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                                       What health Care Boils DoWn to
                                   Why hamas is so suCCessful in Palestine
                         the Daily shoW, the ColBert rePort, anD PolitiCs
Emory Political Review                                2009 year in revieW
Volume VIII, Issue 2

  The Future of U.S. Power
    Volume VIII, No. 2
                                                Letter from the editors
                                                Well, there goes another year. 2009 will be remembered as
                                                the year the death of Michael Jackson united the world, whilst
                                                the murder of abortionist Dr. George Tiller divided our nation.
                                                While Iran filled its streets with protestors decked in green, the
                                                People’s Republic of China celebrated its 60th anniversary in
                         Christina Yang
                         Lilly Zhong
                                                a haze of red and yellow. Although South Carolina Governor
                                                Mark Sanford made extramarital affairs international, Tiger
                                                Woods reintroduced the word “harem” to the 21st century. To
                         Grant Wallensky        say the least, it’s been quite a year for the average American,
                                                the politician, and the celebrity.
Executive Editor
                         Andrew Hull
                                                The year started off with a bang. It brought us our first African
      Senior Copy                               American president, our first Hispanic Supreme Court Justice,
           Editor                               and the real possibility of redeeming America’s image in the
                                                eyes of the international community. But the positives were
                         Amanda L. Carey
                                                soon overshadowed by such problems as rising unemploy-
     Copy Editors                               ment, growing international security threats, and the relentless
                         Kristin Bielling       worldwide recession. Indeed, no place was left untouched by
                         Lindsey Bomnin
                                                the headlines of 2009, including our own Emory University.
                         Sara Hagey
                                                Students dealt with rising tuition, cuts in club funding, and the
                         Monroe Hammond
                         James Hamraie          “Swine ‘09.”
                         Elizabeth Janszky
                         Eddie Lopez-Lugo       This issue covers everything from the U.S. as a world power to
                         Kathryn Madison        the prospects of democracy in Iraq to the new possibilities the
                         Victor Rudo            FIFA World Cup brings to South Africa. And though we may
                         Hali Michele Stokes    not have as many articles as Tiger Woods has mistresses, we
                         Laura D. Withers       hope that the articles we do have will provide you, the reader,
    Senior Layout                               with a greater understanding of some of our world’s important
           Editor                               happenings.
                         Gregoire E. Taillet
                                                With the onset of 2010, Emory Political Review — along with
     Story Editors                              the rest of the world — is looking to revamp itself. We are
                         Monroe Hammond         launching our new and refurbished website, in which we hope
                         David Michaels         to incorporate new media forms (think Huffington Post and
                         Anuj Panday
                                                Twitter feeds). To make up for budget cuts, we are looking into
                         Peter Rasmussen
                                                advertising. And of course, we always welcome new writers,
                                                new stories, and new readers. Here’s to 2010.
                         Mishal Ali
                         Shalini Ramachandran
                                                                                          - Christina and Lilly
                                                                                                This issue’s layout was done by
                                                                                                                 Christina Yang
                                                                                   Editor’s Note: Unless otherwise noted, art is either
                                                                               created by C. Yang or taken from Photos.com, Google
2                                                                              Images or Wikipedia. All art from Wikipedia is part of
                                                                                        the public domain and is used under fair use.
                   january 2010
  Current Affairs                     Cover Story
  4-5 Dissecting Health Care          10-13 U.S. Hegemony Challenged?

  Spotlight                           Foreign Affairs
   6 Democracy in Iraq?                       The Impact of War and
                                              Terror on Pakistan
                                      20-21 Russia Resurgent
   7 Should We End the Fed?
                                              The Hearts and Minds of
     The Future of Global             22-23
   8                                          Palestine
                                              2010 FIFA World Cup:
   9 The Scope of Executive Power             More than Just a Game
                                        25 Comedy in Compaigns
14-15 America’s Failed War on Drugs
16-17 The Right to Bear Arms:         26-27 Year in Review
      McDonald v. Chicago
Current AffAirs

     By: Lilly Zhong and Christina Yang                          Health Care
              tarting from the beginning of
              2009, plans for a major overhaul
              of the American health care system
      have rumbled onward, gaining steam and
      momentum toward the end of the year.
      Democrats and Republicans have argued
      vigorously over health care reform, with
      the two sides bearing almost irreconcil-
      able views. Democrats view health care
      reform as a major step in giving millions
      of uninsured Americans coverage and in
      cutting the costs of health care overall. Re-
      publicans staunchly oppose the government
      playing such a large role in the health care
      system, claiming that the proposed reforms
      will weaken the insurance coverage of those
      who already have it. However, as debates over
      the public option, “death panels,” and abor-
      tion coverage rage on, President Obama has
      remained true to his campaign promise to push
      for universal health care, and results are com-
      ing in. Despite almost unanimous opposition
      by the Republicans, what began as—and still
      remains—a hotly debated topic has finally been
      consolidated into a concrete form. On November
      7, 2009, a version of the health care bill passed
      the House, with a 220 to 215 vote. On Decem-
      ber 24, 2009, the Senate also passed a version of
      health care reform, albeit with some differences
      from the House edition and along party lines, in
      the first Christmas Eve Senate vote since 1895.
                So what now? The next step is for two
      versions of the bill to go to a conference committee,
      in which the House and the Senate must combine
      the two forms and agree on a final version. Though
      some major disparities (e.g. the public option)
      exist, the current outlines contain some common
      stipulations. To expand coverage, a greater number
      of low-income people would become eligible for
      Medicaid, and subsidies would be provided to some
      middle-income individuals to help them buy insur-
      ance. Insurance companies would be prohibited from
      denying coverage to individuals based on preexisting
      conditions, and insurance exchanges, where people and
      small businesses can essentially “shop” for insurance,
      would be created. Individuals who are currently under
      employer insurance (about 160 million) would remain
      that way, and almost everyone would be required to get
      insurance or else face certain penalties. To help decipher
      the ins and outs of health care reform, here’s a look at the
      specifics of what may be in the final version of the bill.
                                                                                  Information taken by the New York Times

 4                                                         • EPR Winter 09-10 •

Now...what’s the difference?
       Issue                             House                                                  Senate
Cost                    Would cost $1.1 trillion over a decade,        Would cost $871 billion over a decade, reducing the deficit
                        which surpasses Obama’s $900 billion           by $132 billion, and possibily an additional reduction of
                        decade spending cap.                           approximately $1.3 trillion over the second decade, ac-
                                                                       cording to estimates by the Congressional Budget Office.
Public Option           Includes a government-run insurance            Does not include a public option. Instead, the Office of
                        program that offers plans competitive with     Personnel Management, which supervises health plans for
                        the private market. The government would       federal workers, would oversee national plans offered in
                        negotiate rates with health care providers.    the health insurance exchanges.
Individual              Requires the majority of people to get         Requires most people to either have health insurance or
Requirements            health insurance or pay a penalty of up to     pay a penalty, which begins at $95 in 2014 and increases
                        2.5 percent of their income. In addition to    to $750 two years later.
                        subsidies for the poor, this plan extends
                        coverage to approximately 36 million
Employer                Employers are required to contribute to        Employers are not required to provide health insurance.
Requirements            health insurance for employees. However,       However, companies with over 50 employees will be
                        businesses with payrolls under $500,000        charged with a penalty for any employee whose health
                        are exempt, which is approximately 86          insurance the government ends up subsidizing.
                        percent of all American businesses.

Financial Assistance Includes subsidies to help those making           Includes subsidies to help cover those making up to 400
                        up to 400 percent of the federal poverty       percent of the federal poverty level (presently, $88,000/
                        level pay for health insurance premiums.       year for a family of four) and expands Medicaid to include
                        Medicaid eligibility would be expanded         those making 133 percent of the federal poverty level.
                        for low-income families and individuals,
                        as well as cover new preventive services,
                        and increase payments for check-ups.
New Taxes               The wealthiest Americans (individu-            Imposes a 40 percent tax on high-cost insurance plans
                        als making over $500,000 and families          (valued over $8,500 per individual and $23,000 per fam-
                        making above $1 million) would pay a           ily). A 10 percent tax on indoor tanning services will be
                        surcharge on a portion of their income.        enacted, which is expected to raise $2.7 billion in the first
                                                                       decade. Also increases Medicare payroll taxes from 1.45
                                                                       to 2.35 percent on individuals earning $200,000 a year and
                                                                       couples earning $250,000.
Abortion                The new public option does not cover           Creates a “firewall” to prevent federal subsidies from go-
                        abortion except in cases of rape, incest, or   ing toward abortion coverage. In plans covering abortion,
                        threat to the life of the pregnant woman.      beneficiaries would have to pay for it separately, and those
                        Also bans people from using government         funds would have to be kept in a separate account from
                        subsidies to purchase private plans with       taxpayer money.
                        abortion coverage.
Medicare Changes        Reduces Medicare spending by ap-               Reduces Medicare spending by approximately $395 bil-
                        proximately $440 billion over a decade by      lion over ten years, including cuts to private insurance
                        reducing payments to private insurance         plans. In 2010, Medicare beneficiaries will also receive
                        plans that serve Medicare patients and by      $500 towards paying for prescription drugs not currently
                        requiring hospitals and other health care      covered because of cost, falling into the so-called “dough-
                        providers to operate more efficiently. The     nut hole.”
                        plan also includes several new benefits for
                        seniors, including more preventive care
                                                                               Information supplied by the National Public Radio

                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                    5

                                                                                                                   ing encountered.
                                                                                                                              Iraq also has an oil problem. As men-
                                                                                                                   tioned earlier, UCLA professor and political sci-
                                                                                                                   entist Michael Ross claims in “Does Oil Hinder

                                                                                                                   Democracy?” that oil has been sustaining the
                                                                                                                   existence of authoritarian regimes. Even when a
                                                                                                                   democratic system is being experimented with,
                                                                                                                   Iraqi officials are responsible for re-distributing
                                                                                                                   these massive oil revenues not only to the de-
                                                                                                                   velopment of the state, but also to the micro-de-
                                                                                                                   velopment of the people. With all of the corrup-
                                                                                                                   tion discovered in almost all bureaucratic levels
                                                                                                                   of government, responsible redistribution will
                                                                                                                   continue to be an ongoing challenge. The glob-
                                                                                                                   al demand for oil causes the Iraqi government
                                                                                                                   to lease out its petroleum-rich land to foreign
                                                                                                                   companies in exchange for massive revenues.
                                                                                                                   However, because the government depends on
                                                                                                                   only these revenues and not the tax revenues of
                                                                                                                   its citizens, it chooses to remain independent
                                                                                                                   of that sovereign authority citizens have over
 By: Robert “Bobby” Santos                                   can be the cause of this complication. Thus, Iraq     their democratic governments. Therefore, with-

