"history of graphic design"
History of The Graphic Design History of Graphic Design By: Mike Cordeiro Table of Contents Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 1 Prehistory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 2 The Rennaisance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 5 Industrial Revolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 11 Resource Listing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Page 13 Cover Image: Takenobu Igarashi, poster for the Kanagawa Art Festival, 1984. Image 1: Cave painting from Lascaux, France. Circa 15 000-10 000 B.C. History of Graphic Design Introduction In 1922, book designer William Addison Dwiggins coined the term “Graphic Designer”. A Graphic Designer is someone who brings together the various elements of a page (words, pictures, colours) to form a visually attractive page. Image 1 1 Prehistory Image 2: Cuneiform Prehistory invented the first true tablet, c. 2100 B.C. This clay tablet lists Graphic Design written language expenditures of grain actually began around 3000 B.C. and animals. millennia earlier with Their civilization the invention of flourished thanks to Image 3: These Egyptian hieroglyphs writing. With the their ability to write, illustrate the rebus creation of a written and while they were principle. Words and conquered many syllables are repre- times each conqueror sented by pictures of objects and by took the written symbols whose names word with them. So are similar to the the ability and idea word or syllable to be to preserve the communicated. These hieroglyphs mean bee, spoken word for leaf, sea, and sun. As posterity began to rebuses (using the travel throughout the English language) world. And the need they could also mean belief and season. for someone with the skills to record that information traveled with it. Due to the complexity of early Image 2 writing systems scribes held a language, people now had to combine both text and pictures for the first time. Taking centuries to develop the techniques we now take for granted. The Sumerian’s Image 3 2 History of Graphic Design position of great combining the Image 4: Chinese movable types, c. 1300 honour amongst symbol for “sea” with B.C. This group of societies. In some the symbol for “sun”, carved wood types civilizations they creating a new word, ranges in size from were even exempt “season”. The about 1.25 to 2.5 cm in height. from taxation! In Egyptians are also 3100 B.C. the credited with creating Image 5: Woodblock Egyptians began the first major image of a revolving using written advancement in typecase, c. A.D. 1313. This quaintly stylized hieroglyphs. A writing surfaces from illustration shows the pictorial language, the papyrus plant. revolving case each symbol was a designed to make representation of an typesetting more efficient. item. In order to create words that were not described by a single symbol, scribes had to combine two or more symbols to get the desired word. Such as Image 5 Image 4 3 Prehistory Image 6: The Diamond With a variety of Sutra, A.D. 868. A Chinese spiritual text. grades, papyrus was used for everything Image 7: Dharani from royal Buddhist charms, c. proclamations to A.D. 770. Rolled up and inserted in little daily accounting. The pagodas, these early next step occurred in specimens of relief 105 A.D. with the printing had the text invention of paper by printed in Chinese calligraphy on one side Ts’ai Lun in China, and in Sanskrit on the and then relief other. printing around 770 A.D. In 1040 A.D. P. Sheng invented the first movable type in Korea, 400 years before Gutenberg would use movable type in his presses. Image 7 Image 6 4 History of Graphic Design Renaissance were produced on Image 8: The Book of Durrow, opening The Renaissance parchment or vellum, page, the Gospel of brought about great which was created by Saint Mark, c. A.D. changes in European treating the skins of 680. Linked into a society, and graphic animals. These books ligature, an I and an N become a beautiful design was one of were in such demand form of interlaced those areas that that the time it took a threads and coiling experienced a great scribe to write a spirals. revival. Illuminated simple two hundred manuscripts are page book caused a handwritten books great shortage in that were decorated supply. With four to and illustrated from five months of labour the late Roman per book, typography Empire until around soon emerged. While 1450. These books the concept of relief printing and movable type had been known for some time, Johann Gutenberg is the first person credited with bringing together all the complex systems necessary to print a typographic book. Gutenberg was a goldsmith by trade and this gave him the skills to create the metal blocks of type used in his press. Image 8 5 Renaissance Image 9: Page from the Ormesby Psalter, c. early 1300s A.D. Composed of red and blue inks the decoration, illustra- tion, and initials are joined into a single complex text frame. Image 9 6 History of Graphic Design Image 10: The Lindisfarne Gospels, carpet page facing the opening of Saint Matthew, c. A.D. 698. A mathematical grid helps bring structure to the contours and swirls. Image 10 7 Renaissance Image 11: These early- nineteenth-century engravings illustrate Gutenberg’s system for casting type. A steel punch is used to stamp an impression of the letterform into a softer brass matrix. After the matrix is slipped into the bottom of the