2000 Statewide Comprehensive Outdoor by owm23003

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									                                                     TABLE OF CONTENTS


CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTION
Purpose and Scope of Plan ...........................................................................................Chapter 1 – 1
A Legitimate Role for Government ..............................................................................Chapter 1 – 1
Outdoor Recreation Defined.................................................................................... ....Chapter 1 – 2
State and Local Roles Defined................................................................................. ....Chapter 1 – 3
Need for a State Outdoor Recreation Program ........................................................ ....Chapter 1 – 4
Statewide Outdoor Recreation Planning Process..................................................... ....Chapter 1 – 5
SCORP Public Participation .................................................................................... ....Chapter 1 – 5
Planning Coordination ............................................................................................. ....Chapter 1 – 5
Coordination with Other State Plans ....................................................................... ....Chapter 1 – 7

CHAPTER 2 – FLORIDA’S OUTDOOR RECREATION SETTING
Florida’s People ....................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 1
Economy .................................................................................................................. ....Chapter 2 – 2
Physical Situation .................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 2
Climate..................................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 3
Geology ................................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 3
Physiography ........................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 4
Hydrology ................................................................................................................ ....Chapter 2 – 5
Flora and Fauna ....................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 6
Historical and Cultural Resources ........................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 6
Florida’s Recreation Programming History............................................................. ....Chapter 2 – 7
Existing Outdoor Recreation Providers ................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 8
Outdoor Recreation Programs ................................................................................. ....Chapter 2 – 9
State Programs ......................................................................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 9
Department of Environmental Protection ................................................................ ....Chapter 2 – 9
Water Management Districts ................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 23
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission .......................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 23
Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry.............. ..Chapter 2 – 31
Department of State, Division of Historical Resources ........................................... ..Chapter 2 – 31
Department of Transportation.................................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 35
Department of Education ......................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 36
Department of Community Affairs.......................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 36
Federal Programs ..................................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 40
United States Department of the Interior................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 40
United States Department of Agriculture ................................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 48
Joint Federal Administration ................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 50
United States Department of Defense...................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 53
US Department of Housing and Urban Development ............................................. ..Chapter 2 – 54
United States Department of Transportation ........................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 54
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 55
United States Environmental Protection Agency .................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 56
Local Government Programs ................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 56
County Roles ........................................................................................................... .. Chapter 2 - 56
Municipal Roles....................................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 58
Private Sector Programs .......................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 59
Outdoor Recreation Supply ..................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 59
Outdoor Recreation Planning (ORP) Database........................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 62




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CHAPTER 3 – OUTDOOR RECREATION TRENDS
Land Use Trends Affecting Outdoor Recreation ..................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 1
Motorized Recreation .............................................................................................. ....Chapter 3 – 2
Off-Road Bicycling ................................................................................................. ....Chapter 3 – 3
The Walking Phenomenon ...................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 3
Horseback Riding .................................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 4
Hunting .................................................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 4
Skating ..................................................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 5
Disabled Recreation................................................................................................. ....Chapter 3 – 5
Ethnic Participation ................................................................................................. ....Chapter 3 – 6
Ecotourism............................................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 6
Greenways and Trails .............................................................................................. ....Chapter 3 – 7
Urban Recreation ..................................................................................................... ....Chapter 3 – 8

CHAPTER 4 – RESOURCE AND FACILITY USE GUIDELINES
Outdoor Recreation Facility Use Guidelines ........................................................... ....Chapter 4 – 1
Use Guidelines for Resource-Based Facilities......................................................... ....Chapter 4 – 2
Use Guidelines for User-Oriented Facilities............................................................ ....Chapter 4 – 5
Outdoor Recreation Population Guidelines ............................................................. ....Chapter 4 – 5
Outdoor Recreation Site Guidelines ........................................................................ ....Chapter 4 – 7
Site Guidelines for Community Resources and Facilities ....................................... ..Chapter 4 – 12

CHAPTER 5 – OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND NEED
Outdoor Recreation Participation ............................................................................ ....Chapter 5 – 1
Measuring Demand.................................................................................................. ...Chapter 5 – 2
Outdoor Recreation Needs....................................................................................... ....Chapter 5 – 4
Regional Summaries................................................................................................ ....Chapter 5 – 5
West Florida (Region 1) .......................................................................................... ....Chapter 5 – 6
Apalachee (Region 2) .............................................................................................. ....Chapter 5 – 6
North Central Florida (Region 3)............................................................................. ....Chapter 5 – 9
Northeast Florida (Region 4) ................................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 12
Withlacoochee (Region 5) ....................................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 16
East Central Florida (Region 6) ............................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 19
Central Florida (Region 7)....................................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 23
Tampa Bay (Region 8)............................................................................................. ..Chapter 5 – 23
Southwest Florida (Region 9) .................................................................................. ..Chapter 5 – 26
Treasure Coast (Region 10) ..................................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 30
South Florida (Region 11) ....................................................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 34
Statewide Summary ................................................................................................. ..Chapter 5 – 37
Relative Need Indices .............................................................................................. ..Chapter 5 – 37
1997 – 2010 Relative Need Priorities and Trends ................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 37
Meeting Outdoor Recreation Demand and Needs ................................................... ..Chapter 5 – 39

CHAPTER 6 – VISION, GOAL AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Florida’s Outdoor Recreation Vision....................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 1
Goals ........................................................................................................................ ....Chapter 6 – 1
Recommendations Based on Public Input ............................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 2
Management ............................................................................................................ ....Chapter 6 – 3
Improving Communication...................................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 4
Supporting Land Acquisition................................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 4
Trail and Greenway-Based Recreation .................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 5


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Non-Trail Recreation ............................................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 5
Special Programs ..................................................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 7
Funding and Revenue Generation............................................................................ ....Chapter 6 – 7
Implementing a Systems Approach ......................................................................... ....Chapter 6 – 8
Statewide Recreation Atlas...................................................................................... .... Chapter 6 - 9
Recommendations by Specific Activity .................................................................. ....Chapter 6 – 9
User-Oriented Recreation ........................................................................................ ..Chapter 6 – 12

                                               LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 2.1 – Florida’s Population 1940 – 2010 ....................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 1
Figure 2.2 - Florida’s Physiographic Regions ......................................................... ....Chapter 2 – 5
Figure 2.3 – State Park System................................................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 11
Figure 2.4 – Wild and Scenic Rivers ....................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 15
Figure 2.5 – Recreational Trails Fund ..................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 17
Figure 2.6 – CARL Projects .................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 18
Figure 2.7 – Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas .................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 22
Figure 2.8 – Save Our Rivers Projects..................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 25
Figure 2.9 – Wildlife Management Areas & Wildlife Environmental Areas .......... ..Chapter 2 – 26
Figure 2.10 – Fish Management Areas.................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 27
Figure 2.11 – Artificial Reefs Program ................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 28
Figure 2.12 – Fish & Wildlife Conservation Commission Mitigation Parks........... ..Chapter 2 – 30
Figure 2.13 – State Forests ...................................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 32
Figure 2.14 – State Historic Sites ............................................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 34
Figure 2.15 – Communities Trust Projects .............................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 38
Figure 2.16 – National Park System in Florida ....................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 42
Figure 2.17 – National Wildlife Refuges................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 47
Figure 2.18 – National Forests................................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 49
Figure 2.19 – National Wilderness Areas ................................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 51
Figure 2.20 – Florida National Scenic Trail ............................................................ ..Chapter 2 – 52
Figure 2.21 – National Marine Sanctuary & Estuarine Research Reserves............. ..Chapter 2 – 57
Figure 2.22 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Acreage by Supplier................................. .Chapter 2 – 66

                                           LIST OF TABLES
Table 2.1 – Visitor Estimates for Florida 1985 – 1998................................................. Chapter 2 - 3
Table 2.2 – Florida’s State Park System.................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 12
Table 2.3 – Florida Recreation Development Grants .............................................. .. Chapter 2 - 13
Table 2.4 – CARL Projects List............................................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 19
Table 2.5 – Communities Trust Site List................................................................. ..Chapter 2 – 39
Table 2.6 - Federal Land and Water Conservation Grants ...................................... ..Chapter 2 – 43
Table 2.7 – Outdoor Recreation Summary 1 of 2 ................................................... . Chapter 2 - 60
Table 2.7 – Outdoor Recreation Summary 2 of 2.................................................... ..Chapter 2 – 61
Table 2.8 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources & Facilities by Supplier ............. ..Chapter 2 – 64
Table 2.9 – 1988 Outdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities by Region ............ ..Chapter 2 – 65

Table 4.1 – Use Guidelines for Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation..........................Chapter 4 – 4
Table 4.2 – Use Guidelines for User-Oriented Outdoor Recreation.............................Chapter 4 – 6
Table 4.3 – Population Guidelines for Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation...............Chapter 4 – 8
Table 4.4 – Population Guidelines for User-Oriented Outdoor Recreation..................Chapter 4 – 9
Table 4.5 – Guidelines for Community Outdoor Recreation 1 of 2 ...........................Chapter 4 – 10
Table 4.5 – Guidelines for Community Outdoor Recreation 2 of 2 ...........................Chapter 4 – 11



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Table 5.1 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – West Florida Region ....................Chapter 5 – 7
Table 5.2 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – West Florida Region................Chapter 5 – 8
Table 5.3 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – Apalachee Region ......................Chapter 5 – 10
Table 5.4 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – Apalachee Region..................Chapter 5 – 11
Table 5.5 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – N. Central Region ......................Chapter 5 – 13
Table 5.6 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – N. Central Region..................Chapter 5 – 14
Table 5.7 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – NE Florida Region .................... Chapter 5 – 15
Table 5.8 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – NE Florida Region.................Chapter 5 – 17
Table 5.9 - 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – Withlacoochee Region...............Chapter 5 – 18
Table 5.10 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need Withlacoochee Reg.................Chapter 5 – 20
Table 5.11 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – E. Central Region.....................Chapter 5 – 21
Table 5.12 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – E. Central Region ................Chapter 5 – 22
Table 5.13 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – Central Florida Region.............Chapter 5 – 24
Table 5.14 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – Central Florida Reg. ............Chapter 5 – 25
Table 5.15 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – Tampa Bay Region ..................Chapter 5 – 27
Table 5.16 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – Tampa Bay Region ..............Chapter 5 – 28
Table 5.17 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – SW Florida Region ..................Chapter 5 – 29
Table 5.18 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – SW Florida Region ..............Chapter 5 – 31
Table 5.19 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – Treasure Coast Region.............Chapter 5 – 32
Table 5.20 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – Treasure Coast Reg..............Chapter 5 – 33
Table 5.21 – 1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources – South Florida Region ...............Chapter 5 – 35
Table 5.22 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – South Florida Reg................Chapter 5 – 36
Table 5.23 – Outdoor Recreation Demand and Need – State of Florida ....................Chapter 5 – 38
Table 5.24 – Year 2000 Resource and Facility Needs by Region ..............................Chapter 5 – 39

                                        APPENDICES
Appendix A – Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
Appendix B – Public Meetings
Appendix C – State Comprehensive Plan Goals Relating to Recreation
Appendix D – Greenways and Trails Design Guidelines
Appendix E – 1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
Appendix F – Methodology for Producing the Relative Needs Index
Appendix G – Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
Appendix H – Wetlands Component
Appendix I – References
Appendix J – Outdoor Recreation Agencies and Organizations




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                                      CHAPTER 1
                                    INTRODUCTION
                              PURPOSE AND SCOPE PLAN
Florida is a rapidly growing state with much to offer both its residents and visitors. Outdoor
recreation is one of the state’s main attractions. To meet the growing public demand for
recreation, all levels of government and many private organizations have established extensive
outdoor recreation programs. This plan serves as an information resource and establishes a
framework and planning process to guide these various recreation providers toward the goal of
an integrated, sustainable outdoor recreation lands system. It identifies state and national
outdoor recreation trends and initiatives, and examines existing outdoor recreation programs. It
analyzes outdoor recreation facility and resource needs, and establishes goals and strategies to
guide a statewide planning process.

This plan is part of an outdoor recreation planning process that Florida has pursued for nearly 40
years. The Department of Environmental Protection’s Division of Recreation and Parks
coordinated and developed the plan in accordance with state and federal legislative requirements.
Section 375.021(1), Florida Statutes, gives the Department specific responsibility, authority and
power to develop and execute a comprehensive, multipurpose state outdoor recreation plan to
document recreational supply and demand, describe current recreational opportunities, estimate
the need for additional recreational opportunities, and propose means for meeting identified
needs. The plan is to be developed by the Department with the assistance of the other state
agencies that provide access to public lands, and it is to be kept current through continual
reevaluation and revision. Additionally, Section 418.12(1), Florida Statutes, directs the
Department to study and appraise the recreation needs of the state and assemble and disseminate
information relative to recreation.

In order to maintain Florida’s eligibility to participate in and receive funding from the Federal
Land and Water Conservation Fund (LWCF) program, the National Park Service must approve
this plan. Toward that end, the plan is developed to be consistent with the Land and Water
Conservation Fund Act of 1965. The intent of the Act is to conserve and make available for
public enjoyment as much of the nation's high quality land and water resources as may be
available and necessary to meet the nation's outdoor recreation needs. Section 375.021(5),
Florida Statutes, authorizes Florida's participation in the LWCF program. The plan is updated
every five years.

                    A LEGITIMATE ROLE FOR GOVERNMENT
Public responsibility for outdoor recreation stems essentially from two sources: social welfare,
and natural and historical resources management. As a matter of social welfare, outdoor
recreation is provided by government as just one wholesome means of occupying the leisure time
of its citizens. There are no very rigid criteria that must be followed in determining which types
of outdoor recreation will be offered, except that they must appeal to the potential users and
otherwise be socially acceptable. The responsibility for providing outdoor recreation for this
purpose is primarily local, and it is met through a wide variety of programs. The benefits from


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such socially oriented outdoor recreation programs are unquestionable, and there is hardly a city
or county in Florida today that does not have a program of some sort underway.

The other basic justification for public outdoor recreation programming involves natural and
historical resources management. Management of natural and historical resources is a matter of
great public concern in Florida because of its impact on the state's security and well-being.
Along with other important land uses such as agriculture, forestry, mining, transportation and
urban development, outdoor recreation has become a major consideration in the allocation of the
limited natural resource base. Once a natural outdoor recreation area is lost to other land uses, it
usually cannot be reclaimed except with great difficulty and expense. It is a proper function of
government to ensure that adequate outdoor recreation resources are protected and preserved.

                          OUTDOOR RECREATION DEFINED
The outdoor recreation spectrum is so vast and diverse that it is difficult to plan for as a single
entity. Outdoor recreation, as a general term, embraces many different concepts and
understandings from neighborhood playgrounds to wild rivers, or outdoor drama to fishery
management. Outdoor recreation is commonly accepted as a social need, such as education or
public health, that public agencies must consider in the allocation and management of the natural
and cultural resource base. Allocating the resources for multiple outdoor recreation activities
involves numerous, diverse local, state, regional and federal agencies.

Outdoor recreation, broadly defined, is any leisure time activity conducted outdoors. However,
for planning purposes, the wide range of outdoor recreation activities is generally subdivided into
"user-oriented" and "resource-based" recreation. Resource-based outdoor recreation differs from
user-oriented recreation in that it cannot be provided just anywhere. It is dependent upon some
element or combination of elements in the natural or cultural environments that cannot be easily
duplicated by man. It may be either active or passive in nature. Examples include hunting,
fishing, camping, backpacking, boating, water skiing, surfing, and nature study. Visiting
historical and archaeological sites is also included because such sites, while not strictly natural
resources, share the limitations of being fixed in both quantity and location.

User-oriented types of outdoor recreation are those that can be provided almost anywhere for the
convenience of the user. Examples include golf, tennis, baseball, basketball, shuffleboard,
volleyball, soccer, pool swimming, archery, skeet and trap shooting, and playground activities.

Some activities can be considered either user-oriented or resource-based, depending upon where
the opportunity is made available. For example, swimming in the ocean is a resource-based
activity, but swimming in a pool is user-oriented. Other such activities include picnicking,
bicycling, and horseback riding. Appendix A-3 includes descriptive definitions of the major
types of outdoor recreation activities in Florida.
An important distinction to make between user-oriented and resource-based outdoor recreation is
that the former can always be provided, assuming the availability of space and funds for
development, while the latter can be provided only to the extent that the supporting natural or
cultural resources are available. Thus, while intensifying social pressures dictate a high priority
for creating user-oriented outdoor recreation opportunities close to urban areas, the rapid
depletion of suitable resources gives a sense of urgency to the resource-based outdoor recreation

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program. Because they satisfy essentially different human needs, it is difficult to compare these
two types of outdoor recreation in terms of importance or urgency, except to say that both are
important and both must be met expeditiously to keep up with the demands of a growing
population.

                        STATE AND LOCAL ROLES DEFINED
Meeting the needs for the two broad types of outdoor recreation described above cannot be
accomplished efficiently through a single outdoor recreation program. It is not reasonable to
expect that agencies charged with managing state parks, preserves, forests and wildlife
management areas would also be responsible for local ball fields, tennis courts and neighborhood
parks. Efficiency dictates that some division of responsibility is needed in order to meet the
state’s diverse public outdoor recreation need.

State government has the responsibility for promotion and coordination of all outdoor recreation
efforts beneficial to the general public. It is the only level of government at which this task can
be accomplished effectively. In doing this, the State must ensure, through direct or indirect
means, that the public's demand for outdoor recreation is brought into a reasonable balance, at
least on a broad regional level, with the availability of opportunities for meeting this demand.
This does not mean that the State will attempt to meet these needs entirely through state-level
programs. Rather, it will assume responsibility for ensuring that they are met through the
planned and coordinated efforts of state, federal and local governments and private interests.

As far as its direct programming efforts, the primary responsibility of the State is to provide
resource-based outdoor recreation. It accomplishes this through the acquisition of land and
development facilities necessary to make natural and cultural outdoor recreation resources of
regional or statewide significance available to the public. The extensive land requirements, the
typical location outside urban centers, and the higher costs of operation have led the State to
assume this role as a bridge between the large, nationally significant parks managed by the
federal government and the community playgrounds and recreational facilities traditionally
provided by local governments. No other level of government can meet this important
responsibility.

User-oriented outdoor recreation, like other local services, is largely the responsibility of local
government. The need exists primarily in the urban areas, and it increases in proportion to the
degree of urbanization. State and federal programs provide or fund limited user-oriented
recreation opportunities, but that is not a primary focus of either state or federal outdoor
recreation programs. Likewise, although local governments have focused primarily on user-
oriented recreation, some also administer land acquisition programs or levy special taxes or fees
for parks and have assumed some responsibility for providing resource-based recreation.
However, in general, local governments are responsible for user-oriented recreation.

All local governments, large or small, are faced with the task of providing their citizens the full
range of recreational opportunities. These include everything from cultural arts programs to
nature trails. Local governments are finding it increasingly difficult to provide the full range of
recreation opportunities that are so important to the well being of their citizens. While the State's
primary thrust in all its programs will be directed toward resource-based outdoor recreation, a

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secondary effort will be mounted to assist local governments, to the extent it can, with financial
support and technical assistance in meeting their resource and facility needs for user-oriented
types of outdoor recreation. The demonstrated priorities and needs of local governments will be
taken into consideration in the allocation of available funds from the State's grant programs. To
the extent that local conditions and circumstances indicate a need for user-oriented recreation
facilities, local communities may be granted funding assistance from these programs.

The State also has a responsibility to encourage local governments to plan, acquire and develop
natural resource outdoor recreation areas and facilities. However, the State's financial ability to
meet local needs for this purpose is limited at the present time. The total state-level recreation
budget amounts to only a small fraction of the combined statewide recreation expenditures of
local governments. Nonetheless, many local governments have very limited means of providing
recreation resources of any kind and State funding assistance is vital to help meet their needs.

           NEED FOR A STATE OUTDOOR RECREATON PROGRAM
Meeting the outdoor recreation needs of Florida’s fast-growing population will require
significant additional recreation facilities and services. However, the ability to provide these
facilities and services will become more difficult as the State’s fixed supply of land, water,
shoreline areas, and cultural resources—the raw materials which support outdoor recreation—are
committed to non-recreation uses to support the expanding population. It follows that the State
must identify present and future outdoor recreation needs, and work to ensure the preservation of
a resource base sufficient to meet those needs. Toward this end, Florida’s outdoor recreation
program emphasizes interagency cooperation and collaborative partnerships with private
interests and non-governmental organizations, and supports ongoing efforts to integrate local,
state and federal land acquisition, resource management and recreational facility development
activities.

To be effective, the outdoor recreation program must be supported by the general public--the
potential users and beneficiaries of outdoor recreation. In each person there must be kindled an
awareness and appreciation of their natural and cultural heritage and the potential pleasures to be
found through outdoor recreation. He or she must understand that they share responsibility for
wise stewardship of Florida’s resources so that the generations that follow will have the same
opportunities that the current generation enjoys. While such a sense of value seems innate in
some people, it must be inculcated in others. This will entail a vigorous educational effort as a
part of the overall outdoor recreation program.
Florida has made excellent progress in developing an outdoor recreation program that will meet
the needs of Floridians and tourists. In spite of this progress, however, the need is still great.
Demand for outdoor recreation continues to outstrip supply in this fast-growing state. Whether
for the health and welfare of Florida's people, the stability of its tourist-oriented economy, or the
prudent management of its natural resources, a carefully planned and effectively implemented
outdoor recreation program is a major public need today. This plan provides a foundation for
such a program in Florida. The components of Florida’s existing program are described in detail
in Chapter 2.




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                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


         STATEWIDE OUTDOOR RECREATION PLANNING PROCESS
The purpose of state-level outdoor recreation planning is to guide the development of a diverse,
balanced, statewide outdoor recreation system toward meeting current and future needs.
Florida's planning process addresses a wide range of outdoor recreation activities, resources and
programs with the goal of ensuring that the needs of all segments of society are met. Of equal
concern is preserving the integrity and function of the ecological systems that provide the
foundation for resource-based outdoor recreation.

The planning process used to develop this plan focused on identifying the major issues affecting
outdoor recreation in Florida, and on determining current and projected priority needs for the
acquisition and development of outdoor recreation areas and facilities. The process relied heavily
on input from a wide range of stakeholders including state, local, and federal recreation
providers, private suppliers, recreation user groups, conservation groups, and other interested
parties. The outcome is a plan that provides a basis for cooperative action to resolve priority
issues, and a reasoned approach to meeting identified recreation needs. The plan provides
statewide outdoor recreation programming guidance and is intended to influence the decisions of
all potential recreation suppliers.

SCORP Public Participation
The success of the SCORP planning process ultimately depends upon the acceptance of its
recommendations by a broad constituency of users and environmental interests, and the willing
implementation of those recommendations by the many public and private recreation providers.
For this reason, the Department emphasized the involvement of users, environmental groups and
recreation providers in the planning process. Public involvement was solicited through various
methods including the creation of a SCORP Focus Group that met both before and after a series
of 12 public workshops. Summaries of the Focus Group meeting and the workshops appear in
Appendix B. Appendix B also contains a list of meeting times, locations and participants, and a
report compiling the public input received.

Following the workshops and Focus Group meetings, Division staff developed a draft vision
from the Focus Group themes, researched relevant issues raised by the public and developed
goals, strategies and action steps based upon public input and staff research. The vision, goals
and recommendations are detailed in Chapter 6.

Planning Coordination - General
Outdoor recreation is affected directly or indirectly by a variety local, state, federal and private
programs. To the extent that these programs are capable of contributing to the implementation of
a statewide outdoor recreation program, state government must attempt to coordinate them
through the comprehensive outdoor recreation planning process. Toward that end, Florida has
emphasized interagency and public/private coordination through a variety of mechanisms
described below.

                                   State-Level Coordination
Outdoor recreation planning coordination among state agencies is provided through planning and
management committees and special ad-hoc committees. For example, state-level coordination in

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outdoor recreation and the acquisition and management of environmental land is provided
through the Acquisition and Restoration Council (ARC). These committees are composed of
members from all state agencies concerned with natural and historical resources and outdoor
recreation.

                                    State-Federal Coordination
Liaison for planning purposes is maintained by the State with the U.S. Department of the
Interior, National Park Service, especially through its Southeastern Regional Office. Other
federal agencies such as the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Forest Service, and the U.S.
Army Corps of Engineers are consulted frequently at regional and field offices on
recreation-related planning matters. In addition, the Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks, assists in coordinating the development and
operation of outdoor recreation resources located on federal military installations.

                                    State-Local Coordination
One of the most important links in the chain of planning coordination is between state and local
governments. Many county and municipal governments assisted in the development of this plan
by cooperating in the preparation of the statewide inventory of outdoor recreation resources and
facilities. This massive undertaking could not be accomplished without such assistance.

Additionally, all Florida counties and many municipalities have participated in state sponsored
financial and technical assistance programs, and other efforts involving recreation coordination.
Local governments participate in the acquisition and management of land for outdoor recreation
through multiple land acquisition and grant programs, including the Conservation and Recreation
Lands Program, the Florida Communities Trust program, the Save Our Rivers Program and the
Florida Recreation and Park Association.

State and local planning is further linked through the Local Government Comprehensive
Planning and Land Development Regulation Act (Chapter 163, Part II, Florida Statutes) through
which the state provides technical assistance in plan preparation and state-level review of local
plans. In developing their comprehensive plans, many local governments have made use of
information and data contained in the State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan.

                                      State-Private Coordination
Private outdoor recreational enterprises constitute a significant element of the Florida economy
and will continue to be relied upon to provide a major share of the outdoor recreation supply in
the state. Coordination with the private sector is necessary to achieve more efficient
development and operation of mutual programs, to improve and expand the ongoing inventory of
private recreation sites and facilities, and to implement major recreation action program
objectives. State-private liaison with this sector is established primarily through the trade
organizations, such as the Governor’s Conference on Tourism, which primarily serve
commercial recreation enterprises.

In addition, the Division of Recreation and Parks consults formally and informally with
representatives of various clubs and groups concerned with conservation and recreation to
discuss and resolve matters of mutual concern. State representatives also attend conventions and
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                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


other gatherings of private organizations to present and discuss state recreation policies and
programs.

Finally, there is direct consultation between state agency staff and individual private-commercial
recreation interests. One way this occurs through state technical assistance programs. In other
cases it is through ad-hoc panels convened for purposes such as improving management and
administration of state parks, or enhancing opportunities for public recreation on private lands.

Coordination with Other State Plans
In addition to this plan, there are other major planning efforts carried out at the state level that
have significant implications for outdoor recreation. The most significant are discussed below.

                                     State Comprehensive Plan
The State Comprehensive Plan (SCP) is a set of goals, objectives and policies that provide
long-range guidance for the orderly social, economic and physical growth of the state.
Authorized by the State and Regional Planning Act of 1984 (Chapter 186, Florida Statutes), the
SCP must be updated and adopted biennially by the Florida Legislature. It is embodied in the
law as Chapter 187, Florida Statutes. The SCP addresses various program areas including
natural and cultural resources, land use and management, and parks and recreation.

The SCP and the SCORP 2000 were linked by integrating the goals and policies of the SCP into
SCORP’s implementation program. This integration and consistency of recreation goals and
policies helps to ensure the best use of resources to achieve and maintain an adequate outdoor
recreation system. The goals and policies of the SCP that pertain to outdoor recreation and
conservation are provided in Appendix C.

                                      Agency Strategic Plans
The purpose of the Agency Strategic Plans (ASP) is to set forth the policies and objectives for
guiding the programs and functions of state agencies. Required by the State and Regional
Planning Act of 1984 (Chapter 186, Florida Statutes), these plans identify specific programs
which support and further the goals and policies of the State Comprehensive Plan. The SCORP
2000 is consistent with the Department of Environmental Protection’s ASP. Also, where
appropriate and relevant, the strategic plan policies of state agencies with direct or indirect
responsibilities for outdoor recreation were incorporated into the recommendations and
implementation actions of this plan.

                    Florida Greenways and Trails System Implementation Plan
The Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Greenways and Trails is responsible for
the Florida Greenways and Trails System and the development and implementation of the
Statewide Greenways and Trails Five-year Implementation Plan. That plan establishes a process
to create and maintain a system of greenways and trails that includes a mix of public and private
lands. It emphasizes the use partnerships and citizen participation in developing the system. As
the five-year implementation plan is put into action, the greenways and trails system will play an
even larger role in providing diverse recreational opportunities for Floridians and visitors. For


                                            Chapter 1- 7
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


this reason, the SCORP 2000 was developed with input from staff of the Office of Greenways
and Trails. Chapter 2 describes the greenways and trails issue in more depth.

