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States of Consciousness

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					           States of Consciousness



Things never were “the way they used to be.”
Things will never be “the way it’s going to be someday.”
Things are always just the way they are for the time being.
And the time is always in motion.
                   Alexander Evangeli Xenopouloudakis
         What is consciousness?
   Awareness of one‟s own mental activity
       Personal
       Can be selective
       Consciousness is continuous
        and ever-changing
       Klinger (1978)
In performing an experiment like this one on
man attention car it house is boy critically
hat important shoe that candy the old
material horse that tree is pen being phone
read cow by book the hot subject tape for
pin the stand relevant view task sky be red
cohesive man and car grammatically house
complete boy but hat without shoe either
candy being horse so tree easy pen that
phone full cow attention book is hot not tape
required pin in stand order view to sky read
red it nor too difficult
          Attentional Processes
   Selective Attention
       The ability to focus awareness on a single
        stimulus to the exclusion of other stimuli
       Cocktail party phenomenon
   Divided attention
       The ability to distribute one‟s attention
        and simultaneously engage in two or more
        activities
Mental Control & Thought Suppression
   Wegner and colleagues (1987)
       Can we at suppress our thoughts?
         IV: 2 (order:expression/suppression X
          suppression/expression)
         DV: # of rings of bell (to indicate thinking of
          „white bear‟) and mentions of „white bear‟
       Rebound effect
           Stereotypes, dieting
       Generally good control but
        sometimes we fail
           “Daydream Believer”
   Imaginary scenes & events that occur
    while awake
   When do they happen?

   Possible functions:
       Mental rehearsal
       Mental arousal when bored
       Problem solving (practical & creative)
       Pleasure
            Biological Rhythms
   Periodic fluctuations in physiological
    functioning
   Four cycles:
       Yearly
       28-day
       Circadian (24 hours)
       90 minutes
             Circadian Rhythm
   Influences sleep & wakefulness
       As well as:
         Blood pressure
         Hormones
         Body temperature

   Humans drift toward 25-hour cycle
    because of advances in technology
   Syprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN)
       Controls our timing device for our
        circadian rhythm
            Sleep IQ Test
1. During sleep your brain rests.
2. You can not learn to function normally
   with one or two fewer hours of sleep a
   night than you need.
3. Boredom makes you feel sleepy, even if
   you have had enough sleep.
4. Resting in bed with your eyes closed
   cannot satisfy your body‟s need for sleep.
5. Snoring is not harmful, as long as it
   doesn‟t disturb others or wake you up.
6. Everyone dreams at night.
             Sleep IQ Test
7. The older you get, the fewer hours of sleep
   you need.
8. Most people don‟t know when they are sleepy.
9. Raising the volume of your radio will help you
   stay awake while driving.
10. Sleep disorders are mainly due to worry or
   psychological problems.
 11. The human body never adjusts to night
   shift work.
12. Most sleep disorders go away, even without
   treatment.
             Sleep IQ Answers
1. During sleep your brain rests.
  False: While your body rests, your brain doesn‟t.
2. You can not learn to function normally with one
   or two fewer hours of sleep a night than you
   need.
  True: Sleep need is biological. While children need more
  sleep than adults, how much sleep any individual needs is
  genetically determined.
3. Boredom makes you feel sleepy, even if you have
   had enough sleep.
  False: Boredom only unmasks sleepiness, but it doesn‟t
  cause it.
             Sleep IQ Answers
4. Resting in bed with your eyes closed cannot
   satisfy your body‟s need for sleep.
  True: Sleep is as necessary to health as food and water,
  and rest is no substitute for sleep.
5. Snoring is not harmful, as long as it doesn‟t
   disturb others or wake you up.
  False: Snoring may be a signal for sleep apnea (which
  can be fatal if untreated).
6. Everyone dreams at night.
  True: Every person dreams every night – it‟s just that
  some of us can‟t remember much of our dreams.
             Sleep IQ Answers
7. The older you get, the fewer hours of sleep you
   need.
  False: Although we tend to sleep less, our need for sleep
  doesn‟t decrease as we age.
8. Most people don‟t know when they are sleepy.
  True: We are not very good judges of our biological
  need for sleep.
9. Raising the volume of your radio will help you
   stay awake while driving.
  False: The only short-term solutions are to pull over and
  take a nap or to have a caffeinated drink.
             Sleep IQ Answers
10. Sleep disorders are mainly due to worry or
   psychological problems.
  False: Sleep apnea is caused by relaxed muscles and
  narcolepsy appears to be genetic.
11. The human body never adjusts to night shift work.
  True: No matter how long you work a night shift,
  sleeping during the day remains a challenge because of
  our circadian rhythms that operate on the light/dark
  schedule.
12. Most sleep disorders go away, even without
   treatment.
  False: On average, sleep disorders do not disappear
  without treatment.
           The Stages of Sleep
   5 stages
       First four stages are non-REM
       Fifth, and final, stage is REM
   Stage 1
       As you start this stage, brain waves go
        from beta to alpha to theta (by end of
        stage)
       Hypnic jerks
       Lasts about 10 minutes
       This is the transition from relaxed
        wakefulness to sleep
The Stages of Sleep
   Stage 2
       Sleep spindles
       Lasts about 20 minutes
   Stages 3 & 4
       Delta wave
       Deep sleep
       Last about 30 minutes
             The Stages of Sleep
   REM
       After reverting back through stages 3 and 2,
        the brain enters the REM (rapid eye movement)
        stage
       Marked by more vivid, detailed, and storylike
        dreams
           We dream during all stages but these are more visual
   Each cycle lasts roughly 90 minutes
   Approx. 4 to 6 cycles per night
       The first time through the cycle, you only spend
        about 10 minutes in REM – which increases to 30
        to 60 minutes by the last cycle
                Why do we sleep?
   Restorative theories
       Sleep rejuvenates us
           Amount of slow wave sleep depends on
            how long we‟ve been awake


