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					               EUSKAL ESTATISTIKA ERAKUNDA
               INSTITUTO VASCO DE ESTADÍSTICA




TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE
   A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY



         Methodology note
EUSKAL ESTATISTIKA ERAKUNDA
INSTITUTO VASCO DE ESTADÍSTICA




                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY



1. INTRODUCTION



1.1. MEASURING TOURISM AS AN ECONOMIC ACTIVITY

Tourism is very relevant in economic terms and plays an important role in the
generation of employment and income. Nevertheless, it is difficult to define its
scope, as it affects many different areas of the economy.



Economic-tourism activity is defined from the point of view of supply: i.e.
consumption is defined as tourism when the person responsible for this
expenditure is a tourist. In this sense, the condition of tourist “arises when people
travel outside their usual areas of residence and work and spend money as a result
of this travel”. Consequently, tourist spending is the compendium of all
expenditure made outside the everyday sphere of life.



Approaching tourism as an economic activity highlights its transversal nature:

      •      From a tourism supply perspective, as it concerns the part of production by
             all activity branches that has been sold to the tourist, while also producing
             other goods or services that have nothing to do with tourist activity. It
             follows that within the framework of the classification of economic activity
             there is no activity entitled tourism, although it is similar in statistical
             content and treatment to energy, the manufacture of machinery and
             equipment or retail trade, to quote a few examples.

      •      And, from the viewpoint of demand, as there is no distinction between
             different final consumer behaviours, by residents and non residents, as
             tourists or non-tourists.



Bearing in mind that measuring the economic aspect of tourist activity cannot be
housed in usual economic statistics, there has been a demand from different
forums for a tool to combine current knowledge on tourist activity with activity
linked to relations that are produced in the economic framework of a region or
country.




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                                                                                        Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


Thus, the “Tourism Satellite Account (TSA)” is a collection of accounts and tables
based on the main methodologies of national accounts and presents the different
interrelated economic parameters of tourism for a given reference date. These
tables and accounts show different variables, both on tourist supply and demand.
The following graph sums up the basic TSA idea: an approach to the economic
measurement of tourism from the perspective of supply and demand, but, under
the premise of balanced accounts required by the framework of National Accounts.



Graph 1.                                 Balance between sources




                      OFERTA                                         DEMANDA
               •Producción de la                                Gasto total hogares
               Industria                                           • Turismo interior
               característica y no              Definen                                 empresas
                                                                   • Turismo receptor
               característica del               la parte           • Turismo emisor
               turismo                                             Además,
                                               turística
               •Importaciones                                            Exportaciones:
                                                                         turismo receptor




Source: Eustat



1.2. JUSTIFICATION OF THE TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C.
OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY

The European Manual on the Application of Tourism Satellite Accounts (Eurostat)
justifies a growing social and economic interest in tourism in every economy and
the need to have a tool to measure this phenomenon. In particular, it recognizes
that “the Tourism Satellite Account is the international standard to measure the
economic effects of tourism on an economy in comparison with other sectors and
other economies”.




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


Along these lines, the European Commission established a series of priorities
related to tourism. With regard to the application of the TSA methodology by
Member States, each state should “develop solid information and indicators about
the role that tourism plays and may play in the economy, in order to guarantee the
credibility of measurements, their coherence with National Accounts (NA),
comparability in time within the same economy, and between economies, in
addition to other fields of economic activity, and their systematic production.”



The Eurostat Manual recognizes that the information required for the TSA is
diverse, covering the behaviour of economic stakeholders from the viewpoint of
supply and demand, and is not always available; therefore alternative solutions are
proposed to fill existing gaps. In fact, it is recognized that ”dedication to TSA work
might lead to a certain profitable feedback for the National Accounts of the
country”. That is to say, the development of methodology and analysis on the
phenomenon of tourism in the framework of National Accounts is also a source of
information, contrast and improvement in the framework in which this activity is
involved.



