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					  COMMON CURRICULUM GOALS

CONTENT STANDARDS AND BENCHMARKS
               FOR
        PHYSICAL EDUCATION
                   • Learn it
                   • Do it
                   • Embrace it




                 Superintendent Benjamin O. Canada, Ph.D.




     Developed with funding from the PEW Charitable Trusts
               THESE     DOCUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED BY A DESIGN TEAM OF TEACHERS AND CONSULTANTS



DESIGN TEAM                                                                     CONSULTANTS
Design Team Captain:                                                            Dr. Pat Burk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Assistant to the Superintendent
Emily Foster . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sabin Elementary School     Aleita Hass Holcombe . . . . . . . . . . . . .Corvallis School District,
                                                                                                                                   State Standards Writer,
                                                                                                                                   OHPERD President
Jim Anstine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Glencoe Elementary School
                                                                                Carolyn Leonard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .PPS District MC/ME
Dennis Carline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Benson High School
                                                                                Linda Simington . . . . . . . . . .Director of Curriculum & Instruction
Debbie Engelstad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Grant High School
                                                                                Dr. Terry Wood . . . . . . . . . . .P.E. National Standards Co-Author,
James Hiu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Benson High School                                          Oregon State University
Deanne Larsell . . . . . . . . . . . .Prevention/Child Services Center
Deb Madore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Clarendon Elementary School
Joe Malone . . . . . . . . . . . . .King Elementary School (Principal)
Linda McLellan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Benson High School
Don Nelson . . . . . . . . . . . .Capitol Hill/Smith Elementary School
Cathy Jo Peterson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Benson High School
Gail Reynolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Motor Development Team
Rick Rier . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Hayhurst/Rieke Elementary School
Juli Valeske . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Motor Development Team
Jeff Walsh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gregory Heights Middle School
Tammy West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gregory Heights Middle School
Sydney York . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Buckman Elementary School
Lynette Zuercher . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Kellogg Middle School


                                A special thank you to the following teachers who reviewed the document:
Joan Finholt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Motor Development Team      Steve Sandvold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Gray Middle      School
Jane Hubbard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Motor Development Team          Norm Scott . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Sellwood Middle      School
Sherri Jorgenson . . . . . . . . . . . . .Ainsworth Elementary School           Molly Starr . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Marshall High   School
Gary Kuney . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Woodlawn Elementary School          Marie Taylor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Brooklyn Elementary        School
Jennifer Pursell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .King Elementary School
                         PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS                                                                                         Linda J. Harris
                         501 N Dixon / Portland, OR 97227                                                               Assistant Superintendent of
                         P.O. Box 3107 / Portland, OR 97208-3107                                                Elementary Academic Accountability
                         (503) 916-3183 FAX (503) 916-3404




    INTRODUCTION
Portland Public Schools began its K-12 standards-based reform work, funded by the Pew Charitable Trust in the spring of 1996. This
standards reform demonstration project involved seven other urban school districts.1 The grant required that each district submit an
annual work plan, with identified goals, activities, and a budget narrative. In the fall and spring of each year, school districts met to
network, hear practitioners and researchers give presentations on standards reform, make school site visits, and share information with
school district teams to plan strategies that help all students achieve at high standards.

Through collaborative efforts of school and central office staff, parents, university faculty and community members, Portland Public
Schools developed seven principles to guide standards reform. We began with the belief that all students can achieve at high
standards when:

     1. There are clear statements of high academic standards for student performance
     2. Assessment practices are clearly linked to the standards
     3. Curriculum frameworks are linked to the standards
     4. Instructional practices are designed to assist all students in achieving the standards
     5. Professional development opportunities are provided to assist staff members implement the standards
     6. Teacher leadership and initiative are recognized and supported
     7. The public is fully engaged in the district’s efforts

The Oregon Department of Education established a standards-based assessment system whereby students can earn a Certificate of
Initial Mastery (CIM) or a Certificate of Advance Mastery (CAM) for achieving these standards. In addition, students entering institutions

1
  Christina SD (Newark, DE), Community District Two (New York, NY), Fayette County Schools (Lexington, KY), Pittsburgh Public Schools (Pittsburgh, PA), Portland Public
Schools (Portland, OR), San Diego City Schools (San Diego, CA), Santa Rosa City Schools (Santa Rosa, CA), and Yonkers Public Schools (Yonkers, NY).
of higher education in Oregon must meet a set of proficiency standards for college entry called the Proficiency-based Admissions
Standards System (PASS).

The school district, replete with curriculum resource documents, had to begin its standards reform work by first reviewing standards
documents; The Oregon Department of Education’s Common Curriculum Goals, Content Standards and Performance Standards in
language arts, math, science, social studies, second language, physical education and the fine & performing arts, Portland Public
Schools curriculum frameworks and national standards in pertinent subject areas. Design Teams were formed in the eight content
areas listed above. Each Design Team reviewed all district, state and national standards documents for the purpose of consolidating
these works into one single document. Teams were to write clear, rigorous content standards statements, defining what students must
know and be able to do. During the 1996-97 school year, content standards documents were written in math, science and language
arts. All content standards were developed and then reviewed by school staff, communities and District Parent Advisory groups.
Presently, school communities are reviewing standards documents in second language, health, physical education, social studies and
the fine & performing arts. By the fall of 2000, all content standards documents will be available to schools.

The content standards documents represent the diligent work of teacher teams, led by Design Team Captains who are master
teachers and skilled facilitators. The work of these teachers will guide Portland Public Schools systematic reform work for the 21st
Century.

Portland Public Schools is committed to the belief in the educability of all students, at all levels. Through standards-based reform we
have raised the academic expectations for our students, while realizing that we must address students’ opportunity to learn as we work
in fulfillment of our goal - to successfully educate all students.
                                                                        TABLE OF CONTENTS

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    I

Vision Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        II

Mission Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         II

Benefits of Physical Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             III

The Standards are like Pathways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                IV

General Description of Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               V

Content Standards Overview
      Explanation of Page Layout
      Content Standard #1: Motor Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 1
      Content Standard #2: Motor Learning Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                            9
      Content Standard #3: Active Lifestyle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  16
      Content Standard #4: Physical Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                    23
      Content Standard #5: Personal & Social Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      30
      Content Standard #6: Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               44
      Content Standard #7: Values Physical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                      50

Outline of Physical Education Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                56

Physical Education Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             57

Research and Articles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          59

Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   87

Websites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   88

Assessment Ideas and Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  89
                                                          INTRODUCTION

The PEW Grant Design Team for Physical Education proudly presents the PPS Physical Education Content Standards. This document
is a critical component to the District’s goal of offering all our students a complete, well-rounded education.

Learn it! Do it! Embrace it! . . . has become the motto of our PE Design Team. Physical education professionals can utilize this
document as they guide PPS students to these high expectations:

    •    learn skills necessary to perform a variety of physical activities

    •    be physically fit

    •    participate regularly in physical activity

    •    develop and enhance their social skills and self-esteem

    •    know the implications of and benefits from involvement in physical activity

    •    value physical activity and it’s contribution to a healthy lifestyle

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a sedentary and inactive lifestyle almost doubles one’s risk for coronary
heart disease (the leading cause of death in the United States). Regular physical activity also reduces risk of obesity, hypertension,
diabetes, and some cancers. Physical Education is health insurance for the future — quality physical education is a necessity, not a
luxury, for the health and well-being of every child.

Physical Education promotes lifelong physical and mental well-being for students enrolled in Portland Public Schools. It takes a broad
base curriculum to educate the total child.




                                                                        I
                                                  PORTLAND PUBLIC SCHOOLS

                                 PHYSICAL EDUCATION VISION STATEMENT
In the 21st Century PPS will provide exemplary Physical Education programs in which:
•    Students will become lifelong learners/movers by embracing and practicing fitness and wellness habits, participating in a variety
     of movement experiences and developing positive social skills.
•    The physical educator will encourage individual growth and support diverse learning styles by incorporating a variety of teaching
     methods and authentic assessments. Other academic subjects will be infused as they occur naturally in physical education.
•    The school and administration will support the quality physical education program by providing specialist training in current
     exercise and computer technology and inservice opportunities (i.e., articulation, best practices, etc.).
•    Families and the community will partner to promote lifelong wellness/movement opportunities.


                                PHYSICAL EDUCATION MISSION STATEMENT
The goal of the Physical Education program is the development of a Physically-Educated Person, one who has learned skills
necessary to perform a variety of physical activities, is physically fit, participates regularly in physical activity, knows the benefits from
involvement in physical activity and values physical activity and it’s contributions to a healthy lifestyle. Physical Education is a valuable
part of developing the whole child. Physical Education supports and integrates many other curricular ideas into it’s curriculum. The
mission of Portland Public Schools Physical Education is to:
•    Impart the knowledge, values, and skills necessary to become lifelong learners/movers by practicing wellness habits and
     developing positive social skills while participating in a variety of movement experiences.
•    Create a physical education setting in every school which encourages individual growth and supports diverse learning styles and
     the development of critical thinking, problem-solving and effective group interaction.
•    Integrate and promote other curricular areas in the physical education setting, such as: oral and written communication, math,
     health and science.
•    Utilize current computer and exercise technology and inservice opportunities to enhance delivery of the Physical Education
     curriculum.
•    Encourage family and community lifelong wellness and movement opportunities.
•    Provide knowledge and skill that will empower a student’s independence to develop lifelong, health-enhancing physical activity
     and fitness levels.

                                                                       II
                                 THE BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

Physical education plays an important role in the physical, mental and social development of our students. Students deserve to be
physically educated as well as academically educated. Children have bodies as well as brains!

Physical education programs can help children physically by:

•   reducing the risk of heart disease. It can counteract the 4 major risk factors of coronary heart disease, obesity, inactivity, high
    blood pressure and high cholesterol levels.

•   improving physical fitness. A good program improves children’s cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength, muscular
    endurance and flexibility.

•   making stronger bones. Regular physical activity increases bone density to create stronger bones

•   helping in weight regulation. A good program can help children regulate their weight by burning calories.

•   promoting healthy active lifestyles. Physical education develops motor skills and sports skills to promote health and fitness
    throughout life.

The mental benefits of physical education are:

•   improved academic performance. Studies have shown that when IQ’s are the same, children who have daily physical education
    classes tend to get higher grades than children who don’t.

•   increased interest in learning. Regular physical activity makes children more alert and more receptive to learning new things.



The American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance recommend students in grades 1-5 should take physical
education for at least 30 minutes a day and that students in middle school and high school should for 40-50 minutes a day.



Reprinted with permission “Quality P.E.” NASPE


                                                                     III
                                    The Standards are like Pathways!



K — 5th
                                                      Fitness                 Social &
        Movement Experiences                         Activities             Cooperative
                                                    & Concepts              Experiences


6th — 8th
                                                Movement                   Fitness Activities
 Social & Cooperative Experiences
                                               Experiences                    & Concepts


9th and on
                                                              Movement           Social & Cooperative
          Fitness Activities & Concepts
                                                             Experiences             Experiences




      Physical Educators must teach all standards to all grade levels with different emphasis
      on each standard.


                          The Pathways lead to a Physically Educated Person!


                                                    IV
                                         GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF STANDARDS

1. Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms. (Motor Skills)

    The intent of this standard is the development of movement competence and proficiency. Movement competence implies the development of sufficient ability to
    enjoy participation in physical activities and establishes a foundation to facilitate continued motor skill acquisition and increased ability to engage in appropriate
    motor patterns in daily physical activities. The development of proficiency in a few movement forms gives the student the capacity for successful and advanced
    levels of performance to further increase the likelihood of participation. In the primary years, students develop maturity and versatility in the use of fundamental
    skills (e.g., running, skipping, throwing, striking) that are further refined, combined and varied during the middle school years. These motor patterns, now having
    evolved into specialized skills (e.g., a specific dance step, chest pass, catching with a glove) are used in increasingly more complex movement environments
    (e.g., more players or participants, rules, and strategies) through the middle school years. On the basis of interest and ability, high school students select a few
    activities for regular participants within which proficiency will be developed. In preparation for adulthood, students should have acquired the basic skills to
    participate in a wide variety of leisure and work-related physical activities and advanced skills in at least two or three areas.

2. Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills. (Motor Learning Concepts)

    This standard concerns the ability of the learner to use cognitive information to understand and enhance motor skill acquisition and performance. This includes
    the application of concepts from disciplines such as motor learning and development, sport psychology and sociology, bio-mechanics, and exercise physiology.
    Specifically, this would include concepts like increasing force production through the summation of forces, effects of anxiety on performance, and the principle
    of specificity of training. Knowledge of such concepts and practice applying these concepts enhances the likelihood of independent learning and therefore more
    regular effective participation in physical activity. During the lower elementary years, emphasis is placed on establishing a movement vocabulary and initial
    application of introductory concepts (e.g., force absorption, principles governing equilibrium, application of force). Through the upper elementary and middle
    school years, an emphasis is placed on learning more and increasingly complex concepts. In addition, emphasis is placed on applying and generalizing these
    concepts to real-life physical activity situations (e.g., managing stress, effect of growth spurt on movement performance). During the high school years, the
    student should possess sufficient knowledge of concepts to independently and routinely use a wide variety of increasingly complex concepts (e.g., performance
    trends associated with learning new motor skills, specificity of training). By graduation, the student should have developed sufficient knowledge and ability to
    independently use their knowledge to acquire new skills, while continuing to refine existing ones.

3. Exhibits a physically active lifestyle. (Active Lifestyle)

    The intent of this standard is to establish patterns of regular participation in meaningful physical activity. This standard should connect what is done in the
    physical education class with the lives of students outside of physical education. While participation within the physical education class is important, what the
    student does outside the physical education class is critical to developing an active, healthy lifestyle. Students are more likely to participate if they have had
    opportunities to develop interests that are personally meaningful to them. Young children should learn to enjoy physical activity. They should participate in
    developmentally appropriate activities that help them develop movement competence, and they should be encouraged to participate in vigorous and
    unstructured play. As students get older, the structure of activity tends to increase and the opportunities for participation in different types of activity increase
    out of the physical education class. Attainment of this standard should develop an awareness of those opportunities and encourage a broad level of participation.
    cognitive understandings develop from an initial awareness of cause and effect relationships between activity and its immediate and identifiable effects on the
    body to an increased understanding of the role of physical activity on the physiological body, social opportunities and relationships, and emotional well being;
    and a comprehensive perspective on the meaning of the idea of a healthy lifestyle.



                                                                                    V
4. Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. (Is Physically Fit)

   The intent of this standard is for the student to achieve a health-enhancing level of physical fitness. Students should be encouraged to develop higher levels of
   basic fitness and physical competence as needed for many work situations and active leisure participation. Health-related fitness components include
   cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular strength and endurance, flexibility and body composition. Expectations for students’ fitness levels should be established
   on a personal basis, taking into account variation in entry levels, rather than setting a single standard for all children at a given grade level. For elementary
   children, the emphasis is on an awareness of fitness components and having fun while participating in health-enhancing activities that promote physical fitness.
   Middle school students gradually acquire a greater understanding of the fitness components, how each is developed and maintained, and the importance of
   each in overall fitness. Secondary students are able to design and develop an appropriate personal fitness program that enables them to achieve desired level
   of fitness. The student thus should have both the ability and willingness to accept responsibility for personal fitness leading to an active, healthy lifestyle.

5. Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity settings. (Personal and Social Skills)

   The intent of this standard is achievement of self-initiated behaviors that promote personal and group success in activity settings. These include safe practices,
   adherence to rules and procedures, etiquette, cooperation and teamwork, ethical behavior in sport, and positive social interaction. Achievement of this standard
   in the lower elementary grades begins with recognition of classroom rules and procedures and a focus on safety. In the upper elementary levels, students learn
   to work independently, with a partner, and in small groups. In the middle school, students identify the purposes for rules and procedures and become involved
   in decision making processes to establish rules and procedures for specific activity situations. High school students initiate responsible behavior, function
   independently and responsibly, and positively influence the behavior of others in physical activity settings.

6. Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings (Diversity)

   The intent of this standard is to develop respect for individual similarities and differences through positive interaction among participants in physical activity.
   Similarities and differences include characteristics of culture, ethnicity, motor performance, disabilities, physical characteristics (e.g., strength, size, shape),
   gender, race, and soci-economic status. Elementary school students begin to recognize individual similarities and differences and participate cooperatively in
   physical activity. By middle school, students participate cooperatively in physical activity with persons of diverse characteristics and backgrounds. High school
   students are expected to be able to participate with all people, recognize the value of diversity in physical activity and develop strategies for inclusion of others.

7. Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression and social interaction. (Values Physical
   Exercise)

   This standard is designed to develop an awareness of the intrinsic values and benefits of participation in physical activity that provides personal meaning.
   Physical activity can provide opportunity for self-expression and social interaction and can be enjoyable, challenging and fun. These benefits entice people to
   continue participation in activity throughout the life span. Elementary school children derive pleasure from movement sensations and experience challenge and
   joy as they sense a growing competence in movement ability. At the middle school level, participation in physical activity provides important opportunities for
   challenge, social interaction and group membership as well as opportunities for continued personal growth in physical skills and their applied settings.
   Participation at the high school level continues to provide enjoyment and challenge as well as opportunities for self-expression and social interaction. As a result
   of these intrinsic benefits of participation, students will begin to actively pursue lifelong physical activities that meet their own needs.



Reprinted with permission from Moving Into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education.


                                                                                  VI
                                                       CONTENT STANDARDS

Content Standard 1: Motor Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
   Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few
   movement forms.

Content Standard 2: Motor Learning Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                9
   Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of
   motor skills.

Content Standard 3: Active Lifestyle Outside of the Classroom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                         16
   Exhibits a physically active lifestyle.

Content Standard 4: Physical Fitness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .        23
   Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing lifestyle (is physically fit).

Content Standard 5: Personal & Social Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            31
   Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in a physical activity setting.

Content Standard 6: Diversity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   42
   Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in
   physical activity settings.

Content Standard 7: Values Physical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            48
   Understands that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge,
   self-expression and social interaction.
                         Content Strand:
                         A nickname for the
                                                                   EXPLANATION                             OF       PAGE LAYOUT
                         content standard.

Content Standard:                                            Content Area                                                               Grade Level                                      Content Standard #
The knowledge and
skills students are
required to learn; the
portion of the cur-
riculum to be
assessed in order to
earn a CIM. A broad                                                     PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                            2
statement describing
the contents strand.        Content Strand:                  Motor Learning Concepts

                            Content Standard:                 Applies Movement Concepts and Principles to the Learning and Development of Motor Skills

                                Common Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
                           Applies knowledge of movement concepts and prin-       Develops a physical education vocabulary which               Color the biceps muscle on the figure given.
                           ciples* to refine motor performance of self and oth-   includes body part identification, spatial awareness,
                           ers, and translates learned concepts to the acquisi-   directionality, muscle and bone information
                           tion of new skills
                                                                                  Identifies the critical elements of manipulative and         List 4 parts to an overhand throw.
                                                                                  motor skills
Comprehensive
Curriculum Goals:                                                                 Comprehends the purpose of rules and puts that               Write or draw examples of three class rules.
The knowledge and                                                                 knowledge into practice (follows class, safety, and
                                                                                  game rules)
skills that describe a
comprehensive K-12                                                                Knows that practice time, attention, and effort are          STUDENT JOURNAL:
curriculum.                                                                       required to improve skills
                                                                                                                                               Student records out-of-class practice:
                                                                                                                                                    •   must practice 3 times/week
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Assessment
                                                                                                                                                    •   must practice at least 10 min/session
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Examples:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    A variety of assess-
                                                                                                                                                                                                    ment techniques
                            *   Movement Concepts and Principles:
                                                                                                                                                                                                    appropriate for
                                                                                                                                                                                                    assessing student
                                •   Motor Learning and Development
                                                                                                                                                                                                    achievement of the
                                •   Sport Psychology and Sociology                                                                                                                                  specified content
                                •   Biomechanics                                                                                                                                                    standard are
                                •   Exercise Physiology                                                                                                                                             described. They are
                                •   Safety                                                                                                                                                          just examples of
                                                                                                                                                                                                    performance
                                                                                                                                                                                                    assessments and
KEY                                                                       Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 11
                                                                                                                                                                                                    authentic assess-
                                                      Benchmarks:
                                                      What teachers will assess at grades 3, 5, 8 and 10 as students progress                                                                       ment used to make
        Content Strand                                                                                                                                                                              inferences about
                                                      toward earning the CIM. Benchmarks represent a point of reference from
        Content Standard                              which student achievement may be measured. A benchmark indicates the                                                                          student
        Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                expectations and requirements at a given point in time.                                                                                       learning.
       MOTOR SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                                                                             PHYSICAL EDUCATION                               1
 Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms.

Progresses from developing basic skills to applying more complex and specialized skills in a variety of movement forms

               3                              5                                    8                                 CIM                           CAM
Performs mature patterns of     Demonstrates combinations of      Demonstrates, without cue,           Demonstrates competence          Demonstrates proficiency of a
locomotor movements starting    locomotor and manipulative        critical movement elements           (basic skills, strategies, and   few complex movement forms
and stopping on command         skills in complex and/or game-    (mechanics, force, speed) in         rules) in increasingly complex   by using advanced skills
and in control                  like situations                   specialized skills related to        versions of at least three of    consistently in a regulation
                                                                  sports                               the following categories of      form of an activity
Travels using different         Demonstrates competence in                                             movement forms (traditional
directions, pathways, and       manipulative skills in dynamic    Combines skills competently          or nontraditional):
levels in relation to self,     situations                        to participate in modified
others, and objects                                               games and activities                 • aerobic/cardiorespiratory
                                Pays attention to form, power,                                           exercise
Demonstrates proper form        accuracy, and follow-through      Uses basic offensive and
and smooth transitions during   in performance of movement        defensive strategies in a            • aquatics
combinations of fundamental     skills                            modified version of team and
locomotor and body control                                        individual sports                    • individual, dual, lifetime
skills                          Combines rhythmic                                                        sports
                                movements and foot patterns       Practices in ways that are
Demonstrates key elements in into a routine                       appropriate for learning new         • outdoor pursuits
manipulative skills: throw,                                       skills or sports on his or her
catch/collect, kick (R/L foot), Combines body management          own                                  • personal defense
foot dribble (R/L foot), hand   skills in applied settings
                                                                  Correctly demonstrates               • racquet sports
dribble (R/L hand), volley, and
strike                                                            various resistance training          • rhythm and dance
                                                                  techniques
Demonstrates ability to                                                                                • team sports
change directions during
group activities while                                                                                 • weight training/conditioning
manipulating an object

Demonstrates various step
patterns and combinations or
movements into repeatable
sequences



           continued
                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 1
       MOTOR SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                          (continued)                            PHYSICAL EDUCATION   1
 Demonstrates competency in many movement forms and proficiency in a few movement forms.

Progresses from developing basic skills to applying more complex and specialized skills in a variety of movement forms

               3                   5                                   8                                 CIM     CAM
Refines forward jump rope
skills and initiates backward
skills and beginning individual
tricks



Demonstrates moving in and
out of balance with control



Demonstrates control and
appropriate form in rolling
activities



Transfers weight from one
base of support to another



Transfers on and off
equipment with good body
control




                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 2
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                               1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Performs mature patterns of locomotor movements                    PERFORMANCE EVENT:
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  starting and stopping on command and in control
movement forms**                                     (e.g., skipping, leaping, etc.)                                    Design and practice a movement sequence of 3
                                                                                                                        different locomotor skills.
                                                          Travels using different directions, pathways, and
                                                          levels in relation to self, others, and objects (e.g.,        Criteria:
                                                          tag games and obstacle courses)
                                                                                                                           1. 3 different locomotor skills
                                                          Demonstrates proper form and smooth transitions
                                                          during combinations of fundamental locomotor and                 2. mature pattern of each
                                                          body control skills safely (e.g., running into a leap,
 *   Basic Skills:                                                                                                         3. smooth transition between patterns
                                                          long rope entering and jumping)
     •   Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,
                                                          Demonstrates key elements in manipulative skills:
         walk, leap, jump
                                                          throw, catch/collect, kick (R/L foot), foot dribble (R/L
     •   Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,            foot), hand dribble (R/L hand), volley and strike
         weight bearing, and non-manipulative             (e.g., steps and follows through toward target,               PEER OBSERVATIONS:
         movements                                        catches a variety of objects at different levels with a
                                                          partner, collects a rolling ball with each foot)              Student A throws ball towards target 5 times using
     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,                                                                        an overhand pattern while Student B observes the
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope               Demonstrates ability to change directions during              performance focusing on a single critical element
                                                          group activities while manipulating an object (e.g.,          (e.g., opposite foot forward or arm back). Student B
                                                          hand or foot dribble around cones)                            gives a “thumbs up” if the critical element is correct;
 ** Movement Forms:                                                                                                     if incorrect, Student B tells Student A what is
                                                                                                                        needed.
     •   Lead-up games
                                                                                                                        Criteria:
     •   Modified/small-sided games and
         activities                                                                                                        1. thrower displays critical elements

     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;                                                                            2. observer makes accurate judgments
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.

                                                                                  continued

                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 3
                                    PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                      (CONTINUED)                                                 1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Demonstrates various step patterns and
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  combinations of movements into repeatable
movement forms**                                     sequences (e.g., schottische, grapevine, polka)

                                                          Refines forward jump rope skills and initiates
                                                          backward skills and beginning individual tricks (e.g.,
                                                          skier, bell, straddle, scissors)

                                                          Demonstrates moving in and out of balance with                PEER OBSERVATION CHECKLIST:
                                                          control (e.g., frog stand, tripod)




                                                                                                                                 Watched
 *   Basic Skills:                                        Demonstrates control and appropriate form in
                                                                                                                                             BALANCE TASKS




                                                                                                                          Date
                                                          rolling activities (e.g., curling to protect neck in




                                                                                                                                 Who
     •   Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,
                                                          various rolls)
         walk, leap, jump
                                                          Transfers weight from one base of support to                                     I can balance on one knee and one
     •   Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,                                                                                             hand.
                                                          another (e.g., frog jump, mule kick, cartwheel
         weight bearing, and non-manipulative
                                                          variations)
         movements                                                                                                                         I can balance on two hands and one
                                                          Transfers on and off equipment with good body                                    foot.
     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,
                                                          control (e.g., mounts and dismounts on stacked
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope                                                                                                I can balance in two symmetrical
                                                          mats, benches, and/or boxes)
                                                                                                                                           shapes.

 ** Movement Forms:                                                                                                                        I can balance in two asymmetrical
                                                                                                                                           shapes.
     •   Lead-up games
                                                                                                                                           I can balance (add your ideas) . . .
     •   Modified/small-sided games and
         activities

     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.



                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 4
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                            1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Demonstrates combinations of locomotor and                         STUDENT PROJECT:
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  manipulative skills in complex and/or game-like
movement forms**                                     situations                                                         Groups of 5-6 students are asked to pretend they
                                                                                                                        are assistant soccer coaches. The coach is asking
                                                          Demonstrates competence in manipulative skills in             them to do a presentation of:
                                                          dynamic situations
                                                                                                                           •    short accurate passes
                                                          Pays attention to form, power; accuracy, and follow-
                                                          through in performance of movement skills                        •    shots on goal

                                                          Combines rhythmic movements and foot patterns                 Presentation includes oral explanation and
 *   Basic Skills:                                        into a routine as assigned by teacher                         demonstration. Each person is a part of the
                                                                                                                        presentation. Each group presents to the class.
     •   Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,        Combines body management skills in applied
         walk, leap, jump                                 settings                                                      Criteria:
     •   Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,                                                                             1. demonstrates skills correctly
         weight bearing, and non-manipulative
         movements                                                                                                         2. compares and contrasts variations within
                                                                                                                              skills
     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope                                                                                3. presentation is organized and interesting


 ** Movement Forms:

     •   Lead-up games

     •   Modified/small-sided games and
         activities

     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.



                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 5
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                                             1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Demonstrates, without cue, critical movement                       FORMAL SKILL TEST:
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  elements (e.g., mechanics, force, speed) in
movement forms**                                     specialized skills related to sports (e.g., overhand               AAHPERD test for basketball skills is used to
                                                     throw for distance and accuracy, forehand or                       assess speed, spot shooting, passing, control
                                                     backhand throw with a frisbee, running sprints vs.                 dribble and defensive movement (Basketball for
                                                     long-distance running, soccer passing vs. shooting)                Boys: Skills Test Manual).

                                                          Combines skills competently to participate in                 Criteria:
                                                          modified games and activities (e.g., coordinates
                                                          movements with teammates to achieve team goals                   1. described in manual
 *   Basic Skills:                                        as in the give and go in basketball, performs more
                                                          complex folk, line, square, and/or aerobic dances)
     •   Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,
         walk, leap, jump                                 Uses basic offensive and defensive strategies in a
                                                          modified version of team and individual sports (e.g.,
     •   Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,            stays between opponent and goal, moves between
         weight bearing, and non-manipulative             opponent and goal, hits object away from opponent)
         movements
                                                          Practices in ways that are appropriate for learning
     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,          new skills or sports                                          JOURNAL:
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope
                                                          Correctly demonstrates various resistance training            Keeps a journal reflecting the time spent practicing
                                                          techniques (e.g., bicep curl and a dynaband,                  sports-related skills.
                                                          isometrics)
 ** Movement Forms:

     •   Lead-up games

     •   Modified/small-sided games and
         activities

     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.



                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 6
                                                      PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                                          1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Demonstrates competence* (e.g., basic skills,                      TEACHER OBSERVATION:
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  strategies, and rules) in increasingly complex
movement forms**                                     versions of at least three different categories of the             Students are observed performing skills and are
                                                     following movement forms (traditional or                           rated on their level of competence using a scoring
                                                     nontraditional):                                                   guide.
                                                         • aerobic/cardiorespiratory exercise                           Criteria:
                                                         • aquatics
                                                         • individual, dual, lifetime sports                               1. exhibits competency in the basic skills
                                                                                                                              inherent to the activity and uses these skills
                                                         • outdoor pursuits                                                   consistently
 * Basic Skills:                                         • personal defense
                                                         • racquet sports                                                  2. demonstrates understanding of rules and
    • Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,                                                                               strategies
        walk, leap, jump                                 • rhythm and dance
                                                         • team sports                                                     3. displays appropriate etiquette, care of
    • Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,                                                                                   equipment, and safety
        weight bearing, and non-manipulative             • weight training/conditioning
        movements

     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,
                                                          Examples:
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope
                                                            • demonstrates a variety of competent swim
                                                              strokes
 ** Movement Forms:                                         • safely and consistently scales a climbing wall
                                                            • keeps a ball going with an opponent several
     •   Lead-up games                                        times over a net
     •   Modified/small-sided games and                   * Competence = performs most critical elements
         activities                                         without embarrassment
     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.



