
Another trap is to fill the workshop time with too many issues and presentations, because you find
that all of it is important. Maybe you forget that all things take time, and conflict understanding
takes a lot of time. Maybe you forget that if the students don‟t get the chance of digesting and
personally work with the theories, then nothing is obtained. Except, perhaps, that the student are
impressed and think “what a knowledgeable and eloquent trainer!” – but what did they learn that
can make their lives more rich and complete?

Didactics simply means the action of planning educational events mindfully. It is to consider the
wholeness of the learning situation, from your own motivation to small, practical issues.
The didactic sketch above is a tool, which may help you, when you wish to plan a meaningful
workshop of conflict resolution. The sketch is circular in order to show, that all its factors are inter-
related, and none of them is the most important. They are all important. The sketch does not depict
a permanent situation, but a reality that is constantly moving and changing. What happens in one of
the circles will influence all the events in the other circles. Let us start from within, from the inner
core of the sketch.

In the inner circle is the very process, - that which is developing during the workshop. This is a
Zone 3 issue, because it is the area of learning. It is the space where we can prepare ourselves for
handling conflicts in Zone 2 – the sphere where we meet other people in daily life. The process is an
encounter between the trainer and the students, and between the students of the group. It is the
adventure of meeting each other, relating to each other and to the issues taught, and developing new
experience, discoveries and tools, that can be used in real life. There are so many things to consider
for the process to flourish. In the sketch this multitude is arranged into 6 categories: the students,
the aims, the contents, the methods, the frames and the evaluation. If you try to think of and discuss
each of them it might help you to get better hold of your planning.

The students
Who are the people you are going to train? What are their needs? The more you know about them
on beforehand, the more suitable approaches you can think of. You can of course not know
everything about them before the workshop, but some of it you can investigate by some appropriate
processes at the beginning of the workshop. You can make rounds and interview-sessions, by which
you can learn the students‟ wishes for the workshop. Some things, which you will need to know
before the planning of the workshop, are the age, the educational backgrounds and the general life
situations of the students. This will help you to decide the level of complexity of the issues to work
with. And it will help you to pick out issues and processes that give meaning to the students in their
specific life functions and situations.
A first rule of thumb could be, never to underestimate their intelligence and never to
overestimate their knowledge.
The motivation of the students is also useful to know. Did they join the workshop by their own free
will, and because they wished to learn something, which could be important to their lives? In that
case you would like to know more about what they have come for. They might also be forced to
join the workshop, so that they have no choice. Maybe they are reluctant to the whole idea. If so it
would be important to talk with the students about the reasons for their resistance. You may also
think of some inspiring and enjoyable ways of making conflict resolution relevant to them, maybe
games. There are many other things to consider. Are the students as a group submissive and shy,
because they are used to authoritarian classes, or are they strikingly outspoken and self-reliant?
These two extremities will indeed demand very different methods to use.

The aims
The aims are the skills, knowledge and experiences that you want the workshop to lead to. What
should the students be able to understand after the workshop, and what should they be able to
practice in their lives? What ideas would you like them to reflect upon? These are some questions
you can ask yourself in order to identify the aims of the workshop. The more precisely and down-to
earth you can state the aims when planning, the more easily you will develop your ideas for the
process. The aims you select are not permanent or untouchable. They will probably change quite a
lot during the process. Maybe you have fixed the aims too high (that often happens), maybe too
low. Maybe totally new necessities will show as you know the students better, and as they relax and
tell what is on their minds. If you have to change the aims on the way, it is just a sign of a living
process. But the changes should be made deliberately, not randomly. If you wish that the students
take responsibility for their learning, you can openly tell them about the aims of the workshop and
discuss their relevance with them. And whenever you change the aims, you could also make that
clear to the students and let them have their say. At the start you can make a contract with the
students – an agreement about the function of the workshop: is it a training of skills, or are you
asked to help solving a concrete conflict, they are having in their environment? If the workshop
changes character, for instance from being training of skills to being group mediation – then make
sure you get acceptance from all participants.

The contents
When you have stated the aims and investigated the students‟ needs, you will have a firm ground to
stand on, when you decide what contents to choose for the workshop. The contents are the issues of
the workshop and the activities you plan for the students.

What theories, concepts and skills would you like them to know? What would be useful for them to
understand and to master?

At the beginning of our careers as trainers, we often fill too many issues and activities into the
workshops. Later we find that it is less important how many issues we work with. Conflict
resolution is a whole, like a plant with roots and leaves and flowers and fruits and seeds. Where you
start is not so important. What really matters is how deeply the students are able to experience and
understand the basics.