two-part type mold, the mold is filled with the molten lead alloy to cast a piece of type. After the lead alloy cools, the type mold is opened and the type is removed. A. Punch. B. Matrix C. Type Mold (with matrix removed to show a newly cast H) D. & E. Type Mold (opened so that the newly cast H can be removed) Image 11 8 History of Graphic Design Image 12: Woodcut illustrations for Jost Amman’s Book of Trades. The occupa- tions of the graphic arts are shown here. A. The parchment maker is shown scraping animal skins to produce a smooth surface. B. The papermaker lifts his mold out of the vat as he forms each sheet by hand. C. The typefounder is depicted pouring the melted lead into the type mold to cast a character. D. One printer is shown removing a newly printed sheet from the press while the other one inks the type. E. The designer is drawing an image for an engraving. F. The woodblock cutter cuts the drawings. G. The illuminator applies colour and gold leaf to the manuscript. Image 12 H. Bookbinders are collating pages and applying the cover. 9 Renaissance Image 13: Geoffroy With the creation of typography. With Tory, construction of the letter Q from Gutenberg’s press thousands of new Champ Fleury, 1529. and the Renaissance’s fonts being Tory used five demand for developed for the compass centres in his intellectual growth, needs of a wide effort to construct a geometrically ideal the fields of graphic variety of people. roman O, and he used design exploded. With graphic design an additional two With the printer, type centres now in compass centres to designer, author, and France and England add a tail for the Q. artist working there were fonts for Image 14: Geoffroy together in close every need. From Tory, fantastic collaboration many fanciful and delicate alphabet from Champ written works were to strong and crisp. Fleury, 1529. It included this created that are still Many of the fonts whimsical sequence of admired today. The created during this letterforms composed 1700’s brought about time are still in of tools. A is a a stunning growth in regular use today. compass, B is a fusy (steel used to strike a flint), and C is a handle. Image 13 Image 14 10 History of Graphic Design Industrial Age Image 15: Louis Jacques Daguerre, The Industrial Paris boulevard, 1839. Revolution brought In this early about high speed daguerreotype the printing presses wagons, carriages, and pedestrians we which initially recorded because the doubled the output of slow exposure could a typical hand press. only record stationary With the invention of objects. On the lower left street corner, a the Linotype by man stopped to have Ottmar Mergenthaler his boots polishes and in 1886 the second became the first problem of having to person ever to be photographed. manually typeset a page was also solved. Image 16 Image 16: Ottmar A typesetter could correct letter fall into Mergenthaler demo- now simply punch a place. With the nstrates the Blower Linotype, the first key and have the invention of the line-casting keyboard typesetter, to editor Whitelaw Reid on 3 July 1886. Image 15 11 Industrial Age Image 17: Ad for the technological Kodak camera, c. 1889. George advancements Eastman’s camera, developed for simple enough for warfare were put to anyone “who can wind new uses in a watch,” played a major role in making industries. Graphic photography every design tentatively person’s art form. began to adopt some Image 17 of the new Image 18: Hugh Dubberly, Clement photo-graphic technology available Mok, and Doris Mitch camera, graphic to them. In the (graphics designers), designers could now 1960’s pioneering Apple Computer work was being done annual report supple- incorporate a new ment on Hypercard, level of reality into at MIT and other 1987. This very early their work. The war’s institutions in the use of hypertext near the beginning of realm of computer enabled stockholders engineering. In the to navigate the data in this century brought an interactive manner. out some of the most early 1980’s that creative work in the work came to graphic arts. With the fruition with the conclusion of the introduction of the second world war, the Apple Macintosh. Image 18 12 History of Graphic Design While not the first Image 19: Cover for Emigre 10 magazine, computer to be used 1989. Traditional in the graphic design typographic rules field, it’s ease of use yielded to an experi- and relatively ment in unconven- tional sequencing for inexpensive cost a special issue about a allowed many users graphic design to become desktop exchange between the publishers. Producing Cranbrook and Dutch designers. newsletters and other printed material from their homes this revolution proved infectious to more traditional design Image 19 houses. Until today, when one designer Bibliography does the work that Meggs, Philip B. A once took dozens of History of Graphic skilled tradesmen to Design, New York, accomplish. Perhaps New York: John in the near future that Wiley, c1998. one designer, working wherever is Thompson, Bradbury. convenient, will send The Art of Graphic a completed job to be Design, New Haven, printed without the Conn.: Yale use of any plates, and University Press, we will leave the last 1988. of Gutenberg’s legacy behind us. 13 This booklet was produced in March 2001 by Mike Cordeiro at Mohawk College. Images were scanned on an Agfa SnapScan 1212 and processed in Adobe Photoshop. Layout was completed in QuarkExpress 4.1 for Macintosh and Windows.