EPR INSIDE What health Care Boils DoWn to Why hamas is so suCCessful in Palestine the Daily shoW, the ColBert rePort, anD PolitiCs Emory Political Review 2009 year in revieW Volume VIII, Issue 2 The Future of U.S. Power EPR Volume VIII, No. 2 Letter from the editors Well, there goes another year. 2009 will be remembered as the year the death of Michael Jackson united the world, whilst the murder of abortionist Dr. George Tiller divided our nation. While Iran filled its streets with protestors decked in green, the Editors-in-Chief People’s Republic of China celebrated its 60th anniversary in Christina Yang Lilly Zhong a haze of red and yellow. Although South Carolina Governor Mark Sanford made extramarital affairs international, Tiger Woods reintroduced the word “harem” to the 21st century. To Grant Wallensky say the least, it’s been quite a year for the average American, the politician, and the celebrity. Executive Editor Andrew Hull The year started off with a bang. It brought us our first African Senior Copy American president, our first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice, Editor and the real possibility of redeeming America’s image in the eyes of the international community. But the positives were Amanda L. Carey soon overshadowed by such problems as rising unemploy- Copy Editors ment, growing international security threats, and the relentless Kristin Bielling worldwide recession. Indeed, no place was left untouched by Lindsey Bomnin the headlines of 2009, including our own Emory University. Sara Hagey Students dealt with rising tuition, cuts in club funding, and the Monroe Hammond James Hamraie “Swine ‘09.” Elizabeth Janszky Eddie Lopez-Lugo This issue covers everything from the U.S. as a world power to Kathryn Madison the prospects of democracy in Iraq to the new possibilities the Victor Rudo FIFA World Cup brings to South Africa. And though we may Hali Michele Stokes not have as many articles as Tiger Woods has mistresses, we Laura D. Withers hope that the articles we do have will provide you, the reader, Senior Layout with a greater understanding of some of our world’s important Editor happenings. Gregoire E. Taillet With the onset of 2010, Emory Political Review — along with Story Editors the rest of the world — is looking to revamp itself. We are Monroe Hammond launching our new and refurbished website, in which we hope David Michaels to incorporate new media forms (think Huffington Post and Anuj Panday Twitter feeds). To make up for budget cuts, we are looking into Peter Rasmussen advertising. And of course, we always welcome new writers, Website new stories, and new readers. Here’s to 2010. Mishal Ali Shalini Ramachandran - Christina and Lilly This issue’s layout was done by Christina Yang Editor’s Note: Unless otherwise noted, art is either created by C. Yang or taken from Photos.com, Google 2 Images or Wikipedia. All art from Wikipedia is part of the public domain and is used under fair use. january 2010 Current Affairs Cover Story 4-5 Dissecting Health Care 10-13 U.S. Hegemony Challenged? Spotlight Foreign Affairs 6 Democracy in Iraq? The Impact of War and 18-19 Terror on Pakistan Nation 20-21 Russia Resurgent 7 Should We End the Fed? The Hearts and Minds of The Future of Global 22-23 8 Palestine Non-Proliferation 2010 FIFA World Cup: 24 9 The Scope of Executive Power More than Just a Game 25 Comedy in Compaigns 14-15 America’s Failed War on Drugs Special 16-17 The Right to Bear Arms: 26-27 Year in Review McDonald v. Chicago EPR Current AffAirs By: Lilly Zhong and Christina Yang Health Care S tarting from the beginning of 2009, plans for a major overhaul of the American health care system have rumbled onward, gaining steam and momentum toward the end of the year. Democrats and Republicans have argued vigorously over health care reform, with the two sides bearing almost irreconcil- able views. Democrats view health care reform as a major step in giving millions of uninsured Americans coverage and in cutting the costs of health care overall. Re- publicans staunchly oppose the government playing such a large role in the health care system, claiming that the proposed reforms will weaken the insurance coverage of those who already have it. However, as debates over the public option, “death panels,” and abor- tion coverage rage on, President Obama has remained true to his campaign promise to push for universal health care, and results are com- ing in. Despite almost unanimous opposition by the Republicans, what began as—and still remains—a hotly debated topic has finally been consolidated into a concrete form. On November 7, 2009, a version of the health care bill passed the House, with a 220 to 215 vote. On Decem- ber 24, 2009, the Senate also passed a version of health care reform, albeit with some differences from the House edition and along party lines, in the first Christmas Eve Senate vote since 1895. So what now? The next step is for two versions of the bill to go to a conference committee, in which the House and the Senate must combine the two forms and agree on a final version. Though some major disparities (e.g. the public option) exist, the current outlines contain some common stipulations. To expand coverage, a greater number of low-income people would become eligible for Medicaid, and subsidies would be provided to some middle-income individuals to help them buy insur- ance. Insurance companies would be prohibited from denying coverage to individuals based on preexisting conditions, and insurance exchanges, where people and small businesses can essentially “shop” for insurance, would be created. Individuals who are currently under employer insurance (about 160 million) would remain that way, and almost everyone would be required to get insurance or else face certain penalties. To help decipher the ins and outs of health care reform, here’s a look at the specifics of what may be in the final version of the bill. Information taken by the New York Times 4 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR Now...what’s the difference? Issue House Senate Cost Would cost $1.1 trillion over a decade, Would cost $871 billion over a decade, reducing the deficit which surpasses Obama’s $900 billion by $132 billion, and possibily an additional reduction of decade spending cap. approximately $1.3 trillion over the second decade, ac- cording to estimates by the Congressional Budget Office. Public Option Includes a government-run insurance Does not include a public option. Instead, the Office of program that offers plans competitive with Personnel Management, which supervises health plans for the private market. The government would federal workers, would oversee national plans offered in negotiate rates with health care providers. the health insurance exchanges. Individual Requires the majority of people to get Requires most people to either have health insurance or Requirements health insurance or pay a penalty of up to pay a penalty, which begins at $95 in 2014 and increases 2.5 percent of their income. In addition to to $750 two years later. subsidies for the poor, this plan extends coverage to approximately 36 million Americans. Employer Employers are required to contribute to Employers are not required to provide health insurance. Requirements health insurance for employees. However, However, companies with over 50 employees will be businesses with payrolls under $500,000 charged with a penalty for any employee whose health are exempt, which is approximately 86 insurance the government ends up subsidizing. percent of all American businesses. Financial Assistance Includes subsidies to help those making Includes subsidies to help cover those making up to 400 up to 400 percent of the federal poverty percent of the federal poverty level (presently, $88,000/ level pay for health insurance premiums. year for a family of four) and expands Medicaid to include Medicaid eligibility would be expanded those making 133 percent of the federal poverty level. for low-income families and individuals, as well as cover new preventive services, and increase payments for check-ups. New Taxes The wealthiest Americans (individu- Imposes a 40 percent tax on high-cost insurance plans als making over $500,000 and families (valued over $8,500 per individual and $23,000 per fam- making above $1 million) would pay a ily). A 10 percent tax on indoor tanning services will be surcharge on a portion of their income. enacted, which is expected to raise $2.7 billion in the first decade. Also increases Medicare payroll taxes from 1.45 to 2.35 percent on individuals earning $200,000 a year and couples earning $250,000. Abortion The new public option does not cover Creates a “firewall” to prevent federal subsidies from go- abortion except in cases of rape, incest, or ing toward abortion coverage. In plans covering abortion, threat to the life of the pregnant woman. beneficiaries would have to pay for it separately, and those Also bans people from using government funds would have to be kept in a separate account from subsidies to purchase private plans with taxpayer money. abortion coverage. Medicare Changes Reduces Medicare spending by ap- Reduces Medicare spending by approximately $395 bil- proximately $440 billion over a decade by lion over ten years, including cuts to private insurance reducing payments to private insurance plans. In 2010, Medicare beneficiaries will also receive plans that serve Medicare patients and by $500 towards paying for prescription drugs not currently requiring hospitals and other health care covered because of cost, falling into the so-called “dough- providers to operate more efficiently. The nut hole.” plan also includes several new benefits for seniors, including more preventive care services. Information supplied by the National Public Radio (http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=120068329) • EPR Winter 09-10 • 5 EPR spotlight DEMOCRACY IN ing encountered. Iraq also has an oil problem. As men- tioned earlier, UCLA professor and political sci- entist Michael Ross claims in “Does Oil Hinder IRAQ? Democracy?” that oil has been sustaining the existence of authoritarian regimes. Even when a democratic system is being experimented with, Iraqi officials are responsible for re-distributing these massive oil revenues not only to the de- velopment of the state, but also to the micro-de- velopment of the people. With all of the corrup- tion discovered in almost all bureaucratic levels of government, responsible redistribution will continue to be an ongoing challenge. The glob- al demand for oil causes the Iraqi government to lease out its petroleum-rich land to foreign companies in exchange for massive revenues. However, because the government depends on only these revenues and not the tax revenues of its citizens, it chooses to remain independent of that sovereign authority citizens have over By: Robert “Bobby” Santos can be the cause of this complication. Thus, Iraq their democratic governments. Therefore, with- S has a stateness problem. To begin with, Iraq is a out any taxes for citizens to pay, there are no ince the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arab multi-ethnic and heterogeneous country consist- states have been a breeding ground for au- means of obtaining representation or account- ing of Arabs, Kurds, and other minority groups ability from the higher authorities. Furthermore, tocracies and illiberal democracies. With one who aim to conquer one another for the control or two exceptions in the Middle East, a democracy a government without any responsibilities to the of resources and power. Northwestern Univer- people is free to subjugate any social or politi- resembling those of Western Europe or the United sity’s Edward Gibson claims that even when States has not even been considered by Arab lead- cal movements that call for a change from the Iraq is rid of all violence, the consolidation of status quo. Policymakers can also choose not to ers, in spite of a globalizing international community democracy would still be in jeopardy because of that is beginning to reflect its “Americanism.” But acknowledge a minority or majority’s need for the renewal of constituents’ hostile attitudes to- representation without any penalty of law. For why has the Arab world been so reluctant to adopt wards one another. The reason being is that the a system of government that can potentially grant the sake of democracy’s consolidation, the Iraqi government has to decide who is a citizen and government must find new ways to obtain rev- its citizens’ personal freedoms and opportunities for who is an outsider to Iraq. Although the obvious prosperity? Theorists such as Michael Ross place enues and new ways to spend those revenues in- answer would be to just make everyone living stead of relying on an unstable commodity, like blame on the method in which Arab states spend their within the borders a naturalized citizen, in real- oil revenues. Others like Alfred Stepan believe that oil. ity it is not that simple. While Iraq is known to An established democracy in Iraq is the biggest obstacle is not Islam, but rather some- be an Arab-dominated state, the Kurds struggle thing “Arab,” since there are states, such as Indonesia not going to be possible under current condi- to be a small, but crucial minority. The two tions. The apparent ethnic and religious schisms and Pakistan, that have developed and consolidated groups have engaged in not only a psychologi- democracies in spite of an overwhelmingly Muslim in its society are what drive the corruption, re- cal and cultural war, but also in a war over com- pression, and exploitation levels beyond control. population. However, this examination’s focus is on petition for water, fertile land (Iraq is 50-60% Iraq, a state recently freed from a tyrannical regime, The constant acts of violence must be put to end desert), and oil. So what would happen when before the government can responsibly spend which has raised many questions, not only about the their parliament is seated by a huge majority of date for U.S. withdrawal but also the date for the con- for the betterment of its citizens rather than on Pan-Arabic nationalists or pro-Kurdish policy- its defense budget. It is also time to diversify