If for instance the students work with “Three ways of meeting conflicts” they may not only listen to
a presentation. They may also have mutual conversations about these conflict patterns and compare
them to the ways, in which they are acting in their everyday. They might share personal experiences
in small groups. They might also do role-plays, in which they experience here-and-now how it feels
to fly, to fight and to open to the conflict. Maybe they will have a very deep and open dialogue in
plenary and they may discover that the problems they meet in their lives are not so different from
the problems that other people meet. Then the loneliness disappears and it is easier to learn.

Maybe they will also discover that they are imprisoning themselves by certain approaches they use,
and that they can liberate a lot of energy by trying more opening strategies. They may by
themselves find their way into the basics of true dialogue: to express oneself frankly and to listen
attentively to others. They will then wish to dive more deeply into the questions of causes and
conditions of conflicts, and ways to transform them. They will investigate and try out the language
of conflicts and examine the opening and blocking ways of communicating.

Sometimes it happens that a workshop of several days unfolds from one single or a few items.
Sometimes you work with a variety of issues, which you link together. It is really not needed to fill
the agenda with too many issues – the important thing is that the students really experience, work
with and reflect on the basic ideas and tools of sustainable development.

The presentations you choose to give are important. They can give structure, clarity and new
perspectives to the students‟ way of thinking and experiencing their life situations. Try to make
your presentations fairly short, precise, lively and with down-to-earth examples.

The methods
The methods are the actions you as a trainer take to support the learning process of the students.
When you choose your methods of teaching, you will consider the aims of the workshop, its
contents and indeed the students‟ background.

The basic question to put before you choose your methods is: how can the students become active
in the learning process, not only with their brains but also with their feelings and their needs, daring
to connect the new ideas with the truths of their daily existence? Teaching and training conflict
resolution [and sustainable development] is much more than providing people with new ideas and
skills. It is the start of a journey with new, difficult and rewarding discoveries, which the trainer can
help to launch and support. In that process it is vital to respect every single students‟ right to

Action, reflection, learning and strategy – a real life method.
Action is the presentation or the exercise with which the trainer opens a new subject. This being
done, you will need plans for how to make the students reflect on what they have heard or
experienced. What relevance did it have to them? What questions, feelings and thoughts came to
their minds? And then: What learning can they extract? What can be of use to them in their daily
situations? As for strategy: How do they wish to make use of it? How can it improve their future
meetings with the conflicts of life?
Some other questions are:
* How will you support the social interaction in the group? We know that the more the students
feel at ease, the more they will learn. They can also learn a lot from each other, if the group feeling
is safe and open.
* When will you use experimental learning (experience before theory) and when will you use the
more traditional teaching with presentations followed by exercises and other experiences?
* How will you arrange the balance between bodywork and mindwork? This has to do with the
rhythm of the workshop and with retaining and refreshing the energy of the students.
The answers to those questions may depend on which methods you feel safe with, and which
methods the students feel safe with. But sometimes we have to go beyond safety in order to grow.
Sometimes the learning gains when the trainer challenges himself or herself, and when the students‟
habits are challenged.

The frames
The frames are the resources available for the workshop like time, materials, venue, possibilities of
excursions etc. If these resources are satisfactory and well arranged, it will benefit the workshop.
Nevertheless another resource is more crucial, namely the qualities of the resource persons, the
* How well have you prepared the issues and methods of the workshop?
* If you are a team, how well have you prepared your co-operation? Have you done teambuilding?
* What are your strong points and what are your limitations? What are your special contributions?
What are your visions for the workshop and what are your concerns?

Maybe the most important resource is your motivation. Often when we take action, we have several
motivations, and that is only natural. We may find it exciting to teach conflict resolution [ESD]. We
may find our salary important. We may enjoy the special contact we can have with our students. We
may love to organise. All this is totally legal. Nevertheless it is vital for the quality of our

workshops that our root motivation is to help enriching the minds and the daily lives of the students.
When that simple motivation is present it really makes the task so much easier and it makes us
much more clear about what we have to do. Our communication becomes more authentic.