                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 7
                                                     PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                         1
Content Strand:                    Motor Skills

Content Standard:                   Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Progresses from developing basic skills* to applying Demonstrates proficiency* of complex movement                      SKILLS TEST:
more complex and specialized skills in a variety of  forms by using advanced skills consistently in a
movement forms**                                     regulation form of three different activities.                     Passes on intermediate level of a certified swim
                                                                                                                        course.
                                                          Examples:
                                                                                                                        PORTFOLIO:
                                                             •   participates in a tennis match using all of the
                                                                 basic skills, rules, and strategies with               Student develops a portfolio documenting ability to
                                                                 consistency                                            be proficient in two categories of movement forms.

                                                             •   uses advanced offensive and defensive shots            Criteria:
 *   Basic Skills:                                               successfully in a racquetball game against an
                                                                 opponent of similar skill                                 1. two categories of movement forms
     •   Locomotor: run, gallop, slide, hop, skip,
         walk, leap, jump                                    •   documents training in personal defense skills             2. level of ability shows proficiency

     •   Nonlocomotor (body control): balance,                                                                             3. presents adequate documentation in portfolio
         weight bearing, and non-manipulative
         movements

     •   Manipulative: throw, catch, kick, punt,          * Proficiency = masters the critical elements
         dribble, volley, strike, jump rope


 ** Movement Forms:

     •   Lead-up games

     •   Modified/small-sided games and
         activities

     •   Regulation games/activities: aerobics;
         aquatics; individual, dual, and team
         sports; dance; etc.



                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 1 • Portland Public Schools • Page 8
   MOTOR LEARNING CONCEPTS — AT A GLANCE                                                                           PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                   2
 Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.

Applies knowledge of movement concepts and principles to refine motor performance of self and others, and translates
learned concepts to the acquisition of new skills.
                3                                  5                                    8                                 CIM                              CAM
Develops a physical education        Recognizes how space              Identifies and applies similar       Identifies and applies            Critiques motor performance
vocabulary which includes            awareness and mechanics           movement concepts and                characteristics of highly skilled of self and others
body part identification,            (force and speed) can be          elements in a variety of sports      performance to enable the
spatial awareness,                   used to refine movement skills    skills                               development of movement
directionality, laterality, muscle                                                                          competence/proficiency
and bone information

Identifies the critical elements
of manipulative and motor            Identifies similar movement       Detects and corrects errors in       Uses biomechanical concepts
skills                               elements in sport skills          personal or partner’s skill          and principles to analyze and
                                                                                                            improve performance of self
                                                                                                            and others
                                     Uses constructive feedback to     Makes appropriate changes in                                            Designs safe and appropriate
                                     improve performance               performance based on                                                    practice procedures
                                                                       feedback                                                                dependent on the skill type,
                                                                                                                                               complexity, and purpose of
Comprehends the purpose of                                                                                                                     the activity
rules and puts that knowledge        Analyzes potential risks
into practice (e.g., follows         associated with physical
class and game rules)                activities

Knows that practice time,
attention, and effort are            Recognizes that time, effort      Identifies and uses activities       Critiques an activity by looking   Integrates the principles of
required to improve skills           and quality practice are          that provide practice of             for the following components:      psychology and exercise
                                     prerequisites for skill           selected skills to improve           skills and strategies involved,    physiology into a specific
                                     improvement                       performance                          positive and negative aspects      activity/sport
                                                                                                            of personal performance,
                                                                                                            appropriate practice               Integrates knowledge of
                                                                                                            procedures, and appropriate        movement concepts and
                                                                                                            conditioning program               principles to enable the
                                                                                                                                               independent learning of motor
                                                                                                                                               skills


                                               continued                           continued
                                                    Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 9
 MOTOR LEARNING CONCEPTS — AT A GLANCE                                            (continued)        PHYSICAL EDUCATION   2
Applies movement concepts and principles to the learning and development of motor skills.
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and principles to refine motor performance of self and others, and translates
learned concepts to the acquisition of new skills.

          3                           5                                   8                                  CIM    CAM
                       Describes and selects
                       physical activities that provide
                       for personal enjoyment and
                       challenge



                       Recognizes fundamental             Uses basic offensive and
                       components and strategies          defensive strategies while
                       used in simple games and           playing modified versions of a
                       activities                         sport



                                                          Identifies and applies basic
                                                          biomechanical principles




                                      Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 10
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                            2
Content Strand:                    Motor Learning Concepts

Content Standard:                  Applies Movement Concepts and Principles to the Learning and Development of Motor Skills

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and             Develops a physical education vocabulary which          Color the biceps muscles on the figure given.
principles* to refine motor performance of self and    includes body part identification, spatial awareness,
others, and translates learned concepts to the         directionality, laterality, muscle and bone information
acquisition of new skills
                                                       Identifies the critical elements of manipulative and
                                                       motor skills                                                  List 4 parts to an overhand throw.

                                                       Comprehends the purpose of rules and puts that
                                                       knowledge into practice (e.g., follows class, safety,         Write or draw examples of three class rules.
                                                       and game rules)

                                                       Knows that practice time, attention, and effort are
                                                       required to improve skills                                    STUDENT JOURNAL:

                                                                                                                     Student records out-of-class practice:

                                                                                                                        •     must practice 3 times/week;

                                                                                                                        •     must practice at least 10 min/session




 *   Movement Concepts and Principles:

     •   Motor Learning and Development

     •   Sport Psychology and Sociology

     •   Biomechanics

     •   Exercise Physiology

     • Safety
     (see definition section)

                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 11
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                              2
Content Strand:                    Motor Learning Concepts

Content Standard:                  Applies Movement Concepts and Principles to the Learning and Development of Motor Skills

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and             Recognizes how space awareness and mechanics                  PERFORMANCE TASK:
principles* to refine motor performance of self and    (force and speed) can be used to refine movement
others, and translates learned concepts to the         skills (e.g., uses change of speed to elude an                Using a Venn diagram, the student identifies the
acquisition of new skills                              opponent, leads the receiver with the pass)                   similarities/differences of an underhand throw and
                                                                                                                     an underhand serve in volleyball.
                                                       Identifies similar movement elements in sport skills
                                                                                                                     TEACHER OBSERVATION:
                                                       Uses constructive feedback to improve performance
                                                                                                                     After initial practice of a skill the teacher gives the
                                                                                                                     students a cue to improve performance. The
                                                                                                                     teacher records those students who demonstrate
                                                                                                                     the intent to use the cue.


                                                       Analyzes potential risks associated with physical             GROUP PROJECT:
                                                       activities
                                                                                                                     In groups of 4 or 5, students role play proper safety
                                                       Recognizes that time, effort and quality practice are         practices in an activity of their choice.
                                                       prerequisites for skill improvement
                                                                                                                     Criteria:
                                                       Describes and selects physical activities that
                                                       provide for personal enjoyment and challenge                     1. correctly demonstrates safe practices

 *   Movement Concepts and Principles:                 Recognizes fundamental components and                            2. presentation is organized and thought out
                                                       strategies used in simple games and activities (e.g.,
     •   Motor Learning and Development                moves to open space in keep-away games)                       Student generates practice ideas for skill
                                                                                                                     improvement.
     •   Sport Psychology and Sociology
                                                                                                                     Criteria:
     •   Biomechanics
                                                                                                                        1. lists the critical elements of the skill
     •   Exercise Physiology
                                                                                                                        2. 2 drills are described, including length of the
     • Safety                                                                                                              drills
     (see definition section)

                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 12
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                                            2
Content Strand:                    Motor Learning Concepts

Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Competency in Many Movement Forms and Proficiency in a Few Movement Forms

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and             Identifies and applies similar movement concepts              STUDENT PROJECT:
principles* to refine motor performance of self and    and elements in a variety of sports skills
others, and translates learned concepts to the                                                                       Students research current issues of sports
acquisition of new skills                              Detects and corrects errors in personal or partner’s          publications for articles related to a sport or activity
                                                       skill                                                         of their choice. They should find information
                                                                                                                     regarding critical elements of skills inherent to the
                                                       Makes appropriate changes in performance based                selected sport or activity:
                                                       on feedback
                                                                                                                        • practice ideas for skill improvement (e.g., goal
                                                       Identifies and uses activities that provide practice of              setting, drills)
                                                       selected skills to improve performance (e.g.,                    • training and conditioning specifically for the
                                                       practices with non-dominant hand, practices                          chosen activity
                                                       specific game situations, practices cartwheels in                • biomechanical principles involved
                                                       both directions)
                                                                                                                     Criteria:
                                                                                                                        1. identifies specific skills and movement
                                                                                                                            patterns
                                                                                                                        2. identifies motor fitness requirements
                                                                                                                        3. selects appropriate practice procedures for
                                                                                                                            mastery of skills

                                                       Uses basic offensive and defensive strategies while           On observer is assigned to watch a modified game
                                                       playing modified versions of a sport                          of tennis. The observer records points for the use of
 *   Movement Concepts and Principles:                                                                               2 different offensive strategies and 1 defensive
                                                       Identifies and applies basic biomechanical                    strategy.
     •   Motor Learning and Development                principles (e.g., lowering the center of gravity and
                                                       widening the base of support increases stability)             Criteria:
     •   Sport Psychology and Sociology
                                                                                                                        1. accurately observes and records the use of a
     •   Biomechanics                                                                                                       strategy
                                                                                                                        2. objectively observes both performers
     •   Exercise Physiology

     • Safety
     (see definition section)

                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 13
                                                      PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                                       2
Content Strand:                    Motor Learning Concepts

Content Standard:                  Applies Movement Concepts and Principles to the Learning and Development of Motor Skills

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and             Identifies and applies characteristics of highly              PERFORMANCE TASKS:
principles* to refine motor performance of self and    skilled performance to enable the development of
others, and translates learned concepts to the         movement competence/proficiency                               In partners or small groups:
acquisition of new skills
                                                                                                                        •     students analyze video of movement
                                                                                                                              performance and develop a practice plan
                                                       Uses biomechanical concepts and principles to                          based on stages of learning
                                                       analyze and improve performance of self and others
                                                                                                                        •     students develop in essay or chart form a
                                                                                                                              personal plan to improve motor performance

                                                       Critiques an activity by looking for the following               •     students write a complete description of how
                                                       components: skills and strategies involved, positive                   to perform a specific motor skill (standing
                                                       and negative aspects of personal performance,                          long jump)
                                                       appropriate practice procedures, and appropriate
                                                       conditioning programs                                         Criteria:

                                                                                                                        1. includes critical movement elements

                                                                                                                        2. lists common errors and corrections

                                                                                                                        3. designs a practice plan


 *   Movement Concepts and Principles:

     •   Motor Learning and Development

     •   Sport Psychology and Sociology

     •   Biomechanics

     •   Exercise Physiology

     • Safety
     (see definition section)

                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 14
                                                  PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                         2
Content Strand:                    Motor Learning Concepts

Content Standard:                  Applies Movement Concepts and Principles to the Learning and Development of Motor Skills

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Applies knowledge of movement concepts and             Critiques motor performance of self and others                PORTFOLIO:
principles* to refine motor performance of self and                                                                  Write a peer analysis
others, and translates learned concepts to the
acquisition of new skills
                                                       Designs safe and appropriate practice procedures              Students design a long-term plan for self-
                                                       dependent on the skill type, complexity, and                  improvement in a movement activity and explain the
                                                       purpose of the activity                                       relationship of physical, emotional, and cognitive
                                                                                                                     factors that influence the rate of improvement

                                                       Integrates the principles of sport psychology and
                                                       exercise physiology into a specific activity/sport



                                                       Integrates knowledge of movement concepts and                 Task analyze the critical movement elements of a
                                                       principles to enable the independent learning of              motor skill (e.g., overhead smash badminton, javelin
                                                       motor skills                                                  throw)




 *   Movement Concepts and Principles:

     •   Motor Learning and Development

     •   Sport Psychology and Sociology

     •   Biomechanics

     •   Exercise Physiology

     • Safety
     (see definition section)

                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 2 • Portland Public Schools • Page 15
   ACTIVE LIFESTYLES — AT A GLANCE                                                                               PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                  3
 Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-related fitness reduces health risk factors.

               3                                  5                                   8                                  CIM                           CAM
Identifies factors that impact a   Describes five factors that        Expresses knowledge of               Evaluates how various factors    Constructs and implements a
physically active lifestyle        impact a physically active         significant factors that impact      impact physical activity         meaningful activity plan that
                                   lifestyle                          physical activity                                                     includes:

                                                                                                                                              •   a variety of vigorous
                                                                                                                                                  activities of personal
Identifies benefits of physical    Describes long-term benefits       Describes the physiological          Exhibits the physiological             interest and enjoyment
activity                           of regular physical activity       benefits of regular                  benefits of regular, daily
                                                                      participation in physical            activity                           •   adjustments to
                                                                      activity                                                                    accommodate changes
                                                                                                                                                  throughout life

                                                                                                                                              •   reducing health-related
                                                                      Describes the psychological          Analyzes and evaluates                 risk factors
                                                                      benefits of regular                  psychological benefits of
                                                                      participation in physical            regular physical activity          •   maintaining and
                                                                      activity                                                                    developing physical
                                                                                                                                                  fitness and motor skills

                                                                                                                                              •   health-related fitness
Participates in activities that Chooses and participates in           Explores a variety of new            Explores and engages in new            components
involve a wide variety of motor health-enhancing physical             activities for personal interest     and satisfying physical
skills                          activities based on a variety of      in and out of the physical           activities on a regular basis
                                factors                               education setting


Prepares for physical activity     Prepares for physical activity     Applies appropriate health           Applies appropriate health
by wearing proper attire for       by wearing or changing into        and safety habits for physical       and safety habits for physical
physical activity                  proper attire                      activity                             activity




           continued                          continued                          continued                            continued
                                                  Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 16
   ACTIVE LIFESTYLES — AT A GLANCE                                        (continued)                           PHYSICAL EDUCATION               3
 Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-related fitness reduces health risk factors.