solidation of a democratic system. makers? Clearly, the politicians in Baghdad will Is democracy even fit for Iraq? At the Iraq’s income with not only oil, but also with tax do what they can to support their own ethnic or revenues and the capital gained from exports. moment, the answer is no. Despite the progress its religious groups, however, what will become of parliamentary government has made, Iraq still has When the government re-distributes the wealth those groups that are not represented at all in to the people, both the government and citizens many issues to resolve. Although problems such as government? The democratization is threatened guerilla-style insurgency and the established animos- will also develop. Once Iraqi society modern- when civil liberties and representation are not izes, the middle-classes can also begin demand- ity between ethnic and religious groups still exist but granted to some of the state’s inhabitants. can be solved, people may forget about the challenges ing accountability and representation. Despite Iraq also has a Shiite Islamic majority their long history of clashing, ethno-religious remaining after the violence has quelled. Democracy that thrives on the idea of transforming the state will not be suitable for the developing state if the po- groups must share the valuable resources impar- in order to resemble an Iranian theocracy. Even tially divided by the government in order to rid tential for disproportional representation continues to after Saddam Hussein’s execution, many Shiite exist, if the issue of “stateness” still thrives, and if themselves of the stateness problem. One way extremist groups continue to resort to violent to do this is to establish an equality in the politi- Iraq remains the oil-dependent state that it is. This in- measures in retaliation for their religious op- vestigation will explain why the development of this cal arena where diverse groups can compromise pression under Hussein’s regime. Furthermore, with each other over what would be proportion- democracy can breakdown altogether on account of these measures are caused by numerous factors, these issues. ally fair due to the scarcity of resources and the such as the fear of being subjected to a Sunni- irregular ratios of one ethnic/religious group to According to Oxford University’s Zhidas dominated government, the embracement of Daskalovski, a “stateness problem” is a complica- another. If all ends well here, then perhaps in secularism, or the idea that democratizing-Iraq the near future other Arab states can follow by tion in politics and society where groups quarrel over is a puppet of an American and imperialistic for- where a region’s boundaries are drawn, who gets what example. EPR eign policy. It is important that these extremist resources, and which inhabitants can become citizens. groups receive a voice in government. Doing so Robert “Bobby” Santos is a junior in A wide array of languages, religions, and ethnicities can be the solution to the violence presently be- the College and majoring in Political Science 6 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR nAtion Should We End the Fed? By: Ted Keast W hen the American economy col- lapsed at the end of 2008, many experts, as well as then-President George W. Bush, blamed Wall Street for its greed, claiming that they “got drunk” with pow- er. In response, economist and current Senate candidate Peter Schiff was quoted, “Of course they got drunk. Wall Street got drunk, Main to cause the already troubled economy to spiral mine interest rates in a country where saving Street got drunk, the whole country was drunk. downward. money is discouraged, it is not advisable for But who gave them the alcohol?” Schiff, who The artificially low interest rates the Federal Reserve to change policies. There is vying for a Republican nomination to oppose encouraged the private sector to take risky in- are few politicians who want to encourage the Senator Chris Dodd in Connecticut, is one of the vestments, and the same people who set those American people to spend less, which is what leaders of the End the Fed Movement, a grow- interest rates are currently in charge of restor- would be most advantageous for the economy. ing protest of the Federal Reserve’s involvement ing our economy. The remedy to our economic The original intent of the Federal Reserve was in the United States economy. The answer to his problems that Bernanke has given is to keep the to make it a non-politicized institution. The question of who encouraged corporations to low interest rates. Obama has also echoed the president’s right to appoint the chairman was hedge risky bets and individuals to overextend idea that the key to restoring our economy lies in designed to keep the Federal Reserve free from themselves, is the U.S. Federal Reserve. But restoring the credit system in the United States. the political process. However, the reappoint- what causes Schiff and many others to ques- However, if the United States’ interest rates re- ment of Ben Bernanke by Obama, even after tion the Federal Reserve’s policies? After all, main close to zero, the Federal Reserve’s tar- his failed policies during the Bush era, shows the media, as well as the current administra- get, we run into the same problems that caused that the Federal Reserve has in fact become tion, claimed that corporate greed coupled with the recession in the first place: a system that is politicized. Because Bernanke came out of the bad economic policies of the Bush era were based too much on credit wealth rather than ac- crisis relatively blame-free, and even praised by primary causes for the depression, while Ben tual wealth. Low interest rates and Bernanke’s some economists, it was a politically safe move Bernanke’s, Chairman of the Federal Reserve policies actually encourage reckless spending to keep him as chairman. Obama would rather System, and the Federal Reserve’s roles in the and bubble growth, rather than meaningful eco- keep Bernanke as chairman than put himself un- crisis went relatively unquestioned. Bernanke nomic growth through saving. der scrutiny for appointing a new chairman. was reappointed by President Barack Obama If the Federal Reserve’s actions are so Finally, what should be the solution to to continue the policies that were partly respon- harmful, why does the United States keep such the problems of the Federal Reserve? If the free sible for the nation’s economic crisis. a system? And if Bernanke and Greenspan’s market is allowed to wholly determine interest So, what was it about Bernanke’s pol- policies have adversely affected the economy, rates, economic growth in the United States will icies that were so detrimental to the U.S. econ- why did they hold their jobs for so long? Part be stifled. However, under the status quo, the omy? And if they were so detrimental, why was of the reason lies in the longevity of the Federal Federal Reserve is encouraging more economic he rewarded with Obama’s reappointment? Part Reserve. Established in 1913 to prevent bank bubbles that will eventually pop, and the country of the role of the Fed is to influence the United runs, the Federal Reserve is more or less univer- will be doomed to face recessions in the future State’s monetary and credit policies by control- sally accepted as the national bank of the United that could be potentially worse than the current ling interest rates. This is done by either selling States. Economists are accustomed to the sys- crisis. So, is it time to “End the Fed,” as many U.S. securities to decrease the money supply, tem, and its policies are rarely questioned. To people are starting to say? Probably not. Many or by buying them to increase it. Before the fi- question its establishment or its policies after of the consequences of such an action would be nancial crisis, the Allen Greenspan-led Federal nearly one hundred years would be similar to too uncertain. However, the United States faces Reserve had been encouraging credit spending questioning the Supreme Court or the Con- the need to call into question the policies of an by keeping U.S. interest rates artificially low for gress—only the Federal Reserve is not a branch economic interventionist institution that has be- years. This encouraged borrowing rather than of government. Another reason that Bernanke come too politicized, and whose policies aided saving, creating a credit economy that does not has been one of the staff members in Washing- in causing the current recession. EPR encourage real growth. Only a small number ton who lasted through the Bush administration Ted Keast is a junior and majoring in of politicians and economists have acknowl- is because the Federal Reserve’s policies are edged the Federal Reserve’s role in creating Finance at the Business School. popular. Because it is not politically acceptable credit bubbles. This included the housing mar- for interest rates to go sky high, which would ket bubble which, when it burst in 2008, helped certainly occur if the free market would deter- • EPR Winter 09-10 • 7 EPR nAtion tion would still yield substantial benefits. While Obama’s speeches on security are full of resolve The Future of Global Non-Proliferation for stopping the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, it is impossible to solve pro- liferation without cooperation from the interna- tional community. Without ratifying the test ban, this cooperation will be difficult to achieve. The 2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) Review Conference established thirteen steps that the international community could take to bolster the NPT. First and foremost among these was the entry into force of the CTBT. Re- cent statements by sixteen non-nuclear weapon states that will be taking part in the 2010 Re- view Conference reflect that this first step is still a relevant concern in assuring these non-nuclear nations that the nuclear weapon states will limit the expansion of their nuclear arsenals. In fact, Obama’s overall non-proliferation promises look hollow and hypocritical to the rest of the world in light of not also ratifying the CTBT. The U.S. is essentially asking other nations to not build up and instead relinquish their nuclear arsenals, while the U.S. actively retains the le- gal right to test and improve its nuclear stock- pile if need be. This nuclear hypocrisy shatters global non-proliferation cooperation since the U.S. is not seen as a credible partner. It prevents countries from working with the United States on important actions like ramping up sanctions By: Marta Chlistunoff and for example, has publicly declared that it will against Iran or North Korea or working to re- Elena R. Kuenzel ratify the treaty as soon as the U.S. does. In the shape the nuclear fuel cycle by strengthening case of China, many believe that security con- safeguards of the International Atomic Energy O ne of the most controversial parts of cerns over nuclear parity with the United States Agency. the global arms control agenda has prevent China’s ratification. However, if the Another equally important benefit been the Comprehensive Nuclear Test U.S. decides to ratify, it could represent a con- is the effect that U.S. ratification of the CTBT Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement crete commitment to non-testing, which could would have on the International Monitoring that prohibits nuclear explosion tests. More than give China confidence that their own ratification System (IMS). Absent entry into force, ratifica- a decade after the United States Senate failed to would not put them at any sort of geopolitical tion of the test ban would ensure an increase in approve the treaty, the growing perils of mod- disadvantage. Similarly, U.S. ratification could funding the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Or- ernizing arsenals and the spread of nuclear ma- put strong pressure on India, Iran, North Korea ganization, which uses its funding to sustain and terials to state and non-state actors has increased and the others to sign. expand mechanisms that monitor seismic activ- radically. The CTBT is a valuable tool in the Luckily, even if entry into force ity and detect nuclear testing. The benefit of this global non-proliferation strategy because with- doesn’t occur in the short term, U.S. ratifica- is two-fold. First, due to its supreme monitoring out testing nuclear weapons, states would have no confidence in the success of the weapons they were developing, slowing down or even halting the horizontal and vertical spread of nuclear weapons. However, despite adoption by the United Nations General Assembly in 1996, resistance from previously neutral states on this topic has prevented the test ban from entering into force. Although approximately 150 states have ratified the treaty, several nations referred to as “key hold-out states,” whose ratification is deemed as the last obstacle to treaty’s global adoption, have refrained from jumping on board the global non-testing regime. These nations are the United States, China, Indonesia, Iran, North Korea, India, Pakistan, Israel, and Egypt. While United States’ ratification would not directly cause the treaty system to immediately go into effect (known as “entry into force”), its ratifica- tion would lead to a domino effect in the inter- national community, creating pressure to get the remaining hold-out states to ratify it. Indonesia, 8 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR capabilities which allow for differentiation be- tween the seismic activity observed during an earthquake and the activity felt during a nuclear The Scope of Executive POWER explosion test, the system allows CTBT signa- tories to effectively verify compliance with the tenets of the treaty and take counter-measures By: Stephanie J. Bennett W against nations who try to proliferate. Second, the increase in support and funding for the IMS hen the executive branch uses na- or into situations where imminent involvement would also facilitate the early detection of natu- tional security threats as an excuse in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circum- ral disasters. Scientists involved in the devel- to impose unilateral action, how stances” (§ 