COCOA BUTTER LOTION AND CONSUMER ACCEPTABILITY: A CORRELATION by ael859

VIEWS: 411 PAGES: 42

									Cocoa Butter Lotion and Consumer Acceptability: A Correlation

                 An Undergraduate Product Research Study
      Presented to the Faculty of the College of Business Administration
                   Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Muntinlupa
                               Muntinlupa City


                            In Partial Fulfillment
                  Of the Requirements for the Degree of
               Bachelor of Science in Business Administration
                             Major in Marketing


                                     By:
                              Lirio, Abigail E.
                             Cruzat, Lanisa E.
                            Defeo, Bernadette B.
                            Centino, Rachelle Y.


                                October 2009
Introduction


        “I love to put on lotion.
  Sometimes I'll watch TV and go
  into a lotion trance for an hour. I
  try to find brands that don't taste
  bad in case anyone wants to
  taste me.”


       - Angelina Jolie Voight
Oscar-Award Winning American Actress
      Cocoa butter, also called
cacao butter, is the cream-
colored fat extracted from
cacao seeds (cocoa beans)
and used to add flavor, scent,
and smoothness to chocolate,
cosmetics, tanning oil, soap,
and a multitude of tropical
lotions and creams. Cocoa
butter has been called the
ultimate moisturizer, and has
been used to keep skin soft
and supple for centuries. It is
one of the most stable, highly
concentrated     natural     fats
known, and melts at body
temperature so that it is readily
absorbed into the skin.
    Cocoa butter is often
recommended for treatment
of skin conditions such as
eczema and dermatitis. When
applied typically, it creates a
barrier between sensitive skin
and the environment and also
helps retain moisture. In
addition,     cocoa       butter
contains      cocoa       mass
polyphenol       (CMP),        a
substance that inhibits the
production of the immuno
globulin IgE. IgE is known to
aggravate symptoms of both
dermatitis and asthma.
    Pregnant       women
have long used to cocoa
butter formulations to
prevent and treat stretch
marks, but this pleasant-
smelling substance is
added to countless other
tropical preparations as
well. Lotions and oils
containing cocoa butter
are    often   used     in
aromatherapy massages
to promote feelings of
relaxation and well-being.
     Recent research indicates
that massaging the skin with
cocoa butter may help relieve
stress, boost the immune
system, and even prevent
cancer. This is because cocoa
butter, like chocolate, contains
a lot of CMP. Researchers in
Japan reported that CMP
inhibits the growth of cancerous
cells and tumors by reducing
active oxygen levels in the
body, and concluded that CMP
inhibits the oxidation of Low-
Density Lipoprotein (LDL) good
cholesterol and the production
of inflammatory cells; there is
some evidence that the CMP in
cocoa butter may also help
prevent heart disease and ease
arthritic symptoms.
     Preliminary research
indicates     that     CMP
actually helps suppress
excessive T-cell activity in
the     immune      system,
which could help treat
conditions       associated
with overactive immune
systems,       such       as
psoriasis,    fibromyalgia,
and      chronic     fatigue
         syndrome.
      You can buy pure
cocoa        butter        at
pharmacies, health food
stores, and from online
distributorships.
                                    With varied types of
                               products made available for
                               his needs, the choice was
                               no longer only for survival
                               but also for satisfaction.
    “With passage of           Thus a products salability in
time man’s desires and         the     market    could    be
levels    of     selectivity   measured by the degree of
increased in degrees of        satisfaction it provides, its
sophistication”.               consumers who invariably
                               put a lot of weight on their
                               preferences through their
           -Wurhumann          senses.
                                    Consumers have a
                               right to expect that the food
                               they       purchase       and
                               consume will be safe and of
                               high quality.
   Additional concept that marketer must
understand about product development is
the hierarchy of need espoused by Abraham
Maslow. Maslow contends that primary
motivation among people is subdivided into
a five-stage hierarchy, wherein each stage
offers a different level of satisfaction from
the other. Within the basic level are needs
that fulfill basic qualities of life like food and
shelter, while the higher level focuses on the
needs that elevate man’s existence and
importance such as being socially accepted
(social) or being recognized (ego).
    Another theory which describe the buying behavior
of the consumer is the “the Rational Consumer Choice
Theory”. It states that as consumer enters into the
marketplace with well-defined preferences. The buying
capacity of the consumer in dealing with the price of
the product would depend on his present earning and
is considered in preferences. Two steps are required to
carry out the preferences, namely: (1) to describe the
various combinations of goods the consumer is able to
buy (e.g. combination between consumer income level
and the prices of the products); and (2) to select
among feasible combinations the particular one that
the consumer prefers to all others (e.g. combination
denotes order of priority.
      Input                Process                    Output