The evaluation
You would of course like to know what your students gained from the workshop – how useful were
the issues to them? And you would also like to know how the students feel about the process. Are
they safe and comfortable, are they enjoying, do they find the workshop meaningful, are they
bored? Sometimes you may have your own notions about all this; you can maybe perceive how the
students are thinking and feeling. But often a trainer is not quite sure about how the process is
working. Those who really know it are the students. So you can just simply ask them. You can do
evaluations during the workshop. This means to make many small evaluations during the process,
maybe after each major activity. At the beginning the students may be very silent and polite. But
they will quickly get used to be more outspoken and frank, if you really wish for it and ask for it.
This will be helpful for the students learning process, for one of the cores of conflict resolution is to
be able to speak about your experiences and feelings, and listen to other people‟s stories. It will also
be helpful for the trainer, because you will be on a more solid ground when you know – and not
merely guess – what is on the minds of the students. Then you will know how to continue and
maybe improve your methods, while the workshop is going on. The evaluation you make the
student do after a workshop is also needed. But why is it needed? What is the use of it?
There are several reasons for doing evaluations at the end of the workshop. The trainer wishes to
know what activities and issues were useful and workable for the students, and which were less
valuable, in order to develop and improve future workshops. - The trainer wishes to know “how was
I doing? We are sometimes worried about our performances, and indeed we all need
acknowledgement and feedback. That is a very human need and not to be judged as “egotistic”. -
Evaluations may also be useful for the students. Firstly it is their democratic right to express their
views on what they have been spending time on. Secondly some well-put evaluation questions can
make them identify and summarise what they have experienced and learned, and it can make them
reflect: how will I use this in my personal and professional life? There are so many methods of
evaluations, and it is important that you make it clear for yourself, what you wish to obtain by the
evaluations, you plan to do.

In the middle circle we find the general goals of the workshop. Why are we doing it? Who are to
benefit from it? How can they benefit? How can they use the outcome of the workshop in their
lives? This is a Zone 2 issue, because it refers to the area where the students in their families and
local communities have to deal with conflicts and hopefully manage them in more developing ways.
So what are the present and future functions of your students, in their personal and professional
spheres of life? When you know these functions you will also be able to know the goals of the
workshop. For instance: some students are attending school, others may be teaching at schools, so
their needs for skills and knowledge will be different. Some are living as members of a settlement,
others are leaders of the settlement, and they will need different outcomes. Some are children of a
family - others are parents. Some are employees, some are employers. Some are working in NGOs,
some are living in monasteries. They all have different life situations. So finding the goals means to
identify the activities of the students in Zone 2. What are the concrete challenges they meet in real
life? What kind of conflicts do they have to deal with? The more you consider the goals of the
students, the more meaningful and useful will the workshop be for them.

In the outer circle we find the overall purpose of working with conflict resolution [ESD]. This is
much more than the goals of the single workshop. It is to find the meaning of it all. Why do you use
your time and energy to do this? What is so important about it? Why do you want other people to

know about it and to be able to practice it? The more you have reflected on these philosophical and
social questions, the more secure you will feel when you do the planning and when you are in the
middle of a workshop. For your actions may then be carried by a firm sense of conviction and
meaning. In the Western countries, where many ideals and cultural patterns are scattered, these
overall questions are difficult – but not impossible - to answer.

One of your aims might be to make the everyday practice of conflict resolution spread into all
sectors of your community. The history and future hopes of a society are also closely linked to the
purpose of conflict resolution. The links from conflict management [or sustainable development] to
the future hopes are also clear, as many of you have explained: the more we stand united the more
energy we will have to make our cause prevail. Globally though, we have to go beyond the idea of
the nation to find the deep reasons to work for conflict resolution [or sustainable development]. All
these thoughts may seem rather far from the down-to-earth job of doing a decent workshop. But for
the trainer it may be wise to reflect on the great issues of society and philosophy. You will
sometimes meet them in questions from your students. And you will meet them as questions from
yourself, because we all need to sense the deeper meaning to our doings.


Measuring CO2 emissions
Contributed by NICE, Japan

                         - Let’s cool the Earth!! -
 WANTED! Let’s measure CO2 Emission!
     This action was originally started as a part of Greening Asia Campaign by NVDA
(Network for Voluntary Development in Asia) and NICE (Never-ending International
workCamps Exchange) in Japan since 1998 and is now developed as a global common
action of international voluntary service for ESD (Education for Sustainable Development)
campaign by CCIVS (Coordinating Committee for International Voluntary Service).
     We will measure the amount of CO2 emission in each workcamp and also daily life
and try to promote both projects and daily life to be more ecological with reducing CO2
Though each condition of an accommodation is different, we can still somehow compete/
compare which workcamp is most ecological! Yours? We’re looking forward to your
reports! Enjoy your workcamp!!

 Why CO2 is the issue?
     Climate change of global warming has become one of the top concerns in the world
To reduce CO2/ to raise awareness and actions on the issue/ to link among projects and
people/ to create and show models of a enjoyable life with less CO2 emission, are the
main aims.
20 percent out of the amount of CO2 discharge in Japan is for use of electricity, gas, lamp
oil and water in our daily life. So, it’s very important that we should always consider that
and try to reduce!!