1542). It also requires reporting and opment of IMS have indicated that due to the much power should the president really have? consultation by the president to Congress. Es- high level of sensitivity enjoyed by the system, From President Ronald Reagan’s 1983 invasion pecially in a time when national security threats seismic activity created by an imminent natural of Grenada to President George H. W. Bush’s prevail on the minds of U.S. citizens, it is vital disaster, such as a tsunami or a volcanic erup- deployment of troops to Panama in 1989, the that the president and Congress work together for tion, could easily be identified and action could scope of the executive branch’s power has the benefit and protection of the United States. be taken much more quickly to evacuate the area grown far beyond what the framers of the Recently, Presidents have violated the and limit the monumental amount of life that Constitution intended. Even before Abraham War Powers Resolution in numerous ways. Pres- could be lost. Such developments become read- Lincoln’s blockade of federal ports, presidents ident Bill Clinton launched a missile attack in ily important in the face of intensifying weather have sought to increase their power, especially 1993 against the Iraq Intelligence Headquarters fluctuations and the increased incidence of large in regard to the commitment of troops and the without the consent of Congress. Additionally, tropical storms that have been experienced in imposition of unilateral action. The U.S. Con- some have argued that President George W. Bush recent years. stitution provides for a separation of powers violated the War Powers Resolution by using the Despite all of these benefits to U.S. between branches, and shared influence over assumption that Iraq contained weapons of mass ratification of the CTBT, significant domestic foreign and domestic actions. Presidents have destruction as a reason to invade, even when that political obstacles remain. During the first at- used numerous reasons to justify bypassing postulation was later determined to be incorrect. tempt to achieve U.S. ratification in 1992, the the legislative branch. Whether those reasons The framers intended for the Con- treaty received substantial opposition from are valid or stitution to members of Congress who resisted the treaty detrimental separate the due to their suspicions that it did not have suf- to the well- legislative, ficient and credible verification mechanisms. being of the judicial, and Over the past seventeen years, some of the con- American executive cerns about the implementation of the treaty’s people re- branches. standards have been alleviated as the IMS has mains in When the been strengthened, and new technology for question. president monitoring has been developed. Unfortunately, During times oversteps in spite of these advancements, a substantial of perceived his inherent number of lawmakers still maintain a united threats to the powers and front against this non-proliferation measure be- security of challenges cause of ideological reasons. the United the Consti- Congressional focus on maintaining a States, many tution, he credible deterrent via nuclear modernization is presidents risks other bolstered by retaining the right to legally test. have used branches This attitude has subsisted even though a mora- their title of exceeding torium on nuclear testing has been in place for Commander their bound- over a decade. Regrettably for United States’ in Chief of the Army and Navy to deliberate- aries as well. If branches become concerned non-proliferation goals, this moratorium is not ly further their pursuit for power. Presidents with gaining and consolidating power, they may legally binding in the same way that CTBT have maintained over time that they are able disregard the well-being of the American peo- ratification would be and does not preclude the to act quickly and efficiently during a na- ple. While it is true that the president is more ability to test without adverse reactions from tional security emergency. Executive orders efficient in dealing with a national security the international community. Nevertheless it ap- allow decisions to fall into the hands of one emergency than Congress, where should we, pears likely that if the CTBT comes up for vote man, instead of the 435 men and women of as American citizens, draw the line of execu- in the Senate in 2009, opposition may remain as Congress. Additionally, the executive branch tive privilege? The Constitution does not offer strong as it was in the 1992. In order to create typically acts swiftly, a trait Congress often much help in this matter, especially considering momentum for passage, Obama and Secretary fails to possess due to legislative obstacles, its ambiguities, and the courts have been reluc- of State Hillary Clinton have indicated that they such as the review of legislation by commit- tant to intervene in struggles of power between plan to delay introduction until after the Nuclear tees and voting in both the House of Rep- the president and Congress, often holding that Posture Review, which is to be held within the resentatives and the Senate. The president’s the issues raised are political, and not judicial next year. They hope that this will result in fur- ability to act quickly lends itself to possible, in nature. Citizens of the United States must ther support of Obama’s non-proliferation ini- and likely, violations of the War Powers Reso- decide when the president has gone too far and tiatives, including the CTBT. EPR lution. Especially during the responses to per- transformed our democracy into a dictatorship. ceived national security threats, the President We, as citizens, have the ability, through vot- Freshman Marta Chlistunoff is an Inter- may violate the War Powers Resolution or, in ing and demanding action by our legislators, as national Studies and Chemistry double some cases, precipitate the wrath of Congress. well as judicial means, to ensure the sanctity of major. Elena R. Kuenzel is a freshman The War Powers Resolution requires legislation and the United States Constitution. EPR and double majoring in International and that “the president in every possible instance Senior Stephanie Bennett is a double Women’s Studies major shall consult with Congress before introduc- major in International Studies and ing United States Armed Forces into hostilities English. • EPR Winter 09-10 • 9 EPR Cover story U.S. Hegemony Challenged? Point/Counterpoint • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR U.S. Hegemony is Sustainable ain at the height of its power could not stop tellectual capital than any other nation. These the loss of the American colonies. Alexander capabilities create extraordinary flexibility and the Great failed in Afghanistan, but created a large, untapped pools of power. In the instance By: Anuj Panday massive empire nonetheless. Failure in Iraq or of a peer competitor, the U.S. can increase its H Afghanistan does not forecast complete doom. capabilities by devoting more resources to as the American Era ended? Intellectu- What makes the odds even better military primacy. Despite all the talk about the al commentators, government officials, for the United States than any previous power current economic crisis eroding our economic and the media elite seem to think so. is that all the fundamental aspects of national power, in 2008 our share of the world product, Frightening prophecies pervade the headlines. power are concentrated in the United States to a as documented by the International Monetary Last year, a New York Times Magazine cover degree never before experienced in history. The Fund (IMF), was 27 percent. In that year, the story, titled “Waving Goodbye to U.S. Hege- U.S. spends close to four percent of its gross United States had a quarter of the world’s eco- mony,” argued that the United States’ “stand- domestic product (GDP) on the military and nomic power and the world’s most competitive ing in the world remains in steady decline.” industries. Our power, shaped in part by our “Our power, Roger Altman, a former deputy secretary of the adaptability, will allow us to weather the crisis Treasury, has written that the financial crisis better than other nations. China and Russia have “has inflicted profound damage on...[the Unit- experienced worse economic slowdowns than ed States’] standing in the world.” This recent scare is characterized by stories of the “rise of the rest” that focuses on the diffusion of eco- nomic power outside of the U.S. to rising pow- shaped in part the U.S., and leaders such as Gordon Brown and Angela Merkel are looking to the United States for more guidance through the recession. by our adapt- Declinists, proponents of the declin- ers, such as China and India. This argument, ism theory, also point to the increasing deficit however, overestimates the degree to which and the decline of the dollar. Neither is much this is happening and overlooks the enormous of a problem for the United States. The dollar ability, will inequality of power between the U.S. and oth- will remain the world’s reserve currency and ers. With a leading position in all indicators of we will serve as the lender of last resort for a power, the United States will remain the world’s long time to come. The federal budget deficit is lone superpower for a long time to come. Declinism, a recently developed term for this phenomenon, is not new. Proponents of this theory have been vocal since the U.S. allow us to fixable: increasing taxes and controlling costs can put the budget back on track. Increased spending during the Great Depression helped weather the to solve the financial crisis of that time and inherited its coveted status in the post-World prepared the U.S. for World War II, in a time War II era. In the 1950s, Sputnik spurred the when budget deficits were a larger percent of collapse myths. In the 60s, it was the “missile the GDP than now. The deficit lies partially crisis better gap.” The 70s saw unprecedented challenges: outside of the United States’ control. China oil shocks, failure in Vietnam, deep recessions, and Japan hold a large portion of the debt and and victories by Soviet-endorsed regimes in are dependent on exports to the United States. Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The 80s saw rapid growth in the Japanese economy along with what historian Paul Kennedy called “im- perial overstretch,” where the economic burdens than other na- They must continue purchasing dollars to en- sure their currencies are weak against it, there- by maintaining competitive export potential. tions.” Indeed, globalization strengthens, not and security interests of an expanding empire weakens, U.S. power. American universities eventually outstrip its capacity to manage those attract the best minds from all over the world, burdens or defend its interests. Each of these creating the foundation for an innovative and scares was well-founded and potentially indi- adaptive society. We have remained the head cated the coming of real change in the power accounts for 47 percent of the world’s military of the world’s most popular political philoso- distribution. At the end of each period, however, spending. The U.S. has invested large sums in phy, democracy, which is widely viewed as the United States emerged in a position with its institutional capital, technological capacity, and the most legitimate form of leadership. Even power even further entrenched. According to military research and development, all of which powerful autocratic nations must at least pay Dartmouth Professor Wohlforth, “It is impos- give us great qualitative and quantitative edges lip service to democratic ideals such as voting sible to know for sure whether or not the scare in military superiority. The U.S. will remain the and human rights. We also remain at the center is for real this time — shifts in the distribu- only nation that can project its military power of the world’s institutional system. The United tion of power are notoriously hard to forecast.” in any area of the world due to its uncontested States plays central roles in many world orga- The problem lies in the confusion of supremacy on land, sea, and in air. Previously, nizations, such as the World Trade Organiza- what constitutes leadership. Defining power as no other country has had such unchallenged tion (WTO), the United Nations (UN), and the the ability to resolve any global dilemma guar- dominance of these areas. Established military North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). antees frequent alarmism. The more power- presence in all regions of the globe cements As extensions of American ideology and val- ful the United States becomes, the greater the U.S. influence everywhere — it allows for re- ues, they serve to enhance and channel U.S. number of problems in the international arena sponsiveness and elasticity to deal with multiple authority. For example, the WTO has dispute it is expected to solve. The result is a perpetu- contingencies simultaneously. It is this military mechanisms for facilitating free trade, which ally elevating standard for what it takes to be supremacy, combined with an extraordinary is consistent with American ideals and is the the dominant power. It must be understood that economic capacity that gives the United States cornerstone for American economic growth. no empire is impervious to errors. The United its unique advantage. Over time, the U.S. has No other empire in history has had the advan- States failed in Vietnam and failed to overthrow achieved an ever-increasing amount of econom- tages that multilateral institutions provide. Fidel Castro, yet seems to have maintained its ic power with arguably more natural resources, Institutions also legitimize U.S. leadership status in spite of those failures. Brit- developed industry and infrastructure, and in- leadership. These mechanisms for global gov- • EPR Winter 09-10 • 11 EPR ernance create a benign face for U.S. power because others believe in the United States’ commitment to common rules and norms. Even President George W. Bush’s aggressive unilateralism did not permanently damage the U.S. image. President Barack Obama offers a fresh start and