                               Coastal Zone Management Program
The Department of Community Affairs, Office of Coastal Management administers the state’s
coastal management program that guides development, protection and management of Florida's
coastal areas. Among other things, the coastal management program addresses the provision of
outdoor recreation opportunities in coastal areas and coordinates governmental efforts relative to
preserving public access to the shoreline. The coastal management program is implemented
through the state’s Coastal Action Plan. The SCORP is developed in coordination with staff of
the coastal management program to ensure consistency between it and the Coastal Action Plan.

                                   State Lands Management Plan
The Department of Environmental Protection, Division of State Lands has the responsibility
under section 253.03, Florida Statutes, for administering a comprehensive plan to guide the
acquisition, management, and disposition of state-owned lands vested in the Board of Trustees
(Governor and Cabinet). The Conceptual State Lands Management Plan provides basic policy
guidance for activities affecting state-owned lands and guides the development of parcel-specific
management plans for all properties owned by the Board. The SCORP has been developed to be
consistent with the Conceptual State Lands Management Plan.

                            Florida Statewide Land Acquisition Plan
Pursuant to Chapter 259.035, Florida Statutes, the Legislature created the nine-member
Acquisition and Restoration Council (ARC) which replaced the Land Acquisition and
Management Advisory Council (LAMAC) as of March 1, 2000. The Department of
Environmental Protection, in consultation with ARC, is responsible for developing the Florida
Statewide Land Acquisition Plan. The plan provides strategic long-range direction for the
acquisition of environmentally endangered and outdoor recreation lands. An objective of the
Florida Statewide Land Acquisition Plan is to acquire lands that help meet needs identified in the
SCORP; however, we have identified a need for closer coordination between the two plans. The
Division of Recreation and Parks will work to improve the links between the plans as they are
updated.

                                      Historic Preservation Plan
The Department of State, Division of Historical Resources is Florida's primary historic
preservation agency. It is responsible for administering a comprehensive statewide framework to
preserve Florida's historic heritage and make it accessible to the public. Towards that end, the
Division develops the Comprehensive Historic Preservation Plan which provides basic policy
guidance for historic preservation activities in Florida. Annual work programs serve to report
the progress of the State's historic preservation efforts, including historic site surveys, historic
preservation planning, and environmental review activities.

Section 267.061, Florida Statutes, requires coordination between the Division of Recreation and
Parks and the Division of Historical Resources. This is accomplished through a written
cooperative agreement in which the Division of Historical Resources is responsible for the

                                           Chapter 1- 8
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


interpretation of the historical or archaeological significance of all properties managed by the
Division of Recreation and Parks. This agreement has provided a basis for much broader
informal cooperation between the two divisions on all levels.

                                  Strategic Regional Policy Plans
Florida's eleven regional planning councils are responsible under section 186.507, Florida
Statutes, for developing and administering Strategic Regional Policy Plans (SRPPs). In addition,
they review local recreational grant applications for federal funding, and review and provide
technical assistance to local governments in the preparation of recreation and open space
elements of local comprehensive plans.

Florida's SCORP provides a framework and database that regional planning councils have used
in developing their SRPPs. In several of these plans the data and recommendations of the
SCORP have been used directly by the councils. The Division of Recreation and Parks also
provides the councils with technical assistance and information on other matters relating to
outdoor recreation planning.




                                           Chapter 1- 9
                                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                       CHAPTER 2
         FLORIDA’S OUTDOOR RECREATION SETTING
The ability of Florida’s outdoor recreation system to meet current and future needs is
influenced by demographic and economic trends, the landscape itself, and the current supply
of recreation resources and facilities. This chapter provides an overview of the socio-
economic and physiographic setting for outdoor recreation in Florida and describes the
providers and programs that make up Florida’s outdoor recreation system. It concludes with a
discussion of the Outdoor Recreation Program (ORP) database and tables depicting Florida’s
outdoor recreation supply.
                                           FLORIDA’S PEOPLE
As of July 1999, the U.S. Census Bureau estimates Florida’s population to be just over 15
million. It has the fourth largest population of the 50 states, and from July 1990 to July 1999,
it had the third largest increase in population. By 2010, the population is projected to
approach 18 million residents (See Figure 2.1).

                                                    Figure 2.1

                                           Population of Florida 1940-2010


                             18000000
                             16000000
                             14000000
                             12000000
                Population




                             10000000
                              8000000
                              6000000
                              4000000
                              2000000
                                    0
                                    1940   1950   1960    1970    1980       1990   2000   2010

                                                              Ye ar


             Source: University of Florida, Bureau of Economic and Business Research, 1999

This rapid growth creates a complex set of problems that will continue to have profound
effects on every facet of the state's social, economic and political framework. A major
challenge facing Florida's outdoor recreation planning and programming effort is to
anticipate and meet the recreation demands of a growing population and to ensure that an
adequate natural resource base is maintained to accommodate future demands and preserve a
quality environment.

Between July 1, 1998 and July 1999, Florida had a net population increase of just over
203,000 people or about 550 people per day. Increasingly, these new residents are settling in
less populated counties although Broward, Dade and Palm Beach counties on the southeast


                                                  Chapter 2 - 1
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


coast, Orange County (home of Disney World), and Hillsborough County on the central Gulf
coast still have the largest absolute increases.

If current trends continue, the bulk of the new population will concentrate in relatively
unpopulated counties adjacent to these heavily developed metropolitan areas, particularly
along the coast. As these areas become more crowded, problems such as water quality
degradation, loss of open space and natural vegetation, crowded highways, and a higher cost
of living will provide an impetus for further expansion into more rural areas. This sprawling
pattern of growth, which characterizes many communities in Florida, increasingly limits the
availability of outdoor recreation lands.

                                        ECONOMY
To assure a continued high quality of life in Florida, the amenities provided by the state
outdoor recreation program must be coupled with a healthy social and economic climate. Job
opportunities and income are major determinants affecting the ability of people to participate
in many kinds of recreational activity.

In the past five years, most non-agricultural income-producing segments of the Florida
economy experienced substantial growth. The per capita income of Florida residents climbed
to an estimated $22,809 in 1997, up from $20,385 in 1990 (Florida Consensus Estimating
Conference, 1997). The sources of income gains in Florida have traditionally been in the
trade, service, and construction sectors, as well as better than average improvements in farm
incomes. Overall, employment is expected to continue to grow with approximately 180-200
thousand new jobs per year over the next few years. Most of the additional jobs are expected
in the services and trade sectors (Florida Consensus Estimating Conference, 1997).

Tourism-based business activities support a significant share of Florida’s economy. Taxable
spending in the Tourism and Recreation category during calendar year 1999 totaled a record
$46.5 billion ( VISIT FLORIDA, 2000). The highest increase in visitation since 1990
occurred in 1996 (see Table 2.1). Visitation to the state is expected to continue to increase
with the majority of arrivals coming by air rather than automobile. The state's 1996 tourist
population (44.7 million) is expected to increase to 57 million visitors, a 25% increase, by
2005. However, Florida tourism and its economic implications are sensitive to national
economic and energy policies. The dynamic nature of this activity causes uncertainty in
tourism forecasting, making it difficult to accurately project visitation levels for more than
one or two years at a time.

                                PHYSICAL SITUATION
Florida is an elongated peninsula with a total land area of 58,560 square miles, including
4,424 square miles of interior water. The state stretches 450 miles from north to south and
470 miles from east to west. This size makes Florida the second largest state east of the
Mississippi River (Georgia being slightly larger). Despite its size, no point in Florida is more
than 70 miles from either the Atlantic or Gulf coast. Florida has highly varied shoreline
stretches 8,426 miles around the peninsula to the east, south and west. To the north, Florida
shares common boundaries with Georgia and Alabama.


                                         Chapter 2 - 2
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



                                          Table 2.1
                     Historical Visitor Estimates for Florida 1985-1998

                        Year     Annual Number Percent
                                 of Visitors       Change
                        1985        28,850,424
                        1986        31,791,184         10.2%
                        1987        34,064,530          7.2%
                        1988        36,765,608          7.9%
                        1989        38,712,303          5.3%
                        1990        40,970,233          5.8%
                        1991        39,560,874         -3.4%
                        1992        40,536,194          2.5%
                        1993        41,032,560          1.2%
                        1994        39,883,477         -2.8%
                        1995        41,282,314          3.5%
                        1996        44,757,082          8.4%
                        1997        46,953,929          4.9%
                        1998        48,700,000          3.7%
                       Source: Florida Department of Commerce, 1995
                       and VISIT FLORIDA, 1999.

                                          CLIMATE
Florida’s climate is one of the major contributing factors to the love of outdoor recreation by
residents and visitors. Florida lies completely within the temperate zone, yet its climate,
particularly in the lower peninsula, is subtropical, with wet, humid summers and relatively
dry, cool winters. The influence of the waters of the Gulf of Mexico on the west and the
Atlantic Ocean on the east tends to moderate seasonal temperature extremes. Most of the
state enjoys a long, warm summer, relatively minor seasonal transitions, and a short, mild
winter. The mean annual temperature ranges from the upper sixties in the northern portions
of the state to the upper seventies in the south. Florida's abundant rainfall is seasonal. Most of
the State's average annual rainfall of 53 inches consists of short summer showers. In the
winter months, when sunshine is so conducive to outdoor activity, Florida enjoys the greatest
average percentage of seasonal sunshine in the eastern United States.

                                         GEOLOGY
Florida occupies only about half of a larger geological unit, the Floridian Plateau. This
plateau is a partly submerged platform nearly 500 miles long and 250 to 400 miles wide. It
separates the deep waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. The submerged
portions of the plateau are called the continental shelf extending out to an ocean depth of
about 300 feet. The plateau has been in existence for millions of years, during which time it
has been alternately dry land or shallow sea. It consists of a core of metamorphic rocks
buried under layers of sedimentary rocks (chiefly limestone) which vary in thickness from a
little less than a mile to upwards of four miles.


                                          Chapter 2 - 3
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                    PHYSIOGRAPHY
Five physical or natural regions are commonly identified in the state. They are the Western
Highlands, the Marianna Lowlands, the Tallahassee Hills, the Central Highlands, and the
Coastal Lowlands (See Figure 2.2).

The Western Highlands includes most of the Florida Panhandle between the Perdido and
Apalachicola Rivers, north of the Coastal Lowlands. It is a southward-sloping plateau, hilly
in the northern part and trenched by narrow steep-walled stream valleys. The higher hills in
the northern part of the plateau are over 300 feet in elevation and include the highest
measured elevation in the state--345 feet.

The Marianna Lowlands, west of the Apalachicola River, is a low, rolling hill and sinkhole
region, with numerous small lakes. This Region occupies a roughly quadrilateral area, with
its southern and western limits marked by a rise to the Western Highlands. The elevation is
due to the increasing thickness of sand covering the limestone base that lies near the land
surface.

The Tallahassee Hills Region, north of the Coastal Lowlands, stretches from the
Apalachicola River to the northern Withlacoochee River. It is approximately 25 miles wide
by 100 miles in length and is characterized by long, gentle slopes with rounded summits.

The Central Highlands region extends from the Tallahassee Hills and the Okeefenokee
Swamp in the north almost to Lake Okeechobee in the south. Its length is about 250 miles.
The width tapers from 60 miles in its northern portions down to a blunt point at the southern
boundary. Much of the northern part is a nearly level plain approximately 150 feet above sea
level. The western part consists of hills and hollows interspersed with broad, low plains. This
subregion ranges in altitude from 200 feet to less than 40 feet above sea level. Adjoining this
subregion to the east and extending southward to the end of the Central Highlands is a
subregion known as the Lake Region. It is characterized by numerous lakes and high hills of
up to 325 feet above sea level.

The Coastal Lowlands forms the entire Florida coastline, including the Florida Keys, and
reaches inland as much as 60 miles at some points. The inner edge generally lies along the
100-foot contour line. In recent geologic times, these lowlands were marine terraces and
experienced three or more successive inundations by higher sea levels. This is a flat region,
except where ancient shorelines or dune ridges occur or where the surface has been modified
by stream erosion or underground solution. The Gulf coast has the appearance of a drowned
coastline--one that is sinking into the sea. The east coast has the appearance of an emergent
coast--one that is rising from the sea. In fact, however, sea levels on both coasts are rising
very gradually as the result of changes in global climatic patterns




                                         Chapter 2 - 4
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                       HYDROLOGY
More than 2.8 million acres of Florida are covered by water. This includes some 7,000
natural and man-made lakes larger than 10 acres, as well as marshes, swamps and seasonal
floodplains. In addition to the thousands of lakes and the thousands of miles of streams,
wetlands comprise a major component of the state's surface waters. It has been estimated
that in 1973, wetlands and their associated open-water areas accounted for approximately
one-third of Florida's total area. An overview of wetlands in Florida, including a description
of wetland protection efforts, is contained in Addendum H.

A considerable amount of drainage in Florida goes into and through the underlying limestone
rock, forming a groundwater reservoir. This underground reservoir, or aquifer, discharges
tremendous quantities of fresh water to wells and to some of the world's largest springs.
Florida has 33 first magnitude springs, discharging more than 6 billion gallons of water per
day. The combined flow of all the state's springs is estimated to be 8 billion gallons per day.
Between Florida's offshore waters and its inland fresh waters are sheltered coastal waters
generally referred to as estuaries. Estuaries form where the flow of fresh water from inland
rivers and streams meets coastal waters. Estuaries are among Florida's most biologically
productive waters, and are vital to the state's commercial and sports fisheries.

                                   FLORA AND FAUNA
Florida’s landscape consists of a broad range of plant associations and natural communities.
More than 60 percent of the state is still covered by commercially productive pine and
hardwood forests, while the remaining 40 percent consists of such vegetation types as marsh,
mangrove, wet prairie and scrub. All of Florida's natural vegetation is significant from the
standpoint of outdoor recreation. In addition to its obvious aesthetic qualities, it provides
habitat for game and other forms of wildlife.

Florida's wildlife is as varied as the habitat conditions that support it. Florida ranks fourth in
the contiguous United States in terms of overall species richness and has more species than
any other state east of the Mississippi River. More than 425 bird species are found in
Florida, in addition to 184 species of amphibians and reptiles, 126 fishes and 75 mammals
(Noss and Peters, 1995). Species range from those which are common throughout the entire
southeastern United States to some which are virtually unknown elsewhere in the country
such as the Florida panther, the West Indian Manatee and the Florida Scrub Jay. Florida’s
diverse fauna plays an important role in the complex workings of the state’s native
ecosystems and supports various forms of outdoor recreation including hunting, fishing, bird
watching, and nature study.

                  HISTORICAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCES
Florida’s unique history and cultural heritage is another important source of outdoor
recreation opportunities. There is evidence that man has inhabited Florida for at least the last
ten thousand years. Prehistoric cultures thrived in this hospitable area and left behind much
evidence of their way of life. This evidence has become a source of wonder and curiosity for
modern man. The story of Florida's prehistoric and historic heritage is constantly unfolding



                                          Chapter 2 - 6
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


from professional exploration and analysis of the data from the many prehistoric and historic
archaeological sites and historic structures found throughout the state.

           FLORIDA’S RECREATION PROGRAMMING HISTORY
Until the boom period following World War II, Florida was still largely a sparsely settled,
little developed frontier, with vast expanses of private land open to unrestricted use by the
public. Under such conditions, there seemed little urgency for Florida's government to
undertake any program to acquire, develop and manage land for public outdoor recreation.

Nonetheless, as early as the 1920s it was becoming apparent to a few forward looking
individuals that Florida's frontier days were passing and that the state was destined to
undergo great changes. Through the efforts of these individuals, state government took the
first really significant steps toward protecting and managing Florida’s natural resources. In
1925, a department of game and freshwater fish was established, followed shortly by a forest
service in 1927. In the 1930s, with a major impetus being provided by the federal Civilian
Conservation Corps program, the first real state parks were acquired and placed under the
jurisdiction of the Florida Forest Service. A separate agency was created in 1949 for the
exclusive purpose of developing a state park system.

By the mid-1950s, Florida had a number of effective programs contributing to outdoor
recreation. These programs were largely autonomous, however, and quite often carried out
their work with little regard for other related efforts. Professional agency administrators soon
realized that improved program coordination would result in greater benefit for all. Early in
1957, an informal interagency coordinating committee was formed, and the first in a series of
sporadic conferences was held that year. The immediate focal point of this interagency
committee was the recreational development of the vast water conservation areas in the
Everglades. The Central and Southern Florida Flood Control District and the Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission provided the initiative in this instance and soon enlisted
the cooperation of the Florida Development Commission, the state universities, and several
other agencies. Not long afterward, the agencies organized, elected a chair, obtained the
governor’s sanction, and conducted a series of conferences over the next four years.

In 1961, the Governor's Committee on Recreational Development replaced the informal
coordinating committee. Thus, by inclusion in the Committee name, recreation was
officially recognized as the primary area of responsibility for the interagency body. With an
official status, the Committee could undertake specific program objectives. These objectives
included conducting a detailed study of Florida's outdoor recreation needs and the
formulation of concrete recommendations for early legislative attention. In its 1963 report to
the Legislature, the Committee called for an improved functional arrangement for outdoor
recreation programming and broader financing for land acquisition and development.

These recommendations, combined with years of administrative evolution, produced the
Florida Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Act of 1963 (Chapter 375, Florida Statutes).
This Act established the Florida Outdoor Recreational Development Council, a Cabinet-level
agency responsible for planning and coordinating the implementation of a comprehensive
outdoor recreation program for Florida. In addition, the Act created formal administrative


                                         Chapter 2 - 7
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


machinery for coordination of all state agency outdoor recreation programs and set up a
special Land Acquisition Trust Fund to finance the acquisition and development of outdoor
recreation lands. The 1969 Legislature, through governmental reorganization, transferred the
Council and its functions to the newly organized Department of Natural Resources, Division
of Recreation and Parks. Currently, the Division of Recreation and Parks is within the
Department of Environmental Protection (DEP). The Department was created in 1993 by a
merger of the Departments of Natural Resources and Environmental Regulation. The
Outdoor Recreation and Conservation Act, as amended, still provides the basic guidance for
state outdoor recreation programming.

               EXISTING OUTDOOR RECREATION PROVIDERS
Florida has a wide range of public and private recreation providers, including federal, state,
county and city governments, private-commercial, private-nonprofit, and private-club
suppliers. For the purposes of this plan, the contributors to Florida's outdoor recreation
supply inventory have been classified into one of the following seven categories: federal
government, state government, county government, municipal government, commercial, non-
profit, and club.

Federal and State Government
Both federal and state agencies are concerned with areas and facilities designed to
accommodate the demand for resource-based outdoor recreation. The federal government
provides various types of outdoor recreation areas of national significance, while the state
provides areas and facilities of statewide or regional significance. Historically, the state and
federal governments have not become involved in the direct provision of user-oriented
resources and facilities. This posture has been dictated largely by funding constraints and by
the early recognition that the federal and state governments had to assume the primary
responsibility for locating, acquiring and providing public access to the large, resource-based
recreation areas and facilities.

Most state-level funding for recreation has gone to the acquisition of state parks, forests,
recreation areas, preserves, special feature sites, wildlife management areas, water
management lands and historic sites, as well as state-assisted resource-based parks within
local political subdivisions. This policy will remain substantially unchanged in the
foreseeable future so long as high quality natural and historical resources can be acquired and
developed in those areas of the state where an identified recreational need for them exists. At
the same time, however, the State clearly recognizes that user-oriented recreational needs
must also be met, and has expanded its financial assistance programs to include the
acquisition and development of recreation areas and facilities for user-oriented outdoor
recreation.

County and Municipal Government
Florida’s county and municipal governments are the primary suppliers of the public facilities
needed for user-oriented recreation. Some also provide areas and facilities to fulfill part of
the needs for resource-based outdoor recreation. As urbanization continues in Florida, local



                                         Chapter 2 - 8
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


governments will face increasing pressure to assume a greater role in providing both
user-oriented and resource-based types of recreation.

Commercial Enterprises
Florida’s commercial outdoor recreation providers are a vital component of the state’s
economy. Commercial providers meet a significant portion of the overall demand for both
resource-based and user-oriented outdoor recreation in Florida, particularly tourist-generated
demand. For example, commercial providers supply over 90 of the campgrounds in the state
and meet a considerable portion of the overall demand for camping facilities by residents and
visitors.

Nonprofit Organizations
This category includes private and quasi-public organizations such as the YMCA, 4-H,
scouts, church groups, The Nature Conservancy and other conservation organizations. These
groups provide land and facilities primarily for the use of members, but in some cases for the
public at large.

Clubs
This category includes organizations not certified as non-profit by the Florida Department of
State such as hunt clubs, country clubs, tennis clubs, yacht clubs and others. These groups
manage land or facilities that are primarily available to only to organization members or their
guests. In addition, private industry lands are included (timber companies and other
industries with extensive land holdings whose lands or portions thereof are open to the
public). The majority of these lands are used for resource-based recreation, although some
forms of user-oriented facilities are also available.

                      OUTDOOR RECREATION PROGRAMS
This section describes the programs of the various public and private recreation suppliers
discussed in the previous section. Although the public agencies discussed here have various
other responsibilities, only those related to recreation are addressed. This section does not
include agencies or programs only peripherally related to outdoor recreation, technical
assistance programs, or activity-oriented programs such as those provided by schools.
Further information concerning the programs described in this chapter should be obtained
directly from the sponsoring agency.

State Programs
The State’s responsibilities for providing public recreation in Florida are fulfilled through a
variety of facilities and programs, each unique to the mission of eight separate agencies. A
discussion of each follows.

                         Department of Environmental Protection
The Department of Environmental Protection was created by the Florida Environmental
Reorganization Act of 1993, which merged the Departments of Natural Resources and
Environmental Regulation effective on July 1, 1993. As provided by various chapters of the


                                         Chapter 2 - 9
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Florida Statutes, the Department is charged with the protection, administration, management,
supervision, development and conservation of Florida's natural and cultural resources.

Division of Recreation and Parks
The Division of Recreation and Parks is charged with the responsibility of developing and
operating Florida's recreation and parks system for the enjoyment and benefit of the people
of Florida and its visitors. As of January 2001, the system consisted of 154 areas, comprising
over 557,000 acres of land and water. It contained 46 state parks, 36 state recreation areas,
27 special feature sites, 15 preserves, 5 trails, 5 museums, 4 ornamental gardens, 3 reserves,
2 fishing piers, one wildlife park, one folk cultural center, one underwater archaeological
preserve, and 8 sites that are not designated (See Figure 2.3 and Table 2.2). Between 1993
and 2000, over 152,522 acres of land and water were added to Florida's state park system
under the classifications identified above. In addition to developing and maintaining Florida's
state park system and environmentally sensitive state lands, the Division of Recreation and
Parks administers several programs offering a variety of outdoor recreation opportunities.

The Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program (FRDAP) provides financial
assistance to eligible local governments. Pursuant to Section 375.075, Florida Statutes, and
Chapter 62D-5, Part V, Florida Administrative Code, the Department of Environmental
Protection must recommend to the Legislature that an appropriation of not less than five
percent of the total amount annually credited to the Land Acquisition Trust Fund be
authorized for the program. Effective July 1, 2001, the program will receive two percent of
the Florida Forever Trust Fund. The Legislature may appropriate any amount more or less
than the Department's recommendations.

The program requires a local funding match based on the total project cost. Projects with a
total cost of $50,000 or less can be funded 100 percent by state funds. Projects with a cost of
$50,001 to $150,000 require a 25 percent local match. Projects over $150,000 require a 50
percent match up to the maximum grant amount announced for the submission period.

As of Fiscal Year 1999-00, $86,255,856 in state funds had been expended or obligated under
this program for the acquisition and the development of 1,108 recreation projects. These
ranged from small, local land acquisition projects to those of regional significance
encompassing hundreds of acres. Facility development ranged from single-purpose facilities
providing such things as beach access, picnicking, and ballfields to large multi-activity parks.
In 1991, after conducting a facilities infrastructure assessment study for local parks and
recreation departments, it was determined to add the renovation of older facilities as an
eligible expense for grant projects. Table 2.3 lists the number of projects funded and the total
dollar amount of FRDAP grants awarded in each county.




                                        Chapter 2 - 10
                                                                                        OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                     Table 2.3
                                Florida Recreation Development Assistance Program
                               Grants Awarded by County Through Fiscal Year 1999-00

            NUMBER OF     TOTAL                         NUMBER OF         TOTAL                         NUMBER OF     TOTAL
COUNTY       PROJECTS   OF AWARDS       COUNTY           PROJECTS       OF AWARDS          COUNTY        PROJECTS   OF AWARDS
Alachua            18       1,223,660   Hamilton            5                 180,550      Okeechobee       3             140,000
Baker               7         283,525   Hardee              9                 309,093      Orange           30          2,602,593
Bay                24       1,792,395   Hendry              3                 252,500      Osceola          6             204,868
Bradford            8         328,500   Hernando            10                759,381      Palm Beach       59          4,863,289
Brevard            50       4,295,981   Highlands           8                 460,620      Pasco            12            807,250
Broward           110      10,971,547   Hillsborough        21              2,309,790      Pinellas         59          4,810,391
Calhoun             9         603,333   Holmes              8                 405,500      Polk             27          2,013,608
Charlotte           8         653,156   Indian River        22              2,020,450      Putnam           17          1,240,963
Citrus             13         491,277   Jackson             12                668,448      Santa Rosa       19          1,337,578
Clay               15         610,308   Jefferson           3                 123,655      Sarasota         10          1,066,339
Collier             9         849,060   Lafayette           6                 349,500      Seminole         22          2,025,923
Columbia           10         534,547   Lake                26              1,677,039      St. Johns        13            858,847
Dade               59       6,383,081   Lee                 16              1,078,492      St. Lucie        16          1,372,848
De Soto             3         218,000   Leon                12              1,150,246      Sumter           11            626,500
Dixie               1          50,000   Levy                14                639,825      Suwannee         8             536,375
Duval              19       1,415,029   Liberty             2                 143,750      Taylor           3              62,852
Escambia           15       1,022,967   Madison             11                515,000      Union            5             528,165
Flagler             8         408,198   Manatee             20              1,483,545      Volusia          50          4,232,946
Franklin           11         967,794   Marion              12                938,438      Wakulla          9             477,795
Gadsden            11         518,984   Martin              14              1,096,935      Walton           18          1,095,393
Gilchrist           4         283,300   Monroe              13              1,042,313      Washington       11            713,014
Glades              2         498,884   Nassau              11                783,843
Gulf               10         712,067   Okaloosa            17              1,187,655      TOTAL          1,108        76,255,856




                                                       Chapter 2 - 13
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


The Florida Scenic and Wild Rivers Program was established by administrative action of the
Executive Board of the Department of Natural Resources in January 1972, and revised in
June 1978. The program is intended to preserve the aesthetic and wilderness qualities of
exceptional rivers and streams in Florida. The lower five miles of the Wekiva River, located
in Lake and Seminole Counties, was designated under this program by the Governor and
Cabinet in 1994. In a separate action, the Legislature designated two rivers managed by the
Department as "Wild and Scenic." They are the Northwest Fork of the Loxahatchee River
(7.5 miles) in Martin and Palm Beach Counties and the Myakka River (34 miles) in Sarasota
County. Both the Scenic and Wild and the Wild and Scenic designations are similar to, but
separate from, the national Wild and Scenic Rivers Program discussed later in this chapter
(although the Northwest Fork of the Loxahatchee River is also a federally designated Wild
and Scenic River). Figure 2.4 depicts existing and proposed Wild and Scenic Rivers.

Office of Greenways and Trails
The Office of Greenways and Trails (OGT) was initially created within the Department of
Environmental Protection to manage the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway State
Recreation and Conservation Area (Cross Florida Greenway). The Cross Florida Greenway
is a 110-mile long corridor that was originally intended for development as a ship canal
cutting across the state from near the town of Crystal River on the Gulf Coast to the St. Johns
River on the east coast. After the federal government deauthorized the uncompleted canal
project, the lands were released to the state for development as a multiple-use recreational
corridor.

In 1995, the Florida Legislature designated the DEP as the lead state agency responsible for
developing and implementing a statewide network of greenways and trails within Florida,
and these responsibilities were assigned to the OGT. The implementation plan was adopted
in September of 1998 and contains seven major recommendations on a variety of topics
including acquisition, management, partnership building, interagency coordination and
informing and educating the public. The department has adopted administrative rules, which
establish procedures for the review and approval of acquisition projects as well as the
designation of greenways and trails as part of the statewide system.

In 1999 the Florida Legislature created the Florida Greenways and Trails Council (FGTC), a
21- member group which will advise the DEP on acquisition, designation and other related
issues. In addition to 10 government representatives, there are five representatives of the trail
user community, five representatives of the greenway user community and one member
representing private landowners. The FGTC meets quarterly.

The Recreational Trails Program was established by the U.S. Congress through the
Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act (ISTEA) of 1991 and reauthorized in 1998
under the Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21). It provides funds
through the State of Florida to eligible applicants for developing and maintaining recreational
trails. The Office of Greenways and Trails administers the program in coordination with the
U.S. Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Municipal,




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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


county, state and federal governmental agencies and non-governmental organizations
approved by the Department are eligible for Recreational Trails Program funds. As of Fiscal
Year 1999-00, the state has expended or obligated FHWA funds in the amount $1,262,498 to
40 projects (See Figure 2.5).