                                                             has a stateness problem. To begin with, Iraq is a     out any taxes for citizens to pay, there are no
         ince the fall of the Ottoman Empire, the Arab       multi-ethnic and heterogeneous country consist-
         states have been a breeding ground for au-                                                                means of obtaining representation or account-
                                                             ing of Arabs, Kurds, and other minority groups        ability from the higher authorities. Furthermore,
         tocracies and illiberal democracies. With one       who aim to conquer one another for the control
 or two exceptions in the Middle East, a democracy                                                                 a government without any responsibilities to the
                                                             of resources and power. Northwestern Univer-          people is free to subjugate any social or politi-
 resembling those of Western Europe or the United            sity’s Edward Gibson claims that even when
 States has not even been considered by Arab lead-                                                                 cal movements that call for a change from the
                                                             Iraq is rid of all violence, the consolidation of     status quo. Policymakers can also choose not to
 ers, in spite of a globalizing international community      democracy would still be in jeopardy because of
 that is beginning to reflect its “Americanism.” But                                                               acknowledge a minority or majority’s need for
                                                             the renewal of constituents’ hostile attitudes to-    representation without any penalty of law. For
 why has the Arab world been so reluctant to adopt           wards one another. The reason being is that the
 a system of government that can potentially grant                                                                 the sake of democracy’s consolidation, the Iraqi
                                                             government has to decide who is a citizen and         government must find new ways to obtain rev-
 its citizens’ personal freedoms and opportunities for       who is an outsider to Iraq. Although the obvious
 prosperity? Theorists such as Michael Ross place                                                                  enues and new ways to spend those revenues in-
                                                             answer would be to just make everyone living          stead of relying on an unstable commodity, like
 blame on the method in which Arab states spend their        within the borders a naturalized citizen, in real-
 oil revenues. Others like Alfred Stepan believe that                                                              oil.
                                                             ity it is not that simple. While Iraq is known to                An established democracy in Iraq is
 the biggest obstacle is not Islam, but rather some-         be an Arab-dominated state, the Kurds struggle
 thing “Arab,” since there are states, such as Indonesia                                                           not going to be possible under current condi-
                                                             to be a small, but crucial minority. The two          tions. The apparent ethnic and religious schisms
 and Pakistan, that have developed and consolidated          groups have engaged in not only a psychologi-
 democracies in spite of an overwhelmingly Muslim                                                                  in its society are what drive the corruption, re-
                                                             cal and cultural war, but also in a war over com-     pression, and exploitation levels beyond control.
 population. However, this examination’s focus is on         petition for water, fertile land (Iraq is 50-60%
 Iraq, a state recently freed from a tyrannical regime,                                                            The constant acts of violence must be put to end
                                                             desert), and oil. So what would happen when           before the government can responsibly spend
 which has raised many questions, not only about the         their parliament is seated by a huge majority of
 date for U.S. withdrawal but also the date for the con-                                                           for the betterment of its citizens rather than on
                                                             Pan-Arabic nationalists or pro-Kurdish policy-        its defense budget. It is also time to diversify
 solidation of a democratic system.                          makers? Clearly, the politicians in Baghdad will
            Is democracy even fit for Iraq? At the                                                                 Iraq’s income with not only oil, but also with tax
                                                             do what they can to support their own ethnic or       revenues and the capital gained from exports.
 moment, the answer is no. Despite the progress its          religious groups, however, what will become of
 parliamentary government has made, Iraq still has                                                                 When the government re-distributes the wealth
                                                             those groups that are not represented at all in       to the people, both the government and citizens
 many issues to resolve. Although problems such as           government? The democratization is threatened
 guerilla-style insurgency and the established animos-                                                             will also develop. Once Iraqi society modern-
                                                             when civil liberties and representation are not       izes, the middle-classes can also begin demand-
 ity between ethnic and religious groups still exist but     granted to some of the state’s inhabitants.
 can be solved, people may forget about the challenges                                                             ing accountability and representation. Despite
                                                                         Iraq also has a Shiite Islamic majority   their long history of clashing, ethno-religious
 remaining after the violence has quelled. Democracy         that thrives on the idea of transforming the state
 will not be suitable for the developing state if the po-                                                          groups must share the valuable resources impar-
                                                             in order to resemble an Iranian theocracy. Even       tially divided by the government in order to rid
 tential for disproportional representation continues to     after Saddam Hussein’s execution, many Shiite
 exist, if the issue of “stateness” still thrives, and if                                                          themselves of the stateness problem. One way
                                                             extremist groups continue to resort to violent        to do this is to establish an equality in the politi-
 Iraq remains the oil-dependent state that it is. This in-   measures in retaliation for their religious op-
 vestigation will explain why the development of this                                                              cal arena where diverse groups can compromise
                                                             pression under Hussein’s regime. Furthermore,         with each other over what would be proportion-
 democracy can breakdown altogether on account of            these measures are caused by numerous factors,
 these issues.                                                                                                     ally fair due to the scarcity of resources and the
                                                             such as the fear of being subjected to a Sunni-       irregular ratios of one ethnic/religious group to
            According to Oxford University’s Zhidas          dominated government, the embracement of
 Daskalovski, a “stateness problem” is a complica-                                                                 another. If all ends well here, then perhaps in
                                                             secularism, or the idea that democratizing-Iraq       the near future other Arab states can follow by
 tion in politics and society where groups quarrel over      is a puppet of an American and imperialistic for-
 where a region’s boundaries are drawn, who gets what                                                              example. EPR
                                                             eign policy. It is important that these extremist
 resources, and which inhabitants can become citizens.       groups receive a voice in government. Doing so        Robert “Bobby” Santos is a junior in
 A wide array of languages, religions, and ethnicities       can be the solution to the violence presently be-     the College and majoring in Political
 6                                                                 • EPR Winter 09-10 •

We End
the Fed?
 By: Ted Keast

              hen the American economy col-
              lapsed at the end of 2008, many
              experts, as well as then-President
 George W. Bush, blamed Wall Street for its
 greed, claiming that they “got drunk” with pow-
 er. In response, economist and current Senate
 candidate Peter Schiff was quoted, “Of course
 they got drunk. Wall Street got drunk, Main           to cause the already troubled economy to spiral      mine interest rates in a country where saving
 Street got drunk, the whole country was drunk.        downward.                                            money is discouraged, it is not advisable for
 But who gave them the alcohol?” Schiff, who                      The artificially low interest rates       the Federal Reserve to change policies. There
 is vying for a Republican nomination to oppose        encouraged the private sector to take risky in-      are few politicians who want to encourage the
 Senator Chris Dodd in Connecticut, is one of the      vestments, and the same people who set those         American people to spend less, which is what
 leaders of the End the Fed Movement, a grow-          interest rates are currently in charge of restor-    would be most advantageous for the economy.
 ing protest of the Federal Reserve’s involvement      ing our economy. The remedy to our economic          The original intent of the Federal Reserve was
 in the United States economy. The answer to his       problems that Bernanke has given is to keep the      to make it a non-politicized institution. The
 question of who encouraged corporations to            low interest rates. Obama has also echoed the        president’s right to appoint the chairman was
 hedge risky bets and individuals to overextend        idea that the key to restoring our economy lies in   designed to keep the Federal Reserve free from
 themselves, is the U.S. Federal Reserve. But          restoring the credit system in the United States.    the political process. However, the reappoint-
 what causes Schiff and many others to ques-           However, if the United States’ interest rates re-    ment of Ben Bernanke by Obama, even after
 tion the Federal Reserve’s policies? After all,       main close to zero, the Federal Reserve’s tar-       his failed policies during the Bush era, shows
 the media, as well as the current administra-         get, we run into the same problems that caused       that the Federal Reserve has in fact become
 tion, claimed that corporate greed coupled with       the recession in the first place: a system that is   politicized. Because Bernanke came out of the
 bad economic policies of the Bush era were            based too much on credit wealth rather than ac-      crisis relatively blame-free, and even praised by
 primary causes for the depression, while Ben          tual wealth. Low interest rates and Bernanke’s       some economists, it was a politically safe move
 Bernanke’s, Chairman of the Federal Reserve           policies actually encourage reckless spending        to keep him as chairman. Obama would rather
 System, and the Federal Reserve’s roles in the        and bubble growth, rather than meaningful eco-       keep Bernanke as chairman than put himself un-
 crisis went relatively unquestioned. Bernanke         nomic growth through saving.                         der scrutiny for appointing a new chairman.
 was reappointed by President Barack Obama                        If the Federal Reserve’s actions are so               Finally, what should be the solution to
 to continue the policies that were partly respon-     harmful, why does the United States keep such        the problems of the Federal Reserve? If the free
 sible for the nation’s economic crisis.               a system? And if Bernanke and Greenspan’s            market is allowed to wholly determine interest
            So, what was it about Bernanke’s pol-      policies have adversely affected the economy,        rates, economic growth in the United States will
 icies that were so detrimental to the U.S. econ-      why did they hold their jobs for so long? Part       be stifled. However, under the status quo, the
 omy? And if they were so detrimental, why was         of the reason lies in the longevity of the Federal   Federal Reserve is encouraging more economic
 he rewarded with Obama’s reappointment? Part          Reserve. Established in 1913 to prevent bank         bubbles that will eventually pop, and the country
 of the role of the Fed is to influence the United     runs, the Federal Reserve is more or less univer-    will be doomed to face recessions in the future
 State’s monetary and credit policies by control-      sally accepted as the national bank of the United    that could be potentially worse than the current
 ling interest rates. This is done by either selling   States. Economists are accustomed to the sys-        crisis. So, is it time to “End the Fed,” as many
 U.S. securities to decrease the money supply,         tem, and its policies are rarely questioned. To      people are starting to say? Probably not. Many
 or by buying them to increase it. Before the fi-      question its establishment or its policies after     of the consequences of such an action would be
 nancial crisis, the Allen Greenspan-led Federal       nearly one hundred years would be similar to         too uncertain. However, the United States faces
 Reserve had been encouraging credit spending          questioning the Supreme Court or the Con-            the need to call into question the policies of an
 by keeping U.S. interest rates artificially low for   gress—only the Federal Reserve is not a branch       economic interventionist institution that has be-
 years. This encouraged borrowing rather than          of government. Another reason that Bernanke          come too politicized, and whose policies aided
 saving, creating a credit economy that does not       has been one of the staff members in Washing-        in causing the current recession. EPR
 encourage real growth. Only a small number            ton who lasted through the Bush administration       Ted Keast is a junior and majoring in
 of politicians and economists have acknowl-           is because the Federal Reserve’s policies are
 edged the Federal Reserve’s role in creating
                                                                                                            Finance at the Business School.
                                                       popular. Because it is not politically acceptable
 credit bubbles. This included the housing mar-        for interest rates to go sky high, which would
 ket bubble which, when it burst in 2008, helped       certainly occur if the free market would deter-

                                                              • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                7
nAtion                                                                                                          tion would still yield substantial benefits. While
                                                                                                                Obama’s speeches on security are full of resolve

     The Future of Global Non-Proliferation
                                                                                                                for stopping the proliferation of weapons of
                                                                                                                mass destruction, it is impossible to solve pro-
                                                                                                                liferation without cooperation from the interna-
                                                                                                                tional community. Without ratifying the test ban,
                                                                                                                this cooperation will be difficult to achieve. The
                                                                                                                2005 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)
                                                                                                                Review Conference established thirteen steps
                                                                                                                that the international community could take
                                                                                                                to bolster the NPT. First and foremost among
                                                                                                                these was the entry into force of the CTBT. Re-
                                                                                                                cent statements by sixteen non-nuclear weapon
                                                                                                                states that will be taking part in the 2010 Re-
                                                                                                                view Conference reflect that this first step is still
                                                                                                                a relevant concern in assuring these non-nuclear
                                                                                                                nations that the nuclear weapon states will limit
                                                                                                                the expansion of their nuclear arsenals. In fact,
                                                                                                                Obama’s overall non-proliferation promises
                                                                                                                look hollow and hypocritical to the rest of the
                                                                                                                world in light of not also ratifying the CTBT.
                                                                                                                The U.S. is essentially asking other nations to
                                                                                                                not build up and instead relinquish their nuclear
                                                                                                                arsenals, while the U.S. actively retains the le-
                                                                                                                gal right to test and improve its nuclear stock-
                                                                                                                pile if need be. This nuclear hypocrisy shatters
                                                                                                                global non-proliferation cooperation since the
                                                                                                                U.S. is not seen as a credible partner. It prevents
                                                                                                                countries from working with the United States
                                                                                                                on important actions like ramping up sanctions
     By: Marta Chlistunoff and                             for example, has publicly declared that it will      against Iran or North Korea or working to re-
         Elena R. Kuenzel                                  ratify the treaty as soon as the U.S. does. In the   shape the nuclear fuel cycle by strengthening
                                                           case of China, many believe that security con-       safeguards of the International Atomic Energy

                ne of the most controversial parts of      cerns over nuclear parity with the United States     Agency.
                the global arms control agenda has         prevent China’s ratification. However, if the                   Another equally important benefit
                been the Comprehensive Nuclear Test        U.S. decides to ratify, it could represent a con-    is the effect that U.S. ratification of the CTBT
     Ban Treaty (CTBT), an international agreement         crete commitment to non-testing, which could         would have on the International Monitoring
     that prohibits nuclear explosion tests. More than     give China confidence that their own ratification    System (IMS). Absent entry into force, ratifica-
     a decade after the United States Senate failed to     would not put them at any sort of geopolitical       tion of the test ban would ensure an increase in
     approve the treaty, the growing perils of mod-        disadvantage. Similarly, U.S. ratification could     funding the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Or-
     ernizing arsenals and the spread of nuclear ma-       put strong pressure on India, Iran, North Korea      ganization, which uses its funding to sustain and
     terials to state and non-state actors has increased   and the others to sign.                              expand mechanisms that monitor seismic activ-
     radically. The CTBT is a valuable tool in the                    Luckily, even if entry into force         ity and detect nuclear testing. The benefit of this
     global non-proliferation strategy because with-       doesn’t occur in the short term, U.S. ratifica-      is two-fold. First, due to its supreme monitoring
     out testing nuclear weapons, states would have
     no confidence in the success of the weapons
     they were developing, slowing down or even
     halting the horizontal and vertical spread of
     nuclear weapons. However, despite adoption by
     the United Nations General Assembly in 1996,
     resistance from previously neutral states on this
     topic has prevented the test ban from entering
     into force.
                 Although approximately 150 states
     have ratified the treaty, several nations referred
     to as “key hold-out states,” whose ratification
     is deemed as the last obstacle to treaty’s global
     adoption, have refrained from jumping on board
     the global non-testing regime. These nations are
     the United States, China, Indonesia, Iran, North
     Korea, India, Pakistan, Israel, and Egypt. While
     United States’ ratification would not directly
     cause the treaty system to immediately go into
     effect (known as “entry into force”), its ratifica-
     tion would lead to a domino effect in the inter-
     national community, creating pressure to get the
     remaining hold-out states to ratify it. Indonesia,