can help redefine America’s reputation and show the world that we have renounced Bush’s exceptionalism. Robert Ka- gan, senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, has repeatedly argued that the rise of great power autocracies pushes strong democracies back in the direction of the United States. Allies are pursuing policies that reflect great concern about Russia’s and China’s increasing influence. Strengthened al- liances allow the United States to rely on al- lies, economize forces, and share burdens. There is no one country that can take the place of the United States. Although there is much buzz about the so-called BRIC (Brazil, Russia, India, China) nations growing in devel- opment and power, no one has the economic or technological capabilities to replace the United States. Looming on the horizon is the rapidly growing eastern powerhouse: China. Its econo- my is growing, inequality is decreasing, it holds a large chunk of U.S. debt, and it is modern- izing its military rapidly. China is predicted to become a peer competitor to the United States in terms of economic leverage by 2020. If these predictions hold true, China is likely to have half the world product of the United States, as calculated by American political scientists. The problem here is that economic trends are an in- effective way to predict power transitions. Japan was projected to outstrip U.S. economic pro- duction given projections in 1989, but it is now only just recovering from its economic down- turn in the early 1990s. In fact, between 2007 and 2009, Chinese economic growth has halved from 12 percent to 6 percent, proving that its Its economy relies on oil exports, which makes it too vulnerable to the unpredictable swings in U.S. Hegemony is Unsustainable incredible growth is dependent on foreign global oil prices. Brazil, while no doubt expe- economies. Benjamin Joffe, a noted consultant riencing significant growth and development, in China, declares, “China is a place where still lags far behind the United States in military the rest of the world essentially rents workers power, per capita GDP and industrial output. By: James Hamraie T and workspace at deflated prices and distorted Indeed, the United States, even if it weakens a he election of President Barack Obama, exchange rates. The Chinese economy is ex- little bit, remains far more powerful than any the withdrawal of troops from forward tremely dependent on exports — they amount other country, therefore ensuring dominance. deployment in Iraq, and the mending to two-fifths of China’s GDP — and hence vul- The United States will see many more of ties with foreign nations that were alienated nerable to global economic downturns.” China years at the helm of the international system. during the War on Terror, have helped to create is still plagued by massive amounts of poverty, Lots of things can and will go wrong. But no an atmosphere of optimism for the continued fractured infrastructure, domestic upheavals, one failure internationally is enough to topple primacy of the United States as the leading na- pollution, disease problems, and an aging popu- the gigantic lead in power that the United States tion in the international arena. This optimism, lation that can significantly alter the trajectory possesses both militarily and economically. The however, is premature. Despite the perceptual of economic growth rates. These problems will demand for U.S. leadership has never been high- stability of U.S. dominance over the past two put new pressures on government spending er; the United States has pacified any fears of its decades, the continuation of its primacy will in- and will create new social upheavals. Costly potentially threatening stature by exporting a evitably decline. fixes will restrict spending on the military and culture of transparency and benevolence. As the This claim is neither extreme nor un- constrain modernization efforts. India faces only country capable of leading such a chaotic precedented. History is ripe with examples that similar problems along with massive corrup- world, the U.S. will remain the sole superpower. show that all great empires collapse. The fall of tion, colossal linguistic barriers and tremendous Anuj Panday is a sophomore in the EPR Rome, Britain, the Mongols, the Han Dynasty, ethnic fragmentation. Russia appears to be fad- College and majoring in International and the Byzantine Empire show that changes ing into irrelevance. Its nuclear stockpile is an- Studies in the balance of power are quite frequent. An tiquated and its military forces are crumbling. analysis of the structure of unipolarity com- bined with a focus on recent events shows that a 12 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR lasting animosity with both allies and hostile nations. Although Obama’s election has caused many foreign countries to begin changing their attitude towards the United States and public polls have illustrated a stronger approval rating of the United States, there are still major issues that need to be settled. The U.S. has failed to take concrete action on a majority of issues that the international community has been asking the United States to follow through on for over a de- cade. These include the ratification of the Com- prehensive Test Ban Treaty, the Law of the Sea Treaty, and the Rome Statute of the Internation- al Criminal Court. Being a world leader requires more than raw power. Sustaining alliances and goodwill with other nations is essential. Addi- tionally, if the United States can convince other nations to comply with its wishes, it can lower the costs of shaping the global stage to reflect its interests. This arrangement, coupled with the evolving balance of power, can cause other na- tions to support the U.S. and oppose its potential challengers. For instance, the changing security dynamics in East Asia show that self-interest is spurring countries to be less willing to oppose neighbors on important issues or strategic cir- cumstances. This is due to a fear of losing eco- nomic and trading ties, despite a long history of cooperation and positive relations with the United States. Imperial overstretch, domestic costs of forward deployment, fighting capability, and overburdening security and humanitarian commitments has caused a decline in military power, the lifeline of U.S. global dominance. The growing strength of foreign militaries ex- acerbates the effect of these problems. The post-Cold War apex of American power has begun to erode while other nations with larger populations are training substantial military forces with increasingly sophisticated technol- number of issues in all sectors of power, includ- involvement and conflict resolution because it ogy. Recent events illustrate the implication of ing economic, military, and diplomatic sectors, lends the impression that the U.S. does not have these factors on the decline of U.S. power and limit the ability of the United States to prevent its hands tied and that the U.S. military is still the growing strength of potential global rivals. counter-balancing and the weakening of power extremely powerful. A strong economy also India and China are economic powerhouses, projection, eventually causing a shift to a world lessens the amount of domestic spending on whose growth has allowed for greater mod- where the United States shares the stage with social services and foundation-level economic ernization. Despite the military edge currently rising powers. stimulus and allows for greater allocation of re- held by the U.S., domestic sentiment has drifted Economic woes have affected the sources into research and development of new away from an overwhelming focus on defense ability of the United States to maintain its su- military technologies and upkeep of military spending since the invasion of and subsequent premacy. The recent financial crises, the erosion supplies. Both of these factors are essential for public backlash from Operation Iraqi Freedom. of U.S. competitiveness in business and educa- conventional combat readiness and warfare, and Additionally, China’s expanding naval forces, tion, and the declining purchasing power of the allow the U.S. armed forces to sustain their lead such as the nuclear-armed submarines, are dollar have created domestic turmoil and dented over other nations. lessening the effect of U.S. nuclear supremacy the leading view of U.S. dominance among in- Diplomatic woes arise from the Unit- and first-strike leverage. Furthermore, in other ternational allies. These factors, coupled with ed States’ diminished image. Although the War important global regions, Brazil is vying for re- dependence on foreign oil and energy resources, on Terror initially forged alliances and inter- gional hegemony, China is building security and are weakening U.S. flexibility and allowing for- national sympathy, the unilateral policy deci- economic ties with African nations, and Russia eign nations with exploding economies, such as sions, human rights abuses, and exceptionalism is legitimizing interventionist policies with the China and India, to close the gap. For example, that followed transformed the perception of the invasion of Georgia and fiery rhetoric over na- if China’s booming growth continues, then Chi- United States from a benevolent world power to tional expansion and national missile defense. EPR na’s total GDP would be 2.5 times that of the an international bully willing to neglect multi- James Hamraie is a sophomore in the United States. A weaker economy has high do- lateral solutions in favor of ad-hoc cowboy di- College and majoring in International mestic dissatisfaction contributing to a greater plomacy. The abuses of Abu Ghraib, arguments Studies. urgency to focus on national issues instead of over the Kyoto Protocol and global warming, international affairs. It is essential for the United and the invasion of Iraq are only a few examples States to maintain its flexibility in international of policies that have spurred heavy disdain and • EPR Winter 09-10 • 13 EPR nAtion America’s Failed War on Drugs By: David Michaels I t is no secret that the “War on Drugs” in the drug war. Approximately the United States has been an abysmal fail- 20 percent of state prisoners ure. Since its birth during Richard Nixon’s and over 50 percent of federal presidency, and its escalation under the Reagan prisoners are incarcerated for administration, the federal government’s crack- drug charges. Additionally, down on narcotics has morphed into a modern those that are prosecuted for day battle against our own lower class. Liber- drug offenses are overwhelm- als are not the only ones calling out its faults; ingly involved in drugs at the instead, observers on both sides of the spectrum less potent end of the spec- have come to grips with its ineffectiveness. trum. In 1998, a whopping 79 Conservative minds have admitted that our drug percent of all DEA convictions policy is neither cost-effective nor a deterrent involved either marijuana or of abuse, including the late William F. Buck- cocaine. ley, who conceded the merits and inevitability Given the state of of legalization of marijuana in a 1996 issue of our corrections system, it is National Review. absurd to waste limited re- In May, President Barack Obama’s sources on incarcerating non- Director of National Drug Control Policy, Gil violent drug offenders. And Kerlikowske, finally became one the first high- in states with “three strikes ranking officials to publicly speak out against laws,” a person with three the idea of labeling federal policy as a “War on felony drug offenses can face Drugs.” His emphasis on rehabilitation rather up to life in prison. Not only is than incarceration is an idea that should have this warranted, but does it re- been acknowledged long ago. ally do anything to fix the drug While it is a relief to finally hear those problem? words from the administration, it remains diffi- Over-incarceration cult to be optimistic about real change when the creates problems that go be- federal government alone will spend $22 billion yond prison overcrowding. in 2009 to enact the same ineffective policies Our eagerness to lock-up drug as before. That is an absurd amount, especially offenders leads to an endless given the record budget deficit, and threatens cycle where the judicial sys- more important expenditures, such as education. tem does nothing to help in- For all of our spending on the drug war, the ner-city kids who are caught in United States still has one of the highest rates drug use and the dealing trade of narcotic consumption in the world for nearly at an early age. These children every illicit drug, according to the United Na- are arrested and processed tions’ World Drug Report in 2009. And of the through the system at a young $64 billion worth of narcotics sold in the U.S. age, and are then released on in any given year, less that 1 percent of that is the street without an education ever seized by the Drug Enforcement Admin- or job training, just a criminal istration. record. Such a system does One of the most visible problems with nothing to address the issue our current drug policy is its contribution to the that one out of every 15 Afri- overcrowding of our prisons. Approximately can-Americans is incarcerated, one in every 31 U.S. adults is in a communi- and that 44.8 percent of drug ty-based corrections facility that is focused on offenders in state prisons are black. rehabilitation, and one out of every 100 is incar- Our drug policy continues to attack federal funding for a needle exchange program. cerated in a county jail or state prison. To give users and lower-level dealers, but it does noth- The program would drastically reduce the risk a better idea of how this measures against other ing to address the institutional problems in our of HIV and AIDS among drug users by allow- nations, The United States contains five percent corrections process that encourage the drug ing them to exchange used syringes for clean of the world population but has 25 percent of trade and incarcerate the same people again and ones. Despite Obama’s pledge of support for the world’s prisoners. That is the highest incar- again. It is illogical to imprison the individual the