The Division of State Lands
The Division of State Lands was created in 1979 in the reorganization of the Department of
Natural Resources (Section 79-225, Laws of Florida). Technically, the Division serves
primarily as staff to the Governor and Cabinet sitting as the Board of Trustees of the Internal
Improvement Trust Fund. The Division provides oversight for approximately 10,348,177
acres of state-owned lands including more than 7,000 lakes and 4,510 islands of 10 acres or
more in size. Upland acreage is 2,474,145. The remaining 7,874,032 acres are sovereign
submerged lands.

The Conservation and Recreation Lands Trust Fund (CARL) was established by the Florida
Legislature in 1979 (Section 259.032 (2)(a), Florida Statutes), to provide a means of
acquiring and managing environmentally endangered lands and other lands for recreation,
water management, and preservation of significant archaeological and historical sites. The
program was initially funded with $27 million remaining from its predecessor, the $200
million Environmentally Endangered Lands Program (authorized by the Land Conservation
Act of 1972), in combination with a portion of the annual revenues obtained from severance
taxes on solid minerals and liquid fuels. In 1987, the Legislature shifted the primary funding
base for the CARL program to the state excise tax on documents (property deeds, stock
certificates, bonds, promissory notes and similar items), but retained the first $10 million
from severance taxes on phosphate mineral extractions.

The Florida Preservation 2000 Program, established by the 1990 Legislature further
augmented funding for the CARL program by allocating $150 million per year in bond funds
for the acquisition of CARL projects. Another $150 million per year in Florida Preservation
2000 bond funds were allocated to the state’s water management districts, the Florida
Communities Trust, and the inholdings and additions programs of the Division of Recreation
and Parks, the Division of Forestry and the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The
Florida Preservation 2000 Program was a ten-year program established to raise $300 million
per year for a total of $3 billion. The last series of Florida Preservation 2000 bonds was sold
in the spring of 2000. As of December of 1999, over $1.66 billion has been committed to the
CARL program for acquiring over 900,000 acres of conservation and outdoor recreation
lands. Figure 2.6 and Table 2.4 show the location and names of acquired and partially
acquired CARL projects.

The Florida Forever Program created by the 1999 Legislature succeeded the Florida
Preservation 2000 Program. It will provide another $3 billion over the next 10 years for land
acquisition and restoration. In March 2000, the Land Acquisition and Management Advisory
Council (which selects and ranks CARL projects) was replaced by the newly established
Acquisition and Restoration Council. This council is composed of nine members: the
Secretary of the Department of Environmental Protection, the Director of the Division of



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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Forestry, the Executive Director of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, the
Director of the Division of Historical Resources, the Secretary of the Department of
Community Affairs, and four appointees of the Governor. The Acquisition and Restoration
Council will select and rank Florida Forever projects for consideration by the Board of
Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund.

In addition to the above changes in program administration, the Florida Forever Act created
the Florida Forever Advisory Council, an oversight body charged with establishing goals and
performance measures for evaluating the effectiveness of the successor to the CARL
acquisition program. The Council will also make recommendations to the Legislature on the
amount of funds that each of the Florida Forever funded programs should receive, and on
improvements in how these programs will function. The Council is composed of seven
appointees of the Governor and two ad hoc members from the Legislature (one from the
Senate and one from the House of Representatives). The Florida Forever Advisory Council
is required to report to the Secretary of the Department of Environmental Protection, the
Board of Trustees of the Internal Improvement Trust Fund, and the Legislature every two
years beginning in 2000.

Division of Water Resource Management
The Surface Mine Reclamation Program, authorized in Chapter 211, Part II, and Chapter
378, Florida Statutes, regulates surface mine reclamation through a review and monitoring
process. Under the program, mining companies may submit proposals for the reclamation or
restoration of mined surface lands to be funded under the Non-mandatory Land Reclamation
Trust Fund. Projects are prioritized for funding under several criteria, one of which is
whether the land is eligible for acquisition by the state for hunting, fishing or other outdoor
recreation purposes or wildlife preservation. After approval of a proposed reclamation or
restoration plan, the Division periodically monitors the progress of reclamation operations to
ensure compliance with approved plans and procedures.

Office of the Deputy Secretary for Regulatory Programs
The Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems implements two separate strategies to protect
and preserve Florida’s beaches. The first strategy is the Beach Erosion Control Program that
promotes the development and implementation of a statewide strategic beach management
plan. This program works to restore the state’s critically eroding beaches through beach
restoration and inlet management. The second strategy includes regulatory programs that
prohibit imprudent construction that could result in damage to the beach and dune system,
natural resources, or the structures themselves. The regulatory programs are the Coastal
Construction Control Line Program and the Joint Coastal Permitting Program. Together,
these two strategies work to protect the beach and dune system, preserve public access, and
provide recreational opportunities.
Deputy Secretary for Land and Recreational Services
Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas (CAMA)
The Florida Aquatic Preserve Act of 1975 (Chapter 258, F.S.) allows the State to manage
estuarine and marine aquatic preserves within the coastal zone. A designated aquatic
preserve may include open water areas, coastal marshes, mangrove islands, grass flats, sandy


                                        Chapter 2 - 20
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


beaches, and other features of estuarine, lagoon or near shore marine tidal water bodies.
Generally, aquatic preserves are areas that provide an essential natural habitat for various
living resources, including fish and wildlife. The State also recognizes aquatic preserves for
their scenic and recreational qualities. A number of areas have been designated as aquatic
preserves to protect the aesthetics of contiguous state parks and to provide recreational
opportunities such as fishing, boating and swimming. In an effort to buffer aquatic preserves
from the impacts of storm water runoff and coastal development, the State has an ongoing
effort to purchase and manage adjacent upland sites that are known as state buffer preserves.
The management of endangered species and habitat diversity in both the upland and aquatic
sites are also of primary consideration.

CAMA’s mission is to protect, conserve and manage coastal and aquatic ecosystems through
environmental education, resource management, scientific research, environmental
monitoring, and partnerships. The office currently manages 41 aquatic preserves and 12
buffer preserves throughout the state (See Figure 2.7). Office-managed uplands have limited
facilities designed to promote resource-based recreation such as hiking, fishing and nature
interpretation. The office also manages three national estuarine research reserves and co-
manages The Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuaries (See Figure 2.20).

Division of Law Enforcement
The Division of Law Enforcement employs 135 officers and supervisors who are state police
officers with full powers of arrest. The Division has three operational bureaus—the Bureau
of Environmental Investigations, the Bureau of Emergency Response, and the Bureau of
Florida Park Patrol. The Bureau of Environmental Investigations’ 48 special agents work
with federal, state, and local law enforcement and with public and private organizations to
investigate major environmental crimes. The Bureau of Emergency Response responds 24
hours a day to oil and hazardous material incidents or situations that represent a threat to the
public safety or the environment. It also provides technical and logistical support in the
investigation of environmental crimes, and coordinates the department’s environmental
protection functions during natural, manmade, or technological disasters. The Bureau plans
and coordinates its activities as appropriate with counterparts at the local, state, and federal
levels. The Bureau of Florida Park Patrol is responsible for protecting the lives and property
of visitors to state parks, reserves, greenways and trails, and aquatic preserves. The Office of
Training and Public Education provides agency officers with professional training as well as
educating the public regarding environmental issues.




                                        Chapter 2 - 21
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



                                 Water Management Districts
Chapter 373, Florida Statutes, created five water management districts for the purpose of
managing and conserving the state’s water resources. The five districts—the Northwest
Florida, Suwannee River, St. Johns River, Southwest Florida, and South Florida Water
Management Districts—cover the entire state. Land acquisition is one of the districts’
primary tools for carrying out their mission of flood control, water storage and management,
and preservation of wetlands, streams and lakes.

The districts play a significant role in providing public outdoor recreation opportunities.
Although the districts acquire land through the Save Our Rivers Program primarily for
wetlands protection and water storage and management, the law requires that the lands be
made available for compatible public outdoor recreation. Numerous access sites and related
recreational facilities have been developed in cooperation with other state agencies, the
federal government, counties, municipalities and the private sector. The types of recreation
activities permitted are resource-based such as hiking, fishing, hunting, horseback riding,
bicycling, canoeing, camping, and wildlife viewing. Program funding is derived from the
state’s documentary excise tax, and revenues are allocated to the five districts by the
Department of Environmental Protection according to a distribution formula contained in
Section 373.59, Florida Statutes. Figure 2.8 depicts lands acquired under the Save our Rivers
program.

                          Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
As provided by Article IV, Section 9, of the Florida Constitution, and embodied in Chapter
372, Florida Statutes, the Commission is charged with exercising all the non-judicial powers
of the state with respect to wild animals and freshwater aquatic life. As part of its program,
the Commission administers both wildlife and fish management areas. The Commission
receives federal funds for the preservation, restoration and enhancement of Florida’s fish and
wildlife resources from the Endangered Species, Pittman-Robertson and Dingell-Johnson
programs of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

The Commission manages 101 wildlife management areas comprising over 5.48 million
acres of state, federal and privately owned lands. The primary recreational activity on
Florida’s wildlife management areas is hunting, but other recreation activities including
hiking, wildlife viewing, fishing, horseback riding and picnicking are offered. The
Commission’s recreational improvements include developing and maintaining user access,
interpretive facilities, observation towers, camping areas, boat ramps and facilities for
recreational shooting.

In addition, the Commission manages 18 Wildlife and Environmental areas comprising some
150,000 acres. These 18 areas contain unique and sensitive resources and are maintained
primarily for wildlife and habitat management. Many of these lands were purchased under
the Environmentally Endangered Lands and CARL Programs, and may be used for passive
recreational pursuits, with hunting and fishing opportunities available on some tracts. Figure
2.9 depicts Wildlife Management Areas and Wildlife and Environmental Areas.



                                        Chapter 2 - 23
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


The Commission’s fish management program includes 79 fish management areas, totaling
over 69,000 acres of public water. Recreational enhancement of these areas includes
managing fish populations, maintaining boat ramps and fishing piers, stocking game fish,
installing fish attractors, and controlling aquatic plants. Figure 2.10 depicts Fish
Management Areas.

In addition to its responsibilities for game and fish management, the Commission conducts a
nongame and endangered species program. The purpose of this program is to conserve
wildlife diversity by providing scientific research, technical assistance, and public
information on nongame and endangered species.

Artificial Reef Development Program
This program provides financial assistance from state and federal sources to coastal local
governments and specified non-profit organizations for the development of saltwater
artificial fishing reefs. Eligible expenditures include engineering, transportation and
preparation of reef materials to an approved site, and monitoring of the reef for compliance
and effectiveness. The program is administered under Chapter 16R-9, Florida
Administrative Code. In addition to financial assistance, the program also provides technical
assistance to local coastal governments in developing and managing artificial reefs. Figure
2.11 depicts Florida’s artificial reefs.

Office of Fisheries Management and Assistance Services
The Office of Fisheries Management and Assistance Services is responsible for provision of
public information on various fisheries issues such as angler outreach services. The Office
also provides liaison services to the Florida Marine Fisheries Commission, and participates in
the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and Gulf States Marine Fisheries
Commission committees. Additional responsibilities include facilitating statewide artificial
reef development, monitoring fishery quotas and providing technical coordination of
sportfish restoration efforts. Finally, the Office directs the issuance of wholesale and retail
seafood dealer’s licenses, and commercial and saltwater products fishing licenses and
permits.

Bureau of Protected Species Management
The Bureau of Protected Species Management (BPSM) is responsible for planning and
implementing management activities directed towards the protection and recovery of
manatees, other marine mammals (e.g., the endangered right whale), sea turtles, and their
essential habitats. The BPSM serves as the Commission’s primary liaison with appropriate
federal, state, and local governments to facilitate comprehensive planning. Implementation
of protection activities primarily takes the form of state rule development, review and
comment on development permit applications, and assistance to local governments with
species-specific protection plans on an area-specific basis. One of the main objectives of the
Bureau’s activities is to minimize recreation impacts to protected species. The Bureau also
implements specific tasks listed in the Florida Manatee Recovery Plan and Recovery Plans
for endangered and threatened marine turtles. The Bureau’s marine mammal activities are
funded from the Save the Manatee Trust Fund. Sea turtle activities are funded from a
separate Marine Resources Conservation Trust Fund and through grants.


                                        Chapter 2 - 24
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Mitigation Park Program
Attempts to protect listed wildlife through land use regulations in Florida have frequently
involved the on-site preservation of habitat within the boundaries of a development.
In response to some of the problems associated with on-site mitigation, the Commission
authorized the development and implementation of the Mitigation Park Program as an
alternative wildlife mitigation strategy. The goal of this program is to provide development
interests with a biologically defensible offsite alternative for resolving certain wildlife
resource conflicts. In practice, this program consolidates mitigation throughout a
geographical region and directs these efforts towards the acquisition of a large and
manageable Mitigation Park. Each park is publicly owned and ranges in size between 350
and 2,000 acres. Management activities are tailored to emphasize the protection and
enhancement of habitat important to upland listed wildlife. Figure 2.12 depicts existing
mitigation parks.

In general, the program is able to increase the biological effectiveness of mitigation while
minimizing economic costs to the development community. More specifically, it (1)
provides an opportunity to direct wildlife habitat protection and acquisition efforts to the
most biologically important sites in a region; (2) can consolidate many otherwise small and
isolated protection efforts into larger units which maximizes resource protection efforts; (3)
allows public access to and use of mitigation lands that are managed by the state for the long
term protection of wildlife resources; and (4) from an economic perspective, use of
mitigation parks is a cheaper form of mitigation than preserving acreage within a
development, and developers retain greater use of a project site for development.

The responsibility for the management of lands acquired through the mitigation park program
rests with the Commission. These parks are managed primarily to enhance listed species
populations, particularly those animals for which state and federal approvals are required
prior to their being impacted by new land development. All mitigation parks are designated
by the Commission as Wildlife and Environmental Areas, and are open to the public for low
intensity forms of recreation such as hiking and nature study. To date, the Mitigation Park
program has received over $10 million in deposits and has purchased mitigation sites in five
of the state’s eleven regional planning councils. As of Fiscal Year 1999-00 some 7,245 acres
have been acquired and are under management by the Commission as Mitigation Parks.

The Great Florida Birding Trail
The Commission and the Florida Department of Transportation are cosponsors of The Great
Florida Birding Trail, a 2,000-mile highway trail that unifies existing and new birding sites
throughout Florida. This project combines special highway signs identifying Birding Trail
sites with a flipchart map showcasing Florida’s birding opportunities. At completion, the
trail will consist of a series of loops, each containing five to ten sites that highlight
communities and special ecosystems. The first section, the East Florida Birding Trail, will
be completed during the year 2000. The project involves birders, biologists, planners, park
and recreation directors, site managers and anyone interested in birding.




                                        Chapter 2 - 29
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


            Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, Division of Forestry
The Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services, through its Division of Forestry, is a
significant contributor to Florida’s total outdoor recreation supply. The Division, operating
under Chapter 589, Florida Statutes, promotes outdoor recreational enjoyment of natural
resources by furnishing facilities and programs within the state forest system. The Division’s
primary outdoor recreation objective is to maximize compatible recreational use of forest
lands. Through the years, provision of recreation opportunities in state forests has been
guided largely by public demand. It ranges in scope from the development of game habitat,
as part of the basic forest management program, to the provision of fully developed
campgrounds.

Florida’s state forest system, consists of 30 state forests (See Figure 2.13) totaling some
835,513 acres, and providing abundant opportunities for many popular outdoor recreation
activities. The Division also cooperates with other state and local agencies for the
management of an additional 518,385 acres. Resource-based recreation opportunities offered
by the Division include camping, swimming, hiking, horseback riding, bicycling, fishing and
nature study. Hunting is permitted on many Division managed properties, and is regulated
by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission as part of that agency's wildlife
management program.

Besides directly providing resources and facilities for outdoor recreation, the Division assists
private landowners in developing forest management plans that often include a recreation
component. At the landowner’s request the Division will assess the land's potential for
hunting, fishing, wildlife management, water access facilities, camping and related activities.
The Division will also assist landowners in designing facilities such as campgrounds, boat
ramps and hiking trails, and with other arrangements necessary to make the land available for
recreational purposes.

                     Department of State, Division of Historical Resources
The Department of State has a variety of programs that contribute to the provision of public
recreational opportunities. Its Division of Historical Resources has the responsibility under
Chapter 267, Florida Statutes, for identifying, preserving, protecting and interpreting
Florida's historic and cultural heritage. The Division works cooperatively with other
agencies, museums and historical organizations to collect, preserve and exhibit material
evidence of the past that interprets history and thus provides opportunities for recreational
experiences.

The Division indirectly provides recreational opportunities through an operating agreement
with the Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks, under
which it authenticates and makes recommendations regarding the management and
interpretation of archaeological and historical sites managed as part of the state park system.
The Division formally participates in acquisition and management of state-owned lands
through its membership on the Acquisition and Restoration Council. The Division also
prepares the State's comprehensive historic preservation plan and assists Florida's counties
and regional planning councils in drafting historic preservation elements of comprehensive



                                        Chapter 2 - 31
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


plans. The Division also receives and expends grant monies allocated to Florida from the
Historic Preservation Trust Fund administered by the National Park Service.

State Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aid Program
Since 1984, the Division with the assistance of the Historic Preservation Advisory Council,
has administered the State's Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aid Program. These matching
grants are awarded to government agencies and non-profit organizations for survey and
registration activities and for the restoration, rehabilitation, and preservation of historic
properties. Funds are also used for community education projects such as the publication of
booklets or brochures about historic sites of Florida and educational programs for school
children. Funds for this program include appropriations by the legislature, state dedicated
funding, and federal funding.

Historic Marker Program
The Florida Historical Marker Program is a cooperative effort between the Department of
State and local organizations to recognize properties, persons and events that are significant
in the areas of architecture, archaeology, Florida history and traditional culture. The purpose
of the program is to increase public awareness of the rich cultural heritage of the state and to
enhance the enjoyment of historic sites in Florida by its citizens and tourists.

Florida Master Site File
The Florida Master Site File is a paper file archive and computer database of all known
archaeological sites in Florida. The Master Site File is an archival record providing a
database upon which acquisition, preservation, restoration and development decisions can be
made. There are currently more than 106,000 historical structures and archaeological sites
listed on the site file. These properties are not required to meet any minimum level of
historical or scientific importance, but all are at least fifty years old, and adequately located
and documented. These sites represent the known physical remains of Florida’s prehistoric
and historic cultural heritage. Through various files, the Division can identify those
historical, archaeological and other cultural resources that can be made available for public
recreation.

Historical Museums Grants-in-Aid Program
Since 1989, the Division of Historical Resources has administered the Historical Museums
Grants-in-Aid Program. This program provides funding for the development of educational
exhibits relating to the history of Florida. These matching grants are available to government
agencies and non-profit organizations. Grants are also available to assist Florida history
museums with basic operational costs. These matching grants are available to museums that
interpret Florida history that are operated by private non-profit organizations or non-state
governmental entities.

Museum of Florida History and its Historic Sites
The Division of Historical Resources operates the Museum of Florida History, the historic
Old Capitol, Mission San Luis and a number of other historical sites (See Figure 2.14). All



                                         Chapter 2 - 33
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


of these facilities are open to the public and provide recreational and educational
opportunities, including exhibits, lectures, workshops, summer camps and field trips. The
Division also sponsors annual special events including the Florida Folk Festival and Rural
Folklife Days that provide educational opportunities for the general public and school
students.

Community Education Programs
The Division of Historical Resources’ community education program provides public
information on statewide historic preservation issues. In addition to producing a statewide
newsletter and heritage tourism magazine, the division produces the Florida Cuban Heritage
Trail and the Florida Black Heritage Trail, two ethnic heritage publications. The
publications serve as education and travel guides for Florida’s residents and visitors to learn
more about Cuban and African American contributions to Florida’s cultural heritage.

                                  Department of Transportation
In providing for the state's transportation needs, the Department of Transportation under
Chapter 334, Florida Statutes, gives consideration to the preservation and enhancement of the
environment and the conservation of natural resources, including scenic, historic and
recreational assets. Florida's highway system affords a vast number of scenic recreational
opportunities, but perhaps its most significant contribution to outdoor recreation is providing
access to Florida's recreational resources. The Department constructs and maintains rest
areas for public use, and provides opportunities for water-based recreation on causeways and
bridges. Additionally, the Department administers the State Pedestrian/Bicycle Program and
the Florida Scenic Highway Program.

State Pedestrian/Bicycle Program
As a means of promoting alternative transportation modes and recreational bicycling in
Florida, the Department of Transportation has developed a State Pedestrian/Bicycle Program.
The Department develops initiatives and programs to improve the environment for safe,
comfortable, and convenient walking and bicycling trips and to improve the performance and
interaction among motorists, bicyclists, and pedestrians. As part of this program, the position
of State Bicycle/Pedestrian Coordinator was created and district bicycle/pedestrian
coordinators were designated for each of the Department's seven field operations regions. In
addition, 12 municipal bicycle/pedestrian coordinators were designated to be responsible for
developing and updating design, maintenance and operation guidelines for all state,
municipal and local bicycle facilities. A comprehensive statewide Pedestrian Safety Plan
was developed and is currently being implemented.

Florida Scenic Highway Program
The Florida Scenic Highway program is designed to showcase outstanding cultural,
historical, archeological, recreational, natural and scenic resources along Florida’s state
highways. The primary intent is to designate roadway corridors to preserve, maintain,
protect and enhance intrinsic resources for the traveling public’s enjoyment. The program is
a grassroots effort that emphasizes community-based consensus and partnerships to promote
economic prosperity and to broaden the traveler’s overall recreational and educational


                                        Chapter 2 - 35
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


experience. Designated highways will “tell a story” that is representative of Florida’s past
and present lifestyles. The program is administered by the FDOT and highway nominations
are made voluntarily at the local level. There are currently nine designated scenic highways:
the Pensacola Scenic Bluffs Highway in Escambia County, the William Bartram Scenic and
Historic Highway and the Scenic and Historic A1A in St. Johns County, the Flagler County
and the Flagler Beach Scenic Highways in Flagler County, the Indian River Lagoon Scenic
Highway in Brevard County, the U.S. 441 Scenic Highway in Alachua and Marion Counties,
The Tamiami Trail Scenic Highway in Collier County, and the Overseas Heritage Trail
Scenic Highway in Dade County. Two additional highways are soon to be designated. They
are a 2.8 mile section of State Road 789 on Anna Maria Island in Manatee County, and an as
yet undetermined corridor on the west coast to be called the Big Bend Scenic Byway.

                                     Department of Education
The Department of Education coordinates the development and operation of Florida's public
education system and administers the State's post-secondary public educational institutions.
The State University System, composed of colleges and universities, and the community
college system, together administer over 10,000 acres of recreational land and open space.
Each university has an approved Master Plan that addresses the issue of outdoor recreation
space. Recreational facilities maintained by the Department provide opportunities for
participation in a variety of athletic activities such as tennis, basketball, baseball, softball,
soccer and football. In addition to the recreation facilities provided on campuses, many state
universities operate resource-based recreation areas detached from the main campus for use
by students, alumni, and in some instances, the general public. The areas provide
opportunities for both active and passive outdoor recreation activities, such as golfing,
swimming, canoeing, hiking, camping, nature study and picnicking. The Department is also
responsible for coordinating environmental education programs in the state.

                             Department of Community Affairs
Established in 1969, the Department of Community Affairs offers technical and financial
assistance to local governments in a wide range of functional areas. The Department assists
local and regional governments on resource management and protection matters through its
involvement in resource planning and management committees established by the governor
in accordance with Chapter 380, Florida Statutes. As the state planning agency, the
Department is also charged with coordinating state-level review of local government
comprehensive plans and comprehensive regional policy plans required by Chapters 163 and
186, Florida Statutes.

Coastal Management Program
In adopting the Florida Coastal Management Act of 1978 (Section 380, Part II, Florida
Statutes), the Legislature directed that Florida's coastal management program be structured
around existing statutes and rules with emphasis on improved coordination of ongoing
management efforts. The primary legal authorities for Florida's Coastal Management
Program, therefore, are codified under 23 chapters in the Florida Statutes. Among these
statutes, several are directly related to acquisition of beach accesses and conservation and
recreation lands, and management of coastal state parks, recreational trails and aquatic
preserves. Other chapters indirectly relate to outdoor recreation through resource concerns


                                         Chapter 2 - 36
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


such as environmental regulatory authority and intergovernmental coordination. The
program was initially administered by the Department of Environmental Regulation, but
program was transferred to the Department of Community Affairs on July 1, 1992.

Each year the FCMP makes a portion of the funding it receives from the National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) available through a competitive process for the
completion of innovative projects. The FCMP issues a notice of availability of funding that
identifies priority issues that may be addressed by applications. In recent years, the priority
issues addressed by projects funded by the FCMP have included beach access. Applicants
may propose both land acquisition as well as planning efforts and small-scale improvements
such as dune walkovers to address access. Because of the low dollar cap imposed by NOAA
on such projects, generally only planning and improvements have been proposed; land
acquisition costs generally exceed the dollar cap. The FCMP has also provided standardized
beach access signage free of charge to interested local governments.

Recently the FCMP has provided funding to assist the Department of State Division of
Historical Resources to establish the Florida Maritime Heritage Trail to provide “virtual”
access to a variety of coastal and recreational resources. The Maritime Heritage Trail is
located on the Department of State’s web site. Funds have also been provided through the
competitive application process under the “Access to Coastal Resources: issue to a county to
develop a series of connecting canoe and kayak trails.

Florida Communities Trust
The Florida Communities Trust (FCT) helps local governments implement their
comprehensive plans through the acquisition of land, utilizing funds from the state's
Preservation 2000 Act and, beginning in 2001, the Florida Forever Act. The FCT program
differs from other state land acquisition programs, focusing exclusively on locally selected
acquisition projects (See Figure 2.15 and Table 2.5). Additionally, local governments hold
title and manage lands purchased with FCT dollars, unlike other state land acquisition
programs. FCT has a directive to help communities buy important conservation and
recreation lands that do not fit into other state funded land-buying programs. The FCT staff
assists local officials, planners and acquisition staff throughout the process by conducting
pre-application workshops and providing technical assistance with grant applications,
appraisals, and acquisitions.

Under the FCT's Preservation 2000 Program between 1991-2000, 129 cities and 46 counties
were awarded land acquisition grants. A total of 376 project sites with the total estimated
land value of $704,661,257 (including local government match) have been approved.

Under the Florida Forever Act the FCT will receive 22% of the Florida Forever funds,
projected as $66 million annually, to distribute as grants to eligible applicants for the
purchase of urban open space, parks, and greenways to implement local government




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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


comprehensive plans. From funds available to the trust and used for land acquisition, 75
percent is to be matched dollar-for-dollar by local governments. Thirty percent of the total
allocation of funds provided to FCT shall be used in metropolitan areas and one-half of that
amount is to be used in certain specified localities. From the funds allocated to FCT, no less
than five percent is to be used to acquire lands for recreational trail systems if needed.


Sustainable Communities Program
The Governor's Commission for a Sustainable South Florida recommended the creation of
"sustainable communities". The Commission's vision of a "sustainable communities"
program, which would create a new relationship with the State, would combine fiscal and
regulatory incentives to contain sprawl and develop truly sustainable communities. The 1996
Florida Legislature endorsed the Commission's recommendation with the passage of the
Florida Sustainable Communities Demonstration Project, encoded as section 163.3244,
Florida Statutes. The project promotes six broad principles of sustainability including key
ecosystems restoration; a cleaner, healthier environment; limit urban sprawl; protect wildlife
and natural areas; the efficient use of land and other resources; and creation of quality
communities and jobs. The designated sustainable communities are Boca Raton, Martin
County, Ocala, Orlando, and the City of Tampa with Hillsborough County.

Federal Programs
The federal government has statutory responsibility for development of facilities and
programs that provide public opportunities that are not, or cannot, be made available by state
or local government. Federal roles in outdoor recreation include the management of
federally owned properties such as parks, forests, wildlife preserves and reservoir areas, and
the administration of financial and technical assistance programs to aid state and local
agencies and private citizens.

                            United States Department of the Interior
The Department of the Interior was created by Congress in 1849 (43 United State Code
1451). The Department's recreational responsibilities include the administration of the
nation's scenic and historic areas; the conservation, development and utilization of fish and
wildlife resources; and the coordination of federal and state recreation programs. Within the
Department of Interior, the following agencies and programs directly or indirectly contribute
to the provision of outdoor recreation in Florida.