Accepting this scenario, in which the elaboration of the TSA is conditioned by the
information available to each economy, the following operative guidelines are
proposed to be met by the resulting TSA, in order to offer a methodological
referent which also guarantees international comparability:



      •      To be coherent with National Accounts and, particularly, to provide a set of
             accounts comparable on a national and international scale, in accordance
             the national accounting principles, to examine tourism as an economic
             phenomenon.

      •      To present a modular and flexible framework capable of satisfactorily
             meeting the needs of governments, researchers, statisticians and private
             sectors.

      •      To become the tool to understand and measure the whole economic system
             of tourism and its role in the economy.




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


      •      To build in accordance with a gradual procedure that gives priority to a
             common, basic and simplified nucleus of variables and tables.



From this perspective, the construction of the Tourism Satellite account of the A.C.
of the Basque Country enables:

      •      The definition of tourism as an economic phenomenon providing the
             appropriate information relating to all the stakeholders who are involved:
             from the viewpoint of supply, disaggregated in the characteristic and non-
             characteristic tourism industry and from the view of demand, disaggregated
             in tourism and non-tourism behaviour of the agents at whom this
             production is aimed.

      •      The measurement of the economic important of tourism with regard to two
             lines of work: the characterization of the tourism industry and the
             contribution of tourism expenditure to total economic activity, reflected in
             the variables defined by national accounts.

      •      The possibility of comparison with other countries and territorial areas that
             have elaborated this operation under the criteria and guidelines proposed
             by Eurostat.




2. METHODOLOGY

2.1. METHODOLOGICAL ASPECTS TO CONSIDER IN THE ELABORATION OF
THE TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE BASQUE AUTONOMOUS
COMMUNITY (TSA-BAC)



2.1.1 The tourism satellite from the viewpoint of the A.C. of the Basque
Country

Components of the national accounts incorporate information relating to the
Balance of Payments. For countries with an “effective monetary border”, control
demands (currency exchange), which constitute the information referring to non-
resident monetary flow, are a very effective initial approach to expenditure for
those who do not belong to the reference economy. All in all, this is an incomplete




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


measurement of tourism expenditure, given that it does not provide information
referring to consumption carried out by residents –whether public or private
expenditure.



Furthermore, the disappearance of this type of monetary border in a large number
of countries and leading tourist destinations, such as France, Spain or Italy, due to
the introduction and use of the euro, represents, in some way, an important loss of
information.



In this context, both due to demands derived from National Accounts (Balance of
Payments) and/or due to interest in measuring tourism, different economies and
institutions find it indispensable to elaborate their respective TSAs. Examples of
the aforementioned are the USA –given the size of their domestic tourism market-
and Spain, integrated in the Euro zone. Both represent, furthermore, a concrete
and specific effort linked to expenditure by economic stakeholders in their own
economy and expenditure by resident agents on outbound tourism.



Taking on the elaboration of this type of tool from the viewpoint of a sub-state
economy involves taking other elements into consideration. Focusing attention on
aspects of procedure, for the elaboration of the TSA-BAC, it was not only
indispensable to have the accounts framework offered by the Input/Output model
and the structure of information and resources offered by “Economic accounts”,
but also to have all the information that illustrated the flow, composition and
expenditure relating to incoming and outbound tourism of the A.C. of the Basque
Country. It should not be forgotten that this is an activity that is defined from the
viewpoint of demand, and it is therefore necessary to know the pattern of
behaviour and expenditure of this type of user.



However, and even with this type of information and knowledge, an analysis of the
economic relevance of tourism in a regional economy such as the Basque economy
has an added obstacle: the permeability of its economic activity in the Spanish
economy. This means that we share the sectorial productive dynamics, the uses
and customs of consumers (whether tourists or not) and an exchange of flows of
travellers that is more difficult to recognize.