program, no funding for it showed up in ceration rate in the world. This overcrowding players in the drug trade without doing anything his budget proposal. By simplistically viewing strains our tax dollars and law enforcement to fix the conditions that allow these players to drugs as taboo, the government is abandoning resources, while additionally increasing prison enter the game in the first place. While Ker- its own struggling citizens by prioritizing sense- violence. But more importantly, it reduces the likowske’s words give hope for a change in at- less ethical concerns over the own well-being of effectiveness of our corrections process. titude, the Obama administration has yet to put its citizens. The increase in prison overcrowding its money where its mouth is. One campaign A different approach needs to be has many causes, but it is certainly correlated to promise that Obama has gone back on is to use taken. The U.S. needs to actually focus on re- 14 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR best ways to treat heroin addicts is to remove the drug users from the streets and give them super- vised daily injections in a medical clinic. The program has drastically reduced illegal heroin use by 75 percent and eliminated two-thirds of heroin related crime. This new treatment ap- proach, which also includes addiction counsel- ing, is only about one-third of the amount that it annually costs to place these individuals in jail. A program such as this could have great success in America, but it will never develop as long as we let our fear of reform cloud our judgment. While it is important to improve treatment, it is even more essential to focus on eliminating the black market created by the drug trade. Just as prohibition in the 1920s led to a rise in organized crime and mob violence, our drug policy has created a culture of gangs that wreak havoc on urban society. As economists like Milton Friedman have pointed out, the black market violence results from a simple case of reducing drug supply to a much lower level than the demand. The reality is, when taking into account the gang wars that result from the un- derground drug economy, more people die from the effects of the war on drugs than are actually dying from drug use itself. Critics of drug policy reform will claim that making harmful drugs more widely available to the public will create more drug addicts. However, historical precedence shows that this is not the case. After prohibition, the amount of alcohol purchases as a percentage of total national consumption increased for three years before steadily declining over the next 50 years to nearly half the level it was at when the 18th Amendment was repealed. Whether drugs are illegal or not, those that want to use drugs will be able to access them one way or another. The novelty of their legalization would only be a short-term effect. Loosening our drug regulation reduc- es black market violence both domestically and in nations such as Mexico, where cartel violence has led to thousands of murders and police cor- ruption. This violence spills across our borders and into hub cities, such as Atlanta, where drug traffickers have been tied to increases in murder and kidnapping cases. Additionally, cutting off black market drugs reduces funds for the Taliban and other corrupt groups in Afghanistan, the na- tion where over 90 percent of the world’s supply of heroin comes from. It is important to note that by decrimi- habilitating drug users instead of just talking to 10.6 percent. Overall marijuana use in all nalizing drugs, the government is not advocat- about change. The first step is in this process people over the age of 15 is down to 10 per- ing drug use in any way. But the strength of the is to decriminalize drug possession. Instead of cent, which is the lowest rate in the European black market combined with the factors of over- wasting money on prosecuting and jailing non- Union and nearly a quarter of what that rate crowded prisons and urban decay makes it obvi- violent offenders, they should be sent to rehab is in the U.S. Additionally, the HIV infection ous that our current stance on drugs has failed. facilities to curb their addiction. This course of rate in Portugal’s drug users has declined by 17 It is time to wave the white flag on a war that policy was adopted by Portugal in 2001. The percent. Meanwhile, the number of individuals has ripped apart our own communities, and re- government eliminated all criminal penalties that were treated for drug addiction doubled. form our drug policy from mindless punishment for individual drug possession, and the results Additionally, the U.S. needs to ex- to sensible, safe, and effective treatment that is have been extremely successful. In its first five plore more unconventional treatment methods accessible to everyone. EPR years, drug use rates declined significantly, es- that have been proven to work better than our pecially among teenagers. All drug use in sev- current rehabilitation methods. A current study Sophomore David Michaels is a double enth to ninth graders dropped from 14.1 percent in Great Britain has discovered that one of the major in Political Science and Jour- nalism. • EPR Winter 09-10 • 15 EPR nAtion By: Andrew Hull The Right to W ith the monumental decision of D.C. v. Heller being determined by a 5-4 vote in the U.S. Supreme Court, it would seem like the guns rights activists have Bear Arms: won their constitutional battle. The District of Columbia’s gun ban was performed in an area under the exclusive governance of the federal government; its overturning indirectly implied McDonald v. Chicago that the federal government is constitutionally forbidden to abridge an individual’s right to bear arms. What about a city like Chicago, though? The question now facing the Supreme Court in the case McDonald v. Chicago, con- cerning the constitutionality of a handgun ban in Chicago, is whether or not the Second Amend- ment applies to the states. It looks like the pro- ponents of an individual’s right to bear arms 16 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR have only finished half the race. and have been applied to states through a long the Clause of any meaning. … Because I believe Although the Second Amendment as patchwork of cases. The exception is the Sec- that the demise of the Privileges or Immunities first drafted does not protect the right ond Amendment, which is why McDonald v. Clause has contributed in no small part to the from the states, there can be a constitu- Chicago is such an important case. current disarray of our Fourteenth Amendment tional argument made for the right being McDonald v. Chicago is actually one of several jurisprudence, I would be open to reevaluating indeed saved from the states. The argu- cases that were spawned post-Heller as a test its meaning in an appropriate case.” ment is known “incorporation” and it case for incorporation. Other similar cases in- finds its basis in two different parts of clude NRA v. Chicago, Guy Montag Doe v. San An issue remains, however, if McDonald were the 14th Amendment: the Privileges or Francisco Housing Authority, Nordyke v. King, to win his case: the status of the Fourteenth Immunities Clause (§1, Cl. 2) and the and Maloney v. Rice. What makes McDonald Amendment’s Due Process clause, the clause adjacent Due Process Clause (§1, Cl. 3). unique as well as a potentially landmark case originally used to facilitate incorporation. Both Incorporation, as broadly defined, is the is that it explicitly calls for the overturning of the Immunities and the Due Process clauses extension of the rights written in the Bill the Slaughterhouse Cases and the restoration of would then be interpreted to protect the rights of Rights against the states. the “full meaning” of the Privileges or Immuni- of people against the states, with the Immunities It would appear that the ties Clause. McDonald’s Petition for Certiorari Clause being far stronger in this case. The Due Privileges or Immunities Clause would states: Process clause would then seem to be redun- be the best basis for this incorporation, dant and utterly useless given the Due Process as it says, “No State shall make or en- More critically, owing to the Fourteenth Amend- clause in the Fifth Amendment, but this may not force any law which shall abridge the ment’s plain text, original purpose, and original be the case. While the Fifth Amendment’s Due privileges or immunities of citizens of public meaning, this Court should also hold the Process clause protects the same abstract right the United States.” It seems to imply the Second Amendment is incorporated through the as the 14th Amendment’s Due Process Clause, barring of creating a law that abridges Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges or Immuni- the Fifth Amendment’s meaning would be re- the rights of a citizen as found in the Bill ties Clause. Although consensus regarding this stricted when incorporated through the Privi- of Rights. This view is probably given provision’s full meaning will likely remain elu- leges and Immunities Clause to protecting only its best defense by Justice Hugo Black sive, there is now near uniform agreement that citizens. This is because the objects protected in his dissenting opinion in Adamson v. this Court’s decision in The Slaughter-House in the Immunities Clause are “citizens,” not the California in which he includes an ex- Cases, 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 36 (1873), which all broader noun “persons” that is in both of the haustive list of excerpts from congres- but eviscerated the Privileges or Immunities Due Process Clauses. The Fourteenth Amend- sional debate during the drafting the Clause, was wrongly decided. Given the pro- ment’s Due Process Clause, however, protects 14th Amendment supporting this inter- found scope of Slaughter-House’s error, and the all persons’ due process rights explicitly against pretation. confusion it has spawned in Fourteenth Amend- the states. This makes it broader than the Fifth This robust sounding ment jurisprudence, overruling Slaughter-House Amendment’s Due Process Clause as incorpo- clause, however, has been curiously remains imperative. The unique interplay be- rated through the Immunities Clause. dormant in constitutional law for most tween the Second and Fourteenth Amendments It then appears that a ruling in favor of the clause’s existence. In 1873, the makes this the ideal case in which to do so (17). of McDonald would accomplish several con- Supreme Court dispelled this reading of stitutional progressions. The Supreme Court §1, Cl. 2. “Slaughterhouse Cases”. In- Ruling in favor of McDonald, then, could not would first, with even the narrowest ruling, fi- stead, the Supreme Court has preferred only incorporate the Second Amendment to nally incorporate the Second Amendment and to use the much more controversial and the states, but also overturn the Slaughterhouse overturn a century and a half of contradicting legally complex Due Process Clause, Cases. This would be a reversal of monumen- case law. At its most ambitious, it would restore which reads, “…nor shall any State tal proportions because the Privileges and Im- the Privileges and Immunities Clause from the deprive any person of life, liberty, or munities Clause could then be used, with one constitutional gutting it received during the property, without due process of law.” broad stroke, to incorporate the entirety of the Slaughterhouse Cases. This would result in the The phrase “due process” has a long first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights. The automatic incorporation of not only the Second and complex history stretching back to wish of Black, who championed this totalistic Amendment, but also all other rights that have the Magna Carta. Without becoming or “mechanical” incorporation, would finally be not yet been formally incorporated: The right too bogged down in legal history, it means that fulfilled. The process of selective incorporation, to petition for redress of grievances in the First a legal system has to respect certain rights of a which uses rather vague and undemanding crite- Amendment, the right to indictment by a grand person while prosecuting them for a crime. ria, would become obsolete, as a right would not jury in the Fifth Amendment, the protection The easiest example of due process is have to be considered “fundamental” to qualify against excessive bails and fines in the Eighth that in order to be convicted of a crime, a person for incorporation. This ramification has resulted Amendment, and the entirety of the Third and has to be found guilty by a jury of his or her in the support of many liberal legal theorists, Seventh Amendments. McDonald v. Chicago peers. The Supreme Court has used this clause who have interests in other rights aside from is a case that, while at first glance is simply to selectively incorporate the Bill of Rights those included in the Second Amendment. the next constitutional step after the individual against the states. Rather than broadly applying The reevaluation, though perhaps not the reju- rights reading of the Second Amendment in the Bill of Rights to the states, like the Supreme venation that Black supported, of the Privileges D.C. v. Heller. However, it could also be some- Court would have done under the Immunities and Immunities Clause also has the support of thing of a new beginning in the Supreme Court’s Clause, it instead decides each of the individual many conservatives, most notably Justice Clar- jurisprudence. Black’s vision for the Privileges rights contained in the first ten amendments on ence Thomas who lamented on the state of the and Immunities clause, more than 60 years in a case-by-case basis. In order for a right to be clause in his dissent in Saenz v. Roe: the making, may finally be realized through Mc- incorporated, the right has to be “implicit in Donald v. Chicago. EPR the concept of ordered liberty,” a “fundamental “ As The Chief Justice points out, ante at 1, it Andrew Hull is a sophomore in the Col- right,” according to the Supreme Court’s ruling comes as quite a surprise that the majority relies lege and a double major in Philosophy in the 1968 case Duncan