National Park Service
The National Park Service, created by Congress in 1916, is charged with the responsibility of
conserving scenery, natural and historic objects, and wildlife. It administers the nation's
parks and historical and recreational areas. Acquisition and development of these resources
for such purposes as providing camping, boating, swimming, hiking, historical interpretation
and horseback riding are governed by the Service's determination of public demands and
needs for such facilities.




                                        Chapter 2 - 40
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


In addition to its responsibilities for the direct provision of outdoor recreation resources, the
Service assumed a number of other recreational responsibilities upon its consolidation with
the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service in 1981. Serving the states as the federal
focal point for outdoor recreation, the Service has duties in planning, coordinating and
developing national recreation policy, conducting surveys of recreational resources and needs
in the United States, and developing a plan to meet these needs. The Service also provides
financial and technical assistance for state recreation planning, land acquisition and
development.

In Florida, the National Park Service administers 11 areas comprising over 2.5 million acres
of land set aside for its natural or historic interest (See Figure 2.16). Examples of Florida's
original domain are preserved at Gulf Islands National Seashore, Canaveral National
Seashore, Big Cypress National Preserve, and the Dry Tortugas, Biscayne and Everglades
National Parks. All of these areas offer a wide range of public outdoor recreational activities
such as camping, swimming, boating, fishing, nature study, picnicking and canoeing. A
discussion of additional NPS programs follows.

Land and Water Conservation Fund Program: The National Park Service administers the
federal Land and Water Conservation Fund. The program, developed in 1964, was extended
by 25 years in 1989. The purpose of the program is to provide a system to fund federal, state
and local parks and conservation areas, and to give states and local governments incentives to
plan and invest in their own park systems. An annual apportionment from the fund is made
available to the State of Florida for distribution to state agencies and local governmental
entities for approved, high-quality outdoor recreation projects meeting needs identified in the
State's comprehensive outdoor recreation plan.

Funds can generally be used to acquire, develop and rehabilitate outdoor recreation areas.
The program encourages conservation of key open spaces such as river and ocean fronts,
forests, wetlands and mountains. There is a requirement that lands purchased with grants be
made accessible to the public for appropriate recreation uses such as fishing, picnicking,
swimming, biking, hiking, nature study, canoeing and playing baseball to name a few.

The LWCF state grant program matches up to 50 percent of the cost of the project, with the
balance of project funds paid by state or local government. Funds are administered by the
Florida Department of Environmental Protection. Since Fiscal Year 1995, Congress has not
appropriated funding for the state program. Table 2.6 shows the number of LWCF projects
and total amount of grants awarded, by county, through Fiscal Year 1994/95.

Urban Parks and Recreation Recovery Program: The Urban Parks and Recreation Recovery
Program, established in 1978 by Public Law 95-625, authorized the Secretary of the Interior
to establish a five-year program to provide federal grants to economically depressed urban
areas for the physical rehabilitation of deteriorated recreation facilities. The law encouraged
systematic local planning and commitment to recreation programs, sites, and facilities.
Financial assistance is available through the National Park Service to qualified local
governments on a matching basis of 70 percent federal and 30 percent local.




                                         Chapter 2 - 41
                                                                                          OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                      Table 2.6
                                  Federal Land and Water Conservation Fund Program
                                 Grants Awarded by County Through Fiscal Year 1994-95

              NUMBER OF     TOTAL                         NUMBER OF         TOTAL                          NUMBER OF     TOTAL
COUNTY         PROJECTS   OF AWARDS       COUNTY           PROJECTS       OF AWARDS          COUNTY         PROJECTS   OF AWARDS
Alachua           6           3,087,972   Hamilton            2                 187,385      Okeechobee        0                   0
Baker             0                   0   Hardee              0                       0      Orange            11          3,012,962
Bay               4             277,327   Hendry              0                       0      Osceola           2             187,894
Bradford          0                   0   Hernando            0                       0      Palm Beach        19          9,111,137
Brevard           20          2,488,336   Highlands           1                   7,747      Pasco             7             799,184
Broward           46         11,732,351   Hillsborough        15              3,554,742      Pinellas          26         11,232,266
Calhoun           0                   0   Holmes              0                       0      Polk              6             569,740
Charlotte         4             831,500   Indian River        8                 992,216      Putnam            1              94,000
Citrus            1              50,000   Jackson             0                       0      Santa Rosa        1              90,350
Clay              0                   0   Jefferson           0                       0      Sarasota          7           3,594,514
Collier           2             196,676   Lafayette           0                       0      Seminole          6             870,406
Columbia          1             289,000   Lake                4                 371,125      St. Johns         1             149,685
Dade              36         16,515,874   Lee                 7               1,534,241      St. Lucie         7             796,802
De Soto           0                   0   Leon                4                 831,915      Sumter            0                   0
Dixie             1               7,433   Levy                2                 861,300      Suwannee          1              91,789
Duval             9           3,577,781   Liberty             0                       0      Taylor            2             216,757
Escambia          2           1,173,975   Madison             0                       0      Union             0                   0
Flagler           0                   0   Manatee             7                 884,034      Volusia           20          4,845,531
Franklin          3           1,812,500   Marion              1                  31,704      Wakulla           2             135,134
Gadsden           1              24,244   Martin              4                 402,873      Walton            1              17,000
Gilchrist         0                   0   Monroe              8               1,373,604      Washington        0                   0
Glades            0                   0   Nassau              1                  38,036      Multicounty       2          10,967,842
Gulf              0                   0   Okaloosa            1                 100,000

Total            324        100,018,885
Acquisition      136         61,732,168
Development      166         31,755,554
Other            22           6,531,162




                                                         Chapter 2 - 43
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


As of December 31, 1995, a total of 68 local government projects had been approved in
Florida at a cost of $10.4 million (federal share) since the program's inception in 1979. A
total of $25 million was appropriated for the Urban Parks and Recreation Recovery Program
in 1991and 1992 for the first time since 1983. After five years with no funding, the UPARR
program received funding in fiscal year 2000 of $2 million; and in fiscal year 2001, the
program received an appropriation of $30 million.

National Wild and Scenic Rivers System: The National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968
(16 United States Code 1271), states that wild or scenic rivers must "possess outstandingly
remarkable scenic, cultural, or other similar values. Further, the Act requires that they "shall
be preserved in a free-flowing condition, and that they and their immediate environments
shall be protected for the benefit and enjoyment of present and future generations." In
accordance with this Act, the U.S. Department of the Interior submitted a detailed study to
the President and Congress in March 1974. The report found the Suwannee River in Florida
and Georgia eligible for inclusion in the national Wild and Scenic River System, but
recommended state rather than federal protection. Florida's Suwannee River Water
Management District has served as the focal point for carrying out state and local
coordination, land acquisition, and other actions to protect the Suwannee River's scenic
corridor.

In 1982, the Department of the Interior completed feasibility studies on the Loxahatchee
River and the Myakka River as potential additions to the Wild and Scenic River System.
During 1985, the Florida Department of Natural Resources and the South Florida Water
Management District developed a management program for the permanent protection and
enhancement of a 7.5-mile segment of the Loxahatchee River. In June 1985, the river was
designated by the Secretary of the Interior as Florida's first national Wild and Scenic River
and the sixty-sixth component of the national system. The Myakka, like the Suwannee, was
found eligible, but recommended for state protection. In 1994, a study of the St. Mary’s
River for possible designation as a Wild and Scenic River was completed. Although eligible
for designation, the St. Mary’s River was not recommended because a suitable management
alternative was not found. In 1999, a study was completed for the Wekiva River in Orange,
Seminole and Lake Counties. The study recommended federal designation with state
management. Legislation is pending in Congress to designate the river. Figure 2.4 earlier in
this chapter shows the location existing and proposed state and federally designated rivers.

National Register of Historic Places: Pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act of
1966 (16 United States Code 470), the National Park Service was given the authority to
expand the National Register of Historic Places from significant properties of national
historical or archaeological interest, as defined in the Historic Sites Act of 1936 (16 United
State Code 461), to include districts, sites, buildings, structures and objects of state, regional
or local significance. Those sites nominated to the register receive a degree of statutory
protection from actions funded or licensed by the federal government and are eligible for
federal tax incentives for rehabilitation. Only income-producing sites are eligible to receive
these tax credits. The Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, administers this
program in Florida.




                                         Chapter 2 - 44
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


 Historic Preservation Grants-in-Aid Program: The National Historic Preservation Act of
1966 (16 United States Code 470) expanded the National Register of Historic Places program
to authorize grants to government, private groups, and individuals for historic preservation
surveys, planning activities and or community education activities. These grants, funded
under the Federal Historic Preservation Fund, are calculated on a fifty-fifty matching basis,
with the responsibility for initiation resting with the State or public bodies. The Florida
Department of State, Division of Historical Resources, administers this program.

National Historic Landmarks Program: The Historic Sites Act of 1935 (16 United States
Code 461) established the National Historic Landmarks Program to identify and designate
historic sites, structures and objects of national significance. Those designated as national
landmarks are recorded on the National Register. After designation as a National Historic
Landmark, the owner of the site is asked to adopt management practices to protect the
landmark's nationally significant values and to allow the National Park Service to perform
annual inspections. Examples of these in Florida are the Cathedral of St. Augustine and the
Ernest Hemingway house in Key West.

Federal Lands-to-Parks Program: The Federal Lands-to-Parks Program enables states and
local governments to establish park and recreation areas and adapt historic buildings for
public uses. Through the Federal Lands-to-Parks Program, state and local agencies may
acquire land and facilities once used for federal purposes, at no cost, to meet park and
recreation needs. Since 1949, over 1,200 properties have been recycled into parks and
recreation areas in every state, as well as Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and Guam. Land or
buildings obtained through this program must be open to the public and used exclusively for
parks and recreation purposes.

The Federal Lands-to-Parks Program provides diverse recreation opportunities for people of
all ages. Properties transferred may be used for activities such as hiking, camping,
picnicking, boating, interpretive areas, backpacking, snowmobiling, cross-country skiing,
horseback riding, ball fields, biking, senior centers, community gardens, or nature preserves.
Properties may provide community open space, access to rivers, beaches or lakeshores, or
new or expanded park areas. New public uses have been created in cities, suburbs, and rural
areas nationwide from portions of military bases, river and lake fronts, lighthouses, former
government buildings, and undeveloped open spaces. To date, 48 federal areas in Florida,
consisting of 8,804.64 acres, with a value at conveyance of $100.9 million, have been
transferred for public recreation purposes.

The Rivers and Trails Conservation Assistance Program: The Rivers, Trails, and
Conservation Assistance program helps to coordinate community planning and project work
concerning the protection of rivers, trails and greenways on lands outside of the federal
domain. By working together, residents, landowners, government agencies, and private
organizations can meet the challenges of conservation. The National Park Service works
with these groups to help them establish goals, resolve difficult issues, and reach consensus
on how community resources should be used and managed.




                                        Chapter 2 - 45
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


United States Fish and Wildlife Service
The mission of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service is to work with others to conserve, protect,
and enhance fish, wildlife, plants, and their habitats for the continuing benefit of the
American people. The Service’s major responsibilities are for migratory birds, endangered
species, certain marine mammals, and freshwater and anadromous fish, and managing
national wildlife refuges and national fish hatcheries. Its goals for public use of its areas and
facilities are to expand human understanding of the environment and appreciation of fish and
wildlife ecology. The Service provides visitors with high quality, safe and enjoyable
recreational experiences oriented towards wildlife and wildlife habitat appreciation. The
Service manages over 530 national wildlife refuges nationwide and 28 of them are located in
Florida (See Figure 2.17). Most are limited-purpose outdoor recreation areas, provided
primarily for nature study and natural scenery appreciation. The six priority public uses
permitted on a national wildlife refuge, when compatible with the natural resources, are
hunting, fishing, wildlife observation, wildlife photography, environmental education and
interpretation. The most recent addition in Florida is the Ten Thousand Island National
Wildlife Refuge, over 35,000 acres, completed in December 1996.

Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid Program: The Pittman-Robertson Federal Aid Program (16
United States Code 669), created by the Federal Aid in Wildlife Restoration Act of 1937,
derives its revenue from federal excise taxes on sporting firearms and ammunition. The U.S.
Fish and Wildlife Service apportions these revenues to each state on the basis of the number
of hunting licenses sold, the amount of archery equipment sold, and the geographical area of
the state. These monies are designated for programs for restoring and preserving wildlife,
improving habitat, and conducting hunter safety programs. In the past, the Florida Fish and
Wildlife Conservation Commission used the funds for the acquisition and management of
wildlife management areas and for the management of leasing programs. Currently,
program monies are used for the maintenance of the State’s 5.48 million-acre hunting
program, wildlife research, and limited land acquisition.

Dingell-Johnson/Wallop-Breaux Federal Aid Program: The Dingell-Johnson portion of this
program was created by the Federal Aid in Sport Fish Restoration Act of 1950. It accrues
funds through federal taxes levied on fishing tackle and equipment sales. The amount
available to Florida through the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission is determined
by the geographical area of the state in ratio to the number of fishing licenses sold each year.
The monies are designed for the promotion of sport fishing and management of sport fishing
areas.

The Dingell-Johnson program was expanded by amendments to the federal Budget Deficit
Reduction Act of 1984 (16 United States Code 777-777K). The expanded “Wallop-Breaux”
funds will be allocated to the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission for the
improvement of saltwater and freshwater fishing opportunities. Programs supported by
Dingell-Johnson funds include freshwater lake and stream surveys, fish studies, fishing
productivity research, repair and improvement of boat access facilities, and public education.
Saltwater fishing programs include boating access improvements, artificial reef construction,
fishing surveys, public education and toxicology research.




                                         Chapter 2 - 46
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                           United States Department of Agriculture
The U.S. Department of Agriculture, through the U.S. Forest Service, the Natural Resource
Conservation Service and the Farmer’s Home Administration, administers programs that
affect the supply of outdoor recreation resources in Florida. Each is discussed below.

United States Forest Service
Congress created the U.S. Forest Service (and the National Forest System) in 1905. The
Forest Service provides leadership in the management, protection, and use of the nation's
forests and rangelands. The agency is dedicated to multiple-use management of these lands
for sustained yields of renewable resources such as wood, water, forage, wildlife, and
recreation to meet the diverse needs of people. The responsibility of the Forest Service in the
field of outdoor recreation is to fully develop the recreational potential of national forests and
protect landscape aesthetics. The Forest Service also cooperates with other federal, state and
local agencies in planning and developing recreational resources on other federal, state, local
and private lands.

In Florida, the Forest Service primarily administers three large areas: the Apalachicola,
Ocala, Chotawhatchee, and Osceola National Forests (See Figure 2.18). These areas
comprise approximately 1.2 million acres, thus making a significant contribution to the
State's recreational resources. They contain some of Florida's most pristine lands including
extensive woodlands, springs and streams. Within the national forest lands, the Forest
Service manages numerous designated public recreation sites. Some of the sites are managed
exclusively for dispersed recreational purposes, such as hiking, hunting, fishing and primitive
camping.

Natural Resources Conservation Service
The Natural Resources Conservation Service, previously the Soil Conservation Service, is
the Federal agency that works hand-in-hand with the American people to conserve, improve,
and sustain natural resources on private lands. The Service has responsibility within the U.S.
Department of Agriculture for providing leadership in the planning of income-producing
recreation enterprises on private land and for liaison with other federal, state and local
agencies, assisting them with recreational development. Technical assistance is provided
through local soil and water conservation districts. The Natural Resources Conservation
Service has traditionally provided financial and technical assistance for recreation projects
through the Small Watershed Program and the Resource Conservation and Development
Projects; however, the primary emphasis of these programs is erosion control and water
conservation. For this reason, limited technical and financial resources are generally
available for recreation related projects.

Farmers Home Administration
The Farmers Home Administration assists farm and ranch owners by providing non-farm
enterprise loans of up to $300,000, and management assistance for the development of non-
farm enterprises to supplement farm incomes. The facilities provided by farmers and
ranchers for which loans can be made include camping sites and riding stables. Loans can be




                                         Chapter 2 - 48
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


made to individuals, partnerships, joint operations, cooperatives, or corporations directly
engaged in farming or ranching on a family-sized farm. Under rules to be developed by the
agency to implement the Food Security Act of 1985 (P.L. 99-198), farmers and ranchers will
be permitted to retire part of their government-insured debt by donating 50-year conservation
easements on portions of their lands. Agreements must be developed with public land
management agencies or private organizations to manage the easements for public benefit for
fish and wildlife, conservation or recreation. The Natural Resources Conservation Service
will be responsible for selecting a land manager for each particular donation and for
developing the management agreements.

       Joint Administration: Department of the Interior and Department of Agriculture
In addition to their responsibilities noted above, the Department of the Interior and the
Department of Agriculture are co-authorized to execute other outdoor recreation and natural
resource preservation programs. In Florida, two such programs have been implemented by
these agencies primarily through independent action.

National Wilderness Preservation System
The Wilderness Act of 1964 (16 United States Code 1131) established a National Wilderness
Preservation System. Management of areas in the system is the responsibility of the agency
(or agencies) having jurisdiction over the areas prior to their inclusion in the system. In
Florida, there are currently 17 designated wilderness areas (See Figure 2.19). These are
under the administration of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which administers nine areas
totaling 53,330 acres; the National Park Service which controls one area of about 1.3 million
acres; and the U.S. Forest Service, which controls seven areas totaling 74,495 acres. In
addition, approximately 81,900 acres of Everglades National Park is being managed as a
potential wilderness area pending expiration of outstanding oil and gas leases.

National Trails System
The National Trails System Act of 1968 (16 United States Code 1241) provides the
framework for establishing a nationwide system of scenic, recreation and historic trails. The
Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture are both authorized to administer
trails in the system under the Act. A 1983 amendment to the Act designated the Florida Trail
as Florida's first national scenic trail, and authorized the Secretary of Agriculture and the
Secretary of the Interior to administer those segments of the trail located in national forests
and national parks. When completed, the Florida National Scenic Trail will extend as a
continuous footpath from the Big Cypress National Preserve in Collier County to the Gulf
Islands National Seashore, more than 1,300 miles. The Florida Trail Association was formed
to construct this path and to stimulate interest in wilderness hiking experiences.

Currently, more than 1,000 miles of trail have been constructed on public and private lands
(See Figure 2.20). Trails on public lands are open to the general public, but trails on some
private lands are available only to Florida Trail Association members. National recreation
trails also play an important role in the National Trails System. As declared in the Act,
national recreation trails are intended to be established near urban areas and in established
scenic areas to serve the constantly increasing outdoor recreation needs of an expanding



                                        Chapter 2 - 50
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


population and to promote close-to-home recreational opportunities. Administrative
responsibility for designating and managing recreation trails was assigned to both the
Secretary of the Interior and the Secretary of Agriculture.

                            United States Department of Defense
The Department of Defense, established in 1949, includes the Department of the Army, the
Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Air Force. Each is involved in the
provision of outdoor recreation opportunities in Florida.

United States Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers
Along with its primary responsibility for navigation, flood control, environmental restoration,
beach erosion control, and river basin studies, the Corps of Engineers has devoted
considerable attention to the establishment of recreational facilities and promotion of
environmental stewardship. It is the policy of the Corps to plan for and provide outdoor
recreation resources and facilities at all of its water resources projects. The Corps provides
over 30 percent of the recreational opportunities on federal lands.

The Corps' general authority for recreational development stems from the Flood Control Act
of 1944, which was later expanded by the Federal Water Project Recreation Act of 1965 (16
United States Code 460). The latter act directs that each project give full consideration to
opportunities for outdoor recreation and fish and wildlife enhancement, and it establishes
outdoor recreation and preservation of wildlife and fish as a full project purpose.

In Florida, the Corps has 38 developed recreation areas. Resources and facilities are
available at these areas for a wide variety of activities including freshwater swimming,
boating, fishing, camping, field sports, picnicking, hiking and hunting. In addition to its
public works development programs, the Corps participates with the State and other public
bodies in making recreation opportunities available adjacent to Corps projects. This
participation takes the form of cost-sharing, assistance in planning and design, and the direct
development of facilities. The Corps also reaches out to the local communities through
education and other outreach programs. Each year, Corps staff present an array of
educational programs to groups such as elementary students, community groups, religious
groups, and business groups. These programs touch on subjects ranging from water safety to
watchable wildlife.

Military Installations
The Department of Defense (DOD) has 17 Florida military installations that make land
available for recreational purposes. Although public outdoor recreation is not a major
function of the DOD, its contributions in this regard are, nevertheless, important to Florida's
overall outdoor recreation program. Generally, all military installations offer some degree of
outdoor recreation programs for military personnel, dependents and their guests. However,
access to their resources for recreational use by the general public is usually limited.

In view of the large land holdings that this segment of the federal government has in Florida,
it is evident that there are potentially vast outdoor recreation resources which, if opened to
the general public, would help satisfy recreation demand. DOD policy provides that when a


                                        Chapter 2 - 53
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


military installation's mission allows public access, formal agreements may be entered into
with state or local agencies to provide outdoor recreation. For example, Eglin Air Force
Base, the State's largest military base, allows public access on 290,000 out of 400,000 acres
of the Eglin Wildlife Management Area. Except for hazardous and high security areas,
Tyndall Air Force Base is fully open to the general public, which is granted access privileges
equal to those of base personnel. Base recreation facilities include picnic areas,
campgrounds, marina and boating facilities, horseback and nature trails, swimming facilities,
and a full hunting program.

The DOD is also involved in historic preservation. Many of Florida’s military installations
contain significant archaeological and historic resources. Prior to commencing any resource
altering project, the DOD submits a plan to the Department of State for review under Section
106 of the National Historic Preservation Act. In addition, the Departments of the Army,
Navy and Air Force are required by federal law to develop guidelines for preserving historic
and archaeological resources. Also, comprehensive preservation plans are required for each
military installation containing significant cultural resources.

                 United States Department of Housing and Urban Development
In past years, the Department of Housing and Urban Development has had a significant
impact upon outdoor recreation in Florida's urban areas. Since 1981, however, funding for
the programs described below has been reduced substantially.

Community Development Block Grants
The Department provides Community Development Block Grant funds to local governments
through its Entitled Grants Program and Small Cities Program. These programs were
established as a result of Title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, as
amended through the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 (42
United States Code 5301). The Entitled Grants Program serves “entitlement” communities
(municipalities of 50,000 or more, urban counties of 200,000 or more, and central cities
under 50,000 located in Metropolitan Statistical Areas). The Small Cities Program serves
non-entitlement municipalities and counties. Both programs authorize a 100 percent level of
funding to public agencies to preserve or provide urban open space lands having value for
parks, recreation, conservation or historic purposes. In addition, the programs provide for the
acquisition, construction, reconstruction, or installation of parks, playgrounds, and recreation
facilities in low and moderate income neighborhoods or communities where assistance for
such facilities is unavailable from other federal programs. In Florida, the Small Cities
Program is administered by the Department of Community Affairs.

                           United States Department of Transportation
The U.S. Department of Transportation, established in 1968, includes the Federal Highway
Administration. This agency administers the Federal-Aid Highway Program that provides
grants to states and local governments for use in developing bicycle and pedestrian facilities.




                                        Chapter 2 - 54
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century
The 1998 Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century (TEA-21) was a six-year federal
reauthorization of programs and funds for improving America's highways and mass
transportation systems, including the continuation of the National Recreational Trails
Funding Program. This Program allocates funding assistance to the states for recreational
trails construction and maintenance. In Florida, the Department of Environmental Protection,
Office of Greenways and Trails coordinates this funding program.

The Transportation Enhancement Program was also continued under TEA-21. Specifically,
many public agencies may receive funding under this program for the following
enhancement projects: provision of bicycle and pedestrian facilities, including the provision
of safety and educational activities for pedestrians and bicyclists; acquisition of scenic
easements and scenic or historic sites; scenic or historic highway programs, including
provisions for tourist welcome centers; landscaping and other scenic beautification; historic
preservation; rehabilitation and operation of historic transportation buildings, structures or
facilities; preservation of abandoned railway corridors, including the conversion to trails;
control and removal of outdoor advertising; archaeological planning and research;
environmental mitigation to address water pollution due to highway runoff or to reduce
vehicle caused wildlife mortality while maintaining habitat.

Federal-Aid Highway Program
This program was established by Title 23 United States Code, as revised by the Surface
Transportation Assistance Acts and various other amendments. The program provides
annual discretionary grants to qualifying governments for use in the acquisition of
rights-of-way, and the planning, construction, improvement and rehabilitation of interstate,
primary, secondary and urban roads and highways. Funds may also be used for capital
improvements such as bicycle and pedestrian facilities within highway rights-of-way.

                      National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration supports public and private programs
affecting outdoor recreation in Florida's coastal areas through two programs within its Office
of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management. That office administers programs related to
research, planning and management of coastal recreation resources, including designated
national sanctuaries and reserves.

Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management
The Office of Ocean and Coastal Resources Management is responsible for providing federal
leadership in the management of the nation's coastal and marine resources. This is
accomplished through the provision of management, research and technical assistance for
federal, state and local governments and the private sector through the agency's Coastal Zone
Management Program and its National Marine Sanctuaries and Estuarine Research Reserves
Programs.




                                        Chapter 2 - 55
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Coastal Zone Management Program
The Federal Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 (16 United States Code 1451) as
amended, provides grants-in-aid to coastal states with federally approved coastal zone
management programs. In Florida, applications for project grants are administered by the
Department of Community Affairs. Examples of typical projects that have been funded
include studies of local fishery resources, and the implementation of a maintenance dredging
regulatory program for the Intracoastal Waterway and deep water ports.

National Marine Sanctuaries and Estuarine Research Reserves Program
This program provides financial assistance to eligible public and private entities for the
acquisition, development and administration of land and water resources within areas
designated by the Secretary of Commerce as marine sanctuaries or estuarine research
reserves. These areas are set aside as laboratories for research, educational and recreational
purposes. The program also makes financial assistance available for independent research
projects by universities and private organizations to study water quality, water current
modeling, and the impacts of mosquito spraying and similar activities on aquatic life in
sanctuaries and reserves. In Florida, the program includes the Apalachicola Bay, Rookery
Bay, and Guana/Tolomoto/Matanzas National Estuarine Research Reserves, and the Florida
Keys National Marine Sanctuary (See Figure 2.21).

                       United States Environmental Protection Agency
American Heritage Rivers Program
President Clinton signed an executive order in 1997 establishing the American Heritage
Rivers Initiative, a new program administered by the USEPA to help communities restore
and revitalize waters and waterfronts. The intent of the American Heritage Rivers Initiative
is to integrate the economic, environmental and historic preservation programs and services
of federal agencies to benefit communities engaged in efforts to protect their rivers.
Participation in the program is voluntary and must be initiated by the community. Federal
agencies will make field staff and resources available to each American Heritage River
project. The objective of river designation will be to attack pollution problems, build
greenway and pedestrian paths, protect watersheds, rebuild historic docks, identify native
trees and plants, and seek out other economic opportunities. The American Heritage Rivers
Advisory Committee voted unanimously on June 16, 1998 to recommend to the President 10
rivers for designation as American Heritage Rivers. Among the 10 was the St. Johns River in
Florida.

Local Government Programs
                                         County Roles
Florida has 67 counties, varying in character from densely populated metropolitan counties
such as Dade and Pinellas to sparsely populated rural counties such as Glades and Liberty.
All of these counties do not have the same outdoor recreation needs, and neither have they
instituted responsive programs to the same degree. Some of Florida's counties do not have
officially established outdoor recreation programs. For these areas, providing




                                        Chapter 2 - 56
                                                   OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


resource-based activities is typically limited to maintenance of roadside picnic areas or boat
ramps.

User-oriented facilities are often available only at public schools and municipal parks.
Nearly half of Florida's counties, however, have undertaken sophisticated recreation
programs involving the administration of numerous parks, facilities and program activities.

Counties are primarily concerned with the more local outdoor recreation needs generated by
extra-municipal populations. Unlike municipalities, however, the larger aerial extent of
counties provides a wider range of resources and makes available a greater variety of outdoor
recreation possibilities. As a result, the typical county outdoor recreation program in Florida
may offer a combination of resource-based and user-oriented activities to the public.
Beaches, swimming areas, boat access sites, picnic sites, scenic areas and occasionally
campgrounds are among the more popular types of resource-based areas and facilities
provided through county programs.

As a rule, the county is the ideal level of government to provide the resource-based and
locally oriented outdoor recreation areas that are not large enough to be managed feasibly at
the state or federal levels. Such areas constitute a valuable part of the overall outdoor
recreation effort in Florida and are indispensable to a well-balanced statewide outdoor
recreation system.

                                        Municipal Roles
Virtually all of Florida's 401 municipalities have recreation programs and facilities of one
type or another. Nearly 160 cities have developed park and recreation programs with trained
staff involved in the administration of parks, facilities and activities. Other cities, usually the
smaller ones, provide only limited facilities and rely on the county government, local school
system, or private organizations and groups to administer recreation activities.