* Gas: A large amount of CO2 will be generated when gas is burned.
* Water supply: To clean water and sewage, a large amount of energy is needed. As a
result, oil is burned, and CO2 will be generated.
* Oil: When we burn lamp oil and gasoline, a large amount of CO2 will be generated.
* Electricity: To power the generation of electricity, we burn oil or coal, and CO2 will be

 How to measure?

* At first, it might be troublesome, but once you used to do, it’ll be easy.
* Just fill out the table! Even if you cannot do for all items, you can do for as many items as
* This cannot have perfect figures scientifically, but can still make sense we believe.
* Can/ Bottle/ PET bottle/ Tray/ Pack: Even if the weight of container is different, it’ll be OK.
But you don’t need to measure them in case they’ll be recycled.

* Trash/ Garbage: You can measure trash only which will be burned. Don’t include kitchen
garbage which will be buried!

                               Please send the form back to;
   KAIZAWA Shinichiro (Action Organizer/ President of CCIVS):

    CHECK SHEET of CO2 Emission
   Workcamp code/ name/ dates/ country?:
   Name & nationality of Action leader:
   E-addresses of Action Coordinator:
   How many full time vols.? (Two half time vols. should be counted as one full time vol.):
   Type of your accommodation?:
   Other special conditions (e.g. No electricity, no water supply, or no air conditioner):

                                  1st week         2nd week         3rd week           Amount of CO2
Electricity (kWh)                                                                              x 0.05= kg
Gas (from grid) (m3)                                                                           x 0.30= kg
Gas (bottled/propane) (m3)                                                                       x 0.8= kg
Water Supply (m3)                                                                              x 0.07= kg
Lamp Oil (l)                                                                                   x 0.32= kg
Gasoline          (l)                                                                          x 0.30= kg
Aluminum Can(500ml)                                                                              x 0.4= kg
Aluminum Can(350ml)                                                                              x 0.3= kg
Aluminum Can(250ml)                                                                              x 0.2= kg
Steel Can (500ml)                                                                             x 0.016= kg
Steel Can (350ml)                                                                              x 0.01= kg
Steel Can (250ml)                                                                           x 0.0082= kg
PET (plastic) bottle (500ml)                                                                   x 0.02= kg
PET bottle (1500ml)                                                                            x 0.03= kg
PET bottle (2000ml)                                                                            x 0.04= kg
Glass Bin (720ml)                                                                             x 0.014= kg
Beer Bin (633ml)                                                                               x 0.04= kg
Pepar Pack (500ml)                                                                             x 0.02= kg
Pepar Pack (1000ml)                                                                            x 0.04= kg
Tray for food                                                                               x 0.0001= kg
Trash/Garbage (kg)                                                                             x 0.12= kg
                                                                                   Total kg

   Remarks/ happening/ propositions/ good practice/ difficulties:

   Messages to the other projects and the world people:

Discussion techniques
Contributed by UNA Exchange, Wales

      Facilitating “democratic” discussions
                            on your project
Discussions/debates are part of everyday life on a project and are about every topic
imaginable from how to wash up to how to achieve world peace! However, it can also
be a nice idea for project leaders to stimulate and support the exchange of ideas on a
project. The topic/theme is up to you, but we would encourage something that
fits/links to the work of the project if possible (an environmental theme for
environmental projects is an obvious example).

The session outline below gives some ideas and facilitation techniques which you
might find useful. These were demonstrated during the global education training in
the facilitated discussion session. Feel free to adapt them as you like. These ideas
are taken from a methodology called P4GC (Philosophy for Global Citizenship) … don’t
be put off by the name, it’s more about developing thinking skills than philosophy! Try
it…it can really add an interesting dimension to a volunteer project 

1. Preparation (5 mins)
The group should sit in a circle.
The room should be large enough to arrange the chairs in a circle so that all the
members of the -group can see each other and achieve eye contact with whoever is
speaking. The group should also be able to hear each other clearly; therefore the
acoustics of the environment need to be considered as well. The facilitator should be
part of the group and all participants should be viewed as equally important to the
success of the 'community'.

2. Presentation of stimulus (5 mins)
The stimulus at the start of is used as a means to providing the community with a
shared topic to consider and discuss, so that key concepts may be identified
and/questions generated. The stimulus could be a story read or told to the group a
picture book, a work of art, a poem, a piece of music, a video clip ... in fact, almost
anything that will stimulate thought/questions in the participants minds. The poem we
used in the session is at the end of this section.

3. Thinking time/private reflection on stimulus (3 mins)
Provide individuals within the group with the opportunity to privately reflect upon the
shared stimulus, allowing sufficient time for them to investigate their thoughts about
it. They could be encouraged to think about their feelings regarding the stimulus
about things that interested them or confused them, or provoked a reaction within

4. Conversation/sharing private reflection in groups (5 mins)
This can involve individuals sharing their private reflections with the whole group or
within smaller groups. We did it in groups of 3.