v. Louisiana. Until this on the Privileges or Immunities Clause at all in point, most of the rights in the Bill of Rights this case. That is because, as I have explained su- and Classical Civilization have been considered “fundamental rights” pra, at 1-2, The Slaughter-House Cases sapped • EPR Winter 09-10 • 17 EPR foreign AffAirs The Impact of War and Terror on Pakistan Soviet War. In the eyes of many Pakistanis, the not only that we had to decide whether we By: Mishal M. Ali United States has had a longtime unwelcome were with America or with the terrorists, but hand in their country’s politics by supporting re- that if we chose the terrorists, then we should S ituated between Afghanistan, a country pressive governments, such as that of Muham- be prepared to be bombed back to the Stone torn apart by war, and India, a longtime mad Zia-Ul-Haq, and in attempting to affect Age.” If Musharraf’s allegations are true, it enemy allied with the United States, Pak- election outcomes in other cases. is easy to see why many Pakistanis see the istan has been an enigmatic actor in South Asian Prior to 9/11, the main political prob- United States in a negative light. politics over the last decade. Since the U.S. lem that Pakistan faced was the dispute with invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, Pakistan has India over control of Kashmir, a territory that Impact of Afghanistan War on Pakistan been scrutinized by the international commu- spans the northern borders of both countries, as Although Pakistan has been politi- nity, which has offered both praise and admon- well as southern China. The international bor- cally unstable since its founding, the amount ishment for its role in the conflict. This article der between India and Pakistan in this region of internal violence it has suffered since the looks at the impact of the war on Pakistan’s civil has been disputed since the partition of India beginning of the U.S. war on terrorism is un- society by exploring public attitudes towards the and Pakistan in 1947. Before 9/11, Pakistan’s precedented in the country’s history. This is United States and Islamic extremism. ISI was also accused of supporting the Taliban due to the increasing influence of Al Qaeda in in Afghanistan—an accusation that gained enor- Pakistan. The Beginning mous political significance for the country in re- A concise summary of the prob- Pakistan has been a volatile actor sponse to the 9/11 terrorist attacks. lems Pakistan faces as a result of the U.S. inter- in South Asia since its founding in 1947. Post vention in Afghanistan comes from noted Paki- independence, it has seen multiple upheavals The Response to 9/11 and the War on Terror stani scholar M. Nasrullah Mirza who states, - from dictatorial and military governments to After 9/11, Pakistani President Mush- “An influx of millions of Afghan refugees [has] parliamentary democracy and everything in be- arraf reluctantly aligned himself with the United resulted in small arms proliferation, drug traf- tween. States, pledging that he would cooperate with ficking and increased sectarianism. Further- In Pakistan, political power is divided U.S. efforts to eradicate the Taliban. Many com- more, foreign militants have been able to infil- into three main sectors. The first sector is the munities were incensed by the government’s trate through Pakistan’s porous borders.” civilian government, led by Asif Ali Zardari stance. The Pashtun ethnic community in Paki- The political problems identified by since September of 2008. The second sector is stan, most of which resides near the border with Mirza have resulted in intensified public at- the military, which many argue holds the most Pakistan, has extensive social links with Afghani titudes about religious extremism and foreign political influence. The third branch of power is Pashtuns. The Pashtuns understood Musharaf to policy. In a 2009 study by the non-partisan In- the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). say that he would stand for the killing of many ternational Republican Institute, 90 percent of The power of the ISI, like the Central Intelli- of their brothers and relatives. Other Pakistan- Pakistanis agreed that religious extremism is gence Agency in the United States, is hard to is, particularly those from non-Pashtun ethnic a major problem in Pakistan, whereas only 63 measure due to its secrecy. groups, viewed their country’s partnership with percent agreed with the same statement in 2007. The inability of Western governments the United States as essential. In 2006, the study found that 43 percent of Paki- to understand Pakistani politics is a reflection Maybe the most telling statement stanis had a favorable opinion of U.S.-Pakistani of the complexity of Pakistani society. On one about U.S.-Pakistani relations at the time came cooperation in fighting terrorism, as compared hand, Pakistan has never been able to become a from a memoir recently written by Musharraf with 18 percent in 2009. major economic player in the region in the way titled, In the Line of Fire. In the book Musharraf The annual terrorism report published India has. On the other hand, it has been noticed alleges that the day after the attacks he received by the U.S. State Department notes that there for obtaining nuclear weapons. Many Pakistani a phone call from U.S. Secretary of State Co- were 1,839 terrorist incidents in 2008—a four- people are willing to support the United States lin Powell and was told, “you are either with fold increase from 2006. Although most of these in exchange for economic and strategic aid, but us or against us.” The next day, according to incidents took place near the border with Af- Pakistanis have not forgotten that the U.S. lent Musharaff’s account, Deputy Secretary Richard ghanistan, many others, like the assassination of support to the Mujahedeen during the Afghan- Armitage “told the director general [of the ISI] former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and the 18 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR attacks on the Sri Lankan national cricket team, five years will only help reduce violence if it is tremist organizations if the United States were happened in the eastern part of the country, dis- distributed in a way that targets the lower eco- to withdraw from Afghanistan. Without the sup- tant from conflict zones. nomic classes of society. Even if aid is distribut- port of Pakistani citizens, whether they are from So, what does this mean? First, it ed properly, Malik also contends the money will the Sindh province in southern Pakistan or from means that Al Qaeda and other sympathetic do nothing to reduce anti-American sentiment the northwest Frontier Province, the govern- organizations are attacking with greater so- in the region. To do that, he says, the U.S. must ment’s efforts will be stymied. phistication and finding many civilians who are withdraw its troops from Afghanistan. Along The only way for the Pakistani govern- sympathetic to their cause. What is less obvious with the economic aid, the legislation itself ment to find its way out of its current situation is the role of local police and the ISI in these at- requires that President Barack Obama inform is to establish transparency and accountability tacks. Pakistan is notoriously corrupt, and many Congress in detail of his Pakistani strategy. It in all three of its main power sectors. This will of these attacks cannot happen without bribes also requires Secretary of State Hillary Clinton be difficult, given that all three branches have and favors. For example, Pakistan is still facing to update him on progress of the strategy every a long tradition of corruption. If Pakistan is to corruption on a national level today. In a report six months. become a stable state, it will need help from its given to Zardari by Pakistan’s Auditor General, Nasreen Akthar, a Pakistani lecturer regional neighbors—India included. Pakistan the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was identified and scholar suggests that “building a safe so- needs to make a meaningful attempt to end the as having financial irregularities of $5 million ciety, functional state institutions, and reviving Kashmir conflict and show India that greater se- (U.S.) in 2007-2008. Pakistani corruption is the economy of Afghanistan would bring tre- curity in Pakistan will lead to a more secure In- not only a problem at the national level but also mendous benefit to all its neighbors” because dia, as well as a more stable South Asia. While stems down to the local level where police are of the potential for economic integration with Pakistan has been seen as an enigmatic actor, its often paid off to “keep quiet” about illegal ac- Afghanistan. Many experts have suggested that actions may be the difference between winning tivities. resolving the Kashmir dispute with India will and losing the battle against Islamic extremism benefit both countries economically and free up in South Asia. EPR Proposed Solutions to the problem resources that are spent on the conflict. Mishal M. Ali is a senior in the College and Experts have proposed different ways The most important thing the Paki- of helping Pakistan combat its growing threats. stani government can do for itself is to convince a Political Science and Economics double Mustafa Malik, writing in Middle East Policy, its people that this is their war. Pakistan is a very major. agrees that the Obama administration’s decision weak state, and many believe that Pakistan will to send Pakistan $1.5 billion in aid over the next not have the institutional capacity to handle ex- • EPR Winter 09-10 • 19 EPR foreign AffAirs Russia Resurgent? By: Peter Wolf (with special thanks to Prof. T.F. Remington) A little over ten years ago, Russia was regarded as the “sick man” of Europe. It was a Pandora’s box of problems: ethnic strife, crippling poverty, a tortured economy, soaring rates of alcoholism, drug use, and AIDS, and an ineffec- tive government fraught with endemic corrup- tion. One could hardly believe it to be the same country that had once so strongly contended for world dominance. But when we look at Russia today, one word continues to crop up, over and over again: “Resurgent.” And indeed, the adjective is well-deserved. Russia has emerged from the dark, uncertain days of the post-Soviet collapse as a vigorous and, prior to the recent economic downturn, economically dynamic country de- termined to reassert its role as a major player on the world stage. This reality is nowhere more apparent than in the realm of European affairs. Yet, for all of this newfound strength, clout, and wealth, this resurrected bear may not be as stur- dy as many might believe. To fully understand the future of Rus- so-European relations, one must look at these blocks’ rather complicated past. Like most other countries, Russia’s foreign policy is dictated by its national interest, yet never before in history have these interests been more opaque. Under both the tsars and Soviets, the cornerstone of Russian foreign policy had a common theme: dominance: dominance over what Russia re- fers to as its “near-abroad,” the independent states that emerged after the collapse of the USSR. Justification for Russian dominance has come in many guises throughout history: Pan- Slavism, the defense of the Orthodox faith, du- bious claims of continuity with the Byzantine Empire, and, in more recent memory, Russia’s self-anointed role as the leader of International Communism. Today, each of these dogmas has been largely discredited and for once, Russia faces the realm of global politics without the backing of an ideology with internationalist appeal. Yet as early as 2001, despite the manifold weakness of his country at the time, President Vladimir Putin asserted Russia’s right to have major in- fluence in its “near abroad,” declaring the region to be within his country’s “sphere of influence.” 20 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR Too many European countries that once lay un- In recent years, this intense self- der direct Russian control, Putin’s words, while awareness has been coupled with increased by no means novel, were nonetheless worri- Russian anxiety regarding its neighbors. Al- some. In 2004, the traditionally Russophobic though they are both members of the Shanghai Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithua- Cooperation Organization (a sort of Eurasian nia joined both NATO and the European Union, NATO), Russia has become wary of China and a move which may very well have been partly its efforts to dominate the security pact, since motivated by the protection these organizations Central Asia is an area of high Russian focus as offer against any possible Russian aggression. well. There, Russia must compete with China, Yet Europe in general has so far been unsure of and to some degree the United States as well, how to respond to this new Russia. It is unused for power and influence amongst the newly- to a Kremlin that no longer desires dominance, independent, savvy, and immensely energy-rich but rather influence instead. Moreover, Russia republics of Central Asia. now also has firm control over Europe’s energy However, this situation does not mean supplies: the European Union (EU) presently that Russia has turned its back on Europe. Far imports nearly half of its natural gas and 30 per- from it, since the Ukraine is an ever-present cent of its oil from Russia, and Russia has been concern to Russia. The Kremlin believes that far from shy in taking advantage of this fact. In Ukrainian admission to the EU or NATO would a report issued by the Swedish Defense Agency severely jeopardize Russian national security in 2007, 55 incidents involving Russian energy and is actively working to prevent any such suppliers, including cut-offs, explicit threats, event from occurring. coercive price policy, and certain takeovers, The Ukraine has become more and were listed since 1991, most of which were de- more a source of contention in the years follow- termined to have “both political and economic ing the Orange Revolution of 2004-2005. Since underpinnings.” 