Because of population densities and the lack of large open space areas and resource-based
recreation opportunities, most municipal recreation systems tend to concentrate their efforts
on providing more intensive user-oriented facilities that require relatively little space.
Typical municipal outdoor recreation facilities include playgrounds, swimming pools, ball
fields, tennis courts and golf courses. Because of the near total reliance on user-oriented
facilities, municipal programs have only a limited bearing on the statewide resource-based
outdoor recreation program. There are some exceptions, however, especially in the cases of
cities located on bodies of water. Most municipalities fronting on the Atlantic or Gulf make
some provision for public beach facilities, while many of those located on navigable waters
(coastal or inland) operate marinas or other boating facilities.

Although very little in the way of resource-based outdoor recreation facilities is provided by
the typical municipal outdoor recreation program, municipal programs play a vital role in the
provision of user-oriented recreation opportunities in Florida. The importance of the role of
municipal programs will grow as increased public emphasis is placed on close-to-home
recreation. Since municipal recreation agencies are the recreation system closest to the



                                          Chapter 2 - 58
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


people, they are usually the first to feel the pressures to establish programs for meeting the
added demands of new residents.

Private Sector Programs
In addition to the more conventional forms of outdoor recreation provided by all levels of
government, a wide array of recreational opportunities is afforded by the private sector.
Private programs range from for-profit recreational enterprises such as campgrounds, golf
courses, marinas, and attractions of all kinds to the quasi-public (not-for-profit) programs of
conservation organizations, churches, clubs, youth organizations and private industry.
Industries with extensive land holdings, notably the forest products industry in Florida,
provide vast recreation resources and excellent facilities on their lands for the free use of the
general public or at some nominal fee.

Private outdoor recreation, because of its size, complexity, and the fact that it undergoes
rapid and frequent change, is extremely difficult to inventory in a comprehensive manner. In
addition to its direct delivery of outdoor recreation opportunities, the private sector can
respond quickly to opportunities for acquiring property for subsequent donation or resale,
and this capability makes the private sector a valuable partner with public agencies in the
provision of resource-based outdoor recreation. During the past decade, private companies
and non-profit organizations have transferred thousands of acres to state government
agencies for recreation and conservation purposes. Clearly, private recreation programs
make a substantial contribution to the overall supply of outdoor and other forms of
recreational opportunities in Florida.

Summary Tables
Table 2.7 on the following two pages summarizes the programs of public and private
recreation providers described in this chapter.

                   OUTDOOR RECREATION SUPPLY
Outdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities Inventory
A thorough inventory of existing parks, open spaces and other outdoor recreation facilities is
necessary to assess whether the system is comprehensive, equitably distributed, accessible
and representative of the community’s natural landscape qualities. The inventory maintained
by the Division of Recreation and Parks provides details regarding the location, type and size
of outdoor recreation facilities and resources throughout the state. The inventory is a
planning tool for public and private recreation interests, specifically for analyzing their
outdoor recreation and open space needs and capabilities and establishing their program
goals and priorities.

The statewide outdoor recreation inventory should not be the only tool used by outdoor
recreation providers and users to analyze supply. If available, additional information such as
maps of existing and proposed recreation resources, assessments of the conditions and
qualities of existing facilities, and details of any limitations or barriers to participation and




                                         Chapter 2 - 59
                                                                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                           Table 2.7 – Page 1 of 2
                                                     Outdoor Recreation Summary Table


Agency                                      Provide Recreation    Planning   Financial    Resource   Research   Education/   Acquisition
                                              Opportunities                   and/or       Mgmt.                Outreach
                                                                             Technical                           and/or
FEDERAL                                                                      Assistance                         Marketing
Department of Agriculture
  U.S. Forest Service                               X                X            X          X          X           X            X
  Natural Resource Conservation Service                              X            X          X          X
Department of Commerce
  National Oceanic & Atmospheric Admin.             X                X            X          X          X           X
Department of Defense
  U.S. Army Corp of Engineers                       X                X            X          X          X           X
  Military Installations                            X                X                       X                      X
Department of the Interior
  National Park Service                             X                X            X          X          X           X            X
  U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service                      X                X            X          X          X           X            X
Department of Transportation
  Federal Highway Administration                                     X            X                     X                        X
STATE
Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Recreation and Parks                    X                X            X          X          X           X            X
Office of Greenways & Trails                        X                X            X          X          X           X
Division of State Lands                                              X            X                     X           X            X
Bureau of Coastal and Aquatic Areas                 X                X                       X          X           X
Division of Water Facilities:
  Bureau of Mine Reclamation                                         X            X          X          X           X
  Bureau of Beaches & Coastal Systems               X                             X          X
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission           X                X            X          X          X           X            X
FDACS, Division of Forestry                         X                X            X          X          X           X            X
DOS, Division of Historical Resources               X                X            X          X          X           X            X
Department of Transportation                        X                X            X                     X           X            X
DOE, State University System                        X                X                       X          X           X
Department of Community Affairs                                      X            X                                 X




                                                                 Chapter 2 - 60
                                                                               OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                           Table 2.7 – Page 2 of 2
                                     Outdoor Recreation Summary Table

Agency                         Provide Recreation   Planning    Financial    Resource   Research   Education/   Acquisition
                                 Opportunities                   and/or       Mgmt.                Outreach
                                                                Technical                           and/or
REGIONAL                                                        Assistance                         Marketing
Regional Planning Councils
West Florida RPC                                       X             X                                 X
Apalachee RPC                                          X             X                                 X
North Central Florida RPC                              X             X                                 X
Northeast Florida RPC                                  X             X                                 X
Withlacoochee RPC                                      X             X                                 X
East Central Florida RPC                               X             X                                 X
Central Florida RPC                                    X             X                                 X
Tampa Bay RPC                                          X             X                                 X
Southwest Florida RPC                                  X             X                                 X
Treasure Coast RPC                                     X             X                                 X
South Florida RPC                                      X             X                                 X
Water Management Districts
Northwest Florida WMD                  X               X             X          X          X           X            X
Suwannee River WMD                     X               X             X          X          X           X            X
South Florida WMD                      X               X             X          X          X           X            X
St. Johns River WMD                    X               X             X          X          X           X            X
Southwest Florida WMD                  X               X             X          X          X           X            X
LOCAL
Counties                               X               X             X          X          X           X            X
Municipalities                         X               X             X          X          X           X            X
NON-GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATIONS
The Nature Conservancy                 X               X             X          X          X           X            X
Trust for Public Land                  X               X             X          X          X           X            X
Florida Trail Association              X               X                        X                      X
Florida Bicycle Association            X               X                        X                      X
VISIT FLORIDA                                                                              X           X
1000 Friends of Florida                                X             X                     X           X
Rails to Trails Conservancy                            X             X                     X           X            X
Sunshine State Horse Council                                         X                                 X
Florida Trail Riders                                                 X                                 X




                                                    Chapter 2 - 61
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


access should be taken into consideration. These qualitative measures, especially if
combined with visitor satisfaction data can provide a much clearer picture of the ability to the
system to meet current and future needs.

Outdoor Recreation Planning (ORP) Database
In 1972 with data from public outdoor recreation suppliers, the Division of Recreation and
Parks (the Division) compiled the first statewide inventory of outdoor recreation resources
and facilities. In 1975, the Division expanded the inventory to include private recreation
suppliers. The current inventory includes all outdoor recreation facilities and resources
provided by federal, state, regional, county and municipal governments, commercial
enterprises, non-profit organizations, and clubs.

Notwithstanding the above, there are certain privately owned recreation resources and
facilities that are not included in the private supply inventory. Included in this group are
privately-owned lands and facilities which may be available to the public on an individual
basis for outdoor recreation pursuits, such as hunting, fishing, swimming, camping, hiking or
picnicking. Other resources that are not included in the inventory are backyard pools,
vacation cabins, boat docks, driveway basketball courts, apartment complexes, and
hotel/motel recreation facilities. These resources and facilities are not available to the public
on a formal basis, and it is difficult to identify them with the degree of accuracy required to
include them in the private supply inventory.

The Division updates the inventory every two years. The most recent update was conducted
from July 1998 to June 1999. Staff mailed inventory update forms to all previously
inventoried providers and asked them to verify or correct them. Additionally, the Division
used secondary data sources, including trade publications, private recreation directories and
guides, and Internet web pages, to identify new providers to add to the inventory.

Division staff entered the updated information for existing and new facilities into the
Outdoor Recreation Planning (ORP) database. The ORP enables the Division to compute
totals, summaries and other analyses necessary for the Florida outdoor recreation plan and to
provide current, accurate, and easily accessible data to any public agency or interested
individual. In 1998, the Division and the Department’s Bureau of Information Systems
modernized the database to facilitate accurate data entry and analysis as well as to efficiently
distribute the data to the public.

As part of the update, the Division expanded the database in response to new outdoor
recreation trends in the state. The new inventory includes data on outdoor volleyball courts
and trails available for motorized recreation. In addition, the Division modified the trails
component to include miles available for each type of trail activity. It also specifies whether
the mileage is single-use or multi-use and separates bicycle trails into paved and unpaved.
The reader should note that the trail mileage in the statewide and regional supply tables is the
mileage available for each activity. Trails that allow more than one activity are counted in
the figures for each permitted activity. Therefore, summing the miles available for each trail
activity will yield a number greater than the actual total number of trail miles in the state (due



                                         Chapter 2 - 62
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


to double or triple counting of multi-use trails). This was done to provide more accurate
supply numbers for each specific trail type.

The supply tables in this chapter reflect the changes to the inventory since the 1994 plan.
However, because recreation participation data for volleyball and motorized trail activities
were not available, the Division was not able to project demand and need estimates for those
activities. Also, because the existing participation survey data does not distinguish between
bicycling on paved or unpaved trails, the supply of paved and unpaved trails was combined
for the bicycling needs analysis. Future participation surveys will ask bicyclists whether they
use paved or unpaved trails.

Tables 2.8 and 2.9 show the statewide results of the inventory update by provider and by
region, and Figure 2.22 displays the distribution of the total outdoor recreation acreage by
supplier. The “non-government” category includes facilities provided by commercial
entities, non-profit organizations and clubs.




                                        Chapter 2 - 63
                                                                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                         Table 2.8
                                              1998 Outdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities By Major Supplier
   RESOURCE/FACILITY                UNITS     FEDERAL       STATE       COUNTY       MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT          TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   305          1,064         3,326        5,122          3,280          13,097
Land Area                       Acres           3,832,756.71   4,697,953.40   206,575.78    55,776.75     283,941.08     9,077,003.72
Water Area                      Acres           1,406,033.45    276,634.80     44,385.12    17,844.80      29,002.16     1,773,900.33
Total Area                      Acres           5,238,790.16   4,974,588.20   250,960.90    73,621.55     312,943.24    10,850,904.05
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                   87            144           64           20           4,145           4,460
Tent Sites                      Sites                 1,015          1,360         1,275         190           6,374          10,214
RV Sites                        Sites                 2,181          3,180         2,675        1,759       128,781          138,576
Commemorative Structures                                  2             22           30           99             99              252
Historic Sites                  Sites                   379            507           94          175            189            1,344
Museums                                                  28             62           94           45            188              417
Picnic Tables                   Tables                1,789          9,539       18,120       15,159         84,798          129,405
Hunting Land                    Acres           1,807,579.20   4,195,164.94    34,821.00         0.00       9,390.00     6,046,955.14
Hunting Water                   Acres             86,551.20      34,395.70          0.00         5.00        809.00       121,760.90
Hunting Area                    Acres           1,894,130.40   4,229,560.64    34,821.00         5.00      10,199.00     6,168,716.04
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                 70.00         209.60       182.60       402.50         108.20           972.90
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                297.30         718.30       341.90       112.50           61.20         1,531.20
Canoe Trails                    Miles                483.10        1,341.20        88.50        35.50        638.30          2,586.60
Hiking Trails                   Miles               1,188.70       1,779.10      221.80       286.60         427.90          3,904.10
Horseback Trails                Miles                177.70         808.00       179.70         94.80        183.20          1,443.40
Jogging Trails                  Miles                 53.60         216.10       205.60       340.60           73.80          889.70
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                 69.50          30.00          0.00         0.20           0.00           99.70
Nature Trails                   Miles                 99.30         353.50       208.60       181.10         200.50          1,043.00
Freshwater Beach                Miles                   0.74           2.18        16.98         4.88          34.34           59.12
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet         173,304        533,875     1,680,023    4,337,082      3,084,354       9,808,638
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                  33             88          181           89            208              599
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                   119            315          638          360            541            1,973
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   888          1,628         4,315         741           1,758           9,330
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                  2,775          6,827       49,223       36,878         35,839          131,542
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                  9             31          119          152            437              748
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 120            292         3,482      69,741           1,611          75,246
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                    62              0            0            0           5,162           5,224
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                    37            128           33          402         11,158           11,758
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                   3             11           11           29            457              511
Freshwater Piers                Piers                    58            419         2,078         241            457            3,253
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                153.33         119.57         75.33        81.63          74.08          503.95
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet     131,220,990     51,502,735    54,131,538   44,360,345    117,190,505     398,406,113
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                  47             74          574          967            221            1,883
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                    47             57          404          336            473            1,317
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    33            221         4,552         306           1,070           6,182
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                 23,222         25,512       49,564      116,168         43,553          258,019
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                 53             51          175          169           1,291           1,739
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                 10,690          2,096       18,905       28,468           3,775          63,934
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   905             27          791          428         31,640           33,791
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   596            272         1,265        4,830        38,891           45,854
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                  14             13           22           58           1,018           1,125
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                    16             22          184          230            146              598
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                   25             95         2,040        2,500           230            4,890
Basketball Goals                Goals                    50            111         2,824        3,614           701            7,300
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                    30             77         1,401        2,079           484            4,071
Football Fields                 Fields                   13             44          694          711            104            1,566
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                   5              4           19           56            720              804
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                   1              0           10           14            133              158
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                   0             37            3           48            398              486
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                   6             41           32          118           1,251           1,448
Multi-use Courts                Courts                    6             17          370          422            200            1,015
Multi-use Fields                Fields                    8             59          670          469            275            1,481
Pools                           Pools                     9             66          100          275           1,731           2,181
Racquetball Courts              Courts                   16            211          524          862            337            1,950
Recreation Centers              Centers                  22             42          422          793           1,024           2,303
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                    6             58          434         1,965          2,588           5,051
Tennis Courts                   Courts                   40            366         1,441        2,616          4,733           9,196
Volleyball Courts               Courts                    0             40           88           72             12              212




                                                                        Chapter 2 - 64
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                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                      Figure 2.22
Distribution of Outdoor Recreation Acreage by Supplier
                         1998




               County 2%     Municipal 1%   Non-Gov't 3%




   State 46%                                               Federal 48%




                           Chapter 2 - 66
                                               OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                            CHAPTER 3
                    OUTDOOR RECREATION TRENDS

Several trends in outdoor recreation are evident to varying degrees at the national, state and
local levels. Recreation planners and providers must monitor and adapt to these trends if
they are to provide the type of services required to satisfy current public demands and
preserve a resource base of sufficient size and quality to meet the recreation needs of future
generations. Following is a discussion of selected trends with immediate implications for
outdoor recreation planning. Included in the discussion, where appropriate, are descriptions
of existing initiatives to address these trends and suggestions for future actions.

        LAND USE TRENDS AFFECTING OUTDOOR RECREATION
In high growth, rapidly urbanizing states like Florida, land use trends are one of the most
significant factors affecting outdoor recreation. The resources most prized for recreation are
also the most desirable for development. This is especially evident in the development of
Florida’s water features. Water-based recreation is as much a part of Florida’s heritage as its
sunshine, yet in many places a secluded beach, a wild stretch of river, or an undeveloped
lakeshore are things of the past. Water features that have been protected for recreation are
often overcrowded, especially in urban areas. As the state continues to become more urban,
it is expected that popular recreation sites will increasingly be subject to overcrowding.

In addition to direct conversion of recreation resources to other uses, land development is
associated with noise and light pollution, soil, water and air quality degradation and habitat
fragmentation—all factors which affect recreation. As Florida continues to grow, care must
be taken to ensure that Florida’s outdoor recreation resources, especially those nearest urban
areas, do not lose the natural values that make them desirable for recreation. Also, as
crowding intensifies, it seems likely that natural areas may need additional protection in the
form of limitations on use, as is already occurring in a number of the state’s most popular
parks.

Florida has sought to preserve natural areas through a succession of land acquisition
programs, the most recent of which is the Florida Forever Program, a 10-year, $300 million
per year bond-funded program to acquire land for conservation, recreation and other
purposes. In conjunction with this program, the Florida Natural Areas Inventory is in the
process of developing a GIS-based conservation needs atlas to be used as a tool to help
identify and prioritize lands with potential to meet Florida’s conservation and recreation
needs.

It should be a priority now, to identify public lands in all parts of the state that are suitable for
low impact, low density recreational uses and develop strategies to preserve our ability to
provide for such uses as the state becomes increasingly urban. It should also be a priority to
further refine our understanding of the carrying capacity of specific types of resources so that
we can sustainably serve the greatest number of people.




                                           Chapter 3 - 1
                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                              MOTORIZED RECREATION

Motorized recreation takes many forms and all have their advocates and detractors. Whether
it is airboats, motor boats, personal watercraft, dirt bikes or all-terrain vehicles, the presence
of motorized vehicles in natural areas creates problems if those areas are also used for non-
motorized recreation. Human conflicts aside, there are a number of valid concerns relative to
adverse impacts these vehicles can have on natural systems. Nonetheless, their increasing
popularity ensures that demand for areas to engage in this type of recreation will continue to
be an issue for public recreation providers in the foreseeable future.

Primary concerns with watercraft are disturbance or injury to wildlife, prop dredging, noise,
wake and careless operation. Florida is addressing these issues in a number of ways
including education, limiting or eliminating use in certain areas and implementing speed
zones. Florida also requires a boating safety course for persons born after September 30,
1980, and those convicted of certain boating violations. In addition, Florida has strict laws
governing boating under the influence of alcohol. Over time, these efforts should result in a
more educated and presumably safer boating public.

Personal watercraft have a special set of problems due primarily to their small size, high
speed (50 to 60 mph), ability to go into extremely shallow water, and easy availability to
operators with little or no experience. A significant portion of Florida’s reported boating
accidents and nuisance complaints involve personal watercraft. Riders are extremely
vulnerable in collisions with other vessels or objects in the water. Also, because riders often
ride in groups, they are subject to collisions with each other when a rider stops or makes an
unexpected turn. Age is also a factor. In Florida, children as young as fourteen are allowed
to operate personal watercraft, and those 16 or older can rent them.

At a minimum, continuing, focused education is needed to make all watercraft users aware of
safety issues, impacts to habitat, wildlife and other recreationists, and to foster a conservation
ethic. Research is needed to further document and quantify adverse environmental impacts
attributable to specific types of watercraft or patterns of use. This will provide a scientific
basis for future policy decisions. Law enforcement agencies should continue to monitor
accidents and develop legislation as needed to increase safety on the water. Marine product
manufacturers should play a lead role in advocating reasonable regulation and safe,
environmentally sound operation, and should work toward development of products that
reduce water pollution and impacts to wildlife.

Off-road vehicles, including tracked vehicles, swamp buggies, motorcycles, and all-terrain-
vehicles (ATVs), are all used in various parts of Florida, with three and four-wheel ATVs
gaining more widespread use in all parts of the state. Primary concerns with these vehicles
include erosion, habitat damage, disturbance of wildlife and incompatibility with more
passive forms of recreation. Because the primary use of tracked vehicles and swamp buggies
is to gain access to swamps and similar areas generally not used for other forms of recreation,
they are not as prone to conflicts with other users. However, their use is regulated or
prohibited in many areas because of various environmental concerns.



                                          Chapter 3 - 2
                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

ATVs, like personal watercraft, have experienced a dramatic increase in popularity. They are
popular with hunters and those who like to explore remote areas. Four-wheel models are
fast, stable, and allow riders access across most Florida landscapes. Like personal watercraft,
they are often operated by young and inexperienced riders. ATVs are not allowed on lands
managed by the Division of Recreation and Parks, the five water management districts, or in
state forests managed by the Division of Forestry, with the exception of the Croom
Motorcycle Area in the Withlacoochee State Forest. They are allowed on certain lands
managed by the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, but operators are required to
obtain a permit.

To address issues relating to motorized vehicles on greenways and trails, the Florida
Greenways and Trails Council has formed an off-road vehicle subcommittee. This
subcommittee will make recommendations on how to address demand for this type of
recreation within the state’s greenway and trail system.

It seems evident that this type of recreation is becoming more popular and that user groups
are becoming more organized. As with watercraft, it will be important to develop a scientific
basis for future policy development, and to develop strategies to allow this type of use in
appropriate areas. Manufacturers and riding clubs should take a lead role in promoting safe,
environmentally sound riding practices.

                               OFF-ROAD BICYCLING
Off-road bicycling has seen a dramatic increase in popularity over the last decade. Newer
bikes are capable of going places even most motorized vehicles cannot go. And like
motorized vehicles, though to a lesser degree, off-road bikes can damage sensitive habitat
and cause erosion. Conflicts with other users are also an issue, especially on multi-use trails
that experience high use. Nonetheless, this is a popular activity and recreation providers
should work toward identifying additional areas where it can be accommodated. As with
other intensive forms of recreation, user education programs should be developed to promote
environmentally friendly riding.

To address off-road and other bicycling issues, the Division of Recreation and Parks has
developed both on and off-road bike trails in many of its parks. Where bike trails are being
considered, design staff work in consultation with representatives of the Florida Bicycling
Association. The Office of Greenways and Trails has worked with the off-road biking
community to develop an extremely popular bike trail on the Cross Florida Greenway, a 110
mile corridor that crosses central Florida from the Gulf of Mexico on the west coast to the St.
Johns River on the East Coast. In addition, bicyclists are represented on the Florida
Greenways and Trails Council which advises the state on all greenway and trail issues.

                          THE WALKING PHENOMENON
The number of Americans who walk outdoors for exercise is at an all-time high. As reported
in Outdoor Recreation in American Life: A National Assessment of Demand and Supply
Trends, walking is the most popular of all outdoor recreation activities with nearly 67 percent
of those surveyed participating. This trend has implications at all levels of government. A


                                         Chapter 3 - 3
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

primary concern is to provide a safe environment for citizens to walk in. Since a large share
of participation occurs on neighborhood and city streets, there is an important role for local
transportation planners in the design of pedestrian friendly streets. Local park planners
should consider walking paths to help meet demand in areas where roadside walking is
unsafe. State-level parks should consider incorporating walking paths into public use areas
such as picnic areas and campgrounds. Appropriate signage should be used to direct users to
designated paths rather than park roads where there is higher potential for accidents. Since
walking for exercise involves a brisk pace, the terrain of many conventional nature and
hiking trails may not be suitable for exercise walking without modifications to smooth
uneven surfaces. In many cases, it will likely be best to provide separate walking trails to
avoid conflicts with slower paced nature and hiking trail users.

                                 HORSEBACK RIDING
Horseback riding participation, relative to other forms of outdoor recreation, appears to be
relatively stable or even declining. However, there are two factors that will ensure that this
activity will continue to require the attention of recreation planners. First, the amount of land
available for riding is diminishing due to land use changes. Development is part of this, but
the closure of large tracts of private lands to general public use in favor of hunting leases is
also a factor. Second, equestrian groups are well organized and effective at advocating for
access to public lands for riding. As a result, there are significantly more equestrian trails on
public lands than there were a decade ago.

Concerns with this activity include erosion, conflicts with hikers and off-road bicyclists, and
the spread of exotic plants. Responsibly meeting demand for this activity will require
preservation of a sufficient land base, educating riders, development of strategies to reduce
user conflicts, and proper trail construction and maintenance.

To help meet demand for this activity, the Division of Recreation and Parks, with input from
equestrian groups, has developed riding trails in a number of state parks. The Office of
Greenways and Trails has also worked with such groups to develop extensive riding trails on
the Cross Florida Greenway. In addition, equestrians are represented on the Florida
Greenways and Trails Council which advises the state on all greenway and trail issues.

                                         HUNTING
Florida has a long tradition of large and small game hunting. Although most hunting today is
considered sport hunting, there are still those for whom subsistence hunting is a necessity.
Nationally, hunting participation is declining, even among those who purchase licenses, and
this is true in Florida as well. Reasons for this vary, but a recent study in Texas points to
scarcity of game, lack of places to hunt and high cost of lease fees. It seems unlikely that
scarcity of game is a primary reason in Florida. Wildlife management programs on both
public and private lands have been very successful in maintaining healthy populations of
game species in most areas.

Lack of places to hunt and high lease fees seem more likely reasons for declining
participation in Florida. A recent trend among some large landowners is to close lands to


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                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

general public hunting and lease them to hunt clubs. This has resulted in large numbers of
acres of hunting land being removed from general use in some parts of the state. If this trend
continues, it will place increasing pressure on public hunting lands as is already occurring in
some areas of the state.

Another reason for declining participation is lack of recruitment of new hunters. In the Texas
study, the primary reason (34.1%) given by people who never hunted was that they don’t
care for hunting as a recreational activity. The second most common reason (32.5%) was
that they are against killing. Other reasons included: other activities were more important;
don’t like guns; and no one to go hunting with.

Historically, license fees have been a significant source of revenue for wildlife management
programs, as have taxes on the sale of sporting goods. In addition, hunting itself has been a
tool for managing game populations. If hunting participation continues to decline, alternative
funding sources and wildlife management strategies may be needed.

                                          SKATING
In-line skating and skateboarding have gained immense popularity in recent years prompting
many local communities to build skate parks specifically to meet local demands for this
activity. While in-line skating may be done on most any paved surface, skateboarding
enthusiasts prefer steep, varied terrain including ramps, pedestals and steep sided bowls to
accommodate acrobatic jumps and board tricks which are an essential component of the
sport.

Skateboarding can become a controversial form of recreation when skaters use sidewalks,
shopping centers and other areas generally reserved for pedestrian traffic. The acrobatic
nature of the sport does not mix well with typical urban foot traffic. Some cities have even
enacted ordinances prohibiting skateboarding on streets, sidewalks and parking lots. Cities
that have built skate parks typically have found them filled to capacity on weekends, with
some enthusiasts travelling a hundred miles or more to use the facilities.

Because of the potential for serious injury, concerns about liability have prevented some
cities from building facilities to accommodate skateboarding. Others have adopted a “skate-
at-your-own-risk” approach to avoid liability. Participants are warned via signage of the
dangerous nature of the sport and advised to wear appropriate protective gear. Each locality
will need to conduct its own evaluation of risk and act accordingly. It should be noted,
however, that this is a sport that has been steadily growing in popularity for some time. The
fact that competitions are now televised is an indicator that its popularity is not likely to
decline any time soon. Communities with large numbers of skaters should seriously consider
developing facilities to meet this need. It is important to design facilities for various skill
levels and to involve local skaters in the design of the facilities.

                               DISABLED RECREATION
Data from the National Survey on Recreation and the Environment indicate that disabled
persons participate in a wide range of recreational activities, in some cases at rates equal to or


                                          Chapter 3 - 5
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

higher than non-disabled persons. Walking, bird watching, visiting nature centers, biking,
fishing, hunting, camping, boating, picnicking, and swimming are all activities that disabled
persons report engaging in at roughly the same percentage rate as non-disabled persons. This
has important implications for all public and private recreation providers. Public agencies
and private providers should involve disabled advocacy groups in decision making processes
to determine the most appropriate ways to meet the recreation needs of this diverse group,
and in the case of the private sector, to tap into this largely unexplored market.

                               ETHNIC PARTICIPATION
Florida has a diverse population with many ethnic components. Data from the National
Survey on Recreation and the Environment indicate that there is considerable interest in
outdoor recreation activities among ethnic groups, though there are differences in preferred
activities associated with their respective cultures. Minority populations are expected to
grow substantially in the next decade making it increasingly important for public and private
recreation providers to identify ethnic recreational needs that may not be being met.

                                      ECOTOURISM
Florida is comprised of complex and highly varied natural communities and resources, and
has a rich cultural history. Recognizing the value of these resources to the citizens and
economy of the state, Florida has made a great effort to preserve significant examples of the
resources that represent the diverse natural, cultural, and historical components of the state.
The ideal climate and extensive system of wilderness areas, botanical sites, beaches, parks
and open spaces, historical and archaeological sites, and greenways and trails attract visitors
seeking outdoor experiences in the “natural” Florida. Florida is the country’s top tourist
destination, and ecotourism is the fastest-growing tourism segment.

In terms of wildlife conservation, ecotourism implies the balancing of natural resource
protection and public access to natural areas. For historic and cultural preservation, the
movement seeks to understand and protect local and regional heritage and culture. As an
economic development strategy, ecotourism aims to provide economic growth,
diversification and stability. As a social development tool, this new travel movement
symbolizes an improved quality of life, with local residents involved in the supply of
recreation and tourism resources.