                                                Consumer Acceptability
Cocoa Butter Lotion   Data Collection           • Consumer’s Taste and
• Product Quality     • Questionnaire           Preference
• Packaging           • Interview               • Consumer’s Attraction
• Pricing             • Statistical Treatment   • Consumer’s Purchasing
                                                        Power
    Figure 1 showed cocoa butter lotion
determinants that affect consumer acceptability. It
showed that cocoa butter lotion includes such
innovation as product quality, packaging, and
pricing. And these determinants would eventually
affects the level of consumer acceptability which
were     consumer’s     taste  and   preference,
consumer’s attraction, and consumer’s purchasing
power.
     A relatively hard butter with steep melting curve ideal
for body care products. May be used in a variety of
cosmetic, toiletry and pharmaceutical applications to
reduce cetaceous dryness and improve skin elasticity while
imparting a natural color and cocoa odor, desirable in many
of today's natural formulations.
     However, dozens of different brands of lotion lining the
cosmetic shelves, you can choose one that absorbs
quickly, one that tans your skin or one that exfoliates dead
cells. You can even find lotion with added shimmer to give
your shoulders that sun-kissed shine. The desire to rub
lotion into skin to soften and protect is nothing new. The
cocoa butter has it when it comes to the cocoa butter body
lotion for the total cocoa butter body experience.
     The general problem of this study is to determine the
significant correlation of cocoa butter lotion and consumer
acceptability.
     Specifically, this study sought to answer the following
  questions:

1. To what extent is the level of cocoa butter lotion to
  prospective consumers in terms of:
  1.1 Product Quality
  1.2 Packaging
  1.3 Pricing

2. To what extent is the level consumer acceptability in terms
  of:
  2.1 Consumer’s Taste and Preference
  2.2 Consumer’s Attraction
  2.3 Consumer’s Purchasing Power

3. Is there a significant correlation between the use of cocoa
  butter as a new enhancement to lotion and consumer
  acceptability?
    This study was anchored on the assumption that
the respondents answered the given questionnaire
honestly, objectively and to the best of their ability.
                     Hypothesis
      For a clear understanding on how the
problems were dealt with, the researchers hereby
presented and formulated the null hypothesis.

Ho: There is no significant relationship between the
     use of cocoa butter as a new enhancement to
     lotion and consumer acceptability.
     This study was conducted to determine the relationship
between cocoa butter lotion and consumer acceptability. This
study was concentrated on those selected responses of
consumers who used cocoa butter lotion. It aimed to determine
the relationship between cocoa butter lotion and consumer
acceptability as well as its extent in achieving the product quality,
packaging, and pricing. It determined the contribution of cocoa
butter lotion to achieved the consumer acceptability as well as its
extent in achieving the consumer’s taste and preference,
consumer’s attraction, and consumer’s purchasing power. The
findings of this study was based on the survey and research
conducted by researchers. Information was gathered from the
World Wide Web.
     A descriptive method of research in obtaining information
was used and the respondent was given a survey type
questionnaire made by researchers.
     The respondents’ were composed of fifty (50) consumers
classified from 18 to 60 years old. Each consumer was given
questionnaire and responded to the questions pertaining to the
uses given by the cocoa butter lotion.
    The following terms was used in the succeeding
 chapters were operationally defined for a better
 understanding of the study.