2008, the government has become cripplingly Along with showcasing its formidable polarized, with Viktor Yushchenko’s flagging skills at this game of petropolitics, Russia has pro-Western faction competing with the increas- also proven itself very adept at playing EU mem- ingly-popular blocs led by Yulia Tymoshenko bers off of one another. Italy and Germany, two and Viktor Yanukovych, both of which favor of Russia’s largest trading partners, have consis- rapprochement with Russia. tently defended Russian actions, even over such Political quagmire aside, Ukraine also issues as blatant as Russia’s “accidental” shutoff faces a crisis of national unity. Ukrainians in the of EU gas supplies after a row with Ukraine over eastern part of the country much more readily gas transport earlier this year. France has also identify with Russia and Russian culture than begun to take a more conciliatory tone towards with that of their homeland. This situation is Moscow. During the controversial 2008 South especially true in the strategically vital Crimea, Ossetia War, the United Kingdom was the only which has flirted with secession, wherein 58 Western European nation to condemn both Rus- percent of the populace is ethnically Russian sia’s overly-aggressive response and Georgia’s and 77 percent report Russian as their native recklessness, while Germany, Italy, and others language. Of particular note is the fact that the issued statements critical of Georgia and largely Russian government has been distributing pass- sympathetic to Russia. This instance is perhaps ports to Ukrainians in the south and east. This one of the most visible illustrations of the EU’s act is especially ominous not only because of disjointed stance towards Russia. Russia’s declared policy of militarily interven- Many could take, and have taken, ing to protect Russian citizens abroad, but also these circumstances as proof that Russia has re- because many South Ossetians were issued Rus- emerged as a neo-imperialist power bent on a sian passports in the months leading up to the policy of coercion and adventurism. The reality Georgian War. of the situation, however, is vastly different. Far It is undeniable that the future holds from seeing itself as a reborn superpower, Rus- great potential for conflict between Russia and sia is vividly aware of the distrust with which the West. The reality of the situation, how- it is seen by other countries, and it knows what ever, is not that Russia has reemerged to bully sort of alarms the idea of Russian expansionism and browbeat its way to supremacy, but rather sets off in the rest of the world. When South Os- it is trying to find its place in a rapidly chang- setia and Abkhazia asked to be absorbed into ing world. Its attempts have so far been at once Russia in the wake of the Georgian War, they clumsy and deft, promising and suspicious. The were instantly denied. The breakaway republics bear has reawakened to a world much changed of Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh were from the one it left. It is defensive, anxious, and, met with the same icy dismissal when they too above all, unsure; therefore, we must treat it asked for integration into the Russian Federa- with caution. EPR tion. These so-called “frozen conflicts” have no Peter Wolf is a freshman in the college foreseeable end, largely due to the fact that it is and is undeclared. in Russia’s best interest to keep them alive so that they may be used as pressure points when- ever Russian interest calls for it. • EPR Winter 09-10 • 21 EPR foreign AffAirs The Hearts and Minds of Palestine 22 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR cal Association in 1997. The Scientific Medical ishing, to some, it is just another example of By: Jonathan Silberman Association coordinates the activities of various Hamas providing a needed social service. The medical centers and blood bank that Hamas has group has now entered into matchmaking. In F or years, Hamas has been labeled a ter- set up in the Palestinian Authority. These medi- the conservative Islamic community of the Gaza rorist organization by the European cal centers are willing to treat anyone at lower strip, women are supposed to marry young and Union and the United States, among rates than other medical clinics, or for free if are matched to husbands through their mothers. others. The group’s own charter says that it is a person is unable to pay. The medical centers However, many women in their mid-twenties, waiting to “obliterate [Israel]” and that there is are also popular because the doctors are “good who are old by Gaza’s standards, are still single no solution except, “…jihad. Initiatives, propos- Muslims” and are trusted by some of the more and their families have given up trying to find als and international conferences are all a waste religious Palestinians. One example of a medi- matches. So Hamas has set up a service, Tayseer of time and vain endeavors.” Yet Hamas won a cal facility is the Jaffa Medical Center. It is a Association for Marriage and Development, 2006 democratic, parliamentary election, and five-story hospital with three floors devoted to where single women can apply to be matched polls conducted by the Palestinian Center for outpatient clinics. There is a dental facility, a with a suitable husband. Men and women both Policy and Survey Research as late as March large x-ray room, two operating rooms, and sur- fill out a questionnaire and then apply to Tay- 2009 showed the organization winning 47 per- gical and medical wards, among other services seer to be matched. Tayseer tries to find simi- cent of the vote if an election were held at that for men and women. One-third of the doctors lar matches on the questionnaires and then sets time. there are female, so female patients can be treat- up a meeting for the couple through employers How has an organization labeled by ed by doctors of the same sex. Another example or mutual friends. If the meeting goes well, the the outside world as a terrorist organization man will tell his family to visit the woman’s gained popularity? It is easy to dismiss Hamas’ popularity, but it is much harder to take a step “Hamas has been family and hopefully the two can be married. Hamas has arranged at least 40 marriages in the two years since it first opened the Tayseer As- back and try to figure out why Hamas has gained the support of ordinary, everyday Pales- tinian people. successful at so- sociation. Despite its social work, Hamas is a Hamas’ first and most resonant mes- sage in its 2006 campaign was that it would end cial services be- terrorist organization and should be stopped. As Harvard Law Professor Allan Dershowitz wrote, “Hamas leaders have echoed the man- the corruption that has plagued the Palestinian Authority (PA). The Fatah Party had run the entire PA until its defeat in the 2006 elections, cause they see tra of Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbol- lah that, ‘we are going to win because they love life and we love death.’” Hamas launches rock- where corruption was a substantial reason for it’s loss. The Fatah leader, Mahmoud Abbas, is a great example of this; he lives in a stone man- what the people ets from schools, playgrounds, and hospitals in the Gaza strip at Israeli schools, playgrounds, sion with extensive security. This, of course, is nothing compared to the $1.3 billion net-worth need and try to and hospitals; they hides rockets, missiles, and other weapons in mosques and other civilian lo- cations; Hamas militants do not wear uniforms of Hamas’ former leader Yasser Arafat at the time of his death. Most of that fortune was made by transferring funds designated to help the provide it.” so they cannot be distinguished from civilians; Hamas’ actions are intended to increase the people living inside the PA into his own private deaths of Israelis and to create a situation where of a clinic is the Al Quds clinic in the southern any response from Israel would create as many accounts. Even though 47 percent of the West part of the Gaza strip. This clinic contains pedi- Bank and 80 percent of the Gaza strip live on dead Palestinian civilians as possible, which atrics, maternal, orthodontics, and post-surgical Hamas considers to be good publicity; Hamas under $2 a day, Fatah’s oldest leaders made a care, and now reaches 400 people a month. fortune creating monopolies, draining aid, grab- uses summer camps to indoctrinate hate of Is- Another service that was lacking in rael, militancy, and support for themselves; the bing properties, and making protection rackets. the PA was providing food for those who cannot Perhaps even more alarming was that while all camp teaches skills that will prepare children afford it. Hamas is willing to give food and cash to kill Israelis; Hamas’ schools refuse to teach government workers received full pay under Fa- to anyone who asks for it. Hamas and its affili- tah, 20 percent did not show up to work. what happened during the Holocaust, and in- ated organizations operate dozens of food banks stead teach that it is a Jewish fabrication and a Hamas’ promises in 2006 were sim- and soup kitchens. In 2001, one Hamas-affiliat- ple and effective. The organization agreed to political issue. ed charity provided 33 percent of total food and Elections are now overdue in Pales- require all government institutions and depart- cash assistance, while its umbrella organization ments to open their records, including financial tine, as they were scheduled for January 2010 provided another 21 percent. In the alleys near a but are likely to be delayed. Hamas is losing in records, which had been private under Fatah. refugee camp, families receive $40 to $100 per It promised that all institutions would keep ac- current polls and has declared that they will take month, along with beans, flour, eggs, and other action against anyone trying to vote in the Gaza curate records of their actions. Hamas also said essential foods. One Palestinian-Christian said it would set up complaint departments for each strip. Meanwhile, Fatah’s leader Mahmoud Ab- that Hamas was so popular because you would bas has claimed he will not run for re-election department of Government that worked with the wake up and “find a box of [food] staples like Attorney General’s office. Hamas has not been and will soon step down as leader of the PA. oil and sugar here on the sidewalk.” Hamas pro- Other top Fatah officials are talking of resigning as effective in fighting corruption, as its prom- vided food baskets for people shortly before the ises would make it appear. Many problems have because the peace process has still failed to cre- 2006 elections. More recently, it has provided ate a Palestinian state. These are very uncertain arisen within its government. However, Hamas free iftar, the meal that breaks the Ramadan fast, is still seen as less corrupt than Fatah. times in the Palestinian Administration, but we to some residents of East Jerusalem. Hamas also can be certain of one thing: that Hamas’ role as As a result of Fatah’s corruption, provided cash to people who were hurt during money that should have been spent on pub- a central player in Palestinian politics will con- Israel’s recent operation in the Gaza strip. tinue to make it a major power in the Middle lic services was not, and among other things, Hamas has been successful at social the health infrastructure was underdeveloped. East for years to come. EPR services because they see what the people need Hamas stepped up and filled the void to the best and try to provide it. While Hamas’ latest out- Freshman Jonathan Silberman is a of its abilities by creating the Scientific Medi- reach effort may seem surprising, even aston- Political Science major in the College. • EPR Winter 09-10 • 23 EPR foreign AffAirs cal realm. People often forget that anyone can drive social change, not just politicians. Law- 2010 FIFA World Cup: making is not the only way of problem-solving. The indispensable, but sometimes subtle, power of the people is too often overshadowed by po- More than Just a Game litical muddle. Although officials and adminis- trators brought the World Cup to South Africa, By: Amanda Mac many of the activities we consider to be staple ordinary people from inside the country will N bring a special and profound meaning to the ext June, South Africa will make history by parts of our culture are not solely ours. Music, tournament itself. becoming the first African country to host film, and sports are not exclusively Western Hosting the World Cup is a first for soccer’s most prestigious tournament: the forms of entertainment. The universality of arts South Africa, but the idea of using sports to FIFA World Cup. Hosting a first-class international and sports brings together people of many dif- unite people is not new. In 1995, only a year af- event represents a chance for the world to witness a ferent backgrounds and environments. A group ter the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made a special part of Africa that is normally overshadowed of teenagers in London can listen to the same decision to try to bring the Rugby World Cup to by headlines about war, disease, and poverty. music as a group of teenagers in Shanghai. Like- his country. For him, it was not only an opportu- Positive news about Africa is largely ab- wise, a game of soccer played in an American nity to turn the international community’s eyes sent from news media reports. This is not because neighborhood is the same as a game played in on the new, democratic South Africa, but it was positive news does not exist, but because it is not South Africa. also a chance to take a major step in bringing covered. For example, the media constantly reports Bringing the World Cup to South Af- together a once broken country. Rugby in South discouraging HIV/AIDS statistics but overlooks rica is an extremely expensive undertaking that Africa was a symbol of white power during stories such as Namibia’s massive improvements will cost billions of dollars. However, this mas- the Apartheid days, so the decision to host the in providing antiretroviral therapy (coverage is up sive expenditure comes with promise of a high rugby World Cup was a major turning point in from just 1 percent in 2003 to 88 percent in 2007). return on the money invested in development. post-Apartheid reconstruction. Mandela