5. Formulation/Generating Questions (5 mins)
The group should be given sufficient time to think about the stimulus in groups in
order to raise questions, issues, problems or ideas stimulated by the story. In our
session, we asked each group to come up with one question and these were written up
on pieces of paper and stuck on to the wall. However, individuals could write questions
too. The group should be able to see all the questions clearly so that they can
consider each one as a possible subject for discussion.

6. Airing of the Questions (10 mins)
Each group/individual could be invited to explain or clarify their question for a minute
or so, followed by an opportunity for the rest of the community to ask for any
queries they may have about the question to be explained. During the airing process,
people may categorise types of question, identify issues or concepts involved within
the question, and look for possible links between questions. Linking questions can help
bring other ideas into the dialogue and also raises awareness of the range of ideas
that have to be incorporated into a discussion.

7. Selection/voting for the Questions (15 mins)
The group should vote for the question they would like to go forward to the
discussion. The helps to give the 'community' a sense of democracy as well as allowing
all contribution to considered in a fair way. Many different types of voting systems
can be used:

      3 votes each, to be used on one, two or three questions (as they choose). (Do
       you vote as the facilitator?!)
      "Omnivote" - you can vote once on as many questions as they like.
      "secret voting' where you shut their eyes or turnaround during the voting
       process. Reflect on what difference this might make to an open vote.

8. First Words (3 mins)
The person/people who formulated the chosen question are invited to open the
discussion by sharing their initial thoughts, ideas and opinions about it. They may also
give a brief explanation of how or why that specific question was the one they
formulated or decided upon, and describe their thinking behind this.

9. Building (20 mins)
The first words are followed by an invitation of responses from other members of
the group. It is important that all participants are given the opportunity to express
their opinions, feelings and views about the question or concept being discussed, and
that each person must listen to others and consider their points of view and ideas
respectfully. The facilitator should refrain from giving an opinion, and some guidelines
for their role is given in the next section.

10. Final Words (15 mins)
It is important that the group is given time at the end of the discussion to reflect
upon what has been said, what they have heard and upon their own thoughts, views
and opinions about the question or issue that has been discussed. After a period of
reflection each person should be allowed the opportunity to share their final
thoughts about the question with the rest of the group.

Sample Stimulus:

                                If the earth were only a few feet wide,
                floating above a field somewhere, people would come from everywhere
           to marvel at it. People would walk around it, marvelling at its big pools of water,
     little bumps on it, the holes in it, the very thin layer of gas surrounding it and the water
    that forms in white fluffy clouds suspended in the gas. The people would marvel at all the
   creatures walking and flying around the surface of the ball, and the creatures in the water.
 The people would declare it as sacred because it was the only one, and they would protect it from
        The ball would be the greatest wonder ever known; people would come to pray to it,
            to be healed, to gain knowledge, to know beauty and to wonder at its creation.
              People would love it and defend it and those that live on it with their lives,
                        because they would somehow know that their own lives
                                       could be nothing without it.
                                If the earth were only a few feet wide.

                      Why use this method on projects?

The main point of this method – and what makes it so interesting for volunteer
projects – is that it allows the group itself to take control of the process and
discover answers to questions determined by the group. The way it is done -
participatory and democratic - is therefore just as important for the outcomes as
the answers that the group comes up with. It is important too that the facilitator
does not drive the discussion too…see role of facilitator below.

P4GC is designed to be accessible for different kinds of groups, but works best when
groups already know each other a bit. It may be better to try this with just your
volunteers first and wait until the group has bonded a bit. The timings given are just
suggestions and these can be adapted depending on how much time you have. One
thing to remember though is to make sure you have a quite place to do this with no

                           The Role of the Facilitator

The role of 'facilitator' has the literal sense of easing others into appropriate
practices such as questioning, reasoning, evaluating and generating alternative

A prime step in this is to cultivate the social and emotional security that will enable
members of the group to contribute their best to the enquiry. This almost always
involves giving primacy to others, their ideas and their feelings. In that sense, the
role is similar to that of a chair or referee who is charged with seeing "fair play”.

There is also the responsibility though to guide the group towards better ways of
thinking together. This may involve such interventions as calling for clarification of
examples, or for reasons or conclusions etc. It may also, occasionally involve putting a
question to the group that is designed to deepen or widen their thinking. It does not,
however, give a facilitator license to push the enquiry into a particular direction just
because it suits their own particular interest. It is the interests of the community
that counts, though there is often a difficult balance to be achieved here in managing
that with the needs of the particular group.