 8                                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •
capabilities which allow for differentiation be-
tween the seismic activity observed during an
earthquake and the activity felt during a nuclear    The Scope of Executive
explosion test, the system allows CTBT signa-
tories to effectively verify compliance with the
tenets of the treaty and take counter-measures       By: Stephanie J. Bennett

against nations who try to proliferate. Second,
the increase in support and funding for the IMS                  hen the executive branch uses na-      or into situations where imminent involvement
would also facilitate the early detection of natu-               tional security threats as an excuse   in hostilities is clearly indicated by the circum-
ral disasters. Scientists involved in the devel-                 to impose unilateral action, how       stances” (§ 1542). It also requires reporting and
opment of IMS have indicated that due to the         much power should the president really have?       consultation by the president to Congress. Es-
high level of sensitivity enjoyed by the system,     From President Ronald Reagan’s 1983 invasion       pecially in a time when national security threats
seismic activity created by an imminent natural      of Grenada to President George H. W. Bush’s        prevail on the minds of U.S. citizens, it is vital
disaster, such as a tsunami or a volcanic erup-      deployment of troops to Panama in 1989, the        that the president and Congress work together for
tion, could easily be identified and action could    scope of the executive branch’s power has          the benefit and protection of the United States.
be taken much more quickly to evacuate the area      grown far beyond what the framers of the                       Recently, Presidents have violated the
and limit the monumental amount of life that         Constitution intended. Even before Abraham         War Powers Resolution in numerous ways. Pres-
could be lost. Such developments become read-        Lincoln’s blockade of federal ports, presidents    ident Bill Clinton launched a missile attack in
ily important in the face of intensifying weather    have sought to increase their power, especially    1993 against the Iraq Intelligence Headquarters
fluctuations and the increased incidence of large    in regard to the commitment of troops and the      without the consent of Congress. Additionally,
tropical storms that have been experienced in        imposition of unilateral action. The U.S. Con-     some have argued that President George W. Bush
recent years.                                        stitution provides for a separation of powers      violated the War Powers Resolution by using the
            Despite all of these benefits to U.S.    between branches, and shared influence over        assumption that Iraq contained weapons of mass
ratification of the CTBT, significant domestic       foreign and domestic actions. Presidents have      destruction as a reason to invade, even when that
political obstacles remain. During the first at-     used numerous reasons to justify bypassing         postulation was later determined to be incorrect.
tempt to achieve U.S. ratification in 1992, the      the legislative branch. Whether those reasons                  The framers intended for the Con-
treaty received substantial opposition from          are valid or                                                                             stitution to
members of Congress who resisted the treaty          detrimental                                                                              separate the
due to their suspicions that it did not have suf-    to the well-                                                                             legislative,
ficient and credible verification mechanisms.        being of the                                                                             judicial, and
Over the past seventeen years, some of the con-      American                                                                                 executive
cerns about the implementation of the treaty’s       people re-                                                                               branches.
standards have been alleviated as the IMS has        mains       in                                                                           When the
been strengthened, and new technology for            question.                                                                                president
monitoring has been developed. Unfortunately,        During times                                                                             oversteps
in spite of these advancements, a substantial        of perceived                                                                             his inherent
number of lawmakers still maintain a united          threats to the                                                                           powers and
front against this non-proliferation measure be-     security of                                                                              challenges
cause of ideological reasons.                        the United                                                                               the Consti-
           Congressional focus on maintaining a      States, many                                                                             tution,    he
credible deterrent via nuclear modernization is      presidents                                                                               risks other
bolstered by retaining the right to legally test.    have      used                                                                           branches
This attitude has subsisted even though a mora-      their title of                                                                           exceeding
torium on nuclear testing has been in place for      Commander                                                                                their bound-
over a decade. Regrettably for United States’        in Chief of the Army and Navy to deliberate-       aries as well. If branches become concerned
non-proliferation goals, this moratorium is not      ly further their pursuit for power. Presidents     with gaining and consolidating power, they may
legally binding in the same way that CTBT            have maintained over time that they are able       disregard the well-being of the American peo-
ratification would be and does not preclude the      to act quickly and efficiently during a na-        ple. While it is true that the president is more
ability to test without adverse reactions from       tional security emergency. Executive orders        efficient in dealing with a national security
the international community. Nevertheless it ap-     allow decisions to fall into the hands of one      emergency than Congress, where should we,
pears likely that if the CTBT comes up for vote      man, instead of the 435 men and women of           as American citizens, draw the line of execu-
in the Senate in 2009, opposition may remain as      Congress. Additionally, the executive branch       tive privilege? The Constitution does not offer
strong as it was in the 1992. In order to create     typically acts swiftly, a trait Congress often     much help in this matter, especially considering
momentum for passage, Obama and Secretary            fails to possess due to legislative obstacles,     its ambiguities, and the courts have been reluc-
of State Hillary Clinton have indicated that they    such as the review of legislation by commit-       tant to intervene in struggles of power between
plan to delay introduction until after the Nuclear   tees and voting in both the House of Rep-          the president and Congress, often holding that
Posture Review, which is to be held within the       resentatives and the Senate. The president’s       the issues raised are political, and not judicial
next year. They hope that this will result in fur-   ability to act quickly lends itself to possible,   in nature. Citizens of the United States must
ther support of Obama’s non-proliferation ini-       and likely, violations of the War Powers Reso-     decide when the president has gone too far and
tiatives, including the CTBT. EPR                    lution. Especially during the responses to per-    transformed our democracy into a dictatorship.
                                                     ceived national security threats, the President    We, as citizens, have the ability, through vot-
Freshman Marta Chlistunoff is an Inter-              may violate the War Powers Resolution or, in       ing and demanding action by our legislators, as
national Studies and Chemistry double                some cases, precipitate the wrath of Congress.     well as judicial means, to ensure the sanctity of
major. Elena R. Kuenzel is a freshman                           The War Powers Resolution requires      legislation and the United States Constitution. EPR
and double majoring in International and             that “the president in every possible instance     Senior Stephanie Bennett is a double
Women’s Studies major                                shall consult with Congress before introduc-       major in International Studies and
                                                     ing United States Armed Forces into hostilities    English.

                                                           • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                         9
Cover story

              U.S. Hegemony


                         • EPR Winter 09-10 •
U.S. Hegemony is
                                                      ain at the height of its power could not stop        tellectual capital than any other nation. These
                                                      the loss of the American colonies. Alexander         capabilities create extraordinary flexibility and
                                                      the Great failed in Afghanistan, but created a       large, untapped pools of power. In the instance
By: Anuj Panday                                       massive empire nonetheless. Failure in Iraq or       of a peer competitor, the U.S. can increase its

                                                      Afghanistan does not forecast complete doom.         capabilities by devoting more resources to
          as the American Era ended? Intellectu-
                                                                 What makes the odds even better           military primacy. Despite all the talk about the
          al commentators, government officials,
                                                      for the United States than any previous power        current economic crisis eroding our economic
          and the media elite seem to think so.
                                                      is that all the fundamental aspects of national      power, in 2008 our share of the world product,
Frightening prophecies pervade the headlines.
                                                      power are concentrated in the United States to a     as documented by the International Monetary
Last year, a New York Times Magazine cover
                                                      degree never before experienced in history. The      Fund (IMF), was 27 percent. In that year, the
story, titled “Waving Goodbye to U.S. Hege-
                                                      U.S. spends close to four percent of its gross       United States had a quarter of the world’s eco-
mony,” argued that the United States’ “stand-
                                                      domestic product (GDP) on the military and           nomic power and the world’s most competitive
ing in the world remains in steady decline.”
                                                                                                           industries. Our power, shaped in part by our

                                                       “Our power,
Roger Altman, a former deputy secretary of the
                                                                                                           adaptability, will allow us to weather the crisis
Treasury, has written that the financial crisis
                                                                                                           better than other nations. China and Russia have
“has inflicted profound damage on...[the Unit-
                                                                                                           experienced worse economic slowdowns than
ed States’] standing in the world.” This recent
scare is characterized by stories of the “rise of
the rest” that focuses on the diffusion of eco-
nomic power outside of the U.S. to rising pow-
                                                      shaped in part                                       the U.S., and leaders such as Gordon Brown
                                                                                                           and Angela Merkel are looking to the United
                                                                                                           States for more guidance through the recession.

                                                      by our adapt-
                                                                                                                      Declinists, proponents of the declin-
ers, such as China and India. This argument,
                                                                                                           ism theory, also point to the increasing deficit
however, overestimates the degree to which
                                                                                                           and the decline of the dollar. Neither is much
this is happening and overlooks the enormous
                                                                                                           of a problem for the United States. The dollar

                                                       ability, will
inequality of power between the U.S. and oth-
                                                                                                           will remain the world’s reserve currency and
ers. With a leading position in all indicators of
                                                                                                           we will serve as the lender of last resort for a
power, the United States will remain the world’s
                                                                                                           long time to come. The federal budget deficit is
lone superpower for a long time to come.
            Declinism, a recently developed term
for this phenomenon, is not new. Proponents
of this theory have been vocal since the U.S.
                                                        allow us to                                        fixable: increasing taxes and controlling costs
                                                                                                           can put the budget back on track. Increased
                                                                                                           spending during the Great Depression helped

                                                       weather the
                                                                                                           to solve the financial crisis of that time and
inherited its coveted status in the post-World
                                                                                                           prepared the U.S. for World War II, in a time
War II era. In the 1950s, Sputnik spurred the
                                                                                                           when budget deficits were a larger percent of
collapse myths. In the 60s, it was the “missile
                                                                                                           the GDP than now. The deficit lies partially

                                                       crisis better
gap.” The 70s saw unprecedented challenges:
                                                                                                           outside of the United States’ control. China
oil shocks, failure in Vietnam, deep recessions,
                                                                                                           and Japan hold a large portion of the debt and
and victories by Soviet-endorsed regimes in
                                                                                                           are dependent on exports to the United States.
Africa, Asia, and Latin America. The 80s saw
rapid growth in the Japanese economy along
with what historian Paul Kennedy called “im-
perial overstretch,” where the economic burdens
                                                      than other na-                                       They must continue purchasing dollars to en-
                                                                                                           sure their currencies are weak against it, there-
                                                                                                           by maintaining competitive export potential.

                                                                                                                      Indeed, globalization strengthens, not
and security interests of an expanding empire
                                                                                                           weakens, U.S. power. American universities
eventually outstrip its capacity to manage those
                                                                                                           attract the best minds from all over the world,
burdens or defend its interests. Each of these
                                                                                                           creating the foundation for an innovative and
scares was well-founded and potentially indi-
                                                                                                           adaptive society. We have remained the head
cated the coming of real change in the power          accounts for 47 percent of the world’s military
                                                                                                           of the world’s most popular political philoso-
distribution. At the end of each period, however,     spending. The U.S. has invested large sums in
                                                                                                           phy, democracy, which is widely viewed as
the United States emerged in a position with its      institutional capital, technological capacity, and
                                                                                                           the most legitimate form of leadership. Even
power even further entrenched. According to           military research and development, all of which
                                                                                                           powerful autocratic nations must at least pay
Dartmouth Professor Wohlforth, “It is impos-          give us great qualitative and quantitative edges
                                                                                                           lip service to democratic ideals such as voting
sible to know for sure whether or not the scare       in military superiority. The U.S. will remain the
                                                                                                           and human rights. We also remain at the center
is for real this time — shifts in the distribu-       only nation that can project its military power
                                                                                                           of the world’s institutional system. The United
tion of power are notoriously hard to forecast.”      in any area of the world due to its uncontested
                                                                                                           States plays central roles in many world orga-
            The problem lies in the confusion of      supremacy on land, sea, and in air. Previously,
                                                                                                           nizations, such as the World Trade Organiza-
what constitutes leadership. Defining power as        no other country has had such unchallenged
                                                                                                           tion (WTO), the United Nations (UN), and the
the ability to resolve any global dilemma guar-       dominance of these areas. Established military
                                                                                                           North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).
antees frequent alarmism. The more power-             presence in all regions of the globe cements
                                                                                                           As extensions of American ideology and val-
ful the United States becomes, the greater the        U.S. influence everywhere — it allows for re-
                                                                                                           ues, they serve to enhance and channel U.S.
number of problems in the international arena         sponsiveness and elasticity to deal with multiple
                                                                                                           authority. For example, the WTO has dispute
it is expected to solve. The result is a perpetu-     contingencies simultaneously. It is this military
                                                                                                           mechanisms for facilitating free trade, which
ally elevating standard for what it takes to be       supremacy, combined with an extraordinary
                                                                                                           is consistent with American ideals and is the
the dominant power. It must be understood that        economic capacity that gives the United States
                                                                                                           cornerstone for American economic growth.
no empire is impervious to errors. The United         its unique advantage. Over time, the U.S. has
                                                                                                           No other empire in history has had the advan-
States failed in Vietnam and failed to overthrow      achieved an ever-increasing amount of econom-
                                                                                                           tages that multilateral institutions provide.
Fidel Castro, yet seems to have maintained its        ic power with arguably more natural resources,
                                                                                                                      Institutions also legitimize U.S.
leadership status in spite of those failures. Brit-   developed industry and infrastructure, and in-
                                                                                                           leadership. These mechanisms for global gov-