Attraction. This refers to catching the consumer’s attention to
 the product being promoted.
Business Environment. This study will bring them awareness
 to innovate their product from quality, packaging, and
 pricing.
Cocoa Butter. This refers to the cream-colored fat extracted
 from cacao seeds (cocoa beans) and used to add flavor,
 scent, and smoothness to chocolate, cosmetics, tanning oil,
 soap, and a multitude of tropical lotions and creams.
Consumer. This is the one who buys and uses goods and
 services or patronize a business especially on a regular
 basis.
Consumer Acceptability. This refers to the acceptance
 of a desire, needs, wants, or appetite. This is anything
 of value, other than physical goods, which one
 personal organization provides another persons or
 organization in exchange for something.
Lotion. This refers to a liquid application, usually water-
 based, that is used on the skin surface to treat skin
 problems or to hydrate dry skin.
Marketing. This refers to the business activity involved
 in the flow of goods and services from the point of
 production to consumption.
Packaging. This refers to the science, art and
 technology of enclosing or protecting products for
 distribution, storage, sale, and use.
Pricing. This refers to the manual or automatic process
 of applying prices to purchase and sales orders.
Product Quality. This refers to the collection of features
  and characteristics of a product that contribute to its
  ability to meet given requirements.
Profitability. This is the quality of affording gain or benefit.
Purchasing Power. This refers to number of goods or
  services that can be purchased with a unit of currency.
Taste and Preference. This refers to the choice between
  alternatives and the possibility of rank ordering of these
  alternatives, based on happiness, satisfaction,
  gratification, enjoyment, utility they provide.
     This chapter presented the related literature
 from books, magazines, and Internet both local
 and foreign which has significant relevance to
 the current study.
A. Conceptual Literature
     Growing increasingly popular, people were
 using lotion for skin care. Cocoa butter lotion
 has become an American standard in the
 market. Providing today’s skin conscious
 person, cocoa butter has become a new
 enhancement to lotion. Even department stores
 in some areas have gotten in on the cocoa
 butter lotion boom.
    This chapter dealt with the methods and the
procedures that was used in conducting this study.
This included the research design, sampling
technique, data gathering procedure, validation of
the instrument, and statistical treatment.
     The study used the descriptive method of research. A
descriptive study was an inquiry to the nature of an unknown
phenomenon or the occurrence of an event. It does not explain
relationship but seeks knowledge for better understanding of the
nature of the subject of the study to serve as basis for some future
actions including formulation of hypothesis of relationship. The
aim of the descriptive study was to infer to the reference
population the findings from a sample.
     The research design described what the study being done to
answer the research questions.
     The study used the descriptive correlation survey. This was a
study that showed the difference between two or more variables,
that was, how a variable varied with another. Since the present is
a relationship study, the correlation survey is the most appropriate
method to use in gathering data.
     In this research, the researchers correlated the relationship
between the use of cocoa butter as a new enhancement to lotion
and consumer acceptability.
    In collecting data through survey, researchers
used “Incidental Sampling”. This design is “applied
to those samples which were taken because they
were the most available.” (Guilford and Fruchter).
The researcher simply took the nearest individuals
as subjects of the study until the sample reaches
the desire.
    Determining a sample size was basically a
researcher’s decision. Some investigators had no
idea of determining the sample size in a given
population scientifically, and arbitrarily selected the
“Majority Criterion” (50 per cent plus one) as
sufficient for our study. (Methods of Research and
Thesis Writing/ Calmorin).
    The method of affecting data was the typical
method used in gathering data used according the
respective attitudes and opinions of person.
    The data gathered were factual information, norm,
or merely opinions. This type of descriptive method of
investigation was to classify the questions survey or
opinions of the respondents of the consumers of
cocoa butter lotion.
    The respondents were composed of 50 lotion
users. Each questionnaire was given purposely to the
consumers for them to respond to the questions
portion pertaining to the special characteristics and
benefits offered by cocoa butter lotion.
Questionnaire
Interview
Documentary Analysis
    The instrument used was made by the
researchers and validated by Prof. Eslem C. Tonido,
Dr. Cenen P. Patiag, and Dr. Wilfred A. Tacsuan.
This instrument was used in the study being pre-
tested on competent and suitable respondents other
than fifty (50) selected respondents used in this
study.
    The data being gathered was analyzed by the
researchers using the Pearson Product-Moment
Correlation or the Pearson-r, and the weighted
mean. The Pearson-r was a correlation analysis
used if the purpose was to determine the
relationship or co-variation between two variables.
Correlation has two types depending on the nature;
many either were positive or negative.
1. Weighted Mean. This technique was used to
  determine the extent of the consumer’s acceptability
  of cocoa butter lotion. The formula was:

 X=    ∑fx
       N
Where x = computed value of weighted mean
   ∑fx = sum of all frequency
     n = total number of respondents
2. Pearson Product-Moment Correlation
  Coefficient. This technique was used to determine
  the relationship or co-variation between two
  variables. The formula for Pearson-r was:
  r=     n (∑xy) – (∑x) (∑y)
    [n ∑x2 – (∑x)2] [n ∑y2 – (∑y)2]
Where:
             r = Pearson
             x = 1st variable
             y = 2nd variable
            xy = product of 1st and 2nd variable
             n = number of respondents
                                      Interpretation

    ± 1.00        Perfect (+) (-) correlation

± 0.91 to 0.99    Very high and reliable relationship

± 0.71 to 0.90    High positive correlation

± 0.41 to 0.70    Moderate correlation, significant relationship

± 0. 21 to 0.40   Slightly correlated, valuable but low relationship

                  Slightly correlated, valuable but almost negligible
± 0.01 to 0.20    relationship

     0.00         No Correlation
Scale. The following Likert scales was used to indicate
 the level of acceptability of cocoa butter lotion on
 consumer.