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY




In this sense, the elaboration of the TSA-BAC has the following methodological
references:

      •      The document “Tourism Satellite Accounts, Methodological References
             (TSA-MR)”, approved in          February 2000 by the United Nations Statistical
             Commission and backed by the OECD, the WTO and EUROSTAT, and

      •      The different methodological manuals that the National Statistics Institute
             (INE) has developed with regard to the elaboration of the Tourism Satellite
             Account of Spain (Accounts series 1995-2003), and that represent the
             adaptation of international TSA reference methodologies to the Spanish
             case.




2.1.2. Definitions used

The methodological adaptation defined in the TSA-RM to the needs of the A.C. of
the Basque Country, requires acceptance of the following definitions from the
viewpoint of Demand:

      •      Visitors: visitors (tourists or excursionists) are the core of tourism; there is
             no tourism without displacement (voluntary) of people to a place other than
             that of his/her usual environment. The distinction between the two possible
             categories of visitors -tourist and excursionist- responds solely to the
             criteria of overnight stays at the place/places visited. The condition of
             tourist requires at least one overnight stay and none for the excursionist.

      •      Final use: a use is tourism when the consumption of a good or service is
             carried out by a visitor, tourist or excursionist.

      •      Economic viewpoint: data that provide information referring to tourism in
             the context of the A.C. of the Basque Country is incorporated into the
             conditions, standards and definitions derived from the framework offered by
             National Accounts through the SEC-1995.

      •      Composition of tourism demand: includes the production of goods and
             services consumed by tourists, in addition to funding required to set up a
             tourism infrastructure. This refers specifically to the following components:




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                                                                                Methodology note
                                  TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


      •      Domestic (or national) Tourist consumption: all expenditure by Basque
             visitors (tourists and excursionists) in their tourism behaviour in the
             reference economy (in this case the A.C. of the Basque Country) and with
             regard to expenditure relating to their outbound behaviour.

      •      Incoming Tourist consumption: all expenditure by the group of non-resident
             visitors (incoming) in the reference economy. In the case of the TSA-BAC,
             Tourism comprises of foreign incoming visitors and incoming visitors from
             the Rest of the State.

      •      Internal Tourist consumption: is the sum of domestic (Basque residents)
             and incoming tourist consumption (non residents, foreigners and from the
             rest of the state).

      •      Gross tourism capital formation: is the part of Gross Fixed Capital
             Formation (GFCF) affected by the industry characteristic of tourism (defined
             as such by the World Tourism Organization-WTO) and corresponds to the
             consumption of an effectively tourist nature.

      •      Tourist consumption of the Public Administration (AA.PP.): refers to
             expenditure by public administrations to provide tourist market and non-
             market services. In the case of the A.C. of the Basque Country this includes
             all non-market services under their responsibility in the A.C. of the Basque
             Country.



In this way we obtain the Demand or Internal Tourist consumption, which includes
all expenditure related to domestic and incoming tourism groups. In particular, this
variable would be obtained from the aggregation of Domestic Tourist consumption,
Incoming Tourist consumption, the Gross fixed capital formation related to tourism
and public consumption in the provision of collective non-market tourism services
provided by the Public Administration.



From the Supply Perspective, the following definitions are used:

      •      Tourism industries: in accordance with the guidelines established by the
             WTO, including the following activities, coded according to the National
             Classification of Economic Activities (CNAE93):

                             Hotels and other accommodation services (55.1. and 55.2)




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                                                                                  Methodology note
                                  TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


                             Second homes under ownership (70)

                             Restaurants and similar (55.3, 55.4 and 55.5)

                             Rail passenger transport services (part of 60.1)

                             Road passenger transport services (part of 60.2)

                             Maritime passenger transport services (part of 61)

                             Air passenger transport services (part of 62.1 and 62.2)

                             Services annexed to passenger transport (part of 63.22 and 63.23)

                             Renting passenger transport capital goods (71.1)

                             Travel agencies and similar (63.3)

                             Cultural, sports and recreational market and non market activities
                             (92.3, 92.52. 92.53, 92.6 and 92.7).