In Florida, a legislatively formed Ecotourism/Heritage Tourism Advisory Committee
developed a model regional plan to promote and protect natural, coastal, historical, cultural
and commercial resources. The plan, which was presented to the Florida Commission on
Tourism in September 1997, can be tailored to the needs and concerns of each of Florida’s
planning regions.

In response to consumer demand for outdoor adventure experiences, the Florida Division of
Recreation and Parks has established a new program to promote The Real Florida in tourism
markets throughout the United States and abroad. The Ecotourism Marketing Group is
charged with promoting the natural, cultural and historical assets of the Florida state park




                                         Chapter 3 - 6
                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

system. Along with a variety of traditional promotional activities, this group works to link
state parks with area attractions and accommodations.

Ecotourism has also resulted in the development of a variety of new programs by the Florida
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission. One of these programs, dubbed the "Wings
Over Florida" certificate program, recognizes birdwatchers. Birders can receive full-color
certificates at four different achievement levels as they improve their birding skills and
increase their life list of native birds. According to information provided by the Commission,
some 800,000 visitors came to Florida in 1996 for the primary purpose of viewing wildlife,
and over 40 percent of Florida’s residents participated in some form of wildlife viewing. In
1996, Florida ranked second in the nation behind Texas for wildlife-related recreation
expenditures.

Ecotourism provides an opportunity for Florida to promote the diversity and richness of its
natural, cultural and historical resources to residents and visitors. However, plans to promote
these unique treasures and enhance public access should be based on policies that ensure
resource protection. Ecotourism should be promoted as a strategy to help Florida residents
and visitors better understand and appreciate what is unique about Florida, and encourage the
protection of natural and cultural resources.

                              GREENWAYS AND TRAILS
Florida’s statewide greenways and trails initiative grew out of two decades of innovative,
state-directed land acquisition and resource management programs and many community-
based resource conservation and recreational planning projects. Now recognized as a leader
in America’s greenways movement, Florida’s program is the result of the combined efforts of
citizen groups, nonprofit organizations, the scientific community, private businesses and
local, state and federal governmental units. The effort is guided by a five-year
implementation plan published in September 1998. The text below is modified from that
plan.

State law defines “greenway” as a linear open space established along either a natural
corridor, such as a riverfront, stream valley, or ridge-line, or over land along a railroad right-
of-way converted to recreational use, a canal, a scenic road, or other route; any natural or
landscaped course for pedestrian or bicycle passage; an open space connector linking parks,
natural reserves, cultural features, or historic sites with each other and populated areas; or a
local strip or linear park designated as a parkway or greenbelt.

Trails are defined in law as linear corridors and any adjacent support parcels on land or water
providing public access for recreation or authorized alternative modes of transportation.
Trails are a common recreational component of greenways.

The Florida Greenways and Trails System has its roots in the Florida Recreational Trails
System, the Florida Canoe Trail System, and the public parks, forests, refuges, wildlife
management areas and water management areas created to protect Florida’s natural heritage.
The concept of greenways was added by the 1996 legislature. The Florida Greenways and



                                          Chapter 3 - 7
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

Trails Act sets forth the goals of the statewide system and establishes procedures for is
administration and management.

What sets the greenways and trails concept apart from other initiatives is its emphasis on
connections. The system is intended to maintain and restore connectivity from the Panhandle
to southern Florida. An important goal of the system is to help preserve ecological processes
and services important to people and wildlife. When complete, the system will include a
contiguous trail the length and breadth of the state. It will accommodate a variety of
recreational activities, promote appreciation of the state’s natural, cultural and working
landscapes, and provide for alternative modes of transportation.

The Florida Greenways and Trails Council, established to advise the state on matters relating
to the greenway and trail system, will play a vital role in the planning process for the system.
The council’s meetings and hearings will provide opportunities for citizen participation, and
the public will be encouraged to get involved in all steps of the process. Through the
activities described above, the FGTC and DEP will evaluate the progress of implementation
and revise the Greenways and Trails System vision and implementation strategies as
necessary.

                                URBAN RECREATION
Outdoor recreation is often perceived as primarily involving large tracts of natural areas in
rural settings. For decades in Florida, there has been an increase in research and discussion
about the need for green space, parks, and trails in urban areas. Research has shown that
there is a link between urban open space and healthy communities. However, parks and
recreation programs in urban centers are in crisis due to lack of funding resources for
development and maintenance. New strategies are being implemented to develop park
facilities and improve existing facilities in urban communities.

A well-planned and managed park and recreation system can improve an urban community
in many ways including the provision of community, economic, environmental and personal
benefits. In a 1994 publication, the Trust for Public Land identified following benefits of
urban parks and open spaces.
• reduced juvenile crime;
• increased tourism to urban centers;
• increased property values;
• improved water, air and soil quality, and preserved natural habitat;
• reduced urban sprawl;
• a better business climate;
• improved quality of life in urban communities

An example of how urban recreation can improve communities is the Success Through
Academics and Recreational Support (STARS) program in Fort Myers. Since the program
has been implemented, juvenile arrests have dropped by nearly one-third and young people’s
grades have improved significantly. The STARS program won the 1992 crime reduction
program of the year from the U.S. Conference of Mayors.



                                         Chapter 3 - 8
                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



The success of public parks is determined by their location relative to potential park users,
and the features and facilities available to those users. A good park should provide a range of
activities offered in a safe, clean, attractive environment and should be connected to and
accessible by the community. Every urban community is different in terms of its social,
health and educational needs. Therefore, it is important that urban park activities and
opportunities are tailored to the needs of the individual community.

To realize the many potential benefits of a good park system, it is important for the
community served by the system to recognize an obligation to help take care of it.
Participatory planning is a key to achieving this. In addition to involving the general public
in planning for parks, agencies should seek partnerships with the private sector. Benefits of
such partnerships include supplementing public funds with private dollars, merging resources
to improve service, and creating entrepreneurial opportunities.

An example of successful community involvement is the Safe Neighborhood Parks Act of
1996 which was approved by Miami-Dade County voters to improve parks and natural
areas. The measure was organized by the Trust for Public Lands, and was sponsored locally
by the Trust for Safe Neighborhood Parks, Inc. The Safe Neighborhood Parks Act will fund
$200 million in county and municipal park capital improvements including athletic fields,
picnic areas, facility upgrades to meet the needs of people with disabilities, and beach
restoration.

The Florida Forever Act, a 10-year, $300 million per year land acquisition and environmental
restoration program approved by the 2000 Florida Legislature recognizes of the importance
and magnitude of the need for urban parks and green space. The Act allocates 22 percent of
the proceeds of the program to the Florida Communities Trust, and for grants to local
governments and non-profit organizations for the acquisition of community-based projects,
urban open spaces, parks and greenways




                                        Chapter 3 - 9
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                        CHAPTER 4
  OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCE AND FACILITY GUIDELINES

The primary purpose for collecting information on the supply of and demand for outdoor
recreation resources and facilities is to estimate present and future recreation needs. Because
supply and demand data are generally expressed in different units, the application of guidelines
is required to facilitate meaningful planning comparisons. This chapter will explain the nature of
outdoor recreation guidelines and how they are developed and used in estimating resource and
facility needs.

Three types of guidelines are commonly used in outdoor recreation planning. The first type, use
guidelines, are employed as a means of stating the amount of use a resource or facility can
accommodate under certain conditions. The second type, population guidelines, are used in
determining the amount of resources and facilities that are required to serve a given population.
The third type, site guidelines, are used primarily for estimating acreage needs for local parks
and recreation areas. Because of the numerous variations in outdoor recreation environments in
Florida and the diversity of planning purposes that exist, no single type of resource and facility
guidelines can adequately meet all outdoor recreation planning needs. Each outdoor recreation
supplier should, therefore, select the guidelines that best serve their specific planning needs.

In an effort to develop current and definitive resource-based and user-oriented facility use
guidelines, the Division of Recreation and Parks and the Florida State University System,
Institute for Government, in coordination with the Florida Recreation and Park Association and
the Florida League of Cities, sponsored research conducted by the University of Florida,
Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, to collect and examine existing levels of use in
both resource-based and user-oriented outdoor recreation activities. The 1998 study, Recreation
Standards for Comprehensive Planning in Florida, gathered information from a cross-section of
Florida cities and counties on the levels of facility use permitted on outdoor recreation facilities
operated by local governments. The results of the study form the basis for the use guidelines
contained in this chapter.

The guidelines presented in this plan are intended for broad, statewide application, and make no
allowances for localized differences in communities or in specific outdoor recreation
environments. As a result, these guidelines may not be wholly applicable in any given instance
and should not generally be applied without some modification. Local jurisdictions particularly
are encouraged to develop their own guidelines to more adequately reflect local conditions in
determining recreation needs. The 1998 study cited above is recommended for use by local
agencies in developing guidelines applicable for use at a local level. A copy of the study report
may be obtained from the Division of Recreation and Parks.

             OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITY USE GUIDELINES
The use guidelines in this plan are based on assumptions about the nature and condition of the
resource or facility being used, and the expectations of the user. They express the amount of
outdoor recreation demand that can be met by a particular unit of supply under stated conditions
of use. They are used in this plan as conversion factors to translate units of supply (miles of


                                           Chapter 4 - 1
                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


beach, hunting acreage, etc.) into units of demand (user occasions), thus allowing comparisons
between the two. Use guidelines have been established for 12 resource-based and 9
user-oriented activities described below.

Use Guidelines for Resource-Based Facilities
Since local governments do not extensively provide resource-based outdoor recreation
opportunities, the results of the guidelines study did not produce sufficient data to develop use
guidelines for those activities. Therefore, the guidelines for resource-based activities, except
where noted, are based on maximum levels of carrying capacity developed by the Division of
Recreation and Parks for use and protection of state park resources. This was done so that the
resultant statistical needs for additional resources and facilities would be as close as possible to
the practical ability of state government to provide them. A discussion of resource-based
guidelines for each activity follows. A summary of the guidelines is presented in Table 4.1 on
page 88 of this chapter.

                                Freshwater and Saltwater Beach
Use guidelines for freshwater and saltwater beach are expressed in both linear and areal units of
measurement. The average area needed to obtain a worthwhile recreational experience was
assumed to be 200 square feet per person. It was assumed that this same area of beach would be
used twice during the same day. Therefore, the use guideline was established as 100 square feet
of beach per person per day. The linear use guideline was set at 2.5 linear feet of beach per
person per day, based on an average use of 5 linear feet per person and a daily turnover rate of 2.

                            Freshwater and Saltwater Piers or Catwalks
The use guideline for freshwater or saltwater fishing from piers, boardwalks, catwalks, jetties or
other shoreline facilities was based on the estimate that 10 linear feet of pier or catwalk are
required for each person at any given time. It was assumed that this space would be used an
average of twice per day. Therefore, the use guideline was established at 5 linear feet per person
per day.

                              Boat Ramps - Freshwater and Saltwater
The average number of people in a group using a freshwater or saltwater boat ramp is 3, based
on information obtained from the National Marine Manufacturers Association. It was assumed
that each boating party will use the boat ramp facility for 20 minutes per day. Thus, during a
12-hour day, an average of 36 boats could use a single-lane ramp. By multiplying the average
number of people per boat (3) by the average number of boats using a boat ramp per day (36), a
use guideline of 108 people per ramp per day was calculated.

                            Camping Facilities (RV/Trailer and Tent)
The use guideline for recreational vehicle and tent camping was based on an average state park
carrying capacity of 4 persons per campsite. A turnover rate of 1 camping group per site per day
was used to establish the campsite guideline at 4 persons per campsite per day.




                                            Chapter 4 - 2
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                           Picnic Tables
The guideline for picnic tables was based on an average picnic group size of 4 people. Since the
average picnic table can seat 4 people comfortably, it was assumed that the average party would
require 1 table. A further assumption was made that each table could be used twice per day.
Thus, the use guideline for picnicking is 8 persons per table per day.

                                         Recreational Trails
The use guidelines for designated bicycle, horseback riding, hiking and nature study trails were
based on carrying capacity guidelines adopted for the state park system. Since the guidelines for
these uses are a range rather than a fixed number, the average of the range was used in
calculating demand. The use guideline for horseback riding trails, 8 to 32 users per mile per day,
assumes 2 to 8 groups of four riders per mile per day. The bicycle trail use guideline of 40 to 80
users per mile per day assumes 10 to 20 riders per mile per day with a daily turnover rate of 4.
Similarly, the use guideline for hiking trails, 4 to 20 hikers per mile per day, assumes 1 to 5
groups of 2 hikers per mile per day with a daily turnover rate of 2. The use guideline for nature
trails, 40 to160 persons per mile per day, assumes 5 to 20 groups of 2 hikers per mile per day
with a daily turnover rate of 4.

                                  Archaeological and Historical Sites
Based on visitation patterns at a representative sampling of different types of archaeological and
historical sites in the state park system, the average number of persons visiting a site at a given
moment during weekends or weekday holidays was estimated at 20 persons. The average length
of time spent at a site was estimated to be 40 minutes. The average length of time sites are open
to the public was 7.5 hours. This established a turnover rate of approximately 11 groups per day
(7.5 hours divided by 40 minutes/group = 11.25). By multiplying the number of visitors in an
average group by the daily turnover rate, a use guideline of 220 visitors per site per day was
established.

                                           Hunting Land
The use guideline for hunting lands was developed from information supplied by the Florida Fish
and Wildlife Conservation Commission. The Commission has established a Quota Hunt System
for most of the state wildlife management areas under its jurisdiction. This system is designed to
regulate hunting pressure at wildlife management areas during the beginning of the general hunt
and selected special hunt seasons. Careful consideration is given each year to the condition of
the game population and habitat at each management area when hunter quota levels are
established. The Commission's guideline of 90 acres per hunter was selected as the basis for a
use guideline representing all types of hunting including deer, turkey and squirrel. It was
assumed that these same 90 acres could be used twice in the same day. Therefore, a use
guideline was established at 45 acres per person per day.




                                           Chapter 4 - 3
                                                                                                                    OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                     Table 4.1
                                          Use Guidelines for Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation Activities

              Activity                        Area Requirements                    User Per Unit Of Facility        Turnover Rate               Guideline
Bicycling                             10-20 bicycles per mile                   1 user per bike                         4/day     40-80 cyclists per mile per day

Camping: RV, Trailer and Tent1        3-10 sites /acre                          4 campers per site                        1/day       4 users per campsite per day

Freshwater and Saltwater Beach        200-500 square feet of beach per                                                    2/day       100 square feet of freshwater or
Activities                            person                                                                                          saltwater sandy beach/user/day

Freshwater and Saltwater Fishing 10 linear feet of pier, jetty or                                                         2/day       5 linear feet of pier, jetty or catwalk
(non-boat)                       catwalk per person                                                                                   per user per day

Freshwater and Saltwater Boat         1 Boat per lane                           3 users per boat                      36 boats/day 108 users per single- lane ramp/day
Fishing, Power Boating2

Freshwater and Saltwater              5 linear feet of beach per person                                                   2/day       2.5 linear feet of freshwater or
Swimming (non-pool)                                                                                                                   saltwater sandy beach/user/day

Hiking                                1-5 groups per mile                       2 users per group                         2/day       4-20 hikers per mile of trail / day

Horseback Riding                      2-8 groups per mile                       4 equestrians per group                   3/day       24-96 equestrians/ mile of trail/day

Hunting3                              90 acres per hunter                                                                 2/day       45 acres per hunter per day

Nature Study                          5-20 groups per mile                      2 users per group                         4/day       40-160 users per mile of trail/ day

Picnicking                                                                      4 persons per table                       2/day       8 user per table per day

Visiting Archeological and            Average visit is 40 minutes               20 persons at any point                  11/day       220 user per site per day
Historical Sites1                     Average day is 7.5 hours                  in the day
Based on average carrying capacities and visitation patterns at state parks. 2Average number of people in a group is based on information from the National Marine Manufacturers
1

Association. Each boating party uses the boat ramp facility for 20 minutes/day, and during a 12-hour day, 36 boats can use a single-lane ramp. 3The Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission developed the hunting guidelines for the state's Quota Hunt System.




                                                                               Chapter 4 - 4
                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



Use Guidelines for User-Oriented Facilities
The use guidelines for user-oriented outdoor recreation activities presented in this section were
derived from Recreation Standards for Comprehensive Planning in Florida, referenced above.
The purpose of the study was to collect information on outdoor recreation facility use from a
cross section of suppliers of user-oriented facilities and to develop a definitive set of facility use
guidelines that could be used by state and local planners. The study also sought to determine if
there was a consensus among city and county suppliers, the primary providers of user-oriented
facilities, on the amount of use that facilities could support on the average each day. The study
examined what was considered the minimum, moderate and maximum levels of use that facilities
could sustain under various conditions, according to local government recreation providers.
Approximately 100 cities and counties were selected and surveyed, based on their geographic
location and population size.

As a source of information for the study, a survey was conducted to document what the
recreation suppliers thought was the amount of use per day that facilities could support under
existing conditions of operation and management. In a similar manner, the survey also
documented the maximum level of use respondents thought facilities could support under
optimum conditions of operation and management. And, the survey sought to determine the
maximum level of use on facilities under conditions where no operation or management
limitations existed. The optimum daily use level, representing the level of use that survey
participants perceived as the most desirable, was selected for application in establishing the
use-guidelines for this plan. Table 4.2 identifies the median value of the survey results for each
of the nine user-oriented facilities for which information was collected.

The user-oriented and resource-based guidelines in this plan are intended to apply at the
statewide level and are not intended to be prescriptive or applicable for any specific city or
county. It is recommended that local governments further consider any number of specific
factors that may affect the sustainable or preferred use level for facilities. All guideline values
developed for this plan are based on the assumption that the facilities are available for use on an
average of 12 hours per day. Adjustments should be made for lighted facilities to reflect longer
hours of availability. For the purposes of this plan, these guidelines were used only to convert
units of supply into units of demand in order to compare supply of outdoor recreation facilities
against demand to estimate resource and facility needs.

              OUTDOOR RECREATION POPULATION GUIDELINES
Population guidelines are hypothetical estimates of the amounts of outdoor recreation resources
and facilities that are required to support a given population. Generally, population guidelines
make no distinction between the varying requirements of different segments of the population,
but they can be tailored to suit most planning purposes. Such guidelines are widely used to
assess community recreational needs by determining the minimum number of resources and
facilities required to serve the local population. When used in concert with facility use
guidelines and park/open space site guidelines (discussed later in this chapter), population
guidelines can prove a useful tool for community-level outdoor recreation planning.




                                            Chapter 4 - 5
                                                                                           OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                            Table 4.2
                                  Use Guidelines for User-Oriented Outdoor Recreation Activities

                    Activity                              Resource/Facility                           Guideline
Baseball/Softball                                Baseball/softball field                  120 users per field per day

Basketball                                       Basketball court                         90 users per court per day

Football/Soccer/Rugby                            Football/soccer field                    175 users per field per day

Golf                                             Golf course (9-hole)                     200 user per 9-hole course per day

Physical exercise (urban jogging and hiking)     Linear mile of exercise/parcours trail   100 users per mile of trail per day

Racquetball/Handball                             Racquetball/Handball Court               40 users per court per day

Shuffleboard                                     Shuffleboard court                       20 users per court per day

Swimming (pool)                                  Swimming pool 1                          256 users per pool per day

Tennis                                           Tennis court                             30 users per court per day
1
    Based on a standard community pool measuring 81 feet x 60 feet (4,800 square feet).




                                                                Chapter 4 - 6
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Florida's resource and facility population guidelines, shown in Tables 4.3 and 4.4, were
formulated after extensive analysis of the various guidelines established by community
recreation and parks departments, the National Recreation and Park Association, the Florida
Recreation and Park Association, and various recreation publications. This analysis revealed
a large diversity of guidelines upon which local government outdoor recreation planning is
based. In order to establish general resource and facility population guidelines for this plan,
it was necessary to synthesize from the several existing guidelines. Minimum and maximum
ranges were identified for each activity, and median values calculated.

                  OUTDOOR RECREATION SITE GUIDELINES
Site guidelines are a set of general criteria for determining the specific types and amounts of
park lands necessary to accommodate the recreational needs of local communities. The
criteria define the acreage, facility type and service area requirements for various types of
community recreation sites and areas. They are most commonly used as a means of
expressing outdoor recreation needs, based on population guidelines, in terms of spatial and
facility requirements.

The outdoor recreation site guidelines shown in Table 4.5 were formulated primarily to
provide guidance to local governments for acquisition and development of recreation
resources and facilities. They are intended to be used only as a general guide and should be
adjusted according to meet the specific recreation needs of individual communities.

The site guidelines presented in this plan were obtained through synthesis of the guidelines
established by local government recreation and park departments, the Florida Recreation and
Park Association, various recreation publications, and the National Recreation and Park
Association. Community resources and facilities are divided into two classifications: (1)
special-use areas and facilities; and (2) parkland areas. Both types have special functions,
but they can be combined at recreation areas to provide a wider variety of outdoor recreation
experiences.

Special-use areas and facilities meet a large part of the demand for user-oriented recreational
activities. All segments of the population participate in a wide range of these pursuits, for
which opportunities are generally provided at special-use areas and facilities close to their
residences. Typical areas and facilities might include golf courses, tennis courts, ball fields,
and swimming pools. These may be located in park areas or they may be situated
individually.

Parkland areas serve two purposes: they conserve open space and natural resources, and they
provide outdoor recreation opportunities. Florida still abounds in open space resources such
as forestlands, grasslands, wetlands, lakes and beaches, although the availability of these
resources is steadily dwindling. Conservation of open space through the acquisition of
recreation areas is one of the best means for maintaining examples of Florida's original
domain. Demand for outdoor recreation opportunities can be met by providing large parks
for such passive, resource-based pursuits as picnicking and nature study, and neighborhood

                                         Chapter 4 - 7
                                                                                           OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                             Table 4.3
                              Population Guidelines for Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation Activities1

                      Activity                             Resource/Facility                     Population Served

                                                                                        Minimum       Maximum          Median
Bicycling Riding                                   Linear mile of trail                      1,500        10,000           5,000

Camping (RV, trailer and tent)                     Acre of camp area                         5,600         25,000          6,750

Freshwater and saltwater beach activities          Mile of freshwater or saltwater          25,000        211,200         25,000
                                                   sandy beach shoreline

Freshwater and Saltwater Fishing (non-boat)        800 feet of pier, catwalk or jetty        5,000         25,000          5,600

Freshwater and Saltwater Fishing, Power            Boat Ramp Lane                            1,500         12,500          5,000
boating, Water skiing, Sailing

Hiking                                             Linear mile of trail                      5,000         10,000          6,750

Horseback Riding                                   Linear mile of trail                      5,000         10,000          5,000

Nature Study                                       Linear mile of trail                      6,250         10,000          6,750

Picnicking                                         Picnic Area                               5,000         10,000          6,000
1
    For the purposes of this plan, population guidelines were not developed for canoeing and boat fishing, which use
    extensive water resources.




                                                                 Chapter 4 - 8
                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                               Table 4.4
                                 Population Guidelines for User-Oriented Outdoor Recreation Activities

                      Activity                                  Resource/Facility                 Population Served

                                                                                        Minimum      Maximum     Median
Baseball/Softball                                             Baseball/Softball field          2,000      10,000       50,000

Basketball                                                       Basketball Court               500       20,000        5,000

Football/Soccer/Rugby                                         Football/Soccer Field            4,000      25,000        6,000

General Play                                                   Equipped play area                500      15,000       10,000
                                                               Multipurpose Field                500      10,000        3,750
                                                               Multipurpose Court              3,000       4,000        3,500

Golf                                                            9-hole golf course             8,000      50,000       25,000
                                                                18-hole golf course           25,000      65,200       50,000

Physical Exercise (urban jogging and hiking )                Exercise/Parcours Trails         10,000      50,000       15,000

Racquetball/Handball                                            Racquetball Court              2,500      20,000       10,000

Shuffleboard                                                    Shuffleboard Court             1,000      12,000        6,000

Swimming (pool)*                                                 Swimming Pool1                1,000      50,000       25,000

Tennis                                                             Tennis Court                1,067       1,000        2,000

Volleyball                                                         Volleyball Court            4,000      12,000        6,000
1
  Based on a standard community pool measuring 81 feet X 60 feet (4,800 square feet).




                                                                     Chapter 4 - 9
                                                                                          OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                            Table 4.5
                             Site Guidelines for Community Outdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities

                                                          Area per      Size as a Park     Size as a
     Park Facility       Location         Population        1000          Adjoining         Separate     Facilities
                                            Served       Population         School            Park
Equipped Play         Less than .25     2,500           .5 acre        Minimum of        Minimum of      Play structures, benches, picnic
and Tot Lot1          mile distance     maximum                        .25 acre          1 acre          areas, open spaces, landscaping
                      in residential
                      setting
Neighborhood          Neighborhood      5,000           2 acres        Minimum of 2      Minimum of      Play structures, recreation
Park                  area - .25 - .5   maximum                        acres             5 acres         buildings, court games, hard
                      mile distance                                                                      courts, tennis courts, internal
                                                                                                         trails, shuffleboard, volleyball
                                                                                                         courts, picnic area, open area,
                                                                                                         landscaping
Community Park Usually serves 5,000                     2 acres        Minimum of 5      Minimum of      All of the facilities found in a
               two or more    maximum                                  acres             20 acres;       neighborhood park plus
               neighborhoods                                                             Optimal is      informal ballfields, swimming
               and .5 to 3                                                               20-50 acres     pools, archery ranges, disc golf
               miles distance                                                                            areas, ornamental gardens,
                                                                                                         open space and facilities for
                                                                                                         cultural activities
Urban Open            Urban Areas       .25 - .5 mile   1 acre                           Min. of .1      Resource-based recreation area
Space                                                                                    acre

1
    When feasible, tot lots, neighborhood parks and community parks should be located adjacent to elementary, middle and high schools.




                                                              Chapter 4 - 10
                                                                                   OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



                                                  Table 4.5 (Continued)
                         Site Guidelines for Community Outdoor Recreation Resources and Facilities


  Park Facility         Location             Population     Area per 1000 Size                             Facilities
                                               Served        Population
Urban District    In a large urban area    One park per     5 acres        Minimum of 50      Play structures, restrooms, trails,
Park              or its periphery with    50,000                          acres; optimal     nature center, boating, swimming,
                  30 -40 minutes                                           is 75+ acres       picnic areas, sports fields.
                  driving time
Regional Park     On the periphery of      >100,000         20 acres       Minimum of         Camping, nature and bridle paths,
                  an urban area - 30 -     Population                      250 acres -        picnicking, and other facilities
                  60 minutes driving                                       several thousand   non- intensive development
                  time                                                     acres
Beach Access      Within .25 mile of                        .5 acre        Minimum of 1       Walkways, parking and restrooms
with Parking      urban coastal beach                                      acre               optional
                  or on its periphery, 1
                  access/.5 mile of
                  shoreline
Sports Complex    Strategically located                                    Minimum of 25      Ballfields, soccer fields, football
                  community-wide                                           acres; Optimal     fields, tennis courts, play
                  facilities                                               is 40-80 acres     structures, hard courts,
                                                                                              volleyball, internal trails, picnic
                                                                                              areas




                                                          Chapter 4 - 11
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


or community parks for active user-oriented pursuits such as tennis, baseball and
shuffleboard.

Park lands that conserve open space and provide outdoor recreation opportunities can be
classified into six types, dependent primarily on the size of their service area: equipped
play areas and tot lots, neighborhood parks, community parks, urban open space,
urban-district parks, and regional parks. Beach access and parking facilities technically
do not by themselves satisfy outdoor recreation needs, and are not usually classified as
special-use or parkland areas. Yet, their acquisition and development is crucial for use of
publicly-owned beach frontage for which public access is limited or otherwise
nonexistent. Consequently, a site guideline is included for this special type of support
facility.

Site Guidelines for Community Resources and Facilities
                              Equipped Play Area and Tot Lot
Equipped play areas, or "tot lots" as they are often called, are open areas with play
apparatus for preschool and school age children. It is recommended that an equipped
play area serve neighborhoods of between 500 and 2,500 people on a minimum of
1/4-acre at a site adjoining an existing recreation facility or elementary school.
Elsewhere, 1 acre is suggested. Recommended facilities include play apparatus,
landscaping, benches and open space. Depending on local recreation needs, picnic tables
may be included.

                                    Neighborhood Park
The neighborhood park is a "walk-to" park, generally located along streets where people
can walk or bicycle without encountering heavy traffic. It serves the population of a
neighborhood in a radius of up to one-half mile, and should have at least 2 acres for each
1,000 population. Its size usually ranges from 5 to 10 acres, and it serves a population of
up to 5,000.