viewed Although reports on violence and human suffering Stadiums, roads, and railroads are investments the tournament as an opportunity to reconcile in Africa bring awareness to a misun- South Africa’s whites and blacks, urg- derstood and underrepresented conti- ing people of all colors to support the nent, many journalists sensationalize Springboks under the mantra, “One these problems. Positive change in Team, One Nation.” Africa does not happen overnight, but As the Springboks claimed journalists tend to focus on timely con- more and more victories, public support troversies over gradual improvements. for the team skyrocketed. At the final, For instance, Mozambique, a formerly South Africans eagerly watched the war-torn country in southern Africa, Springboks play a fierce game against has averaged an impressive eight per- New Zealand where they finally won in cent growth rate for nearly a decade. overtime. As the entire stadium erupted This news, however, remarkable as it in excitement, South Africa’s first black is, will probably never make headlines. President made his way onto the field. Africa is not just huts and With the crowd chanting, “Nelson, warriors, nor is it a static, unchanging Nelson!” he mounted the platform and place. People often forget that many turned to face the people of South Af- African nation-states are still quite rica. When Mandela presented the tro- young and face a unique set of prob- for South Africa’s future that will remain for phy to Springbok team captain Francois lems that are both directly and indirectly tied to the many years after the World Cup ends. Pienaar, the captain replied, “No, Mr. President. continent’s colonial past. Gaining independence was As with any other important interna- Thank you for what you have done,” a sign of a messy process for many African states. tional event, there has been some controversy the unifying power of the game. Beyond the sta- When the imperial powers decolonized in around the 2010 World Cup. This past July, for dium, in townships and villages all across South a hurry, the newly-independent states had few tools instance, stadium construction workers went Africa, blacks and whites joined each other in to deal with the consequences of years of destruc- on strike, demanding better compensation and celebration of their country’s win. When asked tion. Neocolonialism and the lingering effects of benefits. Additionally, other protestors have at the trophy ceremony what he thought of the colonialism were some of the greatest obstacles to accused the South African government of put- fans cheering in the stadium, team captain, Pi- development in Africa. Groups like the International ting too much focus on spending on World Cup enaar said that the 65,000 South Africans in the Monetary Fund (IMF) now echo the domination and preparations while neglecting important social stadium were only a fraction of the 43 million coercion tactics practiced by some colonial powers. issues like health care. Human rights groups South Africans who stood behind them on that Rather than criticizing development failures, people have alleged that evictions related to World Cup day. should consider the enormity of the challenges fac- construction are a thinly veiled attempt to hide In 2010, the international community ing Africa today. Of the 25 lowest ranked countries poverty from visitors who will attend the tour- will get a chance to witness an even greater, on the United Nations Human Development Index nament. One major controversy, for example, more advanced, and more unified South Africa rankings, all but two are African nations. With such involves the South African government’s plan to than it saw in 1995. People will see the progress enormous development gaps to close, it will take pa- move approximately 20,000 residents from the the country has made and get a glimpse of the tience and dedication to make the necessary changes Joe Slovo Informal Settlement in Cape Town bright future that is possible for the region. It is to improve these countries’ standings. We must re- to a housing district in the impoverished Delft time for the world to revolutionize its thinking form our thinking and realize that although there are Township on the outskirts of the city. South Af- on Africa and developing nations. We must stop many challenges for the citizens in Africa, there are rica has so far dealt with these problems tact- thinking of Africa only in terms of what sets us also many opportunities. fully and insisted that preparations will be com- apart from it and instead think of what unites us. Contemporary Africa is as modern and pleted on time. EPR diverse in its social, cultural and political environ- Sophomore Amanda Mac is an International Next year’s World Cup also presents ments as any other country. People often forget that an opportunity for change outside of the politi- Studies and Global Health double major. 24 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR pop Culture these new pseudo-pundits than past efforts to get young voters out to the polls? The answer lies Comedy in Campaigns in the idea of entertainment. Although the idea of 73-year old Senator and former presidential candidate John McCain speaking to 20-some- things in a New York studio seems ineffective and dry, comedy can simultaneously be effective By: Rui Zhong in drawing attention to issues and keeping them on the issues. During the 2008 season, one par- I t can be said quite ironically that the media’s tion season, Stewart was able to host both ticularly striking moment is Stewart’s interview fixation on politics is old news. However, an presidential candidates, Senator John McCain of McCain, when he discussed the politicians’ emerging trend in the world of politics is not and then-Senator Barack Obama to voice view- changing tactics in regards to his traditional role what the media focuses on, but how it is able to points, while Colbert had Democratic presiden- as a ‘maverick’ of the Republican Party. When change the game of politics itself. tial candidates then-Senator Hillary Clinton and the moment calls for it, there is seriousness in For many years, politicians have al- then-Senator John Edwards during the fierce the policies and politics that he discusses. ways been attempting to develop methods in three-way Democratic primary in the spring and In the case of Colbert, a similar trend capturing one particularly slippery demographic summer of 2007. As the general election of No- of mobilization occurs. His exaggerated ap- during national elections: the youth vote. Thus, vember 2008 approached, Colbert and Stewart proach to campaigns and policies in effect in recent years, the shows of late-night comedi- had their say in situations such as the introduc- humanizes the veritable flaws of politicians ans, such as The Colbert Report and The Daily tion of Sarah Palin as the Vice-Presidential Can- and pundits, providing a simultaneously light- Show have begun to exert influence over the didate for the Republican Party, the Presidential hearted yet poignant observation of the quirks game of campaigning, most notably over young and Vice-Presidential Debates, and finally their of news and politics. voters, as well as the entire American political joint coverage of the historic election night it- The impact that comedians can have culture. self, of which Barack Obama emerged presi- on the American political culture, especially Although The Daily Show and The dent-elect. popular culture, is to reformat it to be approach- Colbert Report both help attract attention to 2008’s election season is shown pri- able by the public, especially the youth. Al- campaigns, news, and politics, for their niche marily as a season in which the youth vote was though the observations made on shows such as audience of under-30s, their formats and mes- significant in determining results. With shows the Daily Show and the Colbert Report are first sages about politics differ. such as The Daily Show and The Colbert Report and foremost funny, they can be, at the same Jon Stewart of The Daily Show fo- spurring the interests of recently enfranchised time, meaningful in stirring interest in public cuses on news events and the media’s approach voters, information is far more accessible to the policy. EPR on politics. With a format imitating those of young voter than it has been in the past, work- prime-time news networks, he and his motley ing in tandem but not cooperatively with efforts Rui Zhong is a freshman in the College. team of correspondents face elections, scandals, such as MTV’s “Rock the Vote.” She is double majoring in Political Science and policies with a sarcastic edge that is light on What differentiates the strategy of and East Asian Studies. political correctness and heavy on the uncomfortable truth. Contrasting the wise- cracking Stewart is the blustery, self-centered persona of Stephen Colbert. In his show, The Colbert Report, Colbert delves into the as- pect of personality and charisma in politics, parodying a blowhard conservative pundit with very skewed world views and a stereo- typical American stubbornness against facts. He instead works by the idea of “truthiness”, favoring gut instinct and stale jingoisms to solve essentially any problem that America faces. Although these comedi- ans assure the media from time to time that their primary business is funny, there is inevitable influence stemming from these Comedy Central programs into real-world politics. Both Colbert and Stew- art regularly host interviews with hopeful politicians and activists; their evening shows are booked with Senators, prominent political authors, and candidates for key elections. During the 2008 elec- • EPR Winter 09-10 • 25 EPR speCiAl “King of Pop” Michael Jackson dies (50) 25 G20 Summit EPR $500 billion made available 2 to IMF, $100 billion to World Bank; G20 to move against 2009 YEAR territorially-based tax havens GM declares bankruptcy Noted abortionist Dr. George 1 Tiller is shot and killed at the Reformation Lutheran Church in 31 Wichita, Kansas in REVIEW Chrysler declares Chapter 11 Bankruptcy Sen. Ensign 30 The first of the “Big Three” admits affair to declare bankruptcy after 16 bailouts fail to sustain it, its equity ownership is now split between U.S. and Canadian governments, Fiat, and the Gov. Swearing in of By: Grant Wallensky United Auto Workers Union 24 Sanford 44th President, retiree medical fund. admits 20 Barack Obama Compiled by: Lilly Zhong and Christina Yang affair Jan. Feb. March April May June American journalists Bernard Madoff Milorad Arlen Spector Stimulus Bill signed Euna Lee and Laura sentenced to 150 years 15 Blagojevich 17 (Senator-PA) 29 29 into law in prison switches party 28North Korean Second removed 14 Ling are detained by The American Recovery North Korea as Illinois affiliation and Reinvestment Act is Nuclear Test (under- Governor In June, they are sentenced 25 nominally valued at $787 ground) to 12 years of hard labor. billion. On August 5th, Kim Jong-il pardoned the two women after American International former president Bill Clinton Waxman-Markey Group (AIG) bonus passes House publicly arrived in North Korea 26 Isreali controversy 15 unanncounced. Cap-and-Trade bill Election currently stalled in Benjamin 10 Senate Netanyahu Iranian election and “Twitter Revolution” of Likud Ahmadinejad wins 12 appointed Hijacking of Maersk Prime Alabama by Somali another term in office, 2 Pirates opposition candidate Minister Ship, crew and captain Mousavi cries foul, rescued by April 12; protests and worldwide attempted hijacking condemnation of the Nov. 18 is repulsed use of violence against successfully protestors lasts a few weeks 26 • EPR Winter 09-10 • EPR Afghanistan troop President Obama declares surge 24 H1N1 (swine) flu a national 1 President Obama emergency As of Nov. 14, the CDC calls for 30,000 Cash 4 Clunkers more troops claims processing estimates that in the U.S. begins 24 alone there had been 9,820 deaths caused by swine flu CA mammogram 60th Anniversary of subsidies for middle People’s Republic of 1 aged women ends China 1 Dubai defaults Dubai World Sotomayor sworn in 26 announces inten- Landmark health The Supreme Court’s 8 first Hispanic justice tion to delay care bill passed and third female justice debt payments; (60-39) 24 all markets Al Franken Japanese Election decline briefly. assumes office Yukio Hatoyama’s Democratic Tiger Woods 7 Sarah Palin steps down 30 Party of Japan defeats Liberal involved in as Minnesota Chicago eliminated as Alaskan Governor 27 early-morning car Senator 26 Democratic Party, the latter’s from the first ballot in second defeat since 1955. 2 IOC voting. accident Diane Sawyer Announcement is the new that Khalid Sheik 21 ABC World Founder of Mohammed to be 13 News anchor Special Olympics tried in NYC 11 Eunice Shriver dies (88) Exchange of fire off Perpetrator of the 2002 D.C. Korean peninsula 10 Beltway Sniper Attacks, claiming 10 lives, John Allen Gubernatorial United States Elections 3 Muhammed is executed (48) Republicans win gubernatorial elections in VA, NJ; Democrats claim victory in NY-23 July August Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec. Barack Obama calls arrest of Saudi Arabia Gates “teachable moment” 22 and Iran begin 5 Strategic proxy war Arms Reduction 5 Fort Hood Treaty 5 Shootings extended Broadcast journalist and CBS Evening 17 News anchorman Actor Patrick President Obama wins 2009 Abu Dhabi bails Walter Cronkite dies Swayze dies (57) 9 Nobel Peace Prize (92) 14 14 out Dubai United States Senator United States Edward “Ted” Kennedy scraps Missile Environmental dies (77) Defense System 17 7 Protection Agency for E. Europe classifies CO2 as “PelosiCare” pollutant 25 passes House 7 Federal Reserve “The Godfather of Transparency neo-conservatism” 19 Act 18 Irving Kristol dies “Balloon Boy Hoax” (89) 15 “ClimateGate” The Climactic 17 Research Unit in the University of East Anglia is hacked, its data released; climate skeptics immediately accuse the CRU of data manipulation • EPR Winter 09-10 • 27 Calling all WRITERS, ADVERTISING MANAGERS and WEB SAVVY Emory students... Emory Political Review wants you Send a message to ‘Emory Political Review’ on LearnLink to receive more information.