      •      Other productive activities are included in the epigraph for non tourism
             Industries.



Finally, the aim of the focus on supply is to link it to the tables that make up the
Input-Output Framework, and which show the balance between total supply and
demand. In this way, the economic activity generated by the above definitions of
tourism is defined as a perfectly integrated sub-group.




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                                                                                      Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


                      Graph 2. Balance between tourism supply and demand




                      OFERTA                                       DEMANDA
               •Producción de la                                Gasto total hogares
               Industria                                         • Turismo interior
               característica y no              Definen                               empresas
                                                                 • Turismo receptor
               característica del               la parte         • Turismo emisor
               turismo                                           Además,
                                               turística
               •Importaciones                                          Exportaciones:
                                                                       turismo receptor




Source: Eustat




2.1.3. Sources of information used

Development of the TSA-BAC has been supported by the information sources
described below. From the viewpoint of Supply, an approximation to tourism
expenditure was based fundamentally on the following information sources:

      •      Input-Output Tables of the A.C. of the Basque Country (TIO-CAE, Eustat),
             which reflect the main macro-economic interrelations of the Basque
             economy, with sectorial and product disaggregation. The TIO-CAE are
             published every five years, although they are subject to an annual update
             process. In this sense, the TIO that was the basis for the elaboration of the
             TSA-BAC was the TIO-CAE 2000 (using the methodology of the integrated
             European System of Accounts ESA-1995, SIFMI), while also taking into
             account the updates corresponding to 2001, 2002 and 2003.



In this way, information is obtained relating to the characteristic activities of
tourism and enables us to attempt a definition of the tourism industry from the
perspective of Internal Tourism Production and the imports required to satisfy the
demand generated.




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                                                                                       Methodology note
                                    TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


      •      Specific surveys, entitled Structural Surveys (Eustat), linked to the
             elaboration of the TIO-CAE and that offer information on activities such as
             Hotel and Catering, Transport and Services Annexed to Transport, Personal
             Services, etc.

      •      The Survey on Incoming Tourist Establishments (EETR, Eustat), which
             offers information on the tourism demand in hotel establishments (hotels,
             hostels and guest houses) and agrotourism establishments located in the
             A.C. of the Basque Country. The data in the EETR show the order of
             magnitude of visitors who arrive and stay in the A.C. of the Basque
             Country. The information has been available since 1993 in the case of hotel
             establishments and since 1998 in the case of agrotourism establishments.

      •      The Directory of Economic activities (DIRAE, Eustat), which has information
             in units on all establishments and companies that carry out economic
             activities in the A.C. of the Basque Country.

      •      Reports by public and private institutions and agents, relating to different
             activities involved in tourism. The most important are:

      •      Tourism Monitors, Tourism Yearbook and Tourism Monographs. Publications
             by the Department of Industry, Trade and Tourism of the Basque
             Government (since 1993). Information relating to the structure of supply,
             its evolution and results analysis. Specific documents, focused on certain
             behaviour, such as Business Tourism.

      •      Annual reports: RENFE, EuskoTrenbideak, Port of Bilbao, Port of Pasajes,
             AENA, Bilbao Metro, Urban transport companies (capitals),...

      •      Annual reports, relating to transport: Number of vehicles, motorization and
             passenger traffic, urban transport, regular and discretional passengers by
             road, mobility reports,...

      •      Sectorial reports on the activity of Transport, Hotels and Catering...
             elaborated by different bodies.

      •      Reports relating to the panel of activities that make up the highlights of
             Basque              tourism   supply:   flows   and   composition   of   visitors   to   the
             Guggemheim-Bilbao, Fine Arts Museum, Chillida-Leku, Aquarium, Artium,
             Santa María Cathedral,... Furthermore, reports on cultural activities such as
             the International Film Festival of Donostia-San Sebastián, Jazz Festivals
             (Getxo, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Donosita-San Sebastián), etc....