Because the service areas of a neighborhood park and an elementary school often
coincide, it is desirable for the neighborhood park to physically join the elementary
school, when feasible. Both park and school serve the same basic population, share
compatible land uses, and contain recreation facilities that are of mutual benefit. Because
recreation needs vary from one neighborhood to another, site design for this type of park
should be flexible in order to meet the particular recreation needs of each neighborhood.
Site design should also reflect the character of the neighborhood and incorporate
compatible elements of both passive and active types of recreation. Typical facilities
developed in the neighborhood park may include play apparatus, recreation buildings,
multipurpose courts, sports fields, picnic areas and free play areas. Additional facilities
may be added, depending on the recreation demands of the neighborhood.

                                    Community Park
A community park is a "ride to" park, located near major streets. It is designed to serve
the needs of 4 to 6 neighborhoods. It serves an area with a radius of up to 3 miles, or a


                                      Chapter 4 - 12
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


service population of up to 25,000. A minimum of 20 acres for each community park is
recommended, with acreage needs based on a standard of 2 acres per 1,000 population.
Where a community park can be located adjacent to a junior or senior high school, a
minimum of 5 acres is recommended. The community park offers a wide range of
program and facility opportunities for all individuals and families. Just as the
neighborhood park fulfills the recreation needs of the neighborhood, the community park
is designed to meet the recreation needs of the entire community.

Typical facilities at a community park may include swimming pools, ball fields, tennis
courts, play areas, picnic areas, multipurpose courts, recreation buildings, and sports
fields. Additional recreation facilities may be included to meet a particular recreation
demand in the community. Adequate off-street parking may be needed to contain parking
overflow from the school parking areas. Two important elements of every community
park are the use of landscaping and the provision of passive recreation activity areas.

                                    Urban Open Space
Urban open space sites are landscaped or natural open areas, located within built-up
areas. Depending on their location, open space sites may serve populated areas ranging in
size from a single neighborhood to an entire city. Their principal function is to
intersperse congested urban environments with aesthetically pleasing buffer areas. Urban
open space areas may vary in size from 1/10-acre to several acres depending on their
intended use. Some serve as linear, vest pocket or traffic circle parks, while others are
parkways, boulevard medians, plazas, malls, courthouse squares, and promenades.
Benches, commemorative structures, trails and paths are optional depending on local
needs and the size and location of individual sites.

                                    Urban-District Park
An urban-district park is designed to serve the recreation needs of several communities, a
city, or a county, and usually provides some areas and facilities that are resource-based.
Typical areas and facilities include natural areas, campgrounds and play apparatus.
Additional facilities may include a zoo, a golf course or a botanical garden.

Driving periods of up to 30 to 40 minutes may be required to reach an urban-district park,
which should, when possible, be located on the periphery of a large urban area. Such
parks should serve an average population of 50,000, with a desirable space allowance of
5 acres per 1,000 people. While 100 acres may meet minimum requirements, a size range
of 200 acres or more is desirable.

                                      Regional Park
Regional parks are large, resource-based areas that serve two or more communities or
counties and are usually located within an hour's driving distance of the residents they
serve. A space allowance of 20 acres per 1,000 population is suggested. The park should
serve a population of over 100,000 and should range in size from a minimum of 250
acres to as much as several thousand acres. Because regional parks are generally
designed for resource-based activities, location is dependent upon the availability of high
quality natural resources capable of being developed and used for outdoor recreation.


                                      Chapter 4 - 13
                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Typical facilities provided at a regional park include water-based recreation sites,
camping areas, hiking and nature trails, picnic areas, and other facilities not requiring
intensive development. Parking areas are necessary support facilities and should be
designed to minimize adverse effects on the natural environment. The most prominent
feature of a regional park is that it provides recreational opportunities that, through the
design and development of outdoor recreation resources and facilities, capitalize on the
natural environment and promote an atmosphere of beauty and serenity.

                                     Beach Access Site
Access points and parking areas are primarily support facilities for public-owned
beaches. In many areas beach access is limited to pedestrian paths and raised wooden
walkways which extend to the public-owned portion of the beach (that part lying seaward
of the mean high water line). Public parking may or may not be provided. Sites may
range from 10 to more than 100 feet in width; parking areas may range from less than to
more than an acre. The study Recreation Standards for Comprehensive Planning in
Florida found that approximately three parking spaces are presently provided for every
100 square feet of beach at public access points, with a turnover rate of three cars per day
(2.75 people per car). These figures reflect the median values of all survey responses
statewide. A distance of one-half mile between access sites has been developed as a
guideline for the spacing of public access sites at state-financed beach restoration projects
as required by Chapter 16B-36, Florida Administrative Code.




                                       Chapter 4 - 14
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                       CHAPTER 5
           OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND AND NEED

Florida collects information on the demand for outdoor recreation resources and facilities to
estimate present and future recreation needs. The demand and need statistics in this plan result
from the application of methodologies designed to determine the relative recreation needs for
selected outdoor recreation activities statewide and in each of the state’s eleven planning regions.
This provides a basis for comparisons between regions and among activities. Relative need is
one factor the state considers when allocating its financial resources to acquire and develop
recreation resources and facilities in the planning regions. Since the data provided here is valid
only at the state and regional levels, it should not be used to evaluate specific recreation needs at
the sub-regional level, such as counties or municipalities.

                     OUTDOOR RECREATION PARTICIPATION
There is no consensus in the field of recreation planning concerning the most appropriate means
of measuring demand for outdoor recreation resources and facilities. Since public recreation
resources and facilities are “free” goods and services, “demand,” as an economic concept (how
much and what kind of outdoor recreation a person would “consume” under certain conditions of
cost and availability) is not practically applicable. Consequently, “outdoor recreation demand”
commonly expresses the actual participation in recreation activity by some defined group or
population over a fixed period of time. Although this approach has inherent weaknesses,
long-range outdoor recreation planning requires an assessment of demand and this method
provides reasonably sound estimates.

Measuring Demand
The Division of Recreation and Parks conducts periodic surveys of resident and tourist
participation in recreation activities to estimate outdoor recreation demand in Florida. The
Division did not have funds available to conduct a new participation survey during the update of
this plan. Therefore, this chapter includes 1999 demand and need calculations derived from the
1992-1993 Florida Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Surveys conducted by
the University of Florida, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism.

To obtain the resident data, the University of Florida conducted telephone surveys of residents
regarding their participation in 26 different outdoor recreation activities. The survey was
conducted over the 12-month period between August 1992 and July 1993 and consisted of a
random sample of 3,169 Florida residents. Participants were asked the number of times they
participated in each activity during the preceding two months and the county location of their
participation. Administration of the resident survey ensured that each regional sample reflected
the age, sex, race and ethnic composition of each region’s population, with sample sizes large
enough to ensure a sampling error of less than two percent at the 0.95 confidence level. Please
refer to Appendix E for the resident participation survey instrument. The tourist participation
data is from 2,500 interviews conducted by the University of Florida during a 12-month survey
period in 1992 and 1993. Results were compiled by county and by planning region. For tourist
                                           Chapter 5 - 1
                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


population projections, the Division used data from a 1997 survey conducted by the Florida
Tourism Industry Marketing Corporation (VISIT FLORIDA). The VISIT FLORIDA survey
randomly selected tourists for personal interviews at thirteen major airports and three interstate
highway exit points on Interstates 10, 75, and 95.

This plan expresses participation in outdoor recreation activities in standard units called
“user-occasions.” A user-occasion represents an individual participating one time in a single
outdoor recreation activity in one of Florida’s eleven planning regions. Since Florida residents
commonly recreate in regions other than where they reside, the total resident participation that
took place within each region was measured as two distinct components: user-occasions
generated by residents of that region, and user-occasions generated by residents of other regions
of the state. The resulting numbers were used to determine a resident per capita participation
rate and a non-resident ratio (a factor expressing the relationship of participation by residents of
other regions to participation by region residents). The per capita participation rate (PCPR) is
used to convert the number of affirmative responses per sample size of residents or tourists per
region, to a “true” number of user-occasions among the entire resident or tourist population of
that region. The generic formula for the PCPR is:

                 PCPR = (number of affirmative responses/sample population size)

The percentage of people who participated differs from the per capita participation rate. The
latter represents an average of how many times each region resident or out-of-state tourist
participated in each activity, including those who did not participate at all. The percentage of
people who participated indicates the number of residents and tourists who actually took part in
each activity, regardless of how many times they may have done so.

In mathematical terms, the methodologies used to calculate resident and tourist demand for each
outdoor recreation activity within each region are expressed by the following:

Resident Demand

RD           =      Pr . N    +    Pn . Pr . N
                    X              Pr   X

where:

RD       =       total demand generated by Florida residents
Pr       =       sample user-occasions by region residents
Pn       =       sample user-occasions by residents of all other regions in the State
X        =       number of region residents in sample
N        =       estimated region population

Tourist Demand

TD           =     P . N

                                            Chapter 5 - 2
                                                    OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                 X
where:

TD       =     total demand generated by Florida tourists
P        =     sample user-occasions by tourists
X        =     number of tourists in sample
N        =     estimated tourist visitation in a region

Using these methods, the Division calculated the number of user-occasions, by activity, for each
planning region and the state as a whole. These methods were repeated using projections of the
resident and tourist populations of each region for the years 1997, 2000, 2005, and 2010. The
projected years assume constant PCPR values from the 1997 calculations. Population
projections stem directly from the University of Florida’s 1997 projections. Projected demand
and need estimates were calculated for the following resource-based activities: bicycle riding,
boating, camping, fishing, freshwater swimming, hiking, horseback riding, hunting, nature study,
picnicking, saltwater beach activities and visiting archaeological and historic sites. Demand and
need was calculated for the following user-oriented activities: baseball/softball, basketball,
football/soccer, golf, handball/racquetball, outdoor swimming pool use, shuffleboard and tennis.

The remainder of this chapter presents regional summaries of demand for the years 1997, 2000,
2005, and 2010. This approach to demand projection presupposes constant per capita
participation rates for residents and tourists coupled with increasing population projections for
both. The result is that anticipated increases in regional and statewide recreation participation
are considered solely a function of population increases and not a function of other factors such
as changing recreation patterns, availability of leisure time, abnormal weather patterns,
fluctuations in energy costs, changes in mobility, population composition, or changes in levels of
disposable income. These factors have a great influence on the type and quantity of recreation
participation; however, no practical means have been found to include them in the plan’s demand
estimation methodology. For this reason, judgements made using the numerical estimates
presented in this plan must be tempered with the knowledge that many factors are working on the
behavior patterns of the people who generate the actual recreation demand observed.

Per capita participation rates for tourists were calculated using slightly different methods. The
total user-occasions by region for each activity were determined using data from the 1992-1993
tourist survey. These totals were then divided by the number of tourists surveyed who visited
each region. Tourist population projections stem from 1989-1997 tourist data from VISIT
FLORIDA and require further explanation. VISIT FLORIDA provided annual tourist data for
the years 1989 through 1997. Since the formula that the Division uses to calculate needs
requires population estimates for all years in the analysis, the Division created its own tourist
projections for 2000, 2005, and 2010 based on the historical survey data collected by VISIT
FLORIDA (and its Department of Commerce predecessor). To do this, the Division plotted
tourist numbers by region for each year data was available. The result was a line graph to
illustrate 1989-1997 tourist trends. Based on these trends, the Department extrapolated a future
trend to 2010. In nearly all cases, the percent change in tourist activity is constant for future


                                          Chapter 5 - 3
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


years, and is a continuation of trend lines established between 1989-1997 by the VISIT
FLORIDA Tourist Survey data.

                           OUTDOOR RECREATION NEEDS
A focal point of outdoor recreation planning is the quantitative comparison of outdoor recreation
demand against the supply of recreation resources and facilities at a given point in time. Need
exists where demand exceeds supply. The outdoor recreation demand figures presented in this
plan are computed on a regional basis, incorporating large geographical areas and many political
jurisdictions. A shortcoming of this regional analysis is that the resource and facility needs of a
city or county may be offset by a surplus of supply in other cities or counties in the planning
region. Nevertheless, these quantitative estimates of regional need for outdoor recreation
resources and facilities, along with other qualitative factors, provides Florida an opportunity to
plan on a broad scale.

Outdoor Recreation Design Demand
Participation is not distributed evenly throughout the year. Limited opportunities for leisure time
and seasonal weather patterns contribute to fluctuating participation levels for most outdoor
recreation activities. Outdoor recreation participation normally peaks on weekends and holidays.
These peak days are the most important for purposes of comparison with existing recreation
supply. Peak days are considered critical thresholds; they represent high volumes of demand
expected for an activity throughout the year. “Design demand” is the term used for an average
weekend or holiday volume of participation, or peak day. The quantity of resources and
facilities required to meet design demand represents a more realistic goal for recreation providers
than the level of supply required to accommodate the highest demand generated (a frequency of
only a few times per year).

To calculate design demand, total user occasions are multiplied by 55 percent (0.55) and then
divided by 111. This formula is derived from an evaluation of state park attendance, where 55
percent of the total annual attendance occurred on 111 days (52 weekend days plus seven
weekday holidays). This formula applies to all outdoor recreation activities, with the exception
of hunting. Hunting, which has a legally enforced season, was calculated differently, with its
design demand ratio (0.70) multiplied by total annual user occasions and then divided by the 22
peak days of the legal hunting season.

Outdoor Recreation Supply Capacity
To facilitate comparison of outdoor recreation demand with supply, resource and facility use
guidelines were used to convert volumes of supply (expressed in resource and facility units) into
units of demand (user-occasions). Chapter Four of this plan described use, population and site
guidelines. It should be noted that the use guidelines do not represent optimum conditions for
quality of outdoor recreation experience, nor are they designed for application by other
recreation suppliers. The guidelines represent the use conditions that exist for resource-based
outdoor recreation opportunities in the state park system and the use conditions that commonly
occur at local government user-oriented facilities. The guidelines do not account for such factors

                                           Chapter 5 - 4
                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


as regional or local differences, resource quality, or condition of existing recreation areas and
facilities.

The guidelines used in this plan for resource-based outdoor recreation activities were
intentionally selected to represent the carrying capacity conditions for resources and facilities
commonly provided by Florida’s state park system, and they were not intended to be used as
specific standards applicable to park design. This was done so that the resultant statistical needs
for additional resources and facilities would be as close as possible to the practical ability of state
government to provide them. User-oriented activity guidelines developed for the plan
incorporate input received from local recreation program managers and various organizations of
recreation suppliers who are knowledgeable about the specific activities.

In applying the guidelines to the computation of supply capacities, the assumption was made that
recreation demand would be distributed to each and every existing recreation resource up to its
capacity as envisioned by the appropriate guideline. Obviously, not all existing resources are in
such condition or of such quality as to be able to attract and accommodate this theoretical
average level of use. Additionally, a local resource or facility may be needed in a region where
needs statistics in this plan may indicate no need for the region as a whole. For example, the
data may show no need for saltwater beach boat ramps within a region, but a locality within the
region may have an urgent need for additional saltwater beach boat ramps. The Division
encourages local jurisdictions to conduct their own need assessments and develop their own
guidelines to reflect local conditions. In cases where local guidelines exceed those published in
this plan, such guidelines will be considered appropriate for the local jurisdiction.

Outdoor Recreation Needs
Outdoor recreation needs for selected activities, expressed in resource and facility units, are
presented in this chapter for each of Florida’s eleven recreational planning regions. The Division
considered each region as a separate and distinct entity for planning purposes. Tables 5.1 through
5.22 in this chapter contain regional demand and need data. Table 5.23 illustrates statewide
demand and need by activity through 2010. Table 5.24 is a regional breakdown of activities
requiring additional resources or facilities to meet year 2000 needs.

Salt and freshwater boat fishing and canoeing are not included in the demand and need tables.
The Gulf of Mexico, the Atlantic Ocean and the 12,000 miles of rivers and streams provide a
nearly infinite supply of resources to support these activities making it unlikely that demand will
exceed supply in the foreseeable future.

                                  REGIONAL SUMMARIES
This section presents the current and projected needs for the eleven planning regions of Florida.
The discussion also includes descriptions of each region’s outdoor recreation resource
characteristics, supply, and participation to help the reader understand the outdoor recreation
opportunities of each region.



                                            Chapter 5 - 5
                                                     OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


West Florida (Region 1)
Coastal Counties: Bay, Escambia, Okaloosa, Santa Rosa, and Walton
Non-Coastal Counties: Holmes and Washington

Located on the western half of the Florida Panhandle, West Florida encompasses 5,523 square
miles. The region borders the Gulf of Mexico on the south, Alabama on the north and west, and
Jackson, Calhoun and Gulf Counties on the east. Significant urban centers are Fort Walton
Beach, Panama City, and Pensacola. West Florida’s humid, subtropical climate is generally
cooler and wetter in the winter months than peninsular Florida. Average temperatures are 81
degrees Fahrenheit in the summer and 54 degrees Fahrenheit in the winter. Rainfall peaks in late
winter-early spring and summer.

                                  Outdoor Recreation Resources
Gulf beaches, barrier islands, bays, and estuaries are major attractions that offer an abundance of
opportunities for coastal and marine recreation, which include saltwater beach activities, boating,
and fishing. The major bay and estuarine systems are the Pensacola, Perdido, Choctawhatchee
and St. Andrews Bays. West Florida’s significant barrier islands include Santa Rosa, Shell and
Crooked Islands, and Perdido Key.

West Florida’s inland areas contain vast forest resources with hardwoods, pines, and a mixture of
other species. These provide opportunities for camping, hiking, bicycling, horseback riding,
hunting, and nature study. Numerous rivers and streams, which include the Choctawhatchee,
Escambia, Perdido, Blackwater and Yellow Rivers, offer excellent opportunities for canoeing,
freshwater boating, and freshwater fishing. Table 5.1 shows West Florida’s outdoor recreation
resources by provider.

                                 Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.2 indicates there is a need for resources and facilities to meet regional demand for
hiking, nature study, pool swimming and bicycle riding now through 2010. Beginning in 2005,
there is a projected need for additional shuffleboard courts. Currently, saltwater beach activities,
bicycle riding, and hiking are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools and golf
courses attract the most user-oriented activity.

Apalachee (Region 2)
Coastal Counties: Gulf, Franklin, Jefferson and Wakulla
Non-Coastal Counties: Calhoun, Jackson, Gadsden, Leon, and Liberty

Located in the central Big Bend area of the Florida Panhandle, the Apalachee region
encompasses 8,855 square miles. The region borders the Gulf of Mexico to the south, Holmes,
Washington and Bay Counties on the west, Alabama and Georgia on the north, and Madison and
Taylor Counties on the east. Significant urban centers are Marianna, Quincy,




                                           Chapter 5 - 6
                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                 TABLE 5.1

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                 WEST FLORIDA (REGION 1)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL        STATE        COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT       TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   16         109              337            351             228          1,041
Land Area                       Acres           493,569.00   527,090.90       21,309.13       2,243.37       20,332.29   1,064,544.69
Water Area                      Acres            21,141.20     4,198.73        1,653.00          90.86        6,969.95      34,053.74
Total Area                      Acres           514,710.20   531,289.63       22,962.13       2,334.23       27,302.24   1,098,598.43
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  21            0               0              6             92            119
Tent Sites                      Sites                  541          296               0              0            525          1,362
RV Sites                        Sites                  402          570              82              0          4,640          5,694
Commemorative Structures                                 0            0               2             14              3             19
Historic Sites                  Sites                   18            8               2             11              7             46
Museums                                                  1            1               0              3             21             26
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 691        1,172             990            758          4,329          7,940
Hunting Land                    Acres           285,861.20   445,789.14       19,815.00           0.00         855.00     752,320.34
Hunting Water                   Acres             1,802.20     2,509.00            0.00           0.00         105.00       4,416.20
Hunting Area                    Acres           287,663.40   448,298.14       19,815.00           0.00         960.00     756,736.54
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                 0.00        7.10            0.00           3.90            3.00          14.00
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                 6.00       61.00            0.90           5.60            0.00          73.50
Canoe Trails                    Miles                70.20      281.00            0.00           0.00          199.00         550.20
Hiking Trails                   Miles                22.40      104.70            4.00          11.60           23.70         166.40
Horseback Trails                Miles                14.50       22.30           10.00           2.00            0.00          48.80
Jogging Trails                  Miles                 2.00       11.60            1.30          11.00            3.70          29.60
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                 0.00        0.00            0.00           0.10            0.00           0.10
Nature Trails                   Miles                10.80       13.60            7.00           8.90           15.70          56.00
Freshwater Beach                Miles                 0.00         0.54            0.21           0.59            0.26          1.60
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet              0      153,000          16,000         58,300          53,271       280,571
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                  0           12               5              8              13            38
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                   31           53              51             12              15           162
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   31           50              51             12              15           159
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                   137          500             418          1,661           3,984         6,700
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                 4            2               3             14              17            40
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                120            0             150              0             250           520
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                    0            0               0              0              97            97
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                    0            0               0              0              69            69
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                  0            0               0              0               5             5
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   14            4              19              6              11            54
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                84.93         6.17            5.39           6.77            3.76        107.03
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet    105,670,540    2,017,595       2,120,433      2,724,810       1,289,895   113,823,273
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 13           13             137             78              36           277
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   12            3              38             57              52           162
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    9            3              34             40              45           131
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                14,900        1,105           2,615          3,116           3,755        25,491
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                14           13               8             30              23            88
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                 1,000            0             250             50             890         2,190
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                  555            0               0              0           1,940         2,495
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                  189            0              15            472           3,517         4,193
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                  5            0               2              3              81            91
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                    6            0              19             26              12            63
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  5             7            135            202              17            366
Basketball Goals                Goals                   3             2             49            161              49            264
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   3            12             77            146              42            280
Football Fields                 Fields                  2             2             34             52               6             96
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 2             0              1              2              38             43
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 1             0              0              0               8              9
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0             1              1              0              42             44
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 3             1              2              2              88             96
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  1             3              4              7              16             31
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  3             3             24             23              19             72
Pools                           Pools                   2             1              0              3             123            129
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  4            23              4              5               8             44
Recreation Centers              Centers                 4             1             16             53              56            130
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  1             2              5             17              70             95
Tennis Courts                   Courts                 10            29             26            132             248            445
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0             3              1              3               1              8




                                                              Chapter 5 - 7
                                                                                                                         OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                TABLE 5.2

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                       WEST FLORIDA (REGION 1)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      957,934         0 sites      1,025,819          0 sites      1,133,301        0 sites     1,239,396        0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 2,719,598   137.09 miles      2,895,258   151.60 miles        3,153,375   172.91 miles     3,403,000   193.53 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             592,646         0 sites       634,501           0 sites       700,603         0 sites      765,809         0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                    88,019         0 sites        93,216           0 sites       100,222         0 sites      106,822         0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     729,052      0.00 miles       774,839      0.00 miles         840,441      0.00 miles      903,419      0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        239,348         0 lanes       253,478           0 lanes       272,529         0 lanes      290,478         0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             453,164      0.00 feet        481,633      0.00 feet          522,436      0.00 feet       561,611      0.00 feet
Hiking                                         1,367,885   398.42 miles      1,467,871   439.70 miles        1,629,754   506.55 miles     1,790,471   572.91 miles
Horseback Riding                                379,874      0.00 miles       402,299      0.00 miles         432,536      0.00 miles      461,022      0.00 miles
Hunting                                         174,496      0.00 acres       184,797      0.00 acres         198,686      0.00 acres      211,772      0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    439,067      0.56 miles       467,047      1.94 miles         507,674      3.96 miles      546,829      5.90 miles
Picnicking                                     1,475,434        0 tables     1,576,616          0 tables     1,732,861        0 tables    1,886,070        0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    18,215,668     0.00 miles     19,564,064     0.00 miles       21,766,438     0.00 miles    23,957,796     0.00 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         553,851         0 lanes       590,668           0 lanes       646,110         0 lanes      700,100         0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                               957,101      0.00 feet       1,023,563     0.00 feet         1,127,194     0.00 feet      1,229,075     0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     1,118,519        0 courts     1,186,610          0 courts     1,281,318        0 courts    1,371,425        0 courts
Football/Soccer                                 424,335         0 fields      450,072           0 fields      485,742         0 fields     519,640         0 fields
Golfing2                                       1,851,944        0 courses    1,988,406          0 courses    2,210,590        0 course    2,431,486        0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            215,867         0 courts      229,297           0 courts      248,373         0 courts     266,639         0 courts
Shuffleboard                                    350,754         0 courts      377,300           0 courts      421,311         7 courts     465,265       18 courts
Softball/Baseball                               753,418         0 fields      798,238           0 fields      859,155         0 fields     916,693         0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                             7,501,795      15 pools       8,040,824      26 pools         8,902,960      42 pools      9,756,213      59 pools
Tennis                                          833,351         0 courts      886,668           0 courts      964,356         0 courts    1,039,307        0 courts
1
  Non-Boat fishing only
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                Chapter 5 - 8
                                                   OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000
and Tallahassee. The Apalachee region’s sub-tropical climate has an average annual
temperature of around 68 degrees Fahrenheit. Rainfall averages between 48 and 64 inches
per year, with peaks during early spring and summer.

                                 Outdoor Recreation Resources
The diversity of the topography of the Apalachee region provides a variety of outdoor
recreation opportunities. The sandy Gulf beaches, barrier islands, bays, and estuaries of the
coastal lowlands, and the large areas of forested uplands provide for camping, hiking, nature
study, bicycle riding, saltwater and freshwater beach activities, fishing, and boating.

There are especially plentiful resources for water-based recreation. Freshwater recreation
flourishes on the Apalachicola, St. Marks, Wakulla, Aucilla, Ochlockonee and Wacissa
Rivers, and lakes Talquin, Jackson and Seminole. In addition, over 113 miles of Gulf
beaches and a small chain of barrier islands provide for saltwater beach recreation. The
Apalachicola National Forest covering more than half a million acres offers large-scale
recreation opportunities. Table 5.3 shows the Apalachee region’s outdoor recreation
resources by provider.

                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.4 indicates a need for resources and facilities to meet regional demand for bicycle
trails now through 2010. Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and visiting
archaeological and historic sites are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools
and basketball courts attract the most user-oriented activity.

North Central Florida (Region 3)
Coastal Counties: Dixie and Taylor
Non-Coastal Counties: Alachua, Bradford, Columbia, Gilchrist, Hamilton, Lafayette,
Madison, Suwannee, and Union

Located in the eastern Big Bend area of the Florida Panhandle, North Central Florida
encompasses 6,813 square miles. The region borders Levy and Marion Counties on the
south, the Gulf of Mexico on the west, Georgia on the north, and Nassau, Duval, Clay and
Putnam Counties on the east. Significant urban centers are Gainesville, Lake City, and Perry.
North Central Florida’s climate is characterized by warm, humid summers and mild winters.
Average annual temperatures range from 55 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit. Average annual
rainfall varies between 52 and 54 inches with peak amounts between June and August.

                                  Outdoor Recreation Resources
The rolling hills, rivers, lakes and large forested tracts of the central highlands as well as the
Gulf beaches, estuaries and freshwater swamps of the coastal lowlands provide abundant
opportunities for camping, nature study, hiking, horseback riding, saltwater and freshwater
beach activities, boating, and fishing.