                                                             • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                              11
     ernance create a benign face for U.S. power
     because others believe in the United States’
     commitment to common rules and norms.
     Even President George W. Bush’s aggressive
     unilateralism did not permanently damage the
     U.S. image. President Barack Obama offers
     a fresh start and can help redefine America’s
     reputation and show the world that we have
     renounced Bush’s exceptionalism. Robert Ka-
     gan, senior fellow at the Carnegie Endowment
     for International Peace, has repeatedly argued
     that the rise of great power autocracies pushes
     strong democracies back in the direction of
     the United States. Allies are pursuing policies
     that reflect great concern about Russia’s and
     China’s increasing influence. Strengthened al-
     liances allow the United States to rely on al-
     lies, economize forces, and share burdens.
                 There is no one country that can take
     the place of the United States. Although there
     is much buzz about the so-called BRIC (Brazil,
     Russia, India, China) nations growing in devel-
     opment and power, no one has the economic or
     technological capabilities to replace the United
     States. Looming on the horizon is the rapidly
     growing eastern powerhouse: China. Its econo-
     my is growing, inequality is decreasing, it holds
     a large chunk of U.S. debt, and it is modern-
     izing its military rapidly. China is predicted to
     become a peer competitor to the United States
     in terms of economic leverage by 2020. If these
     predictions hold true, China is likely to have
     half the world product of the United States, as
     calculated by American political scientists. The
     problem here is that economic trends are an in-
     effective way to predict power transitions. Japan
     was projected to outstrip U.S. economic pro-
     duction given projections in 1989, but it is now
     only just recovering from its economic down-
     turn in the early 1990s. In fact, between 2007
     and 2009, Chinese economic growth has halved
     from 12 percent to 6 percent, proving that its
                                                          Its economy relies on oil exports, which makes
                                                          it too vulnerable to the unpredictable swings in
                                                                                                                U.S. Hegemony is
     incredible growth is dependent on foreign            global oil prices. Brazil, while no doubt expe-
     economies. Benjamin Joffe, a noted consultant        riencing significant growth and development,
     in China, declares, “China is a place where          still lags far behind the United States in military
     the rest of the world essentially rents workers      power, per capita GDP and industrial output.          By: James Hamraie

     and workspace at deflated prices and distorted       Indeed, the United States, even if it weakens a
                                                                                                                         he election of President Barack Obama,
     exchange rates. The Chinese economy is ex-           little bit, remains far more powerful than any
                                                                                                                         the withdrawal of troops from forward
     tremely dependent on exports — they amount           other country, therefore ensuring dominance.
                                                                                                                         deployment in Iraq, and the mending
     to two-fifths of China’s GDP — and hence vul-                    The United States will see many more
                                                                                                                of ties with foreign nations that were alienated
     nerable to global economic downturns.” China         years at the helm of the international system.
                                                                                                                during the War on Terror, have helped to create
     is still plagued by massive amounts of poverty,      Lots of things can and will go wrong. But no
                                                                                                                an atmosphere of optimism for the continued
     fractured infrastructure, domestic upheavals,        one failure internationally is enough to topple
                                                                                                                primacy of the United States as the leading na-
     pollution, disease problems, and an aging popu-      the gigantic lead in power that the United States
                                                                                                                tion in the international arena. This optimism,
     lation that can significantly alter the trajectory   possesses both militarily and economically. The
                                                                                                                however, is premature. Despite the perceptual
     of economic growth rates. These problems will        demand for U.S. leadership has never been high-
                                                                                                                stability of U.S. dominance over the past two
     put new pressures on government spending             er; the United States has pacified any fears of its
                                                                                                                decades, the continuation of its primacy will in-
     and will create new social upheavals. Costly         potentially threatening stature by exporting a
                                                                                                                evitably decline.
     fixes will restrict spending on the military and     culture of transparency and benevolence. As the
                                                                                                                           This claim is neither extreme nor un-
     constrain modernization efforts. India faces         only country capable of leading such a chaotic
                                                                                                                precedented. History is ripe with examples that
     similar problems along with massive corrup-          world, the U.S. will remain the sole superpower.
                                                                                                                show that all great empires collapse. The fall of
     tion, colossal linguistic barriers and tremendous    Anuj Panday is a sophomore in the              EPR
                                                                                                                Rome, Britain, the Mongols, the Han Dynasty,
     ethnic fragmentation. Russia appears to be fad-      College and majoring in International                 and the Byzantine Empire show that changes
     ing into irrelevance. Its nuclear stockpile is an-   Studies                                               in the balance of power are quite frequent. An
     tiquated and its military forces are crumbling.
                                                                                                                analysis of the structure of unipolarity com-
                                                                                                                bined with a focus on recent events shows that a
12                                                              • EPR Winter 09-10 •
                                                                                                             lasting animosity with both allies and hostile
                                                                                                             nations. Although Obama’s election has caused
                                                                                                             many foreign countries to begin changing their
                                                                                                             attitude towards the United States and public
                                                                                                             polls have illustrated a stronger approval rating
                                                                                                             of the United States, there are still major issues
                                                                                                             that need to be settled. The U.S. has failed to
                                                                                                             take concrete action on a majority of issues that
                                                                                                             the international community has been asking the
                                                                                                             United States to follow through on for over a de-
                                                                                                             cade. These include the ratification of the Com-
                                                                                                             prehensive Test Ban Treaty, the Law of the Sea
                                                                                                             Treaty, and the Rome Statute of the Internation-
                                                                                                             al Criminal Court. Being a world leader requires
                                                                                                             more than raw power. Sustaining alliances and
                                                                                                             goodwill with other nations is essential. Addi-
                                                                                                             tionally, if the United States can convince other
                                                                                                             nations to comply with its wishes, it can lower
                                                                                                             the costs of shaping the global stage to reflect
                                                                                                             its interests. This arrangement, coupled with the
                                                                                                             evolving balance of power, can cause other na-
                                                                                                             tions to support the U.S. and oppose its potential
                                                                                                             challengers. For instance, the changing security
                                                                                                             dynamics in East Asia show that self-interest is
                                                                                                             spurring countries to be less willing to oppose
                                                                                                             neighbors on important issues or strategic cir-
                                                                                                             cumstances. This is due to a fear of losing eco-
                                                                                                             nomic and trading ties, despite a long history
                                                                                                             of cooperation and positive relations with the
                                                                                                             United States.
                                                                                                                         Imperial overstretch, domestic costs
                                                                                                             of forward deployment, fighting capability,
                                                                                                             and overburdening security and humanitarian
                                                                                                             commitments has caused a decline in military
                                                                                                             power, the lifeline of U.S. global dominance.
                                                                                                             The growing strength of foreign militaries ex-
                                                                                                             acerbates the effect of these problems. The
                                                                                                             post-Cold War apex of American power has
                                                                                                             begun to erode while other nations with larger
                                                                                                             populations are training substantial military
                                                                                                             forces with increasingly sophisticated technol-
number of issues in all sectors of power, includ-       involvement and conflict resolution because it       ogy. Recent events illustrate the implication of
ing economic, military, and diplomatic sectors,         lends the impression that the U.S. does not have     these factors on the decline of U.S. power and
limit the ability of the United States to prevent       its hands tied and that the U.S. military is still   the growing strength of potential global rivals.
counter-balancing and the weakening of power            extremely powerful. A strong economy also            India and China are economic powerhouses,
projection, eventually causing a shift to a world       lessens the amount of domestic spending on           whose growth has allowed for greater mod-
where the United States shares the stage with           social services and foundation-level economic        ernization. Despite the military edge currently
rising powers.                                          stimulus and allows for greater allocation of re-    held by the U.S., domestic sentiment has drifted
           Economic woes have affected the              sources into research and development of new         away from an overwhelming focus on defense
ability of the United States to maintain its su-        military technologies and upkeep of military         spending since the invasion of and subsequent
premacy. The recent financial crises, the erosion       supplies. Both of these factors are essential for    public backlash from Operation Iraqi Freedom.
of U.S. competitiveness in business and educa-          conventional combat readiness and warfare, and       Additionally, China’s expanding naval forces,
tion, and the declining purchasing power of the         allow the U.S. armed forces to sustain their lead    such as the nuclear-armed submarines, are
dollar have created domestic turmoil and dented         over other nations.                                  lessening the effect of U.S. nuclear supremacy
the leading view of U.S. dominance among in-                       Diplomatic woes arise from the Unit-      and first-strike leverage. Furthermore, in other
ternational allies. These factors, coupled with         ed States’ diminished image. Although the War        important global regions, Brazil is vying for re-
dependence on foreign oil and energy resources,         on Terror initially forged alliances and inter-      gional hegemony, China is building security and
are weakening U.S. flexibility and allowing for-        national sympathy, the unilateral policy deci-       economic ties with African nations, and Russia
eign nations with exploding economies, such as          sions, human rights abuses, and exceptionalism       is legitimizing interventionist policies with the
China and India, to close the gap. For example,         that followed transformed the perception of the      invasion of Georgia and fiery rhetoric over na-
if China’s booming growth continues, then Chi-          United States from a benevolent world power to       tional expansion and national missile defense. EPR
na’s total GDP would be 2.5 times that of the           an international bully willing to neglect multi-     James Hamraie is a sophomore in the
United States. A weaker economy has high do-            lateral solutions in favor of ad-hoc cowboy di-      College and majoring in International
mestic dissatisfaction contributing to a greater        plomacy. The abuses of Abu Ghraib, arguments
urgency to focus on national issues instead of          over the Kyoto Protocol and global warming,
international affairs. It is essential for the United   and the invasion of Iraq are only a few examples
States to maintain its flexibility in international     of policies that have spurred heavy disdain and

                                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                          13

      America’s Failed War on Drugs
      By: David Michaels

           t is no secret that the “War on Drugs” in          the drug war. Approximately
           the United States has been an abysmal fail-        20 percent of state prisoners
           ure. Since its birth during Richard Nixon’s        and over 50 percent of federal
      presidency, and its escalation under the Reagan         prisoners are incarcerated for
      administration, the federal government’s crack-         drug charges. Additionally,
      down on narcotics has morphed into a modern             those that are prosecuted for
      day battle against our own lower class. Liber-          drug offenses are overwhelm-
      als are not the only ones calling out its faults;       ingly involved in drugs at the
      instead, observers on both sides of the spectrum        less potent end of the spec-
      have come to grips with its ineffectiveness.            trum. In 1998, a whopping 79
      Conservative minds have admitted that our drug          percent of all DEA convictions
      policy is neither cost-effective nor a deterrent        involved either marijuana or
      of abuse, including the late William F. Buck-           cocaine.
      ley, who conceded the merits and inevitability                      Given the state of
      of legalization of marijuana in a 1996 issue of         our corrections system, it is
      National Review.                                        absurd to waste limited re-
                 In May, President Barack Obama’s             sources on incarcerating non-
      Director of National Drug Control Policy, Gil           violent drug offenders. And
      Kerlikowske, finally became one the first high-         in states with “three strikes
      ranking officials to publicly speak out against         laws,” a person with three
      the idea of labeling federal policy as a “War on        felony drug offenses can face
      Drugs.” His emphasis on rehabilitation rather           up to life in prison. Not only is
      than incarceration is an idea that should have          this warranted, but does it re-
      been acknowledged long ago.                             ally do anything to fix the drug
                 While it is a relief to finally hear those   problem?
      words from the administration, it remains diffi-                    Over-incarceration
      cult to be optimistic about real change when the        creates problems that go be-
      federal government alone will spend $22 billion         yond prison overcrowding.
      in 2009 to enact the same ineffective policies          Our eagerness to lock-up drug
      as before. That is an absurd amount, especially         offenders leads to an endless
      given the record budget deficit, and threatens          cycle where the judicial sys-
      more important expenditures, such as education.         tem does nothing to help in-
      For all of our spending on the drug war, the            ner-city kids who are caught in
      United States still has one of the highest rates        drug use and the dealing trade
      of narcotic consumption in the world for nearly         at an early age. These children
      every illicit drug, according to the United Na-         are arrested and processed
      tions’ World Drug Report in 2009. And of the            through the system at a young
      $64 billion worth of narcotics sold in the U.S.         age, and are then released on
      in any given year, less that 1 percent of that is       the street without an education
      ever seized by the Drug Enforcement Admin-              or job training, just a criminal
      istration.                                              record. Such a system does
                 One of the most visible problems with        nothing to address the issue
      our current drug policy is its contribution to the      that one out of every 15 Afri-
      overcrowding of our prisons. Approximately              can-Americans is incarcerated,
      one in every 31 U.S. adults is in a communi-            and that 44.8 percent of drug
      ty-based corrections facility that is focused on        offenders in state prisons are black.
      rehabilitation, and one out of every 100 is incar-                  Our drug policy continues to attack     federal funding for a needle exchange program.
      cerated in a county jail or state prison. To give       users and lower-level dealers, but it does noth-    The program would drastically reduce the risk
      a better idea of how this measures against other        ing to address the institutional problems in our    of HIV and AIDS among drug users by allow-
      nations, The United States contains five percent        corrections process that encourage the drug         ing them to exchange used syringes for clean
      of the world population but has 25 percent of           trade and incarcerate the same people again and     ones. Despite Obama’s pledge of support for
      the world’s prisoners. That is the highest incar-       again. It is illogical to imprison the individual   the program, no funding for it showed up in
      ceration rate in the world. This overcrowding           players in the drug trade without doing anything    his budget proposal. By simplistically viewing
      strains our tax dollars and law enforcement             to fix the conditions that allow these players to   drugs as taboo, the government is abandoning
      resources, while additionally increasing prison         enter the game in the first place. While Ker-       its own struggling citizens by prioritizing sense-
      violence. But more importantly, it reduces the          likowske’s words give hope for a change in at-      less ethical concerns over the own well-being of
      effectiveness of our corrections process.               titude, the Obama administration has yet to put     its citizens.
                 The increase in prison overcrowding          its money where its mouth is. One campaign                     A different approach needs to be
      has many causes, but it is certainly correlated to      promise that Obama has gone back on is to use       taken. The U.S. needs to actually focus on re-