Sometimes a problem arises in the discussion and here it is important to ask the
group how best to overcome that problem, thus gradually moving them to self

                            Key Points of Facilitation

During the discussion the leader needs to be aware of opportunities to focus
attention on the key elements of thinking. These include...

       Questioning—asking good questions to provide a focus for the enquiry.
       Reasoning—requesting   reasons   or   evidence   to   support   arguments   and
       Defining—clarifying concepts through making connections, distinctions, and
       Speculating—generating ideas and alternative viewpoints through imaginative
       Testing for truth—gathering information, evaluating evidence, examples and
        counter examples
       Expanding ideas—sustaining and extending lines of thought and argument.
       Summarizing—abstracting key points or general rules from a number of ideas
        or instances.

Strategies to extend and develop thinking include:

   Thinking time—encourage pauses for thought or some moments of quiet
    meditation on a topic. Remember to provide at least 3 seconds thinking time after
    you have asked a question and 3 seconds thinking time after a child gives an

   Think—pair—share—allow individual thinking time about a question, invite
    discussion of the question with a partner, then open up for class discussion

   Ask follow-ups-ask people to extend or qualify what they said by asking questions
    that challenge their thinking such as 'Why?'. 'Do you agree or disagree?' 'Can you
    say more?', 'Can you give an example?', 'Describe how you arrived at that answer'
    (see Questioning Techniques)

   Withhold judgment ... respond to student answers in a non-evaluative way eg a
    positive but neutral response such as Thank you', 'Ok', "That's interesting', 'A-
    ha', 'I see'.

   Invite the whole group to respond -encourage a response from the whole group by
    saying things such as; 'How many people agree/disagree with that point of view?'
    (Hands/thumbs up, down or to side). You can also ask questions such as 'Having
    heard that what questions might we ask?'

   Ask for a summary—promote active listening by asking for a summary of what has
    been said eg "Could you summarize Kirn's point?', 'Can you explain what Jane has
    just said?' "Can you tell me the arguments so far?'

   Play devil's advocate—challenge students to give reasons for their views by
    presenting opposing points of view, or by asking students to be devil's advocates,
    'Who can think of a different point of view/an argument against that?'

   Invite a range of responses—model open mindedness by inviting people to consider
    different view points: 'There is no single correct answer to this question. I want
    you to consider alternatives'.

   Encourage questioning—invite people to ask their own questions before/during
    and/or after discussion. 'Has anyone a question about what has been said?' etc.

                              Developing the technique

Here are a few activities or techniques that may bring some fresh approaches to your
discussions. They are just suggestions!
    1) Appeal to different learning styles (visual, audio, kinesthetic, etc.)
    2) Try using experiences, activities or emotions

Private reflections
    1) See how long the reflection period can be extended; will deeper thoughts arise?
    How could you tell?
    2) Target types of reflection; a feeling, a thought, a cartoon with a speech bubble
    key words, or a sketch? A selection of these?
    3) Ask for ‘quick-fire reflections' to be expressed as a whole group (contrasted
    with individual reflections in silence).

Sharing reflections
  1) Emphasise good listening skills; body language, eye contact, no interruptions next
  speaker briefly summarising last speaker's reflections etc.
  2) Try silent sharing; passing written comments, key words, or sketches around
  their group 3) Ask for each group member to share one reflection in depth, or
  several reflections briefly

Question creation
  1) Ask each group member to create their own question first, and then negotiate a
 single question between them; a contrast to all members making one question
 2) Ask each group to check if their question is open or closed (the latter inviting
 yes or no answers), and if they all agree that it's philosophical

Airing Questions
   1) Ask "Do you think these are all philosophical questions?/Are these all open (vs.
   closed) questions?/Are there any links between questions (+ give your
   Discuss to sharpen their question creation skills.
   2) Invite each group to explain or clarify their question for a minute.

  1) Try "secret voting” where they shut their eyes or turnaround during the voting
  process. Reflect on what difference this might make to an open vote.
  2) Try giving a total of 3 votes each, to be used on one, two or three questions
  (as they choose). (Do you vote as the facilitator?!)
  3) "Omnivote" – they can vote once on as many questions as they like.

 1) Ask "are there any definitions, different interpretations or assumptions in this
    question we should look out for?" as a starting point.
 2) Once the question is chosen, ask the group to reflect for a minute and then jot
    down their "gut reaction to the question". At the end of the discussion, get them
    to write their updated response and post the written responses on a Thought
    Wall (graffiti wall) for all to reflect on.
 3) Ascribe roles to some people e.g. scribe, idea linker, someone to keep a check on
    "whether the question is being answered”/whether everyone who wants a say is
    getting one etc. It is useful for the facilitator to ask them for specific
    community feedback, during, or at the end of the enquiry. (Dominant or loud
    peoples often go quieter if they are made a 'scribe' to chart the enquiry on the
    board; they have a key, but quiet role!)