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


      •      Budgets of the Basque Public Administration

      •      Other sources.

      •      The Survey on Employment in Tourist Camp Sites (EOAC, INE), which offers
             information relating to entries and overnight stays at camp sites both from
             the viewpoint of supply (visitors, overnight stays, average stay and
             occupancy level) and of supply (establishments open, plots, places and
             personnel employed). The information has been made available since 1999.

      •      The Annual Survey on Services, elaborated by the INE. This permits some
             ratios to be updated relating to hotel and catering activity.



Among the sources of information focused on Demand, operations are particularly
important that recognize the flow of visitors and analyse their expenditure. The
following main sources used were:

      •      The Survey on Visitor Behaviour and Typology, carried out by the
             Department of Industry, Trade and Tourism of the Basque Government over
             2002 and 2003. Its aim was to know the behaviour both of tourists and
             excursionists who arrive in the A.C. of the Basque Country. There were
             three survey points: public accommodation establishments, congress and
             trade fair centres and centres of leisure and museums. This source offers
             information relating to the behaviour of tourists from different origins
             (Foreign, Rest of Spain and the A.C. of the Basque Country itself) and
             motive (leisure, business...) and also some data on expenditure by
             excursionists.

      •      Survey on visitors staying at hotels, carried out in 1997 by the Department
             of Industry, Trade and Tourism of the Basque Government. The survey took
             place in two stages (July and October) with an aim to know the motive,
             length of stay, expenditure and components.

      •      Data on expenditure was provided by the Survey on Tourism Expenditure
             (EGATUR, Institute of Tourism Studies-IET). This source offers information
             on expenditure amounts and patterns (composition of expenditure) for
             tourists and foreign excursionists in the A.C. of the Basque Country, type of
             accommodation, type of access, etc. The information recently published by
             the IET has led to the year 2004 being taken as a basic time reference. It
             was necessary to estimate values going back in time.




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                                                                             Methodology note
                                 TOURISM SATELLITE ACCOUNT OF THE A.C. OF THE BASQUE COUNTRY


      •      The main aim of the Border Tourism Survey (FRONTUR, IET) is to quantify
             and characterise the flows of visitor entries into Spain. FRONTUR offers
             information relating to foreign visitors (tourists and excursionists) and trips
             made by Spanish nationals abroad, according to the origin, destination in
             Spain, type of accommodation, type of access,... This information has been
             available since 1996 and its use is focused on the flow of visitors, as no
             information is presented on expenditure.

      •      Statistics on Spanish Tourist Movements (FAMILITUR, IET), whose Basic
             aim is to collect information on all travelling by Spanish nationals, both in
             Spain and abroad, provided that they spend at least one night outside their
             usual environment. The information is disaggregated according to the origin
             and destination of visitors, type of accommodation, type of travel,
             expenditure, etc. It gives values for total expenditure and average
             expenditure per destination, type of accommodation… but does not
             disaggregate the composition of the expenditure. The information on travel
             (flow) has been available since 1999 and on expenditure since 2000.

      •      Reports by the Spain Convention Bureau. Annual report which aggregates
             the information provided by each of the organizations that make up the
             network. It includes a detailed analysis of tourism activity linked to
             congresses.

      •      Reports by each member of the Convention Bureau of the A.C. of the
             Basque Country: Bilbao, Donosita-San Sebastián and Vitoria-Gasteiz.

      •      Continuous Survey on Family Budgets. Drawn up by the INE, the aim is to
             know the amount and composition of family expenditure in Spain and in the
             different autonomous communities.

      •      Other sources of restricted access relating to the behaviour of different user
             panels and the expenditure and composition associated to this behaviour.
             Information is provided about concrete expenditure panels linked to
             congress, business, and leisure tourism.




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