 14                                                                 • EPR Winter 09-10 •
                                                                                                        best ways to treat heroin addicts is to remove the
                                                                                                        drug users from the streets and give them super-
                                                                                                        vised daily injections in a medical clinic. The
                                                                                                        program has drastically reduced illegal heroin
                                                                                                        use by 75 percent and eliminated two-thirds of
                                                                                                        heroin related crime. This new treatment ap-
                                                                                                        proach, which also includes addiction counsel-
                                                                                                        ing, is only about one-third of the amount that it
                                                                                                        annually costs to place these individuals in jail.
                                                                                                        A program such as this could have great success
                                                                                                        in America, but it will never develop as long as
                                                                                                        we let our fear of reform cloud our judgment.
                                                                                                                   While it is important to improve
                                                                                                        treatment, it is even more essential to focus on
                                                                                                        eliminating the black market created by the drug
                                                                                                        trade. Just as prohibition in the 1920s led to a
                                                                                                        rise in organized crime and mob violence, our
                                                                                                        drug policy has created a culture of gangs that
                                                                                                        wreak havoc on urban society. As economists
                                                                                                        like Milton Friedman have pointed out, the
                                                                                                        black market violence results from a simple case
                                                                                                        of reducing drug supply to a much lower level
                                                                                                        than the demand. The reality is, when taking into
                                                                                                        account the gang wars that result from the un-
                                                                                                        derground drug economy, more people die from
                                                                                                        the effects of the war on drugs than are actually
                                                                                                        dying from drug use itself.
                                                                                                                   Critics of drug policy reform will
                                                                                                        claim that making harmful drugs more widely
                                                                                                        available to the public will create more drug
                                                                                                        addicts. However, historical precedence shows
                                                                                                        that this is not the case. After prohibition, the
                                                                                                        amount of alcohol purchases as a percentage of
                                                                                                        total national consumption increased for three
                                                                                                        years before steadily declining over the next 50
                                                                                                        years to nearly half the level it was at when the
                                                                                                        18th Amendment was repealed. Whether drugs
                                                                                                        are illegal or not, those that want to use drugs
                                                                                                        will be able to access them one way or another.
                                                                                                        The novelty of their legalization would only be
                                                                                                        a short-term effect.
                                                                                                                   Loosening our drug regulation reduc-
                                                                                                        es black market violence both domestically and
                                                                                                        in nations such as Mexico, where cartel violence
                                                                                                        has led to thousands of murders and police cor-
                                                                                                        ruption. This violence spills across our borders
                                                                                                        and into hub cities, such as Atlanta, where drug
                                                                                                        traffickers have been tied to increases in murder
                                                                                                        and kidnapping cases. Additionally, cutting off
                                                                                                        black market drugs reduces funds for the Taliban
                                                                                                        and other corrupt groups in Afghanistan, the na-
                                                                                                        tion where over 90 percent of the world’s supply
                                                                                                        of heroin comes from.
                                                                                                                   It is important to note that by decrimi-
habilitating drug users instead of just talking      to 10.6 percent. Overall marijuana use in all
                                                                                                        nalizing drugs, the government is not advocat-
about change. The first step is in this process      people over the age of 15 is down to 10 per-
                                                                                                        ing drug use in any way. But the strength of the
is to decriminalize drug possession. Instead of      cent, which is the lowest rate in the European
                                                                                                        black market combined with the factors of over-
wasting money on prosecuting and jailing non-        Union and nearly a quarter of what that rate
                                                                                                        crowded prisons and urban decay makes it obvi-
violent offenders, they should be sent to rehab      is in the U.S. Additionally, the HIV infection
                                                                                                        ous that our current stance on drugs has failed.
facilities to curb their addiction. This course of   rate in Portugal’s drug users has declined by 17
                                                                                                        It is time to wave the white flag on a war that
policy was adopted by Portugal in 2001. The          percent. Meanwhile, the number of individuals
                                                                                                        has ripped apart our own communities, and re-
government eliminated all criminal penalties         that were treated for drug addiction doubled.
                                                                                                        form our drug policy from mindless punishment
for individual drug possession, and the results                Additionally, the U.S. needs to ex-
                                                                                                        to sensible, safe, and effective treatment that is
have been extremely successful. In its first five    plore more unconventional treatment methods
                                                                                                        accessible to everyone. EPR
years, drug use rates declined significantly, es-    that have been proven to work better than our
pecially among teenagers. All drug use in sev-       current rehabilitation methods. A current study    Sophomore David Michaels is a double
enth to ninth graders dropped from 14.1 percent      in Great Britain has discovered that one of the    major in Political Science and Jour-

                                                            • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                              15

                                           By: Andrew Hull

      The Right to W                                   ith the monumental decision of D.C.
                                                       v. Heller being determined by a 5-4
                                                       vote in the U.S. Supreme Court, it
                                           would seem like the guns rights activists have

      Bear Arms:
                                           won their constitutional battle. The District of
                                           Columbia’s gun ban was performed in an area
                                           under the exclusive governance of the federal
                                           government; its overturning indirectly implied

      McDonald v. Chicago
                                           that the federal government is constitutionally
                                           forbidden to abridge an individual’s right to bear
                                                     What about a city like Chicago,
                                           though? The question now facing the Supreme
                                           Court in the case McDonald v. Chicago, con-
                                           cerning the constitutionality of a handgun ban in
                                           Chicago, is whether or not the Second Amend-
                                           ment applies to the states. It looks like the pro-
                                           ponents of an individual’s right to bear arms

 16                 • EPR Winter 09-10 •
         have only finished half the race.              and have been applied to states through a long        the Clause of any meaning. … Because I believe
            Although the Second Amendment as            patchwork of cases. The exception is the Sec-         that the demise of the Privileges or Immunities
         first drafted does not protect the right       ond Amendment, which is why McDonald v.               Clause has contributed in no small part to the
         from the states, there can be a constitu-      Chicago is such an important case.                    current disarray of our Fourteenth Amendment
         tional argument made for the right being       McDonald v. Chicago is actually one of several        jurisprudence, I would be open to reevaluating
         indeed saved from the states. The argu-        cases that were spawned post-Heller as a test         its meaning in an appropriate case.”
         ment is known “incorporation” and it           case for incorporation. Other similar cases in-
         finds its basis in two different parts of      clude NRA v. Chicago, Guy Montag Doe v. San           An issue remains, however, if McDonald were
         the 14th Amendment: the Privileges or          Francisco Housing Authority, Nordyke v. King,         to win his case: the status of the Fourteenth
         Immunities Clause (§1, Cl. 2) and the          and Maloney v. Rice. What makes McDonald              Amendment’s Due Process clause, the clause
         adjacent Due Process Clause (§1, Cl. 3).       unique as well as a potentially landmark case         originally used to facilitate incorporation. Both
         Incorporation, as broadly defined, is the      is that it explicitly calls for the overturning of    the Immunities and the Due Process clauses
         extension of the rights written in the Bill    the Slaughterhouse Cases and the restoration of       would then be interpreted to protect the rights
         of Rights against the states.                  the “full meaning” of the Privileges or Immuni-       of people against the states, with the Immunities
                       It would appear that the         ties Clause. McDonald’s Petition for Certiorari       Clause being far stronger in this case. The Due
         Privileges or Immunities Clause would          states:                                               Process clause would then seem to be redun-
         be the best basis for this incorporation,                                                            dant and utterly useless given the Due Process
         as it says, “No State shall make or en-        More critically, owing to the Fourteenth Amend-       clause in the Fifth Amendment, but this may not
         force any law which shall abridge the          ment’s plain text, original purpose, and original     be the case. While the Fifth Amendment’s Due
         privileges or immunities of citizens of        public meaning, this Court should also hold the       Process clause protects the same abstract right
         the United States.” It seems to imply the      Second Amendment is incorporated through the          as the 14th Amendment’s Due Process Clause,
         barring of creating a law that abridges        Fourteenth Amendment’s Privileges or Immuni-          the Fifth Amendment’s meaning would be re-
         the rights of a citizen as found in the Bill   ties Clause. Although consensus regarding this        stricted when incorporated through the Privi-
         of Rights. This view is probably given         provision’s full meaning will likely remain elu-      leges and Immunities Clause to protecting only
         its best defense by Justice Hugo Black         sive, there is now near uniform agreement that        citizens. This is because the objects protected
         in his dissenting opinion in Adamson v.        this Court’s decision in The Slaughter-House          in the Immunities Clause are “citizens,” not the
         California in which he includes an ex-         Cases, 83 U.S. (16 Wall.) 36 (1873), which all        broader noun “persons” that is in both of the
         haustive list of excerpts from congres-        but eviscerated the Privileges or Immunities          Due Process Clauses. The Fourteenth Amend-
         sional debate during the drafting the          Clause, was wrongly decided. Given the pro-           ment’s Due Process Clause, however, protects
         14th Amendment supporting this inter-          found scope of Slaughter-House’s error, and the       all persons’ due process rights explicitly against
         pretation.                                     confusion it has spawned in Fourteenth Amend-         the states. This makes it broader than the Fifth
                       This     robust     sounding     ment jurisprudence, overruling Slaughter-House        Amendment’s Due Process Clause as incorpo-
         clause, however, has been curiously            remains imperative. The unique interplay be-          rated through the Immunities Clause.
         dormant in constitutional law for most         tween the Second and Fourteenth Amendments                       It then appears that a ruling in favor
         of the clause’s existence. In 1873, the        makes this the ideal case in which to do so (17).     of McDonald would accomplish several con-
         Supreme Court dispelled this reading of                                                              stitutional progressions. The Supreme Court
         §1, Cl. 2. “Slaughterhouse Cases”. In-         Ruling in favor of McDonald, then, could not          would first, with even the narrowest ruling, fi-
         stead, the Supreme Court has preferred         only incorporate the Second Amendment to              nally incorporate the Second Amendment and
         to use the much more controversial and         the states, but also overturn the Slaughterhouse      overturn a century and a half of contradicting
         legally complex Due Process Clause,            Cases. This would be a reversal of monumen-           case law. At its most ambitious, it would restore
         which reads, “…nor shall any State             tal proportions because the Privileges and Im-        the Privileges and Immunities Clause from the
         deprive any person of life, liberty, or        munities Clause could then be used, with one          constitutional gutting it received during the
         property, without due process of law.”         broad stroke, to incorporate the entirety of the      Slaughterhouse Cases. This would result in the
         The phrase “due process” has a long            first eight amendments of the Bill of Rights. The     automatic incorporation of not only the Second
         and complex history stretching back to         wish of Black, who championed this totalistic         Amendment, but also all other rights that have
         the Magna Carta. Without becoming              or “mechanical” incorporation, would finally be       not yet been formally incorporated: The right
too bogged down in legal history, it means that         fulfilled. The process of selective incorporation,    to petition for redress of grievances in the First
a legal system has to respect certain rights of a       which uses rather vague and undemanding crite-        Amendment, the right to indictment by a grand
person while prosecuting them for a crime.              ria, would become obsolete, as a right would not      jury in the Fifth Amendment, the protection
            The easiest example of due process is       have to be considered “fundamental” to qualify        against excessive bails and fines in the Eighth
that in order to be convicted of a crime, a person      for incorporation. This ramification has resulted     Amendment, and the entirety of the Third and
has to be found guilty by a jury of his or her          in the support of many liberal legal theorists,       Seventh Amendments. McDonald v. Chicago
peers. The Supreme Court has used this clause           who have interests in other rights aside from         is a case that, while at first glance is simply
to selectively incorporate the Bill of Rights           those included in the Second Amendment.               the next constitutional step after the individual
against the states. Rather than broadly applying        The reevaluation, though perhaps not the reju-        rights reading of the Second Amendment in
the Bill of Rights to the states, like the Supreme      venation that Black supported, of the Privileges      D.C. v. Heller. However, it could also be some-
Court would have done under the Immunities              and Immunities Clause also has the support of         thing of a new beginning in the Supreme Court’s
Clause, it instead decides each of the individual       many conservatives, most notably Justice Clar-        jurisprudence. Black’s vision for the Privileges
rights contained in the first ten amendments on         ence Thomas who lamented on the state of the          and Immunities clause, more than 60 years in
a case-by-case basis. In order for a right to be        clause in his dissent in Saenz v. Roe:                the making, may finally be realized through Mc-
incorporated, the right has to be “implicit in                                                                Donald v. Chicago. EPR
the concept of ordered liberty,” a “fundamental         “ As The Chief Justice points out, ante at 1, it      Andrew Hull is a sophomore in the Col-
right,” according to the Supreme Court’s ruling         comes as quite a surprise that the majority relies
                                                                                                              lege and a double major in Philosophy
in the 1968 case Duncan v. Louisiana. Until this        on the Privileges or Immunities Clause at all in
point, most of the rights in the Bill of Rights         this case. That is because, as I have explained su-
                                                                                                              and Classical Civilization
have been considered “fundamental rights”               pra, at 1-2, The Slaughter-House Cases sapped

                                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                17
foreign AffAirs