Reflections on Process/Content
Ask people to go and stand next to someone who listened to others/gave good
reasons/showed caring thinking (etc.) really well.

                       Background to the P4GC method

P4GC (Philosophy for Global Citizenship) has been developed by a project funded by
OXFAM and implemented by SAPERE (The Society for Advancing Philosophical
Enquiry and Reflection in Education). The project evolved from a conference on P4C
and Global Citizenship initiated and funded by Oxfam Education in November 2002.

P4GC grew out of P4C (originally short of ‘Philosophy for Children’ but now referring
more widely to ‘Philosophy for Communities’). P4C has often been portrayed as a
‘Thinking Skills programme’, but it is increasingly obvious from practice in over 60
countries that it impacts as much on emotional, social and moral development as it
does on cognitive development

P4GC - like its forerunner, P4C (Philosophy for Children) - proceeds in the belief
that even young people can and should explore concepts that are fundamental their
being, such as fairness, want, freedom, willingness friendship, waste, etc.

See for more information


Background: Sustainable development and DESD
Sustainable development has become a fashionable notion in the mouth of many policy and
decision makers. The notion covers a wide range of issues related to all spheres of life. The concept
was popularised after the Earth summit in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. For the first time the global
public was alerted that the ecological resources of planet earth were limited and its health was
threatened by the pollution generated by the world economy and population. The summit stressed
that the kind of growth industrialised nations are pursuing and developing nations are aiming at is
suicidal for the planet in terms of long term consequences. "Sustainability" was put forward as a
criteria able to indicate the appropriateness of a measure in terms of its long term consequences: a
measure or behaviour is sustainable if it takes into consideration the long term effects and risks it
generates and respects the needs of future generations. It is based on the principle that the earth does
not belong to any given generation but has to be "passed on" from one generation to the next. No
generation has the right to damage the future life chances of next generations, through a behaviour
using all the resources available today, and without preparing the ground for the needs of their
children and the children of their children.
In December 2002, the United Nations General Assembly adopted resolution 57/254 on the United
Nations Decade of Education for Sustainable Development (2005-2014) and designated UNESCO
as lead agency for the promotion of the Decade. Even though the main polluters are commercial and
industrial, the accumulated consequences of the individual behaviour in terms of inefficient energy
consumption have an equally disastrous effect on the globe. It is moreover necessary to change the
attitudes and expectations of the individuals as consumers in order for them to put pressure on
industry, global trade and agriculture. Sustainable behaviour and sustainable consumption will be
one key to change the policies of the biggest global polluters.
The concept of sustainability goes far beyond ecological issues. Sustainability requires us to think
about the long term consequences of all measures we initiate: it requires us to think about the
ultimate consequences of our behaviour and the damage it does not only to future generations but
also to people living and breathing in other parts of the world. It requires us to think in holistic and
global terms beyond the criteria of the immediate satisfaction of our needs here and today. It
requires people to change their outlook on life, taking into account complex consequences of their
deeds and acting as part of a global community, where all human beings have the same right to
develop themselves and enjoy the same basic rights.
Education for sustainable development (ESD) aims at increasing the knowledge about the concept
of sustainability all over the world. The challenge is to widen people's perspectives in order for
them to take the global consequences of their actions into consideration. Thus, the overall goal of
the UN Decade on Education for Sustainable Development (DESD) is to integrate the values
inherent in sustainable development into all aspects of learning to encourage changes in behaviour
that allow for a more sustainable and just society for all.
During this decade, education for sustainable development will contribute to preparing citizens to
face the challenges of the present and the future, and decision-makers who will act responsibly to
create a viable world. Five kinds of fundamental learning will be enhanced: learning to know,
learning to do, learning to be, learning to live together, and learning to transform oneself and
The basic vision of the DESD is a world where everyone has the opportunity to benefit from
education and learn the values, behaviour and lifestyles required for a sustainable future and for
positive societal transformation.
Education for sustainable development is about learning to:
        respect, value and preserve the achievements of the past;
        appreciate the wonders and the peoples of the Earth;
        live in a world where all people have sufficient food for a healthy and productive life;
        assess, care for and restore the state of our Planet;
        create and enjoy a better, safer, more just world;
        be caring citizens who exercise their rights and responsibilities locally, nationally and
To learn more about sustainable development and education for sustainable development, see the
list of useful links at the end of the chapter.