              3                                 5                                    8                                  CIM                CAM
Selects and participates in      Selects and participates in         Independently participates in        Accumulates 30 minutes of
health-enhancing activities      health-enhancing physical           health-enhancing physical            daily health-enhancing
that provides exertion,          activities that provide exertion,   activities that provide exertion,    activities in addition to
enjoyment and challenge, at      enjoyment and challenge (20         enjoyment and challenge (30          personal fitness program
unscheduled times                minutes of daily accumulation)      minutes of daily accumulation)


                                 Identifies activities that          Describes how various factors        Identifies strategies to
                                 provide for personal challenge      affect physical activity             accommodate various factors
                                                                     preferences and participation        which affect physical activity
                                                                                                          preference and participation


Modifies activities to be more   Knows about opportunities for       Describes factors that impact        Analyzes factors that impact
health enhancing                 participation both in and out       the opportunity to participate       the opportunity to participate
                                 of school                           in physical activity                 in physical activities




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 17
                                                PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                     3
Content Strand:                      Active Lifestyles

Content Standard:                    Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-            Identifies factors that impact a physically active            Activity Test
related fitness reduces health risk factors (smoking,     lifestyle (e.g., nutrition, illness, warm up/cool down,
obesity, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle, abnormal      side aches)                                                   Checklist
cholesterol level, age, sex, family health history,
diabetes and stress)
                                                          Identifies benefits of physical activity (e.g., energy,       Journal/log
                                                          sleep, confidence, enjoyment)                                 Portfolio


                                                          Participates in activities that involve a wide variety        Checklist
                                                          of motor skills (e.g., locomotion, non-locomotion,
                                                          manipulation of objects)



                                                          Prepares for physical activity by wearing proper              Teacher Log
                                                          attire for physical activity (e.g., shoes, non-
                                                          restrictive clothing, safety equipment)


Engages in a variety of moderate to vigorous              Selects and participates in health-enhancing                  Checklist
physical activities that develops an active lifestyle     activities that provide exertion, enjoyment and
                                                          challenge at unscheduled times



                                                          Modifies activities to be more health-enhancing               Selected response test or game results
                                                          (e.g., walk instead of ride, active play instead of
                                                          sitting)
                                                                                                                        Logs examples picture/drawings




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 18
                                                PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                          3
Content Strand:                      Active Lifestyles

Content Standard:                    Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-            Describes five factors that impact a physically active Small Group Project:
related fitness reduces health risk factors (e.g.,        lifestyle (e.g., nutrition, illness, warm up/cool down,   • collage, Interviews
smoking, obesity, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle,      pacing)                                                 Teacher Log
abnormal cholesterol level, age, sex, family health
history, diabetes and stress)

                                                          Describes long-term benefits of regular physical              Test Activity
                                                          activity (e.g., strong heart and muscles, flexible
                                                          joints, weight control, improved performance,
                                                          optimal growth)

                                                          Prepares for physical activity by wearing or                  Performance Log
                                                          changing into proper attire (e.g., shoes, non-                Teacher Log
                                                          restrictive clothing and safety equipment)

Engages in a variety of moderate to vigorous              Selects and participates in health-enhancing                  Community List; Research; Descriptive Paper
physical activities that develops an active lifestyle     physical activities that provide exertion, enjoyment
                                                          and challenge (e.g., 20 min. daily)

                                                          Identifies activities that provide for personal               Check List
                                                          challenge (e.g., risk taking, adventure, cooperative          Activity Log
                                                          and competitive activities)

                                                          Knows about opportunities for participation both in           Student/Peer Checklist
                                                          and out of school (e.g., intramurals, recreation
                                                          leagues, clubs)                                               Teacher Log

                                                          Chooses and participates in health-enhancing
                                                          physical activities based on a variety of factors
                                                          (e.g., personal interest, capabilities, challenges,
                                                          motor skill development and enjoyment)




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 19
                                                PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                           3
Content Strand:                      Active Lifestyles

Content Standard:                    Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-            Expresses knowledge of significant factors that               PERFORMANCE TASKS
related fitness reduces health risk factors (e.g.,        impact physical activity (e.g., substance abuse,
smoking, obesity, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle,      over-training, nutrition, fatigue)                            Written Tests:
abnormal cholesterol level, age, sex, family health                                                                       • essays
history, diabetes and stress)                             Describes the physiological benefits of regular                 • matching
                                                          participation in physical activity (e.g., enhanced
                                                          health-related fitness components)                            Open-Ended Questions:
                                                                                                                          • discussion
                                                          Describes the psychological benefits of regular                 • written
                                                          participation in physical activity (e.g., stress                • stations
                                                          management, positive self-image, and conflict
                                                          resolution)                                                   Group Project

                                                          Applies appropriate health and safety habits (e.g.,           Community Activity Report
                                                          changing into activity clothing/shoes, safety
                                                          equipment and personal hygiene)                               TEACHER CHECKLIST

Engages in a variety of moderate to vigorous              Explains how various factors affect physical activity         Daily Log
physical activities that develop an active lifestyle      preferences and participation (e.g., age, gender,             Activity Inventory
                                                          ethnicity, socioeconomic status, race, body type,
                                                          culture, motor skill development and physical
                                                          capabilities)

                                                          Independently participates in health-enhancing                Peer Projects
                                                          physical activities that provide exertion, enjoyment
                                                          and challenge (e.g., 30-min. daily accum.)

                                                          Describes factors that impact the opportunity to              Community Interviews:
                                                          participate in physical activity (e.g., type of activity,       • research of resources
                                                          cost, facilities, equipment needs)                              • information gathering

                                                          Explores a variety of new activities for personal
                                                          interest in and out of PE setting




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 20
                                                       PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                                         3
Content Strand:                      Active Lifestyles

Content Standard:                    Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-            Evaluates how various factors impact physical                 Personal Inventory Self-Assessment log
related fitness reduces health risk factors (e.g.,        activity (e.g., fatigue, illness, injury, delayed onset of
smoking, obesity, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle,      muscle soreness, substance abuse, nutrition, and
abnormal cholesterol level, age, male, family health      environment)
history, diabetes and stress)
                                                          Exhibits the physiological benefits of regular daily          Graph results of formal fitness test
                                                          activity (e.g., improved health-related fitness
                                                          components)

                                                          Analyzes and evaluates psychological benefits of              Journal: Self-Assessment
                                                          regular physical activity (e.g., stress management,
                                                          positive conflict resolution and self-image)

                                                          Applies appropriate health and safety habits (e.g.,           Participation Observation
                                                          changing into activity clothing/shoes, safety
                                                          equipment and personal hygiene)                               Teacher Log Checklist



Engages in a variety of moderate to vigorous              Accumulates 30 minutes of daily, health-enhancing             Goal-Setting Plan
physical activities that develop an active lifestyle      activities in addition to a personal fitness program
                                                          (e.g., walking, gardening, biking instead of driving)

                                                          Identifies and practices strategies to accommodate            Performance Event:
                                                          various factors which affect physical activity                  • research and teach multicultural activity
                                                          preference and participation (e.g., race, age,
                                                          gender, ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status,
                                                          body type, motor skill development and physical
                                                          capability)
                                                                                                                        Community Interview
                                                          Analyzes factors that impact the opportunity to
                                                          participate in physical activities (e.g., type of
                                                          activity, time, cost, facility, equipment needed)

                                                          Explores and engages in new and satisfying
                                                          physical activities on a regular basis

                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 21
                                                       PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                          3
Content Strand:                      Active Lifestyles

Content Standard:                    Exhibits a Physically Active Lifestyle

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Evaluates and applies knowledge of how health-
related fitness reduces health risk factors (e.g.,
smoking, obesity, hypertension, sedentary lifestyle,
abnormal cholesterol level, age, sex, family health
history, diabetes and stress)                             Constructs and implements an activity plan that               Student Project:
                                                          includes:
                                                                                                                           •     research paper
                                                             •   a variety of vigorous activities of personal
                                                                 interest and enjoyment                                    •     log/journal

                                                             •   adjustments to accommodate changes
                                                                 throughout life

                                                             •   reducing health-related risk factors

                                                             •   maintaining and developing physical fitness
                                                                 and motor skills

                                                             •   health-related fitness components




Engages in a variety of moderate to vigorous
physical activities that develop an active lifestyle




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 3 • Portland Public Schools • Page 22
    PHYSICAL FITNESS — AT A GLANCE                                                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                 4
 Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing lifestyle (is physically fit).

Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment and development of a personal fitness program.

              3                                 5                                    8                                  CIM                            CAM
Engages in activities that       Engages in activities that          Engages in advanced                  Appraises personal status of      Uses the results of fitness
improve health-related fitness   develop and maintain health-        activities that develop and          health-related fitness            assessments to evaluate and
components                       related fitness components          maintain health-related              components                        guide changes in their
                                                                     components                                                             personal program of physical
                                                                                                                                            activity and fitness
Identifies activities that       Identifies how body                 Describes the role of exercise       Appraises personal status of
enhance each of the health-      composition and nutrition           and other factors in weight          body composition
related fitness components       affect physical fitness levels      control and body composition


Names the basic functions of     Identifies activities which work
bones and muscles                specific muscle groups



Explores how to measure          Uses information from fitness       Interprets the results of            Monitors and adjusts activity
cardio-respiratory fitness       assessment to improve               physical fitness assessments         levels to meet personal fitness
                                 selected fitness components         and uses it to develop a             program needs
                                                                     fitness program



                                                                     Uses the basic elements of           Knows and applies the
                                                                     training to improve physical         elements of training and of
                                                                     fitness                              the exercise principles


Identifies changes in the body   Monitors exercise intensity         Calculates and monitors
during moderate to vigorous                                          responses to physical
physical exercises                                                   exercises at varying training
                                                                     levels




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 23
    PHYSICAL FITNESS — AT A GLANCE                                          (continued)                           PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                   4
 Achieves and maintains a health-enhancing lifestyle (is physically fit).

Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as measured by an approved assessment tool.

               3                                  5                                    8                                  CIM                             CAM
Explores health-related fitness    Meets health-related fitness        Meets health-related fitness         Meets health-related fitness       Documents continued
for age-appropriate levels of      standards for age-appropriate       standards for age-appropriate        standards for age-appropriate      maintenance of appropriate
standardized physical fitness      level of standardized physical      level of standardized physical       level of standardized physical     fitness levels
tests                              fitness test                        fitness test                         fitness test




 Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical activities designed to improve and obtain health-enhancing levels of
 physical fitness in and beyond the physical education setting.
               3                                  5                                    8                                  CIM                             CAM
Explores moderate to               Seeks out and participates in       Routinely involved in vigorous       Models a physically active         Exhibits continuous beneficial
vigorous activities in a variety   moderate to vigorous                physical activities in a variety     lifestyle                          involvement in various health-
of settings                        activities in a variety of          of settings                                                             enhancing physical fitness
                                   settings                                                                                                    activities
Engages in a variety of skill-     Identifies and engages in a         Explains the correlation of          Integrates skill-related fitness
related fitness activities         variety of skill-related and        skill-related and health-related     development and health-
                                   health-related fitness activities   fitness components                   related fitness components
                                                                                                            into a personal activity plan
                                   Engages in opportunities to         Sets and monitors personal           Sets, adjusts and achieves
                                   set personal fitness goals          fitness goals to be achieved         personal fitness training goals
                                                                       over a period of time                over a period of time




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 24
                                             PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                  4
Content Strand:                    Physical Fitness

Content Standard:                  Achieves and Maintains a Health-Enhancing Lifestyle (is physically fit)

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                           Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment       Engages in activities that improve health-related             PERFORMANCE EVENTS:
and development of a personal fitness program         fitness components:

                                                         •   cardiorespiratory endurance sustained for a
                                                             minimum of 5 minutes (e.g., locomotor
                                                             movement)

                                                         •   develops muscular strength and endurance
                                                             (e.g., climbing, hanging, weight on hands)

                                                         •   increases flexibility (e.g., sit and reach, full-
                                                             range motion)

                                                      Identifies activities that enhance each of the health-
                                                      related fitness components

                                                      Names the basic function of bones and muscles                 Muscle/Bone Color book
                                                      (e.g., supporters and movers)

                                                      Explores how to measure cardiorespiratory fitness             Group Self-Testing
                                                      (e.g., listening to heart, counting pulse)                    Charting
                                                      Identifies changes in the body during moderate to             Identifies/Lists
                                                      vigorous exercise (e.g., perspiration, increased              Examples/Matches
                                                      heart and breathing rates)
Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as      Explores health-related fitness for age-appropriate           TEACHER OBSERVATION CHECKLIST
measured by an approved assessment tool               levels of standardized physical fitness tests
Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical   Explores moderate to vigorous activities in a variety         Generate Family, Adult and Peer List
activities designed to improve and obtain health-     of settings (e.g., Physical Education class, youth
enhancing levels of physical fitness in and beyond    sports, active play and intramurals)                          Working Portfolio
the physical education setting
                                                      Engages in a variety of skill-related fitness activities      Activity Log
                                                      (e.g., soccer, tag games, tumbling, rhythms)


                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 25
                                             PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                 4
Content Strand:                    Physical Fitness

Content Standard:                  Achieves and Maintains a Health-Enhancing Lifestyle (is physically fit)

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                           Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment       Engages in activities to develop and maintain                 Daily Fitness Participation Log
and development of a personal fitness program         health-related fitness components:
                                                        • cardiorespiratory endurance sustained for a               Fitness Performance Tasks/Stations
                                                            minimum of 10 minutes (at a target heart
                                                            rate)
                                                        • develops muscular strength and endurance
                                                            (push ups, pull ups, isometrics)
                                                        • increases flexibility (sit and reach, arm-
                                                            shoulder stretch)
                                                      Identifies how body composition and nutrition affect          Journaling Self-Portrait Body-Types
                                                      physical fitness levels
                                                      Uses information from fitness assessment to                   Goal-Setting Logs
                                                      improve selected fitness components
                                                      Identifies activities which work specific muscle              Tracing Body Shape
                                                      groups
                                                      Monitors exercise intensity (breathing rate, target           Lab Stations
                                                      heart rate, exertion and recovery rate)                       Math Emphasis
Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as      Meets health-related fitness standards for age-               Meets Fitness Gram “Healthy Zone”
measured by an approved assessment tool               appropriate level of a standardized physical fitness
                                                      test
Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical   Seeks out and participates in moderate to vigorous            Activity Log/Journaling
activities designed to improve and obtain health-     activities in a variety of settings (Physical Education
enhancing levels of physical fitness in and beyond    class, recreation clubs, youth sports, active play
the physical education setting                        and intramurals)
                                                      Identifies and engages in a variety of skill-related          Guided Discovery Stations
                                                      and health-related fitness activities (pivoting,
                                                      cutting, planting, jumping, stopping, tumbling)
                                                      Engages in setting personal fitness goals (e.g.,              Activity Journal Entry
                                                      improving upper body strength by doing 5 push ups
                                                      every morning)
                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 26
                                             PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                               4
Content Strand:                    Physical Fitness

Content Standard:                  Achieves and Maintains a Health-Enhancing Lifestyle (is physically fit)