                                          Chapter 5 - 9
                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                  TABLE 5.3

             1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                   APALACHEE (REGION 2)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL        STATE         COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT        TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                  58            107             150            136              96              547
Land Area                       Acres          647,122.84     849,643.22        2,234.60       1,756.28       11,618.78     1,512,375.72
Water Area                      Acres           16,789.00       2,385.73           18.39          26.00          684.50        19,903.62
Total Area                      Acres          663,911.84     852,028.95        2,252.99       1,782.28       12,303.28     1,532,279.34
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                 10             20             19               0             205              254
Tent Sites                      Sites                  40            194             57               0             256              547
RV Sites                        Sites                 127            320             94              20           1,575            2,136
Commemorative Structures                                0              4              0               2               0                6
Historic Sites                  Sites                   5            118              3              64              26              216
Museums                                                 2              8              2               3               3               18
Picnic Tables                   Tables                222          1,024            454             353           1,325            3,378
Hunting Land                    Acres          212,683.00   1,087,621.00           0.00            0.00            0.00     1,300,304.00
Hunting Water                   Acres            1,582.00       3,535.00           0.00            0.00            0.00         5,117.00
Hunting Area                    Acres          214,265.00   1,091,156.00           0.00            0.00            0.00     1,305,421.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                0.00         16.00            3.00           2.90             0.00           21.90
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles               46.10         32.50            0.00           6.40             0.00           85.00
Canoe Trails                    Miles               75.20        225.50            0.00           0.00             0.00          300.70
Hiking Trails                   Miles              261.80         99.10            5.90          13.40            18.90          399.10
Horseback Trails                Miles               29.00         46.70            0.00           0.00             5.00           80.70
Jogging Trails                  Miles               22.40         35.10            4.70           9.90             1.00           73.10
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00          0.00            0.00           0.00             0.00            0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles               13.50         30.90            5.60          13.50            28.70           92.20
Freshwater Beach                Miles                 0.24          0.73          0.10             0.18             0.23            1.48
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet           4.00          5.00          3.00             2.00            34.00           48.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 20            55            88                4               30             197
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                   21            50            58                2               22             153
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                  804         1,385         3,835              540            1,361           7,925
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                     6             5            23                2               19              55
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                 0             0             0                0                0               0
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                  0             0             0                0              255             255
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   62             0             0                0              437             499
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                    4             0             0                0               16              20
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                  1             5             7                1                6              20
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   35           390         1,978              135              360           2,898
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                13.26         34.08          1.98             0.25             6.25           55.82
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet   1,400,450.00 14,655,600.00    469,850.00        29,250.00     2,926,200.00   19,481,350.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                  2             5            25                5               14              51
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                    2             4            12                7               16              41
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    0           176         4,300               62              630           5,168
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                     0             4             4                1               27              36
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                 0             0             0                0            1,100           1,100
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                     0             0             0                0              511             511
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                    0            25             0               90              719             834
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                    0             1             0                2               18              21
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                  0             0             1                4                3               8
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                    0             7            69              129                8             213
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0            19              78             89               19             205
Basketball Goals                Goals                   2             9              35             73               24             143
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   0             7              11             18                3              39
Football Fields                 Fields                  0             1               0              1                6               8
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0             2               0              2                8              12
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0             0               0              1                1               2
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0            36               0             36              189             261
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0            38               0             39              198             275
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0             8               6             17                6              37
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0             4               0             11               28              43
Pools                           Pools                   0            37               4             15                5              61
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0             3              10             29               22              64
Recreation Centers              Centers                 0             1               4              3                7              15
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0            44              27             85               30             186
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0             0               0              1                0               1
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0             0               0              0                0               0




                                                               Chapter 5 - 10
                                                                                                                        OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                               TABLE 5.4

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                         APALACHEE (REGION 2)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      560,538        0 sites       581,709            0 sites      614,790         0 sites      647,460        0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 1,030,196   20.71 miles      1,100,313     29.40 miles       1,190,762    40.60 miles     1,276,302   51.20 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             368,792        0 sites       385,403            0 sites      409,715         0 sites      433,400        0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                    18,547        0 sites        19,809            0 sites       21,438         0 sites       22,978        0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     410,327     0.00 miles       434,009       0.00 miles        466,002      0.00 miles      496,604     0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        161,866        0 lanes       172,883            0 lanes      187,094         0 lanes      200,534        0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             242,797     0.00 feet        259,322       0.00 feet         280,639      0.00 feet       300,799     0.00 feet
Hiking                                          155,119     0.00 miles       165,677       0.00 miles        179,296      0.00 miles      192,176     0.00 miles
Horseback Riding                                143,319     0.00 miles       153,073       0.00 miles        165,656      0.00 miles      177,557     0.00 miles
Hunting                                         114,653     0.00 acres       122,457       0.00 acres        132,523      0.00 acres      142,043     0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    297,053     0.00 miles       315,149       0.00 miles        339,213      0.00 miles      362,144     0.00 miles
Picnicking                                      356,370        0 tables      376,381            0 tables     403,636         0 tables     429,758        0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                     1,036,074    0.00 miles      1,078,998      0.00 miles       1,143,745     0.00 miles     1,207,231    0.00 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                          65,751        0 lanes        70,226            0 lanes       75,998         0 lanes       81,458        0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                                16,859     0.00 feet         18,007       0.00 feet          19,487      0.00 feet        20,887     0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                      467,042        0 courts      498,830            0 courts     539,836         0 courts     578,615        0 courts
Football/Soccer                                  82,616        0 fields       88,239            0 fields      95,492         0 fields     102,352        0 fields
Golfing2                                        121,398        0 courses     129,661            0 courses    140,319         0 courses    150,399        0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            126,457        0 courts      135,064            0 courts     146,167         0 courts     156,667        0 courts
Shuffleboard                                      8,429        0 courts        9,003            0 courts       9,743         0 courts      10,443        0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               418,150        0 fields      446,611            0 fields     483,323         0 fields     518,043        0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                             1,034,869       0 pools      1,092,569           0 pools     1,171,327        0 pools     1,246,851       0 pools
Tennis                                          187,153        0 courts      199,891            0 courts     216,323         0 courts     231,863        0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                               Chapter 5 - 11
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


North Central Florida’s many rivers and lakes provide for a variety of freshwater recreation.
Several freshwater bodies, including the Suwannee and Santa Fe Rivers and Ichetucknee
Springs, have been designated by the state as “Outstanding Florida Waters.” This
designation provided an extra level of protection against activities that could result in water
quality degradation. Other significant resources include the Big Bend Seagrasses State
Aquatic Preserve, the Big Bend Wildlife Management Area, Lochloosa Lake, Santa Fe Lake,
and Cross Creek. Table 5.5 shows the North Central Florida’s outdoor recreation resources
by provider.

                               Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.6 indicates a regional need for resources and facilities to meet demand for saltwater
beach activity and non-boat saltwater fishing now through 2010. Currently, bicycle riding,
nature study, and hunting are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools and
basketball courts attract the most user-oriented activity.

Northeast Florida (Region 4)
Coastal Counties: Duval, Flagler, St. Johns and Nassau
Non-Coastal Counties: Baker, Clay and Putnam

Located in the northeast corner of the Florida Peninsula, Northeast Florida encompasses
4,443 square miles. The region borders Volusia and Marion Counties on the south,
Columbia, Union, Bradford and Alachua Counties on the west, Georgia on the north, and the
Atlantic Ocean on the east. Significant urban centers are Green Cove Springs, Jacksonville,
Palatka, and St. Augustine. Northeast Florida’s somewhat temperate climate includes
seasonal changes typical of northern climates, though not as extreme. Winter seasons are
generally mild with occasional freezes, whereas summer months are humid. The average
annual rainfall is 55 inches, mostly from June through October.

                                  Outdoor Recreation Resources
Northeast Florida is blessed with an abundance of outdoor recreation resources. The primary
natural features of the region are its forests, the St. Johns, St. Mary’s and Nassau Rivers, and
the Atlantic beaches. There are five barrier islands--Amelia, Little Talbot, Big Talbot, Fort
George and Anastasia--along the region’s 140 miles of Atlantic coastline, and about 130
blackwater streams throughout the region. Some of the large-scale recreation resources
include portions of the Ocala National Forest, Osceola National Forest and Okefenokee
National Wildlife Reserve. Other significant resources include three aquatic preserves;
sixteen state owned areas variously designated as parks, preserves, gardens, memorials,
historic sites and forests; and seven wildlife management areas. These resources feature
excellent opportunities for hiking, bicycle riding, fishing, canoeing, boating, and saltwater
and freshwater beach activities. Table 5.7 shows Northeast Florida’s outdoor recreation
resources by provider.




                                        Chapter 5 - 12
                                                                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                TABLE 5.5

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                 NORTH FLORIDA (REGION 3)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE        COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT       TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   7          159             159            166             114           605
Land Area                       Acres          120,388.73   335,571.46        2,457.99       2,191.33       12,120.97    472,730.48
Water Area                      Acres              146.00    31,946.60          464.28         695.45          228.30     33,480.63
Total Area                      Acres          120,534.73   367,518.06        2,922.27       2,886.78       12,349.27    506,211.11
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0           18              0               0             325           343
Tent Sites                      Sites                   0           62             35               0             719           816
RV Sites                        Sites                   0          191             77               0           3,121         3,389
Commemorative Structures                                0            2              0               1               0             3
Historic Sites                  Sites                   1           44              0               1               1            47
Museums                                                 0           10              0               2               3            15
Picnic Tables                   Tables                  3          787            567             400           2,466         4,223
Hunting Land                    Acres          122,648.00   248,956.00           0.00            0.00        1,000.00    372,604.00
Hunting Water                   Acres              146.00    10,892.00           0.00            0.00            0.00     11,038.00
Hunting Area                    Acres          122,794.00   259,848.00           0.00            0.00        1,000.00    383,642.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                0.00       69.60            0.00           4.50            0.00         74.10
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                0.10       84.80            9.00           0.00           23.00        116.90
Canoe Trails                    Miles                7.00      225.00            0.00           0.00           68.00        300.00
Hiking Trails                   Miles               13.70      187.60           11.50           7.00          120.30        340.10
Horseback Trails                Miles                0.00      111.00            8.00           0.00           26.00        145.00
Jogging Trails                  Miles                0.00       26.50            0.00          11.50            1.10         39.10
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00        0.00            0.00           0.00            0.00          0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles                1.00       41.70            7.80           8.30           10.70         69.50
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.00         0.10          0.38             0.05            0.54          1.07
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet          0.00    17,800.00     47,600.00        11,600.00      124,070.00    201,070.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 0            4             7                2              15            28
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                   2           15            75                5              53           150
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   1           13            68                4              30           116
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                    0          100            30            2,520           3,365         6,015
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                0            1             1                2              17            21
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0          200           622                0               0           822
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0            0             0                0             171           171
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                   0            0             0                0             320           320
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 0            1             0                0              14            15
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   0            6             1                6               9            22
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                0.00         0.00          0.15             0.00            0.01          0.16
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet          0.00         0.00      7,000.00             0.00            0.00      7,000.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 0            0             2                0               1             3
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   2            8             5                0              14            29
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   2            8             5                0              14            29
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                   20            0             0                0             555           575
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                2            0             0                0               7             9
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    0            0             0                0               0             0
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0            0             0                0             139           139
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0            0             0                0             265           265
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0            0             0                0              10            10
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   1            0             1                0               0             2
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0            7             67            102              12            188
Basketball Goals                Goals                   0           12             83            175              41            311
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   0            6             49            103              41            199
Football Fields                 Fields                  0            1             14             52               7             74
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0            1              0              2               6              9
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0            0              0              0               7              7
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0            0              0              0               2              2
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0            1              0              2              15             18
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0            0              9             20               8             37
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0           14             19             18               7             58
Pools                           Pools                   0            1              3              7              35             46
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0           49              5             34              11             99
Recreation Centers              Centers                 0           10             19             30              36             95
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0            4              0             15              27             46
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0           53             27             72              46            198
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0           16              0              2               5             23




                                                             Chapter 5 - 13
                                                                                                                           OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                  TABLE 5.6

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                  NORTH CENTRAL FLORIDA (REGION 3)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                       63,165            0 sites       71,561            0 sites       84,833           0 sites       98,007           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 1,801,053        0.00 miles     1,933,580        0.00 miles     2,100,947       0.00 miles     2,261,048       0.00 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                              27,015            0 sites       28,909            0 sites       31,233           0 sites       33,444           0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                    57,639            0 sites       61,679            0 sites       66,638           0 sites       71,356           0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     272,512         0.00 miles      299,220         0.00 miles      337,687        0.00 miles      375,334        0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                         93,661            0 lanes      100,226            0 lanes      108,284           0 lanes      115,951           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             125,934         0.00 feet       134,926         0.00 feet       146,087        0.00 feet       156,729        0.00 feet
Hiking                                          237,172         0.00 miles      254,458         0.00 miles      276,170        0.00 miles      296,918        0.00 miles
Horseback Riding                                 43,228         0.00 miles       46,258         0.00 miles       49,978        0.00 miles       53,516        0.00 miles
Hunting                                         318,226    66,966.69 acres      341,193    99,851.73 acres      369,879 140,924.53 acres       397,262 180,132.06 acres
Nature Study                                    329,315         0.00 miles      352,729         0.00 miles      381,715        0.00 miles      409,338        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                       44,509            0 tables      50,275            0 tables      59,329           0 tables      68,308           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                      275,051         0.49 miles      315,495         0.58 miles      380,959        0.74 miles      446,160        0.89 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                          41,427            0 lanes       44,331            0 lanes       47,895           0 lanes       51,286           0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                               183,746     3,427.27 feet       206,877     4,000.34 feet       242,934    4,893.62 feet       278,651    5,778.51 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                      570,672            0 courts     611,004            0 courts     660,755           0 courts     708,135           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                  64,841            0 fields      69,386            0 fields      74,965           0 fields      80,273           0 fields
Golfing2                                        374,726            0 courses    413,227            0 courses    469,633           0 courses    524,985           0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                             86,453            0 courts      92,512            0 courts      99,951           0 courts     107,027           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                     18,010            0 courts      19,272            0 courts      20,822           0 courts      22,296           0 courts
Softball/Baseball                                90,056            0 fields      96,368            0 fields     104,116           0 fields     111,488           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                              829,161            0 pools      907,122            0 pools     1,017,649          0 pools     1,125,540          0 pools
Tennis                                          241,058            0 courts     258,285            0 courts     279,678           0 courts     300,077           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                  Chapter 5 - 14
                                                                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                  TABLE 5.7

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                               NORTHEAST FLORIDA (REGION 4)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE          COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT          TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                  32            97              232            544              244            1,149
Land Area                       Acres          158,221.62    376,383.17         2,708.77       9,395.31        21,819.33       568,528.20
Water Area                      Acres           16,310.00     20,394.90             9.00         471.21         1,520.00        38,705.11
Total Area                      Acres          174,531.62    396,778.07         2,717.77       9,866.52        23,339.33       607,233.31
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0            14               0               4              576              594
Tent Sites                      Sites                   0           145              50              87              523              805
RV Sites                        Sites                  50           428              10             362            4,105            4,955
Commemorative Structures                                2             4               0               4               52               62
Historic Sites                  Sites                 239            21               2               3               15              280
Museums                                                 4             8               1               1               28               42
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 64         1,046             535           1,760            3,925            7,330
Hunting Land                    Acres          164,253.00    308,237.50            6.00            0.00           799.00       473,295.50
Hunting Water                   Acres            3,760.00      9,061.50            0.00            4.00             1.00        12,826.50
Hunting Area                    Acres          168,013.00    317,299.00            6.00            4.00           800.00       486,122.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                0.00         33.40            0.00           35.30             9.00            77.70
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                2.00         53.20            1.00           44.20             2.00           102.40
Canoe Trails                    Miles                4.50        103.00            0.30            0.00             8.00           115.80
Hiking Trails                   Miles               53.00        179.50            1.60           69.50            28.20           331.80
Horseback Trails                Miles                0.00         63.30            2.00           37.80            15.00           118.10
Jogging Trails                  Miles                0.00         48.10            5.90           68.10             3.50           125.60
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00          0.00            0.00            0.00             0.00             0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles                2.30         34.40            2.70           59.10             3.50           102.00
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.09           0.42            0.10            0.55             1.00             2.15
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet     11,500.00     226,750.00        5,000.00      125,850.00       218,400.00       587,500.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 3              4               5              12               10               34
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                  10             21              40              28               50              149
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   6             18              33              22               45              124
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                    0          1,790           1,470             914            2,857            7,031
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                0              4              11              10               34               59
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0              0               0               0                0                0
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0              0               0               0              647              647
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                   0             24               2              78            1,993            2,097
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 0              1               1               0               56               58
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   1              4              15              17               13               50
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                0.23          18.11           13.70           15.67            15.17            62.87
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet     90,000.00   8,436,600.00   19,902,975.00    7,690,840.00    90,852,675.00   126,973,090.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 1              9              39             141               20              210
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   0              3              16              21               32               72
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   1              4              12              17               29               63
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                    0          6,375           3,438             708              320           10,841
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                0             17              16               4               23               60
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                  650              6              50           5,000                0            5,706
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0              0               0               0              998              998
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0              4               0             113            1,883            2,000
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0              1               1               4               36               42
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   0              2               6               2                9               19
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0             6             156             309               15              486
Basketball Goals                Goals                   0            31             234             509               77              851
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   1            13              85             206               43              348
Football Fields                 Fields                  0             4              42              59                9              114
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0             0               1               4               44               49
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0             0               0               2                8               10
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0             0               0               0                5                5
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0             0               1               6               57               64
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0             2              11              15                7               35
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0            12              20              18               27               77
Pools                           Pools                   0             3               9              46              114              172
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0            10              36              10               20               76
Recreation Centers              Centers                 0             8              17              63               49              137
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0             0               4              54               52              110
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0            36              99             205              324              664
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0             4               7              12                0               23




                                                              Chapter 5 - 15
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.8 indicates a regional need for resources and facilities to meet demand for non-boat
saltwater fishing, freshwater beach activities and bicycling now through 2010. There is a
projected need for resources to meet demand for hiking and non-boat freshwater fishing
beginning in 2010. Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and visiting
archaeological and historical sites are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools
and basketball courts attract the most user-oriented activity.

Withlacoochee (Region 5)
Coastal Counties: Citrus, Hernando, and Levy
Non-Coastal Counties: Marion and Sumter

Located in the lower section of the Big Bend, and on the Nature Coast, the Withlacoochee
planning region encompasses 4,532 square miles. The region borders the Pasco and Polk
Counties on the south, the Gulf of Mexico on the west, Dixie, Gilchrist, Alachua and Putnam
Counties on the north, and Volusia and Lake Counties on the east. Primary urban centers are
Brooksville, Inverness, and Ocala. The Withlacoochee region’s subtropical climate has
annual mean temperature ranges between 70 to 72.2 degrees Fahrenheit. Heaviest rainfall
(48 to 54 inches) occurs from May through September.

The inland topography includes gently rolling hills covered with woodlands, freshwater
lakes, rivers, and springs. The coastal areas are primarily coastal lowlands consisting of
intermittent ponds, swamps, marshes and small islands along the Gulf coast. All of these
resources provide diverse opportunities for activities such as camping, hiking, horseback
riding, freshwater and saltwater beach activities, fishing, boating, and swimming.

                                Outdoor Recreation Resources
The freshwater resources of the Withlacoochee Region include over 800 lakes and rivers of
various sizes and nine first-magnitude springs. One of these, Silver Springs, is one of the
largest and most famous in the United States. Coastal resources are unique from other
coastal areas of Florida because of extremely limited sandy beach. Nevertheless, the
numerous islands and many miles of shoreline offer plentiful marine recreation opportunities.
Some large-scale recreation resources include the Withlacoochee State Forest, a part of the
Ocala National Forest, the Cedar Keys, Chassahowitzka and Lower Suwannee National
Wildlife Refuges, and several state parks, preserves, wildlife management areas, and aquatic
preserves.

Significant cultural and historic resources also exist in the Withlacoochee Region. Some of
these well known sites include the Crystal River State Archaeological Site, the Dade
Battlefield and Yulee Sugar Mill Ruins State Historic Sites, the St. Clair Whitman Museum,
and the Cedar Key State Museum. Table 5.9 shows Withlacoochee’s outdoor recreation
resources by provider.



                                        Chapter 5 - 16
                                                                                                                           OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                 TABLE 5.8

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                     NORTHEAST FLORIDA (REGION 4)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                     2,167,613          0 sites     2,235,777           0 sites     2,345,319           0 sites     2,449,591           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 5,099,435    241.02 miles      5,353,130    261.98 miles       5,757,420     295.36 miles      6,137,677     326.77 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             543,310           0 sites      556,189            0 sites      577,039            0 sites      597,092            0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   158,891           0 sites      162,479            0 sites      168,298            0 sites      173,905            0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                    1,192,880       0.65 miles     1,253,728       0.79 miles      1,350,662        1.02 miles     1,441,786        1.23 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        221,952           0 lanes      232,683            0 lanes      249,791            0 lanes      265,892            0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             702,473        0.00 feet       737,358        0.00 feet        792,952         0.00 feet       845,243     1,123.70 feet
Hiking                                          687,813        0.00 miles      718,200        0.00 miles       766,714         0.00 miles      812,464         3.68 miles
Horseback Riding                                243,604        0.00 miles      256,097        0.00 miles       275,997         0.00 miles      294,702         0.00 miles
Hunting                                         248,057        0.00 acres      259,475        0.00 acres       277,692         0.00 acres      294,856         0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    273,225        0.00 miles      286,260        0.00 miles       307,045         0.00 miles      326,611         0.00 miles
Picnicking                                      978,249           0 tables    1,014,735           0 tables    1,073,161           0 tables    1,128,495           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                     5,487,938       0.00 miles     5,685,010       0.00 miles      6,000,818        0.00 miles     6,300,229        0.00 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         770,592           0 lanes      801,967            0 lanes      852,128            0 lanes      899,525            0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              1,326,258   9,169.74 feet      1,353,557   9,846.06 feet       1,397,953   10,945.96 feet      1,440,920   12,010.46 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     2,281,289          0 courts    2,395,348           0 courts    2,577,100           0 courts    2,748,030           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                 310,477           0 fields     326,399            0 fields     351,761            0 fields     375,601            0 fields
Golfing2                                       2,118,868          0 courses   2,180,624           0 courses   2,280,046           0 courses   2,374,924           0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            100,303           0 courts     105,447            0 courts     113,640            0 courts     121,342            0 courts
Shuffleboard                                    252,252           0 courts     256,393            0 courts     263,186            0 courts     269,838            0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               630,514           0 fields     662,848            0 fields     714,354            0 fields     762,768            0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                             3,902,766          0 pools     4,035,810           0 pools     4,249,240           0 pools     4,451,894           0 pools
Tennis                                          862,960           0 courts     905,586            0 courts     973,522            0 courts    1,037,430           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                 Chapter 5 - 17
                                                                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                TABLE 5.9

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                WITHLACOOCHEE (REGION 5)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE        COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT       TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                  53           88             202            116             188           647
Land Area                       Acres          317,414.13   494,320.23        7,400.72       2,501.13       21,091.52    842,727.73
Water Area                      Acres           23,200.00    23,316.03           67.00          20.41          225.00     46,828.44
Total Area                      Acres          340,614.13   517,636.26        7,467.72       2,521.54       21,316.52    889,556.17
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  3            8              4               0             655           670
Tent Sites                      Sites                 139          123             71               2             855         1,190
RV Sites                        Sites                 317          403            128               0           7,331         8,179
Commemorative Structures                                0            2             12               0               1            15
Historic Sites                  Sites                   4          168              3              17               7           199
Museums                                                 1            5              3               0               6            15
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 78          763            707             385           6,196         8,129
Hunting Land                    Acres          272,402.00   535,952.00           0.00            0.00            0.00    808,354.00
Hunting Water                   Acres            8,674.00     1,708.00           0.00            0.00            0.00     10,382.00
Hunting Area                    Acres          281,076.00   537,660.00           0.00            0.00            0.00    818,736.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles               0.00        49.30            0.00           1.20            20.00        70.50
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles             125.90        52.20           15.20           3.60             1.00       197.90
Canoe Trails                    Miles              59.60       126.50           35.50           0.00            18.00       239.60
Hiking Trails                   Miles             262.70       447.40           19.60          18.50            47.50       795.70
Horseback Trails                Miles             102.00       127.80           12.30           0.00             4.00       246.10
Jogging Trails                  Miles               4.80        52.50            4.70          27.20             0.00        89.20
Motorcycle Trails               Miles               0.00        30.00            0.00           0.00             0.00        30.00
Nature Trails                   Miles               9.60       133.10            8.20           2.50            22.00       175.40
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.20         0.16          0.44             0.08            0.81          1.70
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet     64,950.00    62,220.00    174,650.00         4,000.00      109,450.00    415,270.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 5            4            13                2              15            39
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                  19           14            57                6              69           165
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                  18           12            42                5              60           137
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                  300        1,077         1,294            1,050           5,435         9,156
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                1            7            20                5              49            82
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0            0             0                0               5             5
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0            0             0                0             874           874
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                  25            0             0                0           1,529         1,554
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 1            0             0                0              51            52
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   2            3             8                2              10            25
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                0.00         0.00          1.18             0.08            0.33          1.59
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet          0.00         0.00    162,500.00        21,000.00      165,000.00    348,500.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 0            0             6                1               2             9
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   1            0            18                2               3            24
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   1            0            17                2               3            23
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                    0            0           820                0               0           820
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                0            0             5                0               4             9
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    0            0         1,830                0               0         1,830
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0            0             0                0               0             0
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0            0            39                2              77           118
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0            0             1                1               5             7
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   2            0             5                0               2             9
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0            8            125            117              20            270
Basketball Goals                Goals                   2            3            344             84              23            456
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   0            8            104             57              34            203
Football Fields                 Fields                  0            0             60             21               3             84
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0            0              1              2              47             50
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0            0              0              1               9             10
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0            0              0              1               6              7
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0            0              1              4              62             67
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0            0             28             16               8             52
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0            2             69             15              16            102
Pools                           Pools                   0            2              4              6              81             93
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0            8             37             40              10             95
Recreation Centers              Centers                 1            1             36             15              67            120
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  2            3             34             53             139            231
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  2           15             84             72              81            254
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0            3              6              2               1             12




                                                             Chapter 5 - 18
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000
                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.10 indicates a regional need for resources and facilities to meet demand for fresh and
saltwater beach activities now through 2010. Beginning in 2005 there is a projected need for
resources to accommodate bicycle riding. Among user-oriented activities, there is no
projected regional resource or facility need through 2010. Currently, freshwater beach
activities, bicycleriding, and saltwater beach activities are the most popular resource-based
activities, while pools and golf courses attract the most user-oriented activity.

East Central Florida (Region 6)
Coastal Counties: Brevard and Volusia
Non-Coastal Counties: Lake, Orange, Osceola, and Seminole

Located on the Florida Peninsula, midway between the St. Marys River and Biscayne Bay,
East Central Florida encompasses more than 5,620 square miles. The region borders the
Indian River and Okeechobee Counties on the south, Polk, Sumter, and Marion Counties on
the west, Putnam and Flagler Counties on the north, and the Atlantic Ocean on the east.
Significant urban centers are Daytona Beach, Melbourne, Orlando, Titusville, and
Kissimmee. East Central Florida’s subtropical climate provides long, humid summers and
short dry winters. Monthly precipitation fluctuates considerably, with peak rainfall in mid-
summer.

                               Outdoor Recreation Resources
East Central Florida’s topography varies widely. The Atlantic Coastal Lowlands in Brevard
and Volusia Counties; the Eastern Valley in Orange, Osceola and Seminole Counties; and the
Central Highlands of Lake County provide opportunities for camping, hiking, bicycle riding,
saltwater and freshwater beach activities, fishing, and boating.

The Region’s rivers and streams, which include the St. Johns, Tomoka, Kissimmee, Wekiva,
and Palatlakaha, provide an abundance of river-related recreation opportunities. In addition,
there are over 100 miles of Atlantic beaches and a chain of barrier islands that provide
extensive saltwater beach recreational opportunities. Table 5.11 shows East Central
Florida’s outdoor recreation resources by provider.

                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.12 illustrates current and future needs for recreation resources in the East Central
Florida region. Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and RV or trailer
camping are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools and golf courses are the
most popular user-oriented activities. There are current and projected needs through 2010 for
resources to support saltwater beach activities, hiking, swimming, bicycle riding, and
saltwater fishing. It is also projected that freshwater beach demand will exceed supply
between 2005 and 2010. Among user-oriented activity sources, there is a current and
projected need for swimming pools through 2010.


                                        Chapter 5 - 19
                                                                                                                         OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                              TABLE 5.10

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                      WITHLACOOCHEE (REGION 5)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      439,543       0 sites        445,488             0 sites      454,885        0 sites      463,843        0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 2,791,016   0.00 miles       2,999,489       0.00 miles       3,326,333    6.30 miles     3,635,468   31.83 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             510,884       0 sites        516,674             0 sites      525,844        0 sites      534,602        0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                    71,282       0 sites         77,061             0 sites       86,121        0 sites       94,688        0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                    3,091,312   5.54 miles       3,125,193       5.62 miles       3,178,875    5.75 miles     3,230,162    5.87 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        244,686       0 lanes        264,524             0 lanes      295,623        0 lanes      325,032        0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             286,138    0.00 feet         306,368        0.00 feet         290,962     0.00 feet       368,092     0.00 feet
Hiking                                          695,785    0.00 miles        722,505        0.00 miles        764,469     0.00 miles      804,225     0.00 miles
Horseback Riding                                283,221    0.00 miles        306,184        0.00 miles        342,180     0.00 miles      376,221     0.00 miles
Hunting                                         115,601    0.00 acres        124,974        0.00 acres        139,666     0.00 acres      153,561     0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    394,137    0.00 miles        411,246        0.00 miles        438,105     0.00 miles      463,540     0.00 miles
Picnicking                                      441,366       0 tables       459,335             0 tables     487,550        0 tables     514,276        0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                     1,267,383   1.39 miles       1,301,846       1.47 miles       1,356,050    1.59 miles     1,407,475    1.71 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         264,051       0 lanes        273,582             0 lanes      288,555        0 lanes      302,744        0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                                75,139    0.00 feet          81,231        0.00 feet          90,781     0.00 feet        99,812     0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                      489,371       0 courts       529,047             0 courts     591,244        0 courts     650,063        0 courts
Football/Soccer                                  25,039       0 fields        27,069             0 fields      30,