      The Impact of
      War and Terror
      on Pakistan
                                                           Soviet War. In the eyes of many Pakistanis, the      not only that we had to decide whether we
      By: Mishal M. Ali                                    United States has had a longtime unwelcome           were with America or with the terrorists, but
                                                           hand in their country’s politics by supporting re-   that if we chose the terrorists, then we should

              ituated between Afghanistan, a country       pressive governments, such as that of Muham-         be prepared to be bombed back to the Stone
              torn apart by war, and India, a longtime     mad Zia-Ul-Haq, and in attempting to affect          Age.” If Musharraf’s allegations are true, it
              enemy allied with the United States, Pak-    election outcomes in other cases.                    is easy to see why many Pakistanis see the
      istan has been an enigmatic actor in South Asian               Prior to 9/11, the main political prob-    United States in a negative light.
      politics over the last decade. Since the U.S.        lem that Pakistan faced was the dispute with
      invasion of Afghanistan in 2001, Pakistan has        India over control of Kashmir, a territory that      Impact of Afghanistan War on Pakistan
      been scrutinized by the international commu-         spans the northern borders of both countries, as                Although Pakistan has been politi-
      nity, which has offered both praise and admon-       well as southern China. The international bor-       cally unstable since its founding, the amount
      ishment for its role in the conflict. This article   der between India and Pakistan in this region        of internal violence it has suffered since the
      looks at the impact of the war on Pakistan’s civil   has been disputed since the partition of India       beginning of the U.S. war on terrorism is un-
      society by exploring public attitudes towards the    and Pakistan in 1947. Before 9/11, Pakistan’s        precedented in the country’s history. This is
      United States and Islamic extremism.                 ISI was also accused of supporting the Taliban       due to the increasing influence of Al Qaeda in
                                                           in Afghanistan—an accusation that gained enor-       Pakistan.
      The Beginning                                        mous political significance for the country in re-              A concise summary of the prob-
                 Pakistan has been a volatile actor        sponse to the 9/11 terrorist attacks.                lems Pakistan faces as a result of the U.S. inter-
      in South Asia since its founding in 1947. Post                                                            vention in Afghanistan comes from noted Paki-
      independence, it has seen multiple upheavals         The Response to 9/11 and the War on Terror           stani scholar M. Nasrullah Mirza who states,
      - from dictatorial and military governments to                    After 9/11, Pakistani President Mush-   “An influx of millions of Afghan refugees [has]
      parliamentary democracy and everything in be-        arraf reluctantly aligned himself with the United    resulted in small arms proliferation, drug traf-
      tween.                                               States, pledging that he would cooperate with        ficking and increased sectarianism. Further-
                 In Pakistan, political power is divided   U.S. efforts to eradicate the Taliban. Many com-     more, foreign militants have been able to infil-
      into three main sectors. The first sector is the     munities were incensed by the government’s           trate through Pakistan’s porous borders.”
      civilian government, led by Asif Ali Zardari         stance. The Pashtun ethnic community in Paki-                   The political problems identified by
      since September of 2008. The second sector is        stan, most of which resides near the border with     Mirza have resulted in intensified public at-
      the military, which many argue holds the most        Pakistan, has extensive social links with Afghani    titudes about religious extremism and foreign
      political influence. The third branch of power is    Pashtuns. The Pashtuns understood Musharaf to        policy. In a 2009 study by the non-partisan In-
      the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI).     say that he would stand for the killing of many      ternational Republican Institute, 90 percent of
      The power of the ISI, like the Central Intelli-      of their brothers and relatives. Other Pakistan-     Pakistanis agreed that religious extremism is
      gence Agency in the United States, is hard to        is, particularly those from non-Pashtun ethnic       a major problem in Pakistan, whereas only 63
      measure due to its secrecy.                          groups, viewed their country’s partnership with      percent agreed with the same statement in 2007.
                 The inability of Western governments      the United States as essential.                      In 2006, the study found that 43 percent of Paki-
      to understand Pakistani politics is a reflection                 Maybe the most telling statement         stanis had a favorable opinion of U.S.-Pakistani
      of the complexity of Pakistani society. On one       about U.S.-Pakistani relations at the time came      cooperation in fighting terrorism, as compared
      hand, Pakistan has never been able to become a       from a memoir recently written by Musharraf          with 18 percent in 2009.
      major economic player in the region in the way       titled, In the Line of Fire. In the book Musharraf              The annual terrorism report published
      India has. On the other hand, it has been noticed    alleges that the day after the attacks he received   by the U.S. State Department notes that there
      for obtaining nuclear weapons. Many Pakistani        a phone call from U.S. Secretary of State Co-        were 1,839 terrorist incidents in 2008—a four-
      people are willing to support the United States      lin Powell and was told, “you are either with        fold increase from 2006. Although most of these
      in exchange for economic and strategic aid, but      us or against us.” The next day, according to        incidents took place near the border with Af-
      Pakistanis have not forgotten that the U.S. lent     Musharaff’s account, Deputy Secretary Richard        ghanistan, many others, like the assassination of
      support to the Mujahedeen during the Afghan-         Armitage “told the director general [of the ISI]     former Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto and the

 18                                                              • EPR Winter 09-10 •

attacks on the Sri Lankan national cricket team,       five years will only help reduce violence if it is      tremist organizations if the United States were
happened in the eastern part of the country, dis-      distributed in a way that targets the lower eco-        to withdraw from Afghanistan. Without the sup-
tant from conflict zones.                              nomic classes of society. Even if aid is distribut-     port of Pakistani citizens, whether they are from
           So, what does this mean? First, it          ed properly, Malik also contends the money will         the Sindh province in southern Pakistan or from
means that Al Qaeda and other sympathetic              do nothing to reduce anti-American sentiment            the northwest Frontier Province, the govern-
organizations are attacking with greater so-           in the region. To do that, he says, the U.S. must       ment’s efforts will be stymied.
phistication and finding many civilians who are        withdraw its troops from Afghanistan. Along                        The only way for the Pakistani govern-
sympathetic to their cause. What is less obvious       with the economic aid, the legislation itself           ment to find its way out of its current situation
is the role of local police and the ISI in these at-   requires that President Barack Obama inform             is to establish transparency and accountability
tacks. Pakistan is notoriously corrupt, and many       Congress in detail of his Pakistani strategy. It        in all three of its main power sectors. This will
of these attacks cannot happen without bribes          also requires Secretary of State Hillary Clinton        be difficult, given that all three branches have
and favors. For example, Pakistan is still facing      to update him on progress of the strategy every         a long tradition of corruption. If Pakistan is to
corruption on a national level today. In a report      six months.                                             become a stable state, it will need help from its
given to Zardari by Pakistan’s Auditor General,                   Nasreen Akthar, a Pakistani lecturer         regional neighbors—India included. Pakistan
the Ministry of Foreign Affairs was identified         and scholar suggests that “building a safe so-          needs to make a meaningful attempt to end the
as having financial irregularities of $5 million       ciety, functional state institutions, and reviving      Kashmir conflict and show India that greater se-
(U.S.) in 2007-2008. Pakistani corruption is           the economy of Afghanistan would bring tre-             curity in Pakistan will lead to a more secure In-
not only a problem at the national level but also      mendous benefit to all its neighbors” because           dia, as well as a more stable South Asia. While
stems down to the local level where police are         of the potential for economic integration with          Pakistan has been seen as an enigmatic actor, its
often paid off to “keep quiet” about illegal ac-       Afghanistan. Many experts have suggested that           actions may be the difference between winning
tivities.                                              resolving the Kashmir dispute with India will           and losing the battle against Islamic extremism
                                                       benefit both countries economically and free up         in South Asia. EPR
Proposed Solutions to the problem                      resources that are spent on the conflict.
                                                                                                               Mishal M. Ali is a senior in the College and
          Experts have proposed different ways                    The most important thing the Paki-
of helping Pakistan combat its growing threats.        stani government can do for itself is to convince       a Political Science and Economics double
Mustafa Malik, writing in Middle East Policy,          its people that this is their war. Pakistan is a very   major.
agrees that the Obama administration’s decision        weak state, and many believe that Pakistan will
to send Pakistan $1.5 billion in aid over the next     not have the institutional capacity to handle ex-

                                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                19
foreign AffAirs

      By: Peter Wolf (with special thanks to
      Prof. T.F. Remington)

                   little over ten years ago, Russia
                   was regarded as the “sick man” of
                   Europe. It was a Pandora’s box of
                   problems: ethnic strife, crippling
      poverty, a tortured economy, soaring rates of
      alcoholism, drug use, and AIDS, and an ineffec-
      tive government fraught with endemic corrup-
      tion. One could hardly believe it to be the same
      country that had once so strongly contended for
      world dominance.
                 But when we look at Russia today,
      one word continues to crop up, over and over
      again: “Resurgent.” And indeed, the adjective
      is well-deserved. Russia has emerged from the
      dark, uncertain days of the post-Soviet collapse
      as a vigorous and, prior to the recent economic
      downturn, economically dynamic country de-
      termined to reassert its role as a major player
      on the world stage. This reality is nowhere more
      apparent than in the realm of European affairs.
      Yet, for all of this newfound strength, clout, and
      wealth, this resurrected bear may not be as stur-
      dy as many might believe.
                 To fully understand the future of Rus-
      so-European relations, one must look at these
      blocks’ rather complicated past. Like most other
      countries, Russia’s foreign policy is dictated by
      its national interest, yet never before in history
      have these interests been more opaque. Under
      both the tsars and Soviets, the cornerstone of
      Russian foreign policy had a common theme:
      dominance: dominance over what Russia re-
      fers to as its “near-abroad,” the independent
      states that emerged after the collapse of the
      USSR. Justification for Russian dominance has
      come in many guises throughout history: Pan-
      Slavism, the defense of the Orthodox faith, du-
      bious claims of continuity with the Byzantine
      Empire, and, in more recent memory, Russia’s
      self-anointed role as the leader of International
                 Today, each of these dogmas has been
      largely discredited and for once, Russia faces
      the realm of global politics without the backing
      of an ideology with internationalist appeal. Yet
      as early as 2001, despite the manifold weakness
      of his country at the time, President Vladimir
      Putin asserted Russia’s right to have major in-
      fluence in its “near abroad,” declaring the region
      to be within his country’s “sphere of influence.”

 20                                                        • EPR Winter 09-10 •

Too many European countries that once lay un-                    In recent years, this intense self-
der direct Russian control, Putin’s words, while      awareness has been coupled with increased
by no means novel, were nonetheless worri-            Russian anxiety regarding its neighbors. Al-
some. In 2004, the traditionally Russophobic          though they are both members of the Shanghai
Baltic republics of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithua-      Cooperation Organization (a sort of Eurasian
nia joined both NATO and the European Union,          NATO), Russia has become wary of China and
a move which may very well have been partly           its efforts to dominate the security pact, since
motivated by the protection these organizations       Central Asia is an area of high Russian focus as
offer against any possible Russian aggression.        well. There, Russia must compete with China,
Yet Europe in general has so far been unsure of       and to some degree the United States as well,
how to respond to this new Russia. It is unused       for power and influence amongst the newly-
to a Kremlin that no longer desires dominance,        independent, savvy, and immensely energy-rich
but rather influence instead. Moreover, Russia        republics of Central Asia.
now also has firm control over Europe’s energy                   However, this situation does not mean
supplies: the European Union (EU) presently           that Russia has turned its back on Europe. Far
imports nearly half of its natural gas and 30 per-    from it, since the Ukraine is an ever-present
cent of its oil from Russia, and Russia has been      concern to Russia. The Kremlin believes that
far from shy in taking advantage of this fact. In     Ukrainian admission to the EU or NATO would
a report issued by the Swedish Defense Agency         severely jeopardize Russian national security
in 2007, 55 incidents involving Russian energy        and is actively working to prevent any such
suppliers, including cut-offs, explicit threats,      event from occurring.
coercive price policy, and certain takeovers,                    The Ukraine has become more and
were listed since 1991, most of which were de-        more a source of contention in the years follow-
termined to have “both political and economic         ing the Orange Revolution of 2004-2005. Since
underpinnings.”                                       2008, the government has become cripplingly
            Along with showcasing its formidable      polarized, with Viktor Yushchenko’s flagging
skills at this game of petropolitics, Russia has      pro-Western faction competing with the increas-
also proven itself very adept at playing EU mem-      ingly-popular blocs led by Yulia Tymoshenko
bers off of one another. Italy and Germany, two       and Viktor Yanukovych, both of which favor
of Russia’s largest trading partners, have consis-    rapprochement with Russia.
tently defended Russian actions, even over such                  Political quagmire aside, Ukraine also
issues as blatant as Russia’s “accidental” shutoff    faces a crisis of national unity. Ukrainians in the
of EU gas supplies after a row with Ukraine over      eastern part of the country much more readily
gas transport earlier this year. France has also      identify with Russia and Russian culture than
begun to take a more conciliatory tone towards        with that of their homeland. This situation is
Moscow. During the controversial 2008 South           especially true in the strategically vital Crimea,
Ossetia War, the United Kingdom was the only          which has flirted with secession, wherein 58
Western European nation to condemn both Rus-          percent of the populace is ethnically Russian
sia’s overly-aggressive response and Georgia’s        and 77 percent report Russian as their native
recklessness, while Germany, Italy, and others        language. Of particular note is the fact that the
issued statements critical of Georgia and largely     Russian government has been distributing pass-
sympathetic to Russia. This instance is perhaps       ports to Ukrainians in the south and east. This
one of the most visible illustrations of the EU’s     act is especially ominous not only because of
disjointed stance towards Russia.                     Russia’s declared policy of militarily interven-
            Many could take, and have taken,          ing to protect Russian citizens abroad, but also
these circumstances as proof that Russia has re-      because many South Ossetians were issued Rus-
emerged as a neo-imperialist power bent on a          sian passports in the months leading up to the
policy of coercion and adventurism. The reality       Georgian War.
of the situation, however, is vastly different. Far              It is undeniable that the future holds
from seeing itself as a reborn superpower, Rus-       great potential for conflict between Russia and
sia is vividly aware of the distrust with which       the West. The reality of the situation, how-
it is seen by other countries, and it knows what      ever, is not that Russia has reemerged to bully
sort of alarms the idea of Russian expansionism       and browbeat its way to supremacy, but rather
sets off in the rest of the world. When South Os-     it is trying to find its place in a rapidly chang-
setia and Abkhazia asked to be absorbed into          ing world. Its attempts have so far been at once
Russia in the wake of the Georgian War, they          clumsy and deft, promising and suspicious. The
were instantly denied. The breakaway republics        bear has reawakened to a world much changed
of Transnistria and Nagorno-Karabakh were             from the one it left. It is defensive, anxious, and,
met with the same icy dismissal when they too         above all, unsure; therefore, we must treat it
asked for integration into the Russian Federa-        with caution. EPR
tion. These so-called “frozen conflicts” have no      Peter Wolf is a freshman in the college
foreseeable end, largely due to the fact that it is   and is undeclared.
in Russia’s best interest to keep them alive so
that they may be used as pressure points when-
ever Russian interest calls for it.

       • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                  21
foreign AffAirs

      The Hearts and Minds of

 22               • EPR Winter 09-10 •
                                                     cal Association in 1997. The Scientific Medical      ishing, to some, it is just another example of
By: Jonathan Silberman                               Association coordinates the activities of various    Hamas providing a needed social service. The
                                                     medical centers and blood bank that Hamas has        group has now entered into matchmaking. In

         or years, Hamas has been labeled a ter-     set up in the Palestinian Authority. These medi-     the conservative Islamic community of the Gaza
         rorist organization by the European         cal centers are willing to treat anyone at lower     strip, women are supposed to marry young and
         Union and the United States, among          rates than other medical clinics, or for free if     are matched to husbands through their mothers.
others. The group’s own charter says that it is      a person is unable to pay. The medical centers       However, many women in their mid-twenties,
waiting to “obliterate [Israel]” and that there is   are also popular because the doctors are “good       who are old by Gaza’s standards, are still single
no solution except, “…jihad. Initiatives, propos-    Muslims” and are trusted by some of the more         and their families have given up trying to find
als and international conferences are all a waste    religious Palestinians. One example of a medi-       matches. So Hamas has set up a service, Tayseer
of time and vain endeavors.” Yet Hamas won a         cal facility is the Jaffa Medical Center. It is a    Association for Marriage and Development,
2006 democratic, parliamentary election, and         five-story hospital with three floors devoted to     where single women can apply to be matched
polls conducted by the Palestinian Center for        outpatient clinics. There is a dental facility, a    with a suitable husband. Men and women both
Policy and Survey Research as late as March          large x-ray room, two operating rooms, and sur-      fill out a questionnaire and then apply to Tay-
2009 showed the organization winning 47 per-         gical and medical wards, among other services        seer to be matched. Tayseer tries to find simi-
cent of the vote if an election were held at that    for men and women. One-third of the doctors          lar matches on the questionnaires and then sets
time.                                                there are female, so female patients can be treat-   up a meeting for the couple through employers
            How has an organization labeled by       ed by doctors of the same sex. Another example       or mutual friends. If the meeting goes well, the
the outside world as a terrorist organization                                                             man will tell his family to visit the woman’s
gained popularity? It is easy to dismiss Hamas’
popularity, but it is much harder to take a step
                                                     “Hamas has been                                      family and hopefully the two can be married.
                                                                                                          Hamas has arranged at least 40 marriages in the
                                                                                                          two years since it first opened the Tayseer As-
back and try to figure out why Hamas has
gained the support of ordinary, everyday Pales-
tinian people.
                                                     successful at so-                                    sociation.
                                                                                                                     Despite its social work, Hamas is a
            Hamas’ first and most resonant mes-
sage in its 2006 campaign was that it would end       cial services be-                                   terrorist organization and should be stopped.
                                                                                                          As Harvard Law Professor Allan Dershowitz
                                                                                                          wrote, “Hamas leaders have echoed the man-
the corruption that has plagued the Palestinian
Authority (PA). The Fatah Party had run the
entire PA until its defeat in the 2006 elections,
                                                       cause they see                                     tra of Hassan Nasrallah, the leader of Hezbol-
                                                                                                          lah that, ‘we are going to win because they love
                                                                                                          life and we love death.’” Hamas launches rock-
where corruption was a substantial reason for
it’s loss. The Fatah leader, Mahmoud Abbas, is
a great example of this; he lives in a stone man-
                                                      what the people                                     ets from schools, playgrounds, and hospitals in
                                                                                                          the Gaza strip at Israeli schools, playgrounds,
sion with extensive security. This, of course, is
nothing compared to the $1.3 billion net-worth         need and try to                                    and hospitals; they hides rockets, missiles, and
                                                                                                          other weapons in mosques and other civilian lo-
                                                                                                          cations; Hamas militants do not wear uniforms
of Hamas’ former leader Yasser Arafat at the
time of his death. Most of that fortune was made
by transferring funds designated to help the
                                                         provide it.”                                     so they cannot be distinguished from civilians;
                                                                                                          Hamas’ actions are intended to increase the
people living inside the PA into his own private                                                          deaths of Israelis and to create a situation where
                                                     of a clinic is the Al Quds clinic in the southern    any response from Israel would create as many
accounts. Even though 47 percent of the West         part of the Gaza strip. This clinic contains pedi-
Bank and 80 percent of the Gaza strip live on                                                             dead Palestinian civilians as possible, which
                                                     atrics, maternal, orthodontics, and post-surgical    Hamas considers to be good publicity; Hamas
under $2 a day, Fatah’s oldest leaders made a        care, and now reaches 400 people a month.
fortune creating monopolies, draining aid, grab-                                                          uses summer camps to indoctrinate hate of Is-
                                                                  Another service that was lacking in     rael, militancy, and support for themselves; the
bing properties, and making protection rackets.      the PA was providing food for those who cannot
Perhaps even more alarming was that while all                                                             camp teaches skills that will prepare children
                                                     afford it. Hamas is willing to give food and cash    to kill Israelis; Hamas’ schools refuse to teach
government workers received full pay under Fa-       to anyone who asks for it. Hamas and its affili-
tah, 20 percent did not show up to work.                                                                  what happened during the Holocaust, and in-
                                                     ated organizations operate dozens of food banks      stead teach that it is a Jewish fabrication and a
            Hamas’ promises in 2006 were sim-        and soup kitchens. In 2001, one Hamas-affiliat-
ple and effective. The organization agreed to                                                             political issue.
                                                     ed charity provided 33 percent of total food and                Elections are now overdue in Pales-
require all government institutions and depart-      cash assistance, while its umbrella organization
ments to open their records, including financial                                                          tine, as they were scheduled for January 2010
                                                     provided another 21 percent. In the alleys near a    but are likely to be delayed. Hamas is losing in
records, which had been private under Fatah.         refugee camp, families receive $40 to $100 per
It promised that all institutions would keep ac-                                                          current polls and has declared that they will take
                                                     month, along with beans, flour, eggs, and other      action against anyone trying to vote in the Gaza
curate records of their actions. Hamas also said     essential foods. One Palestinian-Christian said
it would set up complaint departments for each                                                            strip. Meanwhile, Fatah’s leader Mahmoud Ab-
                                                     that Hamas was so popular because you would          bas has claimed he will not run for re-election
department of Government that worked with the        wake up and “find a box of [food] staples like
Attorney General’s office. Hamas has not been                                                             and will soon step down as leader of the PA.
                                                     oil and sugar here on the sidewalk.” Hamas pro-      Other top Fatah officials are talking of resigning
as effective in fighting corruption, as its prom-    vided food baskets for people shortly before the
ises would make it appear. Many problems have                                                             because the peace process has still failed to cre-
                                                     2006 elections. More recently, it has provided       ate a Palestinian state. These are very uncertain
arisen within its government. However, Hamas         free iftar, the meal that breaks the Ramadan fast,
is still seen as less corrupt than Fatah.                                                                 times in the Palestinian Administration, but we
                                                     to some residents of East Jerusalem. Hamas also      can be certain of one thing: that Hamas’ role as
            As a result of Fatah’s corruption,       provided cash to people who were hurt during
money that should have been spent on pub-                                                                 a central player in Palestinian politics will con-
                                                     Israel’s recent operation in the Gaza strip.         tinue to make it a major power in the Middle
lic services was not, and among other things,                     Hamas has been successful at social
the health infrastructure was underdeveloped.                                                             East for years to come. EPR
                                                     services because they see what the people need
Hamas stepped up and filled the void to the best     and try to provide it. While Hamas’ latest out-      Freshman Jonathan Silberman is a
of its abilities by creating the Scientific Medi-    reach effort may seem surprising, even aston-        Political Science major in the College.

                                                           • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                23
foreign AffAirs                                                                                               cal realm. People often forget that anyone can
                                                                                                              drive social change, not just politicians. Law-

  2010 FIFA World Cup:
                                                                                                              making is not the only way of problem-solving.
                                                                                                              The indispensable, but sometimes subtle, power
                                                                                                              of the people is too often overshadowed by po-

  More than Just a Game                                                                                       litical muddle. Although officials and adminis-
                                                                                                              trators brought the World Cup to South Africa,
  By: Amanda Mac                                          many of the activities we consider to be staple
                                                                                                              ordinary people from inside the country will

                                                                                                              bring a special and profound meaning to the
           ext June, South Africa will make history by    parts of our culture are not solely ours. Music,
                                                                                                              tournament itself.
           becoming the first African country to host     film, and sports are not exclusively Western
                                                                                                                         Hosting the World Cup is a first for
           soccer’s most prestigious tournament: the      forms of entertainment. The universality of arts
                                                                                                              South Africa, but the idea of using sports to
 FIFA World Cup. Hosting a first-class international      and sports brings together people of many dif-
                                                                                                              unite people is not new. In 1995, only a year af-
 event represents a chance for the world to witness a     ferent backgrounds and environments. A group
                                                                                                              ter the end of apartheid, Nelson Mandela made a
 special part of Africa that is normally overshadowed     of teenagers in London can listen to the same
                                                                                                              decision to try to bring the Rugby World Cup to
 by headlines about war, disease, and poverty.            music as a group of teenagers in Shanghai. Like-
                                                                                                              his country. For him, it was not only an opportu-
            Positive news about Africa is largely ab-     wise, a game of soccer played in an American
                                                                                                              nity to turn the international community’s eyes
 sent from news media reports. This is not because        neighborhood is the same as a game played in
                                                                                                              on the new, democratic South Africa, but it was
 positive news does not exist, but because it is not      South Africa.
                                                                                                              also a chance to take a major step in bringing
 covered. For example, the media constantly reports                  Bringing the World Cup to South Af-
                                                                                                              together a once broken country. Rugby in South
 discouraging HIV/AIDS statistics but overlooks           rica is an extremely expensive undertaking that
                                                                                                              Africa was a symbol of white power during
 stories such as Namibia’s massive improvements           will cost billions of dollars. However, this mas-
                                                                                                              the Apartheid days, so the decision to host the
 in providing antiretroviral therapy (coverage is up      sive expenditure comes with promise of a high
                                                                                                              rugby World Cup was a major turning point in
 from just 1 percent in 2003 to 88 percent in 2007).      return on the money invested in development.
                                                                                                              post-Apartheid reconstruction. Mandela viewed
 Although reports on violence and human suffering         Stadiums, roads, and railroads are investments
                                                                                                              the tournament as an opportunity to reconcile
 in Africa bring awareness to a misun-                                                                                 South Africa’s whites and blacks, urg-
 derstood and underrepresented conti-                                                                                  ing people of all colors to support the
 nent, many journalists sensationalize                                                                                 Springboks under the mantra, “One
 these problems. Positive change in                                                                                    Team, One Nation.”
 Africa does not happen overnight, but                                                                                              As the Springboks claimed
 journalists tend to focus on timely con-                                                                              more and more victories, public support
 troversies over gradual improvements.                                                                                 for the team skyrocketed. At the final,
 For instance, Mozambique, a formerly                                                                                  South Africans eagerly watched the
 war-torn country in southern Africa,                                                                                  Springboks play a fierce game against
 has averaged an impressive eight per-                                                                                 New Zealand where they finally won in
 cent growth rate for nearly a decade.                                                                                 overtime. As the entire stadium erupted
 This news, however, remarkable as it                                                                                  in excitement, South Africa’s first black
 is, will probably never make headlines.                                                                               President made his way onto the field.
            Africa is not just huts and                                                                                With the crowd chanting, “Nelson,
 warriors, nor is it a static, unchanging                                                                              Nelson!” he mounted the platform and
 place. People often forget that many                                                                                  turned to face the people of South Af-
 African nation-states are still quite                                                                                 rica. When Mandela presented the tro-
 young and face a unique set of prob-                     for South Africa’s future that will remain for               phy to Springbok team captain Francois
 lems that are both directly and indirectly tied to the   many years after the World Cup ends.                Pienaar, the captain replied, “No, Mr. President.
 continent’s colonial past. Gaining independence was                 As with any other important interna-     Thank you for what you have done,” a sign of
 a messy process for many African states.                 tional event, there has been some controversy       the unifying power of the game. Beyond the sta-
            When the imperial powers decolonized in       around the 2010 World Cup. This past July, for      dium, in townships and villages all across South
 a hurry, the newly-independent states had few tools      instance, stadium construction workers went         Africa, blacks and whites joined each other in
 to deal with the consequences of years of destruc-       on strike, demanding better compensation and        celebration of their country’s win. When asked
 tion. Neocolonialism and the lingering effects of        benefits. Additionally, other protestors have       at the trophy ceremony what he thought of the
 colonialism were some of the greatest obstacles to       accused the South African government of put-        fans cheering in the stadium, team captain, Pi-
 development in Africa. Groups like the International     ting too much focus on spending on World Cup        enaar said that the 65,000 South Africans in the
 Monetary Fund (IMF) now echo the domination and          preparations while neglecting important social      stadium were only a fraction of the 43 million
 coercion tactics practiced by some colonial powers.      issues like health care. Human rights groups        South Africans who stood behind them on that
 Rather than criticizing development failures, people     have alleged that evictions related to World Cup    day.
 should consider the enormity of the challenges fac-      construction are a thinly veiled attempt to hide               In 2010, the international community
 ing Africa today. Of the 25 lowest ranked countries      poverty from visitors who will attend the tour-     will get a chance to witness an even greater,
 on the United Nations Human Development Index            nament. One major controversy, for example,         more advanced, and more unified South Africa
 rankings, all but two are African nations. With such     involves the South African government’s plan to     than it saw in 1995. People will see the progress
 enormous development gaps to close, it will take pa-     move approximately 20,000 residents from the        the country has made and get a glimpse of the
 tience and dedication to make the necessary changes      Joe Slovo Informal Settlement in Cape Town          bright future that is possible for the region. It is
 to improve these countries’ standings. We must re-       to a housing district in the impoverished Delft     time for the world to revolutionize its thinking
 form our thinking and realize that although there are    Township on the outskirts of the city. South Af-    on Africa and developing nations. We must stop
 many challenges for the citizens in Africa, there are    rica has so far dealt with these problems tact-     thinking of Africa only in terms of what sets us
 also many opportunities.                                 fully and insisted that preparations will be com-   apart from it and instead think of what unites us.
            Contemporary Africa is as modern and          pleted on time.
 diverse in its social, cultural and political environ-                                                       Sophomore Amanda Mac is an International
                                                                     Next year’s World Cup also presents
 ments as any other country. People often forget that     an opportunity for change outside of the politi-    Studies and Global Health double major.