1. The level of cocoa butter lotion in terms of product
  quality, packaging, and pricing.

2. The level of consumer acceptability in terms of
  consumer’s taste and preference, consumer’s
  attraction, and consumer’s purchasing power.
Points    Intervals      Interpretation
  5       4.51 - 5.0    Strongly Agree
  4      3.51 - 4.50        Agree
  3      2.51 - 3.50   Moderately Agree
  2      1.51 - 2.50       Disagree
  1      1.0 - 1.50    Strongly Disagree
   This chapter dealt with the presentation,
analysis and interpretation of data gathered for the
purpose of answering the problems of this study.
    This chapter presented the summary of the study;
the findings arrived at the conclusions formulated, and
the recommendations suggested.
       The researchers summarized all the findings of this descriptive
  study, "Cocoa Butter Lotion and Consumer Acceptability: A Correlation”

      The general problem of this study was to determine the level of
  acceptability of cocoa butter lotion on consumers.

       Specially, the study sought to answer the following questions:

1. To what extent is the level of cocoa butter lotion to prospective
   consumers in terms of:
   1.1 Product Quality
   1.2 Packaging
   1.3 Pricing

2. To what extent is the level consumer acceptability in terms of:
   2.1 Consumer’s Taste and Preference
   2.2 Consumer’s Attraction
   2.3 Consumer’s Purchasing Power

3. Is there a significant correlation between the use of cocoa butter as a
   new enhancement to lotion and consumer acceptability?
    The study used the survey questionnaire as a
research instrument. The questionnaires were
distributed to fifty (50) respondents of Muntinlupa City.
One hundred percent (100%) of filled questionnaires
were retrieved. The content of the questionnaires was
focused on the relationship of cocoa butter lotion and
consumer acceptability of the respondents.
    The study only included the respondents of
Muntinlupa City, which one way were the major
witness on how cocoa butter lotion affected the
consumer acceptability.
       After presenting the analysis and interpreting the data gathered
  through the used of statistical tools, the following findings were arrived
  at:

1. The findings showed the ranks of the weighted means of the
  respondents on cocoa butter lotion. It showed that packaging rank
  number one with a weighted mean 3.90%. Followed by pricing and
  product quality with a weighted mean of 3.84% and 3.86%
  respectively.

2. The ranks of the weighted means of the respondents on the cocoa
  butter lotion contributed to the consumer acceptability showed that
  consumer’s attraction rank number one with a weighted mean of
  3.92%. Followed by consumer’s taste and preference with a weighted
  mean of 3.91%. Last in rank among the variables was the consumer’s
  purchasing power with a weighted mean of 3.75%.

3. There was a slight correlation, valuable but almost negligible
  relationship between the cocoa butter lotion and consumer
  acceptability as revealed by the computed Pearson’s correlation
  coefficient of -0.02556%.
    In the light of the statistical findings about the
 hypothesis stating that its slight significant correlation
 between cocoa butter lotion and consumer
 acceptability was partially sustained.

1. Packaging was a main tool on cocoa butter lotion in
  attracting the consumers to purchase repeatedly.
2. The consumer acceptability in terms of consumer’s
  attraction significantly affects on cocoa butter lotion.
3. Cocoa butter lotion increased the level of the
  consumer acceptability resulting to softer, smoother,
  healthier and younger looking - skin.
    In this light, it was concluded that the bases on the
findings of this study the level of consumer
acceptability in terms of consumer’s taste and
preference, consumer’s attraction, consumer’s
purchasing power were predicted by the usage of
cocoa butter lotion by the respondents.
    Based on the conclusion, the following
 recommendations were being presented by the
 researchers.

1. Consumers may utilize cocoa butter lotion as a
  convenient skin care product.
2. There may be continues in depth analysis on growth
  prospects of cocoa butter lotion and consumer
  acceptability in purchasing.
3. Other lotion products may utilize cocoa butter lotion
  in skin care.
4. For future researchers, similar study may be
  concluded with cocoa butter lotion and other skin care
  products.
                          A.BOOKS
Maranan, Ruben, Primer on Thesis Writing,
 (Manila:Booktrade Publishing,2001),200.
Ymas, Sergio E., Sta. Maria, Isagani O., Ferrer, Flordeliza P.,
 College Statistics, (Sampaloc, Manila:Ymas Publishing
 House, 2003),69.
Agbayani, Victor A.E., Applied Statistics for Business and
 Research, (Quezon City: AFA Publications, Inc., 1997),17.
McGraw-Hill, McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of
 Engineering, (The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2002)
                       C. PERIODICAL
Maglipon, Jo-Ann Q., “MYRA-E: Who is exposed to the sun’s
 harmful ultraviolet rays?”,Yes Magazine (April 2009)
Suaco-Juan, Pauline, “MYRA-E: Are you taking enough care
 your skin?”, Preview Magazine (September 2005; vol.11,
 no.08)
D. WEBSITES

http://www.vitaminstuff.com/supplements-cocoa-
  butter.html

http://www.themerrychocoholic.com/chocolate-face-
 mask.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Packaging_and_labelling

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pricing

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Preference

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Purchasing_power

								
To top