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                           Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment       Engages in activities that develop and maintain               Student Log Project:
and development of a personal fitness program         health-related fitness components:                              • Charts activities for 1 week
                                                        • sustains cardiorespiratory endurance for 15
                                                            minutes (within target heart range)
                                                        • develops muscular strength and endurance
                                                            (resistance training)
                                                        • increases flexibility (e.g., pre and post
                                                            stretches)                                              Journal Entry
                                                      Describes the role of exercise and other factors in           Student Reflection
                                                      weight control and body composition                             • Measures Body Mass Index
                                                      Interprets the results of physical fitness                    Goal Setting
                                                      assessments and uses it to develop a personal
                                                      fitness program                                               Project: Individual Fitness Plan
                                                      Uses the basic elements of training to improve
                                                      physical fitness                                              Self-Assessment Worksheets
                                                      Calculates and monitors responses to physical
                                                      exercise at varying training levels (e.g., target heart
                                                      rate percentages, heart rates at rest, during
                                                      exercise and recovery rate)
Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as      Meets health-related fitness standards for age-               Meets Fitness-Gram “Healthy Zone”
measured by an approved assessment tool               appropriate level of standardized physical fitness
                                                      tests
Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical   Routinely involved in vigorous physical activities in         Student Report
activities designed to improve and obtain health-     a variety of settings (e.g., Physical Education class,
enhancing levels of physical fitness in and beyond    recreational clubs, youth sports and intramurals)
the physical education setting                        Explains the correlation of skill-related and health-         TEACHER OBSERVATION
                                                      related fitness components (e.g., rope skipping
                                                      improves cardiorespiratory endurance and agility)             Fitness Project
                                                                                                                       • Identify Goals
                                                      Sets and monitors personal fitness goals to be                   • Adjust Goals
                                                      achieved over a period of time
                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 27
                                                   PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                                           4
Content Strand:                    Physical Fitness

Content Standard:                  Achieves and Maintains a Health-Enhancing Lifestyle (is physically fit)

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                           Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment       Appraises the personal status of health-related               Fitness Test:
and development of a personal fitness program         fitness:
                                                          • sustains cardiorespiratory endurance for 20             Compare/contrast
                                                             minutes (e.g., 2 or more times/week)
                                                          • develops muscular strength and endurance                Improvement graph
                                                             (e.g., weight training)
                                                          • maintains or increases flexibility (full
                                                             body/activity specific stretching)

                                                      Appraises personal status of body composition                 Peer/teacher/self-assessment via Body Mass Index,
                                                      (e.g., Body Mass Index, % of body fat)                        caliper, etc.
                                                      Monitors and adjusts training levels to meet                  Goal-Setting Plan
                                                      personal fitness program needs

                                                      Knows and applies the elements of training and the            Written test or create monthly fitness calendar
                                                      principles of exercise (see definitions)


Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as      Meets health-related fitness standards for age-               Meets Fitness Gram “Healthy Zone”
measured by an approved assessment tool               appropriate level of standardized physical fitness
                                                      tests
Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical   Models a physically active lifestyle (e.g.,                   Select/engage in 30 min/day fitness
activities designed to improve and obtain health-     participates regularly in physical activities that
enhancing levels of physical fitness in and beyond    reflect personal interests)
the physical education setting
                                                      Integrates skill-related fitness development and              Fitness Contract
                                                      health-related fitness components into a personal
                                                      activity plan (see definitions)

                                                      Sets, adjusts and achieves personal fitness training          Create, log, analyze a 4 week individual fitness plan
                                                      goals over a period of time


                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 28
                                                   PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                        4
Content Strand:                    Physical Fitness

Content Standard:                  Achieves and Maintains a Health-Enhancing Lifestyle (is physically fit)

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                           Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Designs, practices and evaluates the assessment       Uses the results of fitness assessments to evaluate           STUDENT PROJECT:
and development of a personal fitness program         and guide changes in a personal program of
                                                      physical activity and fitness                                    •     plan and implement personal plan




Maintains an age-appropriate level of fitness as      Documents continued maintenance of appropriate                Select/engage in outside activities:
measured by an approved assessment tool               fitness levels                                                  • recreation leagues
                                                                                                                      • sports
                                                                                                                      • club involvement



Shows evidence of engaging in a variety of physical   Exhibits continuous and beneficial involvement in             Create, log, analyze a four-week individual fitness
activities designed to improve and obtain health-     various health-enhancing fitness activities                   plan
enhancing levels of physical fitness in and beyond
the physical education setting




                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 4 • Portland Public Schools • Page 29
   PERSONAL & SOCIAL SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                                                                     PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                  5
 Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity setting.

Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate safe practice in physical activity setting.

              3                                5                                   8                                  CIM                           CAM
Arranges equipment safely in    Remains on-task in a group         Makes choices based on the           Applies safe practices, rules,   Anticipates and assesses
a manner appropriate to the     activity without close teacher     safety of self and others            procedures, in physical          safety concerns and
task                            monitoring                                                              activity setting                 consistently demonstrates
                                                                                                                                         respect for rules, procedures
Uses equipment and space        Distinguishes between acts of                                                                            and safe practices in physical
safely and properly             “courage” and reckless acts                                                                              activity setting
Moves quickly to get
organized and start practice
within a short time of the
signal to begin

Stops activity immediately at
the signal to do so




                                               Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 30
   PERSONAL & SOCIAL SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                                                (continued)           PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                  5
 Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity setting.

Social Development: Develops positive self-management and social skills needed to work independently and with others in
                    a physical activity setting (cooperation, teamwork and sharing).
               3                                5                                   8                                  CIM                           CAM
Recognizes that equipment        Respects the rights and            Works cooperatively with a           Recognizes the benefits of       Accepts the responsibility of
and space belong indefinitely    property of others in a            group to achieve group goals         cooperation and can identify     taking a leadership role and
to no one person                 physical activity setting          in competitive, as well as,          how it affects progress toward   willingly follows as
                                                                    cooperative settings                 group goals                      appropriate, in order to
Works independently and on-      Develops cooperation skills to                                                                           accomplish group goals in a
task for short periods of time   accomplish group or team           Identifies positive and              Demonstrates self-discipline     physical activity setting
                                 goals in both recreational and     negative peer influences             and responsible behavior
Works cooperatively and          competitive activities                                                  (e.g., functions independently
productively with a partner or                                      Accepts performance                  and positively with others)
small group (e.g., cues          Chooses a partner that he or       limitations and successes of
partner to improve skills)       she can work with                  self and others (e.g., exhibits
                                 productively                       appropriate behavior
Takes appropriate turn in                                           response and recognizes that
games and relays                 Demonstrates compliance to         improvement is possible with
                                 class expectations (e.g.,          appropriate practice)
Assesses own performance         controls self, thinks safely,
problems without blaming         tries hard, hustles)
others (e.g., doesn’t display
negative reaction)




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 31
 PERSONAL & SOCIAL SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                                               (continued)            PHYSICAL EDUCATION                              5
 Demonstrates responsible personal and social behavior in physical activity setting.

Applies strategies and rules of structured physical activities, including but not limited to: games, sports, dance and
gymnastics.
              3                              5                                    8                                  CIM                        CAM
Follows, with few reminders,   Makes suggestions for              Reflects on the benefit of the       Applies appropriate rules,    Continues to apply
class and activity-specific    modifications in a game or         rules, procedures, safe              procedures and etiquette in   appropriate rules, procedures
rules, procedures and          activity that can improve the      practices, ethical behavior,         physical activity settings    and etiquette in physical
etiquette                      game                               and positive social                                                activity settings
                                                                  interactions in physical activity
                                                                  settings
                               Makes conscientious
                               decisions about applying
                               rules, procedures and
                               etiquette

Sportsmanship (fair play): Models appropriate sportsmanship in a physical activity setting.

              3                              5                                    8                                  CIM                        CAM
Records own or partner’s       Responds to winning and            Practices behaviors which are Keeps the importance of              Identifies and demonstrates
performance honestly and       losing with dignity and            consistent with good          winning and losing in                aspects of broad-based
accurately                     understanding                      citizenship and sportsmanship perspective                          sportsmanship (e.g., includes
                                                                                                                                     everyone, modifies the
Takes pride in                 Practices ethical behavior in      Accepts and respects                 Acknowledges good play from   scoring system)
accomplishments of self        game play                          decisions regarding a rule           an opponent during
without bragging and can                                          without displaying negative          competition
celebrate others                                                  reaction toward others (e.g.,
accomplishments with                                              student, teacher, outside
encouragement from the                                            official)
teacher
                                                                  Plays within the rules of a
Respects decisions regarding                                      game or activity
a rule without displaying
negative reactions toward
others



                                              Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 32
 PERSONAL & SOCIAL SKILLS — AT A GLANCE                                                  (continued)            PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                     5
 Demonstrates responsible and social behavior in physical activity setting.

Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising in a physical activity
                     setting.
               3                                5                                    8                                  CIM                               CAM
Explains in simple terms how     Handles conflict without            Demonstrates positive group          Recognizes the benefits of           Identifies, clarifies, and
a solution was reached (e.g.,    confrontation                       interaction in a physical            cooperation and can identify         resolves individual and/or
talk, walk, squawk; talking                                          activity setting (listening,         how it affects progress toward       group problems in appropriate
bench; Kelso’s wheel; rock,      Resolves conflict with a            helping others, posing               group goals                          ways (e.g., accurately
scissor, paper)                  sensitivity to the rights and       alternative solutions, and                                                describes incident, identifies
                                 feelings of others                  accepting problem solving            Demonstrates self-discipline         probable factors leading to
                                                                     ideas from others)                   and responsible behavior             dispute, and recommends
                                                                                                          (e.g., functions independently       appropriate plan to achieve
                                                                                                          and positively with others)          positive results)
                                                                                                          Identifies, clarifies, and
                                                                                                          attempts to solve individual
                                                                                                          and/or group problems in
                                                                                                          appropriate ways (e.g., walks
                                                                                                          away from verbal confrontation,
                                                                                                          volunteers to replay a
                                                                                                          contested shot — i.e., in tennis,
                                                                                                          listens to all sides before taking
                                                                                                          action in conflict situations)

 Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical activity setting.

               3                                5                                    8                                  CIM                               CAM
Asks teacher for assistance,     Collaboratively solves              Recognizes consequences of
when needed, to resolve a        problems by analyzing causes        own behavior and initiates
hard conflict in a physical      and potential solutions in          non-violent alternative
activity                         physical activity settings
Identifies socially acceptable   Considers the consequences
ways to resolve conflict in a    when confronted with a
physical activity setting        behavior choice and initiates
(sharing, cooperation,           non-violent resolution
consideration, etc.)

                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 33
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                             5
Content Strand:                    Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate       Arranges equipment safely in a manner appropriate             TEACHER OBSERVATION
safe practice in physical activity settings            to the task

                                                       Uses equipment and space safely and properly
                                                       Moves quickly to get organized and start practice
                                                       within a short time of the signal to begin

                                                       Stops activity immediately at the signal to do so



Social Development: Develops positive self-            Recognizes that equipment and space belong                    PERFORMANCE EVENT:
management and social skills needed to work            indefinitely to no one person
independently and with others in a physical activity                                                                 Student describes (drawn, verbal, or written) a
setting (e.g., cooperation, teamwork and sharing)      Works independently and on-task for short periods             social skill
                                                       of time

                                                       Works cooperatively and productively with a partner           Draws pictures and/or write about positive
                                                       or small group (e.g., cues partner to improve skills)         experience
                                                       Takes appropriate turn in games and relays

                                                       Assesses own performance problems without
                                                       blaming others (e.g., doesn’t display negative
                                                       reaction)


Applies appropriate strategies and rules of            Follows, with few reminders, class and activity-
structured physical activities including but not       specific rules, procedures and etiquette
limited to: games, sports, dance and gymnastics




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 34
                                      PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                    (CONTINUED)                                     5
Content Strand:                      Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                     Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Sportsmanship (fair play): Model appropriate              Records own or partner’s performance honestly and Self-Assessment Checklist
sportsmanship in a physical activity setting              accurately

                                                          Takes pride in accomplishments of self without
                                                          bragging and can celebrate others
                                                          accomplishments with encouragement from the
                                                          teacher

                                                          Respects decisions regarding a rule without
                                                          displaying negative reactions toward others.




Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of              Explains in simple terms how a solution was                   TEACHER OBSERVATION
mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising   reached (e.g., talk, walk, squawk; talking bench;
in a physical activity setting                            Kelso’s wheel; rock, scissor, paper)

Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to         Asks teacher for assistance, when needed, to                  Student Project (with teacher assistance): Students
conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical       resolve a hard conflict in a physical activity                formulate a T-chart (sounds like, looks like, feels
activity setting                                                                                                        like)
                                                          Identifies social acceptable ways to resolve conflict
                                                          in a physical activity setting (sharing cooperation,
                                                          consideration)




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 35
                                                PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                          5
Content Strand:                     Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                    Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                              Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate          Remains on-task in a group activity without close            Written Test: List strategies for creating a safe
safe practice in all physical activity settings           teacher monitoring                                           learning environment; students communicate by
                                                                                                                       using a suggestion box.
                                                          Distinguishes between acts of “courage” and
                                                          reckless acts



                                                                                                                       TEACHER OBSERVATION



Social Development: Develops positive self-               Respects the rights and property of others in a              Group Project: Create a modified game
management and social skills needed to work               physical activity setting
independently and with others in a physical activity
setting (e.g., cooperation, teamwork and sharing)         Develops cooperation skills to accomplish group or           Group Activator: Think, Talk, Share
                                                          team goals in both recreational and competitive
                                                          activities

                                                          Chooses a partner that he or she can work with
                                                          productively


                                                          Demonstrates compliance to class expectations
                                                          (e.g., controls self, thinks safely, tries hard, hustles)


Applies strategies and rules of structured physical       Makes suggestions for modifications in a game or
activities including but not limited to: games, sports,   activity that can improve the game
dance and gymnastics
                                                          Makes conscientious decisions about applying
                                                          rules, procedures and etiquette




                                                  Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 36
                                      PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                    (CONTINUED)                                         5
Content Strand:                      Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                     Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Sportsmanship (fair play): Model appropriate              Responds to winning and losing with dignity and               TEACHER OBSERVATION
sportsmanship in a physical activity setting              understanding

                                                          Practices ethical behavior in game play                       Student’s Statements: Acknowledge appreciation by
                                                                                                                        compliments


                                                                                                                        JOURNAL ENTRY



Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of              Handles conflict without confrontation                        Group Project to brainstorm conflicts and how to
mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising                                                                 resolve them:
in a physical activity setting                            Resolves conflict with a sensitivity to rights and
                                                          feelings of others                                               •     identify problem

                                                          Collaboratively solves problems by analyzing                     •     list possible solutions
Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to         causes and potential solutions in physical activity
conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical       setting                                                          •     identify positive and negatives
activity setting
                                                          Considers the consequences when confronted with                  •     formulate consequences
                                                          a behavior choice and initiates non-violent
                                                          resolution                                                       •     resolution

                                                                                                                           •     poster projects (e.g., put ups, not put downs)




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 37
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                                          5
Content Strand:                    Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate       Makes choices based on the safety of self and                 Partner Activity: Student’s generate a safety guide
safe practice in physical activity settings            others




Social Development: Develops positive self-            Works cooperatively with a group to achieve group             Journal Writing: Encourage students to share the
management and social skills needed to work            goals in competitive, as well as, cooperative                 good things that happen to them
independently and with others in a physical activity   settings
setting (e.g., cooperation, teamwork and sharing)
                                                       Identifies positive and negative peer influences

                                                       Accepts performance limitations and successes of              Journals
                                                       self and others (e.g., exhibits appropriate behavior
                                                       response and recognizes that improvement is
                                                       possible with appropriate practice)



Applies appropriate strategies and rules of            Reflects on the benefit of the rules, procedures,
structured physical activities including but not       safe practices, ethical behavior, and positive social
limited to: games, sports, dance and gymnastics        interactions in physical activity settings