 24                                                             • EPR Winter 09-10 •
pop Culture                                                                                               these new pseudo-pundits than past efforts to get
                                                                                                          young voters out to the polls? The answer lies

Comedy in Campaigns
                                                                                                          in the idea of entertainment. Although the idea
                                                                                                          of 73-year old Senator and former presidential
                                                                                                          candidate John McCain speaking to 20-some-
                                                                                                          things in a New York studio seems ineffective
                                                                                                          and dry, comedy can simultaneously be effective
By: Rui Zhong                                                                                             in drawing attention to issues and keeping them
                                                                                                          on the issues. During the 2008 season, one par-

    t can be said quite ironically that the media’s   tion season, Stewart was able to host both          ticularly striking moment is Stewart’s interview
    fixation on politics is old news. However, an     presidential candidates, Senator John McCain        of McCain, when he discussed the politicians’
    emerging trend in the world of politics is not    and then-Senator Barack Obama to voice view-        changing tactics in regards to his traditional role
what the media focuses on, but how it is able to      points, while Colbert had Democratic presiden-      as a ‘maverick’ of the Republican Party. When
change the game of politics itself.                   tial candidates then-Senator Hillary Clinton and    the moment calls for it, there is seriousness in
           For many years, politicians have al-       then-Senator John Edwards during the fierce         the policies and politics that he discusses.
ways been attempting to develop methods in            three-way Democratic primary in the spring and                 In the case of Colbert, a similar trend
capturing one particularly slippery demographic       summer of 2007. As the general election of No-      of mobilization occurs. His exaggerated ap-
during national elections: the youth vote. Thus,      vember 2008 approached, Colbert and Stewart         proach to campaigns and policies in effect
in recent years, the shows of late-night comedi-      had their say in situations such as the introduc-   humanizes the veritable flaws of politicians
ans, such as The Colbert Report and The Daily         tion of Sarah Palin as the Vice-Presidential Can-   and pundits, providing a simultaneously light-
Show have begun to exert influence over the           didate for the Republican Party, the Presidential   hearted yet poignant observation of the quirks
game of campaigning, most notably over young          and Vice-Presidential Debates, and finally their    of news and politics.
voters, as well as the entire American political      joint coverage of the historic election night it-              The impact that comedians can have
culture.                                              self, of which Barack Obama emerged presi-          on the American political culture, especially
           Although The Daily Show and The            dent-elect.                                         popular culture, is to reformat it to be approach-
Colbert Report both help attract attention to                    2008’s election season is shown pri-     able by the public, especially the youth. Al-
campaigns, news, and politics, for their niche        marily as a season in which the youth vote was      though the observations made on shows such as
audience of under-30s, their formats and mes-         significant in determining results. With shows      the Daily Show and the Colbert Report are first
sages about politics differ.                          such as The Daily Show and The Colbert Report       and foremost funny, they can be, at the same
           Jon Stewart of The Daily Show fo-          spurring the interests of recently enfranchised     time, meaningful in stirring interest in public
cuses on news events and the media’s approach         voters, information is far more accessible to the   policy. EPR
on politics. With a format imitating those of         young voter than it has been in the past, work-
prime-time news networks, he and his motley           ing in tandem but not cooperatively with efforts    Rui Zhong is a freshman in the College.
team of correspondents face elections, scandals,      such as MTV’s “Rock the Vote.”                      She is double majoring in Political Science
and policies with a sarcastic edge that is light on              What differentiates the strategy of      and East Asian Studies.
political correctness and heavy on
the uncomfortable truth.
           Contrasting the wise-
cracking Stewart is the blustery,
self-centered persona of Stephen
Colbert. In his show, The Colbert
Report, Colbert delves into the as-
pect of personality and charisma
in politics, parodying a blowhard
conservative pundit with very
skewed world views and a stereo-
typical American stubbornness
against facts. He instead works by
the idea of “truthiness”, favoring
gut instinct and stale jingoisms to
solve essentially any problem that
America faces.
           Although these comedi-
ans assure the media from time to
time that their primary business is
funny, there is inevitable influence
stemming from these Comedy
Central programs into real-world
politics. Both Colbert and Stew-
art regularly host interviews with
hopeful politicians and activists;
their evening shows are booked
with Senators, prominent political
authors, and candidates for key
           During the 2008 elec-

                                                             • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                               25
speCiAl                                                                                                                                             “King of Pop”
                                                                                                                                                   Michael Jackson
                                                                                                                                                          dies (50)

                                                                                                 G20 Summit

                                                                                                 $500 billion made available
                                                                                             2   to IMF, $100 billion to World
                                                                                                 Bank; G20 to move against

 2009 YEAR
                                                                                                 territorially-based tax havens
                                                                                                                                                           GM declares
                                                                                                           Noted abortionist Dr. George                1
                                                                                                           Tiller is shot and killed at the
                                                                                                        Reformation Lutheran Church in
                                                                                                                          Wichita, Kansas

                 in REVIEW
                                                                                                                       Chrysler declares Chapter
                                                                                                                       11 Bankruptcy                               Sen. Ensign
                                                                                                                  30   The first of the “Big Three”                admits affair
                                                                                                                       to declare bankruptcy after
                                                                                                                       bailouts fail to sustain it, its
                                                                                                                       equity ownership is now split
                                                                                                                       between U.S. and Canadian
                                                                                                                       governments, Fiat, and the                     Gov.
           Swearing in of
                                     By: Grant Wallensky                                                               United Auto Workers Union                   24 Sanford
           44th President,                                                                                             retiree medical fund.                          admits
      20 Barack Obama                Compiled by: Lilly Zhong and Christina Yang                                                                                      affair

Jan. Feb. March April May June
                                                                       American journalists                                                              Bernard Madoff
                   Milorad                                                                        Arlen Spector
                                      Stimulus Bill signed             Euna Lee and Laura                                                          sentenced to 150 years
      15           Blagojevich                                    17                               (Senator-PA)                                                              29
              29                      into law                                                                                                                   in prison
                                                                                                  switches party 28North Korean Second
                   removed       14                                    Ling are detained by
                                      The American Recovery            North Korea
                   as Illinois                                                                        affiliation
                                      and Reinvestment Act is                                                       Nuclear Test (under-
                   Governor                                            In June, they are sentenced                                            25
                                      nominally valued at $787                                                                  ground)
                                                                       to 12 years of hard labor.
                                                                       On August 5th, Kim Jong-il
                                                                       pardoned the two women after
                                       American International          former president Bill Clinton                                               Waxman-Markey
                                         Group (AIG) bonus                                                                                              passes House
                                                                       publicly arrived in North Korea                                                                     26
                      Isreali                    controversy 15        unanncounced.                                                             Cap-and-Trade bill
                     Election                                                                                                                     currently stalled in
                                10                                                                                                                             Senate
                   Netanyahu                                                                                                     Iranian election and
                                                                                                                                “Twitter Revolution”
                     of Likud
                                                                                                                                     Ahmadinejad wins
                   appointed                                                                 Hijacking of Maersk
                       Prime                                                                 Alabama by Somali                  another term in office,
                                                                                         2   Pirates                              opposition candidate
                                                                                             Ship, crew and captain                 Mousavi cries foul,
                                                                                             rescued by April 12;              protests and worldwide
                                                                                             attempted hijacking                   condemnation of the
                                                                                             Nov. 18 is repulsed               use of violence against
                                                                                             successfully                        protestors lasts a few

 26                                                               • EPR Winter 09-10 •
                                                                                                                                                                          Afghanistan troop
                                                                                                                                 President Obama declares
                                                                                                                                 H1N1 (swine) flu a national          1   President Obama
                                                                                                                                 As of Nov. 14, the CDC                   calls for 30,000
 Cash 4 Clunkers                                                                                                                                                          more troops
claims processing                                                                                                                estimates that in the U.S.
                  24                                                                                                             alone there had been
                                                                                                                                 9,820 deaths caused by
                                                                                                                                 swine flu                                CA mammogram
                                                                                          60th Anniversary of                                                             subsidies for middle
                                                                                         People’s Republic of                                                         1   aged women ends
                                                                                                       China    1
                                                                                                                                      Dubai defaults
                                                                                                                                         Dubai World
                                             Sotomayor sworn in                                                                                         26
                                                                                                                                     announces inten-                Landmark health
                                             The Supreme Court’s
                                         8   first Hispanic justice
                                                                                                                                         tion to delay                care bill passed
                                             and third female justice
                                                                                                                                       debt payments;                          (60-39) 24
                                                                                                                                           all markets
       Al Franken                                                    Japanese Election                                                 decline briefly.
       assumes office                                                Yukio Hatoyama’s Democratic                                                               Tiger Woods
   7                         Sarah Palin steps down             30   Party of Japan defeats Liberal                                                            involved in
       as Minnesota                                                                                                  Chicago eliminated
                             as Alaskan Governor                                                                                                            27 early-morning car
       Senator          26                                           Democratic Party, the latter’s                  from the first ballot in
                                                                     second defeat since 1955.                  2    IOC voting.                               accident       Diane Sawyer
                                                                                                                                   Announcement                               is the new
                                                                                                                                that Khalid Sheik                          21 ABC World
                                                  Founder of                                                                    Mohammed to be
                                                                                                                                                                              News anchor
                                                  Special Olympics                                                                   tried in NYC
                                                  Eunice Shriver
                                                  dies (88)                                                                Exchange of fire off      Perpetrator of the 2002 D.C.
                                                                                                                             Korean peninsula
                                                                                                                                                  10 Beltway Sniper Attacks,
                                                                                                                                                     claiming 10 lives, John Allen
                                                                                              Gubernatorial United States Elections       3          Muhammed is executed (48)
                                                                                            Republicans win gubernatorial elections in
                                                                                            VA, NJ; Democrats claim victory in NY-23

July August Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec.
                     Barack Obama calls arrest of
                                                                                                                             Saudi Arabia
                     Gates “teachable moment”
                22                                                                                                          and Iran begin    5          Strategic
                                                                                                                                proxy war
                                                                                                                                                        Reduction    5
                                                                                                                                 Fort Hood                 Treaty
                                                                                                                                 Shootings               extended
            Broadcast journalist
            and CBS Evening
       17   News anchorman                                          Actor Patrick                                    President Obama wins 2009                                  Abu Dhabi bails
            Walter Cronkite dies                                 Swayze dies (57)                                9   Nobel Peace Prize
                                                                                    14                                                                                    14 out Dubai

                                     United States Senator                United States
                                   Edward “Ted” Kennedy                  scraps Missile                                                                                       Environmental
                                                 dies (77)              Defense System 17                                                                                 7
                                                                                                                                                                              Protection Agency
                                                                          for E. Europe                                                                                       classifies CO2 as
                                                                                                                                 “PelosiCare”                                 pollutant
                                                                                                                                 passes House 7

                                                                                                                                                           Federal Reserve
                                                                                              “The Godfather of                                            Transparency
                                                                                              neo-conservatism”                                       19   Act
                                                                                           18 Irving Kristol dies          “Balloon Boy Hoax”
                                                                                              (89)                    15
                                                                                                                                                       The Climactic
                                                                                                                                                   17 Research Unit in the
                                                                                                                                                       University of East
                                                                                                                                                       Anglia is hacked,
                                                                                                                                                       its data released;
                                                                                                                                                       climate skeptics
                                                                                                                                                       immediately accuse
                                                                                                                                                       the CRU of data

                                                                        • EPR Winter 09-10 •                                                                                           27
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