   Circadian theories
       Evolutionarily, it has survival value
           Amount of REM sleep depends on
            circadian rhythm
            What are dreams?
Dreaming permits each and every one
  of us to be quietly and safely insane
         every night of our lives.
                          Charles Fisher
   What are dreams?
       Electrochemical events that involve the
        brainstem, areas of the cortex, and the
        eyes
        What do we dream about?
   Dream content
       Most common themes: falling, being
        chased/attacked, repeatedly trying but
        failing to do something
   What influences the dreams we have
       Concerns of your
        everyday life
       External stimuli
       Yourself
           Lucid dreaming
             Why do we dream?
   Wish fulfillment (Freud)
       Manifest content
       Latent content


   Activation-synthesis (Hobson & McCarley)
       Activation: random neural signals firing in the
        brainstem that spread up to the cortex
       Synthesis: the brain then creates images and
        stories in an effort to make sense out of these
        random signals
   So who‟s right?
                   Sleep Disorders
   Insomnia
       Chronic problems in getting good sleep
       Difficulty in falling asleep, staying asleep
       Causes
           Stress, depression, health problems
       Solutions
           Sedatives aren‟t always effective and should never be a
            long-term solution!!!
           Don‟t take naps during the day
           Avoid alcohol, caffeine, and cigarettes within 5 hrs
            before bedtime (avoid exercise within 2 hrs)
           Keep a rigid schedule – going to bed and waking up at the
            same time
              Sleep Disorders
   Hypersomnia
       Being sleepy during the day and sleeping
        too much at night
       Narcolepsy
   Parasomnias
       Sleep apnea
       Nightmares
       Night terrors
       Sleepwalking
                 Meditation
   Procedure that uses mental exercises
    to achieve a highly focused state of
    consciousness
       TM
       Relaxation response
   Effects include:
       Increased self esteem & sense of control
       Overcoming insomnia, preventing smoking
                     Hypnosis
   An induced state of consciousness
       Highly suggestible state
       Can influence thinking, feeling & behavior
   Franz Anton Mesmer
       Animal magnetism
   Two stages of hypnosis
       Induction
       suggestion
         Hypnotic Susceptibility
   Hilgard‟s Stanford Hypnotic
    Susceptibility Scale
       Roughly 10% highly hypnotizable
       Roughly 10% not hypnotizable at all
   Effects of hypnosis
       Perceptual effects
         Altering smells
         Pain relief

       Cognitive effects
           Hypermnesia vs. psuedomemories
       Behavioral effects
           Posthypnotic suggestion
Chemically Altered Consciousness
   Psychoactive drugs
       Induce changes in thinking, perception &
        behavior by affecting neuronal activity in
        the brain

   Four general categories
       Depressants
       Stimulants
       Hallucinogens
       Opiates

				
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