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 38
                                      PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                    (CONTINUED)                                          5
Content Strand:                      Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                     Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Sportsmanship (fair play): Model appropriate              Practices behaviors which are consistent with good            Peer-Assessment of Opponents
sportsmanship in a physical activity setting              citizenship and sportsmanship

                                                          Accepts and respects decisions regarding a rule
                                                          without displaying negative reaction toward others
                                                          (e.g., student, teacher, outside official)

                                                          Plays within the rules of a game or activity




Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of              Demonstrates positive group interaction in physical           Conflict Resolution Worksheet:
mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising   activity setting (e.g., listening, helping others,
in a physical activity setting                            posing alternative solutions, and accepting problem              •     what happened
                                                          solving ideas from others)
Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to                                                                          •     why
conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical       Recognizes consequences of own behavior and
                                                                                                                           •     what could you do differently next time
activity setting                                          initiates non-violent alternative




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 39
                                                   PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                         5
Content Strand:                    Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate       Applies safe practices, rules, procedures in physical         TEACHER OBSERVATION
safe practice in physical activity settings            activity settings




Social Development: Develops positive self-            Recognizes the benefits of cooperation and can                Journal Entry
management and social skills needed to work            identify how it affects progress toward group goals
independently and with others in a physical activity
setting (e.g., cooperation, teamwork and sharing)      Demonstrates self-discipline and responsible
                                                       behavior (e.g., functions independently and
                                                       positively with others)




Applies appropriate strategies and rules of            Applies rules, procedures and etiquette in physical
structured physical activities including but not       activity settings
limited to: games, sports, dance and gymnastics




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 40
                                            PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                            (CONTINUED)                            5
Content Strand:                      Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                     Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Sportsmanship (fair play): Model appropriate              Keeps the importance of winning and losing in                 TEACHER OBSERVATION
sportsmanship in a physical activity setting              perspective

                                                          Acknowledges good play from an opponent or                    Peer Assessment
                                                          teammate during competition




Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of              Recognizes the benefits of cooperation and can                TEACHER OBSERVATION
mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising   identify how it affects progress toward group goals
in a physical activity settings
                                                          Demonstrates self-discipline and responsible
Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to         behavior (e.g., functions independently and
conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical       positively with others)
activity setting
                                                          Identifies, clarifies, and attempts to solve individual
                                                          and/or group problems in appropriate ways (e.g.,
                                                          walks away from verbal confrontation, volunteers to
                                                          replay a contested shot — i.e., in tennis, listens to
                                                          all sides before taking action in conflict situations)




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 41
                                                   PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                     5
Content Strand:                    Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Safe Practices: Assesses and applies appropriate       Anticipates and assesses safety concerns and                  Portfolio
safe practice in physical activity settings            consistently demonstrates respect for rules,
                                                       procedures and safe practices in physical activity               •     volunteer assistance
                                                       settings
                                                                                                                        •     officiating

                                                                                                                        •     PE/recreation teacher assistant
                                                                                                                        •     team captain


Social Development: Develops positive self-            Accepts the responsibility of taking a leadership role Self-Assessment
management and social skills needed to work            and willingly follows as appropriate, in order to
independently and with others in a physical activity   accomplish group goals in a physical activity
setting (e.g., cooperation, teamwork and sharing)      settings




Applies appropriate strategies and rules of            Continues to apply rules, procedures and etiquette
structured physical activities including but not       in physical activity settings
limited to: games, sports, dance and gymnastics




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 42
                                           PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                              (CONTINUED)                                    5
Content Strand:                      Personal and Social Skills

Content Standard:                     Demonstrates Responsible Personal and Social Behavior in Physical Activity Setting

Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                               Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Sportsmanship (fair play): Models appropriate             Identifies and demonstrates aspects of broad-based Acknowledges good play
sportsmanship in a physical activity setting              sportsmanship (e.g., includes everyone, modifies
                                                          scoring the system)




Conflict Resolution: Demonstrates the use of              Identifies, clarifies, and resolves individual and/or         Write a guide for conflict resolution
mediation skills to diffuse potential conflicts arising   group problems in appropriate ways (e.g.,
in a physical activity setting                            accurately describes incident, identifies probable
                                                          factors leading to dispute, and recommends
Analyzes the causes of and potential solutions to         appropriate plan to achieve positive results)
conflict and applies mediation skills in a physical
activity setting




                                                   Physical Education • Content Standard 5 • Portland Public Schools • Page 43
           DIVERSITY — AT A GLANCE                                                                             PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                   6
 Demonstrates understanding and respect for differences among people in physical activity settings.

Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical activities from around the world while honoring diversity.

               3                                5                                   8                                  CIM                            CAM
Experiences differences and      Describes different physical       Willingly joins others of            Understands and analyzes         Displays a willingness to
similarities among people of     activities which promote           diverse culture, ethnicity,          the role of sport and physical   experiment with sport and
different backgrounds and        knowledge and understanding        ability, and race during             activity in a multi-cultural     activity from other cultures
abilities by willingly           others of different                physical activity setting            world
participating in activities of   backgrounds and abilities                                                                                Develops strategies for
national, cultural and ethnic                                                                                                             including persons from
origins (e.g., games and                                                                                                                  diverse backgrounds and
dance)                                                                                                                                    characteristics in a physical
                                                                                                                                          activity which extends beyond
                                                                                                                                          school setting

Values the potential of physical activity to foster appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion regardless of personal characteristics
(e.g., gender, orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in physical attributes, socio-economic status, and religious beliefs).

               3                                5                                   8                                  CIM                            CAM
Plays and cooperates             Explores and describes the         Identifies and discusses the         Recognizes the value and         Recognizes the influence of
regardless of unique             attributes that individuals with   behavior that creates a              importance of inclusion and      participation in physical
differences                      differences can bring to group     supportive/inclusive activity        eliminates exclusionary          activity fostering appreciation
                                 activities                         environment                          behavior                         of cultural, ethnic, gender and
Demonstrates inclusion for all                                                                                                            physical diversity
class members                    Seeks out, participates with       Respects the physical and
                                 and develops a respect for         performance limitations of self
Demonstrates acceptance of       individuals whose skills,          and others
the skills and abilities of      interests and physical
others through verbal and        strengths and limitations are      Formulates strategies for
non-verbal actions               different from your own (e.g.,     maximizing inclusionary
                                 initiates and demonstrates         behavior
                                 positive interaction and
                                 inclusion)
                                 Demonstrates cooperation in
                                 physical activity settings
                                 despite differences (e.g.,
                                 gender, race, abilities, and
                                 ethnicity)
                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 44
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                      6
Content Strand:                    Diversity
Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Understanding and Respect for Differences Among People in Physical Activity
                                   Settings
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical       Experiences differences and similarities among              Similarity Search (hobbies, food, games)
activities from around the world while honoring         people of different backgrounds and abilities by
diversity                                               willingly participating in activities of national, cultural
                                                        and ethnic origins (e.g., games and dance)




Values the potential of physical activity to foster     Plays and cooperates regardless of unique                    Teacher Observation Of Class Guidelines:
appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion   differences
regardless of personal characteristics (e.g., gender                                                                    •     “you can’t play” rule
orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in    Demonstrates inclusion for all class members
physical attributes, socio-economic status, and                                                                         •     no put downs zone/put ups
religious beliefs)                                      Demonstrates acceptance of the skills and abilities
                                                        of others through verbal and non-verbal actions




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 45
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                         6
Content Strand:                    Diversity
Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Understanding and Respect for Differences Among People in Physical Activity
                                   Settings
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical       Describes different physical activities which                Performance Tasks (encourage students to pair with
activities from around the world while honoring         promote knowledge and understand others of                   students they don’t know well):
diversity                                               different backgrounds and abilities
                                                                                                                        •     activities mixer

                                                                                                                        •     use non-dominant hand

                                                                                                                        •     scooterbasket/ball




Values the potential of physical activity to foster     Explores and describes the attributes that                   Journal:
appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion   individuals with differences can bring to group
regardless of personal characteristics (e.g., genders   activities                                                   • Describe feelings and frustrations (play scooter-
orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in                                                                   ball, then write about your feelings and
physical attributes, socio-economic status, and         Seeks out, participates with, and develops a                   frustrations)
religious beliefs)                                      respect for individuals whose skills, interests,
                                                        physical strengths and limitations are different from        Event Talk (create a game in which a person who is
                                                        your own (e.g., initiates and demonstrates positive          blind could compete equally with a sighted person)
                                                        interaction and inclusion)

                                                        Demonstrates cooperation in physical activity
                                                        setting despite differences (e.g., gender, race,
                                                        abilities, and ethnicity)




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 46
                                              PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                                       6
Content Strand:                    Diversity
Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Understanding and Respect for Differences Among People in Physical Activity
                                   Settings
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical       Willingly joins others of diverse culture, ethnicity,        TEACHER OBSERVATION
activities from around the world while honoring         ability, and race during physical activity settings
diversity




Values the potential of physical activity to foster     Identifies and discusses the behavior that creates a         Student Journal
appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion   supportive/inclusive activity environment
regardless of personal characteristics (e.g., gender,                                                                • identifies exclusionary behaviors
orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in    Respects the physical and performance limitations
physical attributes, socio-economic status, and         of self and others                                           • formulates inclusionary rule variations
religious beliefs)
                                                        Formulates strategies for maximizing inclusionary
                                                        behavior




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 47
                                                    PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                                          6
Content Strand:                    Diversity
Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Understanding and Respect for Differences Among People in Physical Activity
                                   Settings
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical       Understands and analyzes the role of sport and               Student Report:
activities from around the world while honoring         physical activity in a multi-cultural world
diversity                                                                                                               •     Special Olympics

                                                                                                                        •     World Cup sport

                                                                                                                        •     Nike World Masters games

                                                                                                                        •     role of women in sport

                                                                                                                        •     something that represents different cultures
                                                                                                                              (e.g., games, fitness, dance, sport)




Values the potential of physical activity to foster     Recognizes the value and importance of inclusion             Group Project:
appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion   and eliminates exclusionary behavior
regardless of personal characteristics (e.g., gender,                                                                   •     identifies several popular games from various
orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in                                                                          cultures
physical attributes, socio-economic status, and
religious beliefs)                                                                                                      •     use games to interact with others

                                                                                                                        •     adapts games for diverse populations

                                                                                                                        •     explains how play and games are part of a
                                                                                                                              culture




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 48
                                                    PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                          6
Content Strand:                    Diversity
Content Standard:                  Demonstrates Understanding and Respect for Differences Among People in Physical Activity
                                   Settings
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                            Benchmarks                                             Assessment Examples
Experiences and appreciates a variety of physical       Displays a willingness to experiment with sport and          Invites disabled individuals to participate with the
activities from around the world while honoring         activity from other cultures                                 purpose of gaining insight into the challenges of
diversity                                                                                                            being disabled in a physical setting
                                                        Develops strategies for including persons from
                                                        diverse backgrounds and characteristics in a
                                                        physical activity which extends beyond the school
                                                        setting




Values the potential of physical activity to foster     Recognizes the influence of participation in physical        Student Portfolio:
appreciation for diversity by demonstrating inclusion   activity fostering appreciation of cultural, ethnic,
regardless of personal characteristics (e.g., gender,   gender and physical diversity                                   •     volunteer work
orientation, ethnicity, disabilities, differences in
physical attributes, socio-economic status, and                                                                         •     adapted aquatics
religious beliefs)                                                                                                      •     Special Olympics

                                                                                                                        •     disability sports

                                                                                                                        •     community schools

                                                                                                                        •     parks/recreation

                                                                                                                        •     self-enhancement

                                                                                                                        •     coaching experience
                                                                                                                        •     officiating




                                                Physical Education • Content Standard 6 • Portland Public Schools • Page 49
  VALUES PHYSICAL ACTIVITY — AT A GLANCE                                                                           PHYSICAL EDUCATION                                    7
 Understanding that physical activity provides opportunities for enjoyment, challenge, self-expression & social interactions.

Appraises factors which contribute to personal satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those lifetime physical activi-
ties in and beyond the school setting.
               3                                   5                                    8                                  CIM                              CAM
Responds to physical activity       Expresses personal                  Identifies aspects of activities     Identifies participation factors   Participates regularly in and
with positive verbal and non-       satisfaction in physical activity   that are personally satisfying       that contribute to enjoyment,      enjoys a variety of physical
verbal reaction (e.g., smiles,      accomplishment                      (e.g., learning something new,       challenge and self-expression      activities
laughter)                                                               social benefits, physical
                                    Recognizes physical activity        exertion, competition)            Enjoys working with others in Understands factors which
Begins to express personal          as a positive opportunity for                                         a physical activity to achieve a contribute to personal
satisfaction in physical activity   social and group interaction,       Describes and selects a           common goal                       satisfaction in physical
accomplishments                     as well as, recognition from        variety of physical activities in                                   activities and pursues those
                                    peers                               and beyond the school setting Enjoys participating in a             activities in and beyond the
Describes and selects                                                                                     variety of physical activities in school setting (e.g.,
physical activities that provide    Willingly seeks personally          Recognizes and identifies with competitive and recreational         physiological, psychological,
for enjoyment and challenge         challenging experiences in          the positive contributions of     settings, both alone and with     social, and cultural benefits)
in school and the community         physical activities                 physical activity as it extends   others (e.g., recreation teams,
                                                                        beyond physical self (e.g.,       fitness clubs, parks programs) Applies the positive
                                    Seeks physical activity in          self-esteem, self-image)                                            contributions of physical
                                    informal settings that utilize                                        Analyzes the positive             activity as they extend beyond
                                    skills and knowledge gained         Understands the need to           contributions of physical         the physical self (e.g., stress
                                    in physical education classes       remain physically active          activity as it extends beyond     management, anger
                                                                                                          the physical self (e.g., stress   management, weight control,
                                    Begins to recognize the             Identifies the value of life-long management, weight control,       self-esteem, mental clarity)
                                    positive contributions of           physical activity                 self-esteem, anger
                                    physical activity as it extends                                       management)
                                    beyond physical self (e.g.,
                                    activity changes mood)                                                   Understands and values the
                                                                                                             relationship between
                                    Supports peers of all abilities                                          increased skills and fitness
                                                                                                             levels with the enjoyment of
                                                                                                             physical activities




                                                    Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 50
                                               PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 3                                                                                          7
Content Strand:                     Values Physical Activity
Content Standard:                   Understands that Physical Activity Provides Opportunities for Enjoyment, Challenge, Self-
                                    Expression and Social Interaction
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                            Assessment Examples
Appraises factors which contribute to personal          Responds to physical activity with positive verbal            Teacher Observation (willing to try new activity and
satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those      and non-verbal reaction (e.g., smiles, laughter)              skills)
lifetime physical activities in and beyond the school
setting                                                 Begins to express personal satisfaction in physical           Student Response
                                                        activity accomplishments
                                                                                                                         •     TRIBES
                                                        Describes and selects physical activities that
                                                        provide for enjoyment and challenge in school and                •     levels of enjoyment
                                                        the community
                                                                                                                      Student Participation