The CCIVS ESD campaign

How can IVS organisations contribute to ESD?
The values of ESD (as defined by UNESCO – see
URL_ID=27279&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html) lie at the core of the
international voluntary service movement and we believe that the activities of CCIVS members
already make a huge contribution to ESD through non-formal and community based education.
Each year, thousands of volunteers work and live together with local communities on international
workcamps that provide an opportunity for learning and reflection on sustainable development
issues. Workcamps have the potential to enable people to explore the concept of sustainable
development from different cultural perspectives and to exchange ideas for practical actions leading
to more sustainable lifestyles. Many CCIVS organisations have developed activities and approaches
that support these learning processes and run special projects focusing on environmental education
and sustainable development issues. This campaign will support organisations to further develop
this area of their work.
The role of CCIVS
CCIVS, as a global network of international voluntary service organisations, will play a positive
role in supporting organizations to promote ESD with volunteers and local communities. We will
(also) act as a bridge and information gateway between local volunteer projects or initiatives and
UNESCO who are co-ordinating the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development.
The campaign on ESD is a logical consequence of other strands of CCIVS' action over the last years
namely the campaign for a culture of Peace (2001), the creation of a Freshwater Kit (2003), the
creation of a Kit on Globalisation (2005), the production of a module on Cultural Diversity

(2006/2007) and an ongoing reflection on how to address the issue of conflict in the frame of an
international voluntary service project”, or simply: “conflict and volunteering.
CCIVS will work to facilitate the exchange of information and resources on ESD between
organizations through seminars and international training events. This first small kit is seen as a first
resource for our campaign. It also introduces the idea of Beauty and the Beast (refer to chapter 4).
We plan to run a seminar on ESD within voluntary service in France in early January 2008. This
seminar will enable project leaders and trainers to share experiences and ideas on how to develop
their work on this topic. More details will be put up on this the CCIVS website soon!
One of the main outcomes of the activities and reflections throughout the year, and the seminar in
2008 will be to develop a future, more extensive ESD toolkit, which will provide a set of easily
adaptable activities that can be used to facilitate reflection and discussion on sustainable
development issues. This future ESD toolkit is planned to be completed by the end of 2008 and will
be available on this website for organisations to use. This future toolkit will build on existing
CCIVS resources such as the Freshwater Guide (
SiteCCSVI/CcivsOther/Documents/FreshwaterGuideEN.pdf) and the Globalization Kit
We are currently collecting information by questionnaire about the already existing projects and
activities, as well as areas of interest of international voluntary service organisations, which are
related to ESD. The questionnaire will help us to develop the ESD campaign so it suits your needs
and interests as closely as possible. Click here (
SiteCCSVI/CcivsOther/esd/QuestionnaireESD.doc) to download a questionnaire and send it by
email to CCIVS.

Aims and objectives of the campaign
Through the ESD campaign CCIVS‟ long-term aim is to broaden the perspectives of the people
touched by the projects its member organisations implement. CCIVS wishes to enable organizations
to share their experiences of working on ESD and build on the existing experience within the
international voluntary service movement. We aim to support organizations to develop concrete actions
that stimulate reflection and deepen understanding of sustainable development issues with volunteers
and the communities they work with. Thus, a few of the more specific objectives are as follow:
      Strengthen the sense of the global voluntary service movement through a common action;
      Encourage people to think "glocally": link the level of concrete action on the ground with a
       reflection on the concept and its global consequences;
      Create a bridge between the expert discourse and the concrete action on the ground in
       understandable and meaningful terms;
      Fertilise the global debate on ESD through the reflections, ideas and recommendations
       developed by the people touched by the campaign.

Useful links on sustainable development and ESD
Below is a list of useful links related to the themes of sustainable development, as well as education
for sustainable development.
Official site for the UN Decade of Education for Sustainable Development:

UNESCO vision and definition of ESD:

UNESCO list of useful sites on ESD:

Sustainable lifestyle training kit: A training kit on responsible consumption developed by

The Earth Charter: The Earth Charter is a declaration of fundamental principles for building a
just, sustainable, and peaceful global society in the 21st century. This site has useful resources for
exploring sustainability issues with groups:

The official site for the UN Millenium Development Goals:
By 2015 a number of goals are to be attained, for instance, halving extreme poverty.

Education for Sustainable Development Toolkit:
An ambitious ESD Toolkit, produced by the University of Tennesse. This is a manual for beginning
the process of combining education and sustainability, and contains e.g. background, exercises and
useful links related to ESD.

The      UNEP      Resource      Kit   on     Sustainable      Consumption       and      Production This UNEP Resource
Kit is composed of 12 fact sheets on different topics, such as water, energy and life styles. It is user
friendly and pedagogical if you want to raise awareness on a specific issue in a project, and is
available in English and French.


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