                                                                                                                         •     Little League

                                                                                                                         •     Parks/Recreation

                                                                                                                         •     Boys and Girls Club

                                                                                                                         •     Self-Enhancement Program

                                                                                                                         •     GREAT Program




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 51
                                               PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 5                                                                                          7
Content Strand:                     Values Physical Activity
Content Standard:                   Understands that Physical Activity Provides Opportunities for Enjoyment, Challenge, Self-
                                    Expression and Social Interaction
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Appraises factors which contribute to personal          Expresses personal satisfaction in physical activity          Student Journal (identifies feelings associated with
satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those      accomplishment                                                success and failure)
lifetime physical activities in and beyond the school
setting                                                 Recognizes physical activities as a positive
                                                        opportunity for social and group interaction, as well
                                                        as, recognition from peers                                    TEACHER OBSERVATION

                                                        Willingly seeks personally challenging experiences
                                                        in physical activities
                                                                                                                      Event/Task (cooperative games, Project Adventure)
                                                        Seeks physical activity in informal settings that
                                                        utilize skills and knowledge gained in physical
                                                        education classes

                                                        Begins to recognize the positive contributions of
                                                        physical activity as it extends beyond the physical
                                                        self (e.g., activity changes mood)

                                                        Supports peers of all abilities




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 52
                                               PHYSICAL EDUCATION — GRADE 8                                                                          7
Content Strand:                     Values Physical Activity
Content Standard:                   Understands that Physical Activity Provides Opportunities for Enjoyment, Challenge, Self-
                                    Expression and Social Interaction
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Appraises factors which contribute to personal          Identifies aspects of activities that are personally          Student Journal
satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those      satisfying (e.g., learning something new, social
lifetime physical activities in and beyond the school   benefits, physical exertion, competition)
setting
                                                        Describes and selects a variety of physical activities
                                                        in and beyond the school setting

                                                        Recognizes and identifies with the positive                   Student Inventory
                                                        contributions of physical activity as it extends
                                                        beyond the physical self (e.g., self-esteem, self-
                                                        image)

                                                        Understands the need to remain physically active

                                                        Identifies the value of life-long physical activity




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 53
                                                    PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CIM                                                                          7
Content Strand:                     Values Physical Activity
Content Standard:                   Understands that Physical Activity Provides Opportunities for Enjoyment, Challenge, Self-
                                    Expression and Social Interaction
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                           Assessment Examples
Appraises factors which contribute to personal          Identifies participation factors that contribute to           Student Portfolio
satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those      enjoyment, challenge and self-expression
lifetime physical activities in and beyond the school
setting                                                 Enjoys working with others in a physical activity to          Activity Log
                                                        achieve a common goal

                                                        Enjoys participating in a variety of physical activities      Student Report
                                                        in competitive and recreational settings, both alone
                                                        and with others (e.g., recreation teams, fitness
                                                        clubs, parks programs)

                                                        Analyzes the positive contributions of physical               Journal
                                                        activity as they extend beyond the physical self
                                                        (e.g., stress management, weight control, self-
                                                        esteem, anger management)

                                                        Understands and values the relationship between
                                                        increased skills and fitness levels with the
                                                        enjoyment of physical activities




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 54
                                                   PHYSICAL EDUCATION — CAM                                                                                           7
Content Strand:                     Values Physical Activity
Content Standard:                   Understands that Physical Activity Provides Opportunities for Enjoyment, Challenge, Self-
                                    Expression and Social Interaction
Comprehensive Curriculum Goals                                             Benchmarks                                          Assessment Examples
Appraises factors which contribute to personal          Participates regularly in and enjoys a variety of             Student Portfolio
satisfaction and begins to select and pursue those      physical activities
lifetime physical activities in and beyond the school
setting                                                 Understands factors which contribute to personal              Student Project (promote physical activity in their
                                                        satisfaction in physical activity and pursues those           family and community, weekly activity schedule,
                                                        activities in and beyond the school setting (e.g.,            personal inventory, written report)
                                                        physiological, psychological, social, and cultural
                                                        benefits)

                                                        Applies the positive contributions of physical
                                                        activities as they extend beyond the physical self
                                                        (e.g., stress management, anger management,
                                                        weight control, self-esteem, mental clarity)




                                                 Physical Education • Content Standard 7 • Portland Public Schools • Page 55
                                          OUTLINE         OF   PHYSICAL EDUCATION TERMS
Movement Concepts and                Basic Motor Skills                   Biomechanic Concepts       Exercise Physiology
Principles
                                     Locomotor                            Force                      Fitness Components
Motor Learning                         • Run                                                            Health Related
                                       • Gallop                           Speed                         • Cardiorespiratory
Sport Psychology                       • Slide                                                          • Muscular Strength and
  • Motivation                         • Hop                              Stability                       Endurance
  • Visualization                      • Skip                                                           • Body Comp
                                                                          Motion and Direction
  • Concentration                      • Walk                                                           • Flexibility
                                                                            • Angle of Release
  • Anxiety                            • Leap                                                           Skill Related
                                                                            • Rebound Angle
  • Stress                             • Jump                                                           • Power
                                                                            • Motion and Direction
  • Judgement                                                                                           • Speed
  • Knowledge of Special Aptitudes   Nonlocomotor                                                       • Balance
                                       • Balance                                                        • Coordination
Sport Sociology                        • Weight Bearing                                                 • Reaction Time
  • Communication                      • Bend                             Biomechanic Principles
  • Teamwork                           • Twist                                                       Principles of Exercise
  • Etiquette                          • Stretch                          Body Position                 • Overload
                                       • Swing                                                          • Progression
Safety                                                                    Absorbing Force               • Regression
                                     Manipulative                                                       • Plateau
Motor Development                      • Throw                            Visual Concentration          • Specificity
  • Fundamental Motor Patterns         • Catch
  • Static/Dynamic Balance             • Kick                             Opposition                 Elements of Training
  • Hand/Eye, Eye/Foot                 • Punt                                                           • Frequency
     Coordination                                                         Weight Transfer
                                       • Dribble                                                        • Intensity
  • Perceptual Motor Skills            • Volley                           Follow Through                • Duration/Time
                                       • Strike                                                         • Mode/Type
                                       • Jump Rope

                                     Spatial Awareness
                                       • Directionality
                                       • Laterality
                                       • Levels
                                       • Pathways




                                                                     56
                                                         PHYSICAL EDUCATION TERMS
BMI (Body Mass Index)                                                                Exercise Physiology
The National Institute of Health relies on body mass index, a height-weight          The study of exercise physiology provides an understanding of how car-
calculation to determine whether a person is more likely to face diabetes,           diorespiratory, digestive, and muscle systems function in the moving body. It
heart disease, and other medical problems. If the BMI is 25 a person is con-         focuses on what happens inside the bodies of human beings when they
sidered overweight, and if it is 30 they are considered obese.                       exercise.

                                    25 BMI                   30 BMI                  Examples of exercise physiology concepts:
        Height                   “overweight”                “obese”                   Aerobic: exercise that requires oxygen to produce energy.
          5'                       128   lbs.               153   lbs.                 aerobic strength: enables muscle to continue moving for long periods of
          5'2"                     136   lbs.               164   lbs.                 time without fatigue.
          5'4"                     145   lbs.               174   lbs.                 Anaerobic: high intensity, short-term activities that do not utilize oxygen
          5'6"                     155   lbs.               186   lbs.                 for energy.
          5'8"                     164   lbs.               197   lbs.
          5'10"                    174   lbs.               207   lbs.                 Cardio: heart
          6'0"                     184   lbs.               221   lbs.
                                                                                       Flexibility: is the ability or a joint to move freely in every direction or,
Source: National Institute of Health                                                   through a full range of motion.
                                                                                       Frequency: how often a person exercises (sessions per week)
Biomechanics                                                                           Intensity: how hard a person exercises (i.e., overload for strength, speed
Biomechanical concepts provide a basis for understanding the ways in which             or aerobic activity).
human movements in exercise, sport, dance and daily living activities can be           Overload: going beyond what is comfortable in strengthening and aerobic
executed safely and skillfully. An understanding of biomechanical concepts             exercise; increasing demand.
and their applications in an important part of the cognitive foundation for a
physically educated person.                                                            Progression: graduated increases in time (duration) and intensity of
                                                                                       exercise.
Examples of biomechanical concepts:
                                                                                       Sets: number of groups of repetitions in which a resistance exercise is
  Center of gravity: a unique point around which a boyd’s weight is bal-               done.
  anced at a given time.
                                                                                       Time: how long in minutes a person exercises.
  Concentric: involving shortening of a tensed muscle.
                                                                                     Reprinted from — Source: Concepts of Physical Education — What Every
  Equilibrium: a state involving a balance of all acting forces and torque.          Student Needs to Know — with permission from National Association for
  Force: a push or pull in a linear direction.                                       Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA
                                                                                     20191-1599.
  Isometric: involving no change in the length of a tensed muscle.
  Tension: a pulling force.
  Torque: rotary force.


Reprinted from — Source: Concepts of Physical Education — What Every
Student Needs to Know 1998 — with permission from National Association
for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston,
VA 20191-1599.
                                                                                57
Fitness                                                                                 Motor Development and Motor Learning
Physical fitness can be divided into health- and skill-related components.                Motor Development is a process that includes both experience (like prac-
Health-related fitness focuses on factors that promote optimum health and                 tice and instruction) and an individual’s current physical, cognitive, emo-
prevent the onset of disease and problems associated with inactivity. Health-             tional, and social status. The motor development process causes changes
related fitness includes cardiorespiratory (aerobic) fitness, muscular strength           in motor behavior across the entire lifetime.
and endurance, flexibility and body composition.
                                                                                          Motor Learning is the study of change in the ability of a person to perform
Skill-related fitness includes balance, agility, coordination, power, reaction            a skill that is inferred improvement in performance over time as a result of
time, and speed.                                                                          practice or experience.
Components of Health-Related Fitness:                                                   Reprinted from — Source: Concepts of Physical Education — What Every
                                                                                        Student Needs to Know — with permission from National Association for
  Cardiorespiratory endurance involves the ability of the heart and lungs to            Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA
  supply oxygen to the working muscles for an extended period of time. Also             20191-1599.
  called aerobic endurance or fitness, it is the ability of the circulatory and
  respiratory systems to adjust to and recover from the effects of moderate to
  vigorous activity, such as brisk walking, running, swimming, or biking.               Sport Psychology and Sociology
  Muscular strength is a measure of the greatest force that can be pro-                 Sport Psychology applies psychological principles to sport settings in order
  duced by a muscle or group of muscles. Dynamic strength is the force                  to improve or enhance motor performance. Psychology tends to focus on the
  exerted by a muscle group a the body moves, such as push-ups. Static                  behaviors and mental processes of the individual. Students exploring psy-
  strength is the force exerted against an immovable object, such as push-              chological perspectives in physical education may ponder questions like:
  ing against a wall.
                                                                                          “What is the best way for me to learn motor skills?
  Muscular endurance is the ability to contract a muscle or group of
                                                                                          “Why do some people adhere to exercise programs while others do not?”
  muscles repeatedly without incurring fatigue. The longer a muscle is used,
  the greater its endurance becomes.                                                      “What attitudes do my friends have about physical activity?”
  Flexibility is the ability or a joint to move freely in every direction or,             “What affects my own attitude/participation in physical activity?”
  through a full range of motion. Several factors can limit joint mobility,
  including genetic inheritance, the joint’s structure, the amount of fatty             Sociology is the field that studies individuals’ social interactions, relation-
  tissue around the joint, and the body’s temperature. Flexibility can be               ships, perceptions, and attitudes. Interest in social concepts in physical edu-
  improve, however, with stretching.                                                    cation stems from concern for the emotional and physical safety and well
                                                                                        being of all students. Students are encouraged to interact cooperatively and
  The two most common types of stretching for primary and intermediate                  respectfully, and to solve conflicts in constructive and peaceful ways.
  level children are static and ballastic stretching. Static stretching involves
  slow, gradual, and controlled elongation through a full range of motion.              Reprinted from — Source: Concepts of Physical Education — What Every
  Ballistic stretching employs rapid, uncontrolled, and bouncing or bobbing             Student Needs to Know — with permission from National Association for
  motions. Ballastic technique is not recommended for the general                       Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA
  population whose control may be compromised and whose risk of injury                  20191-1599.
  may be increased.
  Body composition refers to the quality or makeup of total body mass and
  is composed of lean body mass and fat mass. Lean body mass includes a
  person’s bones, muscles, organs, and water. Fat mass is fat, epidose
  tissue. The skinfold caliper test is the most popular method for measuring
  body composition.
Reprinted with permission from — Source: Physical Best Activity Guide -
Elementary Level.

                                                                                   58
                                  RESEARCH AND ARTICLES


•   Best Practices

•   Why Children Need Physical Education (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   A Report of the Surgeon General “Adolescents and Young Adults” (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   A Report of the Surgeon General “The Link Between Physical Activity and Morbidity and Mortality” (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   CDC’s “Promoting Lifelong Physical Activity” (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   America’s Leaders Support Physical Activity (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   Physical Education — The Facts from the American Academy of Pediatrics (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   A.H.A. Labels Physical Inactivity as a Fourth Risk Factor for Coronary Heart Disease (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   Statement of Exercise from the American Heart Association (Speak Advocacy Kit)

•   Centers for Disease Control — “Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report”

•   “Penny wise, pound foolish” the demise of phys-ed (The Oregonian Newspaper)




                                                       59
                                                                          BEST PRACTICES
Introduction                                                                                   1. Physical education and athletic programs have different purposes.
  Children do not automatically develop the skills, knowledge, attitudes, and                   Athletic programs are essentially designed for youngsters who are eager to
behaviors that lead to regular and enjoyable participation in physical activity.             specialize in one or more sports and refine their talents in order to compete
They must be taught. The responsibility for this instruction is vested primarily in          with others of similar interests and abilities. Developmentally appropriate physi-
physical education programs in the schools.                                                  cal education programs, in contrast, are designed for every child—from the
                                                                                             physically gifted to the physically challenged.
   In recent years a growing body of research, theory, and practical experience
has sharpened our understanding about the beneficial aspects of physical                       2. Children are not miniature adults.
education programs for children—and those that are counterproductive. The
purpose of this document is to describe, in a very straight forward way, prac-                  Children have very different abilities, needs, and interests than adults. It is
tices that are both developmentally and instructionally appropriate and inap-                inadequate simply to “water down” adult sport or activity programs and assume
propriate for children in pre-school and elementary school physical education                that they will be beneficial.
programs.
                                                                                               3. Children in school today will not be adults in today’s world.
Quality Physical Education for Children
                                                                                               Help them learn how to learn—and to enjoy the process of discovering and
    The Council on Physical Education for Children (COPEC) of NASPE, the                     exploring new and different challenges in the physical domain.
nation’s largest professional association of children’s physical education teach-
ers, believes that quality, daily physical education should be available to all                Present programs need to prepare children with basic movement skills that
children. Quality physical education is both developmentally and instructionally             can be used in any activity.
suitable for the specific children being served. Developmentally appropriate
practices in physical education are those which recognize children’s changing                   This document is written for teachers, parents, school administrators, policy
capacities to move and those which promote such change. A developmentally                    makers, and other individuals who are responsible for the physical education of
appropriate physical education program accommodates a variety of individual                  children. It is intended to provide specific guidelines that will help them recog-
characteristics such as developmental status, previous movement experiences,                 nize practices that are in the best interests of children (appropriate) and those
fitness and skill levels, body size, and age. Instructionally appropriate physical           that are counterproductive, or even harmful (inappropriate).
education incorporates the best known practices, derived from both research
and experiences teaching children, into a program that maximizes opportuni-
ties for learning and success for all children. The outcome of a developmentally
and instructionally appropriate program of physical education is an individual
who is “physically educated”.

   In any discussion of physical education programs for children there are
three major premises that need to be understood.




Reprinted and Condensed from Developmentally Appropriate Physical Education
Practices for Children (1992) with permission from the National Association for Sport
and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive, Reston, VA 20191-1599.
                                                                                        60
APPROPRIATE PRACTICE                                                                      INAPPROPRIATE PRACTICE
Curriculum                                                                                Curriculum
  The physical education curriculum has an obvious scope and sequence                        Lacks developed goals and objectives and is based primarily on the teach-
based on goals and objectives that are appropriate for all children. It includes a        er’s interests, preferences, and background rather than those of the children.
balance of skills, concepts, games, educational gymnastics, rhythms and
dance experiences designed to enhance the cognitive, motor, affective, and
physical fitness development of every child.

Component: Development of movement concepts and motor skills                              Component: Development of movement concepts and motor skills
   Children are provided with frequent and meaningful age appropriate practice              Children participate in a limited number of games and activities.
opportunities that enable individuals to develop a functional under standing of
movement concepts (body awareness, space awareness, effort and relation-
ships) and build competence and confidence in their ability to perform a variety
of motor skills (locomotor, non locomotor, and manipulative).

Cognitive Development                                                                     Cognitive Development
   Teachers provide experiences that encourage children to question, inte-                   Instructors fail to recognize and explore the unique role of physical educa-
grate, analyze, communicate, apply cognitive concepts, and gain a wide multi-             tion, which allows children to learn to move while also moving to learn.
cultural view of the world, thus making physical education a part of the total               Children do not receive opportunities to integrate their physical education
educational experience.                                                                   experience with art, music, and other classroom experiences.

Affective Development                                                                     Affective Development
   Teachers intentionally design and teach activities throughout the year that               Teachers ignore opportunities to help children understand the emotions
allow children the opportunity to work together to improve their emerging social          they feel as a result of participation in physical activity.
and cooperation skills.
Concepts of Fitness                                                                       Concepts of Fitness
  Children participate in activities that are designed to help them understand              Children are required to participate in fitness activities, but are not helped to
and value the important concepts of physical fitness and the contribution they            understand the reasons why.
make to a healthy lifestyle.
Physical Fitness Tests                                                                    Physical Fitness Tests
   Ongoing fitness assessment is used as part of the ongoing process of help-                Physical fitness tests are given once or twice a year solely for the purpose
ing children understand, enjoy, improve and/or maintain their physical health             of qualifying children for awards.
and well-being.                                                                              Children are required to take physical fitness tests without adequate condi-
   Test results are shared privately with children.                                       tioning (e.g. students are made to run a mile after “practicing” it only one day
                                                                                          the week before.)

Calisthenics                                                                              Calisthenics
   Appropriate exercises are taught for the specific purpose of improving the                Children perform standardized calisthenics with no specific purpose in mind
skill, coordination, and/or fitness levels of children.                                   (e.g., jumping jacks, windmills, toe touches).
                                                                                             Exercises are taught which compromise body alignment and place unneces-
                                                                                          sary stress on the joints and muscles.

                                                                                     61
APPROPRIATE PRACTICE                                                                     INAPPROPRIATE PRACTICE

Fitness as Punishment                                                                    Fitness as Punishment

  Fitness activities are used to help children increase personal physical fit-              Physical fitness activities are used by teachers as punishment for children’s
ness levels in a supportive, motivating, and progressive manner, thereby pro-            misbehavior (e.g., students running laps, or doing push-ups, because they are
moting positive lifetime fitness attitudes.                                              off-task or slow to respond to teacher instruction).

Assessment                                                                               Assessment
   Teacher decisions are based primarily on ongoing individual assessments of               Children are evaluated on the basis of fitness test scores or on a single
children as they participate in physical education class activities (formative           physical skill test. For example, children receive a grade in physical education
evaluation), and not on the basis of a single test score (summative evaluation).         based on their scores on a standardized fitness test or on the number of times
                                                                                         they can continuously jump rope.

Regular involvement for every child                                                      Regular involvement for every child
  Children participate in their regularly scheduled physical education class                Children are removed from physical education classes to participate in
because it is recognized as an important part of their overall education.                classroom activities and/or as a punishment for not completing assignments, or
                                                                                         for misbehavior in the classroom.

Active participation for every child                                                     Active participation for every child
   All children are involved in activities that allow them to remain continuously            Activity time is limited because children are waiting in lines for a turn in relay
active.                                                                                  races, to be chosen for a team, or because of limited equipment or playing
   Classes are designed to meet a child’s need for active participation in all           games such as Duck, Duck, Goose.
learning experiences.                                                                        Children are organized into large groups where getting a turn is based on
                                                                                         individual competitiveness or aggressive behavior.
                                                                                             Children are eliminated with no chance to reenter the activity, or they must
                                                                                         sit for long periods of time. For example, activities such as musical chairs,
                                                                                         dodgeball and elimination tag provide limited opportunities for many children,
                                                                                         especially the slower, less agile ones who actually need activity the most.

Dance/Rhythmical experiences                                                             Dance/Rhythmical experiences
   The physical education curriculum includes a variety of rhythmical, expres-              The physical education curriculum includes no rhythmical, expressive, or
sive, and dance experiences designed with the physical, cultural, emotional,             cultural dance experiences for children.
and social abilities of the children in mind.                                               Folk and square dances (designed for adults) are taught too early or to the
                                                                                         exclusion of other dance forms in the curriculum or are not modified to meet
                                                                                         the developmental needs of the children.

Gymnastics                                                                               Gymnastics
   Children are encouraged to sequentially develop skills appropriate to their              All students are expected to perform the same pre-determined stunts and
ability and confidence levels in non-competitive situations centering around             routines on and off apparatus, regardless of their skill level, body composition,
the broad skill areas of balancing, rolling, jumping and landing, and weight             and level of confidence.
transfer.




                                                                                    62
APPROPRIATE PRACTICE                                                                    INAPPROPRIATE PRACTICE
Games                                                                                   Games
  Games are selected, designed, sequenced, and modified by teachers                        Games are taught with no obvious purpose or goal, other than to keep chil-
and/or children to maximize the learning and enjoyment of children.                     dren “busy, happy, and good.”

Rules governing game play                                                               Rules governing game play
   Teachers and/or children modify official rules, regulations, equipment and              Official, adult rules of team sports govern the activities in physical education
playing space of adult sports to match the varying abilities of the children.           classes, resulting in low rates of success and lack of enjoyment for many children.

Forming teams                                                                           Forming teams
   Teams are formed in ways that preserve the dignity and self-respect of every            Teams are formed by “captains” publicly selecting one child at a time, there-
child. For ex ample, a teacher privately forms teams by using knowledge of chil-        by exposing the lower-skilled children to peer ridicule.
dren’s skill abilities or the children form teams cooperatively or randomly.

Gender directed activities                                                              Gender directed activities
   Girls and boys have equal access to individual, partner, small group, and               Girls are encouraged to participate in activities that stress traditionally femi-
team activities. Both girls and boys are equally encouraged, supported and              nine roles, whereas boys are encouraged to participate in more aggressive
socialized towards successful achievement in all realms of physical activities.         activities.

Number of children on a team                                                            Number of children on a team
  Children participate in team games (e.g. 2-3 per team), that allow for numer-            Children participate in full sided games (e.g., the class of 30 is split into two
ous practice opportunities while also allowing them to learn about the various          teams of 15 and these two teams play each other) thereby leading to few prac-
aspects of the game being taught.                                                       tice opportunities.

Competition                                                                             Competition
   Activities emphasize self-improvement, participation, and cooperation                  Children are required to participate in activities that label children as “win-
instead of winning and losing.                                                          ners” and “losers.”

Success rate                                                                            Success rate
  Children are given the opportunity to practice skills at high rates of success           Children are asked to perform activities that are too easy or too hard, caus-
adjusted for their individual skill levels.                                             ing frustration, boredom, and/or misbehavior.
                                                                                           All children are expected to perform to the same standards with no
                                                                                        allowance for individual abilities and interests.

Class size                                                                              Class size
   Physical education classes contain the same number of children as the                   Children participate in a physical education class that includes more children
classrooms (e.g., 25 children per class).                                               than the classroom. (For example, two or more classrooms are placed with one
                                                                                        certified teacher and one or more teacher aides.)


                                                                                   63
APPROPRIATE PRACTICE                                                                        INAPPROPRIATE PRACTICE
Days per week/length of class time                                                          Days per week/length of class time
   Children are given the opportunity to participate daily in scheduled, instruc-             Children do not receive daily, instructional physical education.
tional physical education throughout the year, exclusive of recess.
   Length of class is appropriate for the developmental level of the children.


Facilities                                                                                  Facilities
   Children are provided an environment in which they have adequate space to                   Physical education classes are regularly held in a school hallway or in a
move freely and safely. Both inside and outside areas are provided so that                  classroom thereby restricting opportunities to move freely and without
classes need not be canceled, or movement severely limited, because of                      obstructions.
inclement weather.

Equipment                                                                                   Equipment
  Enough equipment is available so that each child benefits from maximum                       An insufficient amount of equipment is available for the number of children
participation. For example, every child in a class would have a ball.                       in a class, (e.g., one ball for every four children).
                                                                                               Regulation or “adult size” equipment is used which may inhibit skill develop-
                                                                                            ment, injure, and/or intimidate the children.


PE and recess                                                                               PE and recess
    Physical education classes are planned and organized to provide children                   “Free-play,” or recess, is used as a substitute for daily, organized physical
with opportunities to acquire the physical, emotional, cognitive, and social ben-           education lessons. Free play, in this case, is characterized by a lack of goals,
efits of physical education.                                                                organization, planning and instruction.


Field days                                                                                  Field days
   The field day, if offered by PE teacher or designated staff, is designed so                 Field days, if offered, are designed so that there is intense team, group, or
that every child is a full participant and derives a feeling of satisfaction and joy        individual competition with winners and losers clearly identified.
from a festival of physical activity.                                                          One or two children are picked to represent an entire class, thereby reduc-
   Opportunities are provided for children to voluntarily choose from a variety             ing others to the role of spectator.
of activities that are intended purely for enjoyment.




                                                                                       64
                                                                                         65
Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
                                                                                         73
Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
                                                                                         75
Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
                                                                                         76
Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
                                                                                         78
Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
84
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Reprinted from Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit with permission from the
National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE), 1900 Association Drive,
Reston, VA 20191-1599.
Reprinted with permission.



                             86
                                                       USEFUL BIBLIOGRAPHY
A Reflective Approach to Teaching Physical      Fitness for Children                             Positive Behavior Management Strategies for
Education                                               Curt Hinson                              Physical Educators
        Don Hellison                                                                                      Lavay, French, Henderson
                                                Fitness Fun
AAPHERD Publications 1-800-321-0789                     Foster, Hartinger & Smith                Professional and Student Portfolios for Physical
                                                                                                 Education
                                                Funn Stuff                                               Vincent Melograno
Adventures in Peacemaking                              Karl Rohnke
       Project Adventure                                                                         Quality Lesson Plans for Secondary Education
                                                Goals and Strategies for Teaching Physical               Zakrajsek, Carnes, Pettigrew
Changing Kids’ Games                            Education
       Morris & Stiehl                                 Don Hellison                              Quicksilver
                                                                                                         Karl Rohnke & Steve Butler
Children Moving                                 Heart Power
        George Graham                                  American Heart Association                Sport and Physical Education Advocacy Kit
                                                                                                         NASPE
Christy Lane’s Complete Guide to Line Dancing   How to Teach Today’s Dances with Christy Lane
        Christy Lane                                   Christy Lane                              Teaching Children Dance
                                                                                                        Theresa Purcell
Christy Lane’s Complete Guide to Party Dances   Human Kinetics Catalog (1-800-747-4457)
        Christy Lane                                                                             Teaching Children Fitness
                                                                                                        Thomas Ratliffe
Christy Lane’s Funky Freestyle Dancing          Learn the Dances of the 50’s and 60’s
        Christy Lane                                    Christy lane                             Teaching Children Games
                                                                                                        David Belka
Concepts of Physical Education - What Every     Learn the Dances of the 70’s
Student Needs to Know                                   Christy Lane                             Teaching Children Gymnastics
        Bonnie Mohnsen                                                                                  Peter Werner
                                                Learn the Dances of the 80’s
Cooperative Learning in Physical Education              Christy Lane                             Teaching Children Movement Concepts & Skills
       Steve Grineski                                                                                   Craig Buschner
                                                Lessons from the Heart
Cowstails and Cobras II                                Beth Kirkpatrick                          Teaching Children Physical Education
       Karl Rohnke                                                                                      George Graham
                                                Moving into the Future: National Standards for
Developmental Physical Education for Today’s    Physical Education                               Teaching Elementary Physical Education
Elementary School Children                              AAHPERD                                         Human Kinetics Publ.
       David Gallahue
                                                Multicultural Folk Dance (Christy Lane)          Teaching for Outcomes in Elementary Physical
Developmental Appropriate Physical Education             Human Kinetics                          Education
Practices for Children                                                                                  Christine Hopple
        NASPE                                   Physical Best Activity Guide
                                                        AAHPERD                                  Teaching Middle School Physical Education
Dynamic Physical Education                                                                              Bonnie Mohnsen
      Dauer & Pangrazi
                                                                                                 You Stay Active
                                                                                                        AAHPERD

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                                                                                               WEBSITES TO VISIT
American Academy of Pediatrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 http://www.aap.org

American Alliance for Health, Physical Education, Recreation and Dance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                     http://www.aahperd.org

American College of Sports Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  http://www.acsm.org/sportsmed

Amercian Council on Exercise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               http://www.acefitness.org

American Heart Association . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .             http://www.amhrt.org

Cooper Institute for Aerobics (Fitness Gram) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     http://www.cooperinst.org

Fitness Link . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   http://www.fitnesslink.com

Fitness World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    http://www.fitnessworld.com

KidsHealth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   http://www.KidsHealth.org

National Association of Governor’s Councils on Physical Fitness and Sports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                                       http://www.fitnesslink.com/Govcouncil

National Coalition for Promoting Physical Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                     http://www.a1.com/ncppa

PE Central . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   http://pe.central.vt.edu/

Physical Education Advocacy Site . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                 http://www.csuchico.edu/phed/casper

Shape Up America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           http://www.shapeup.org

The Physician and Sports Medicine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .                  http://www.physsportsmed.com

Wellness Councils of America . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .               http://www.welcoa.org/about.htm

World Health Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            http://www.who.org




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ASSESSMENT IDEAS   AND   EXAMPLES




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                         Published by

              Publication          Technologies
(rev. 6/00)         Portland Public Schools       PE Manual_10/99
                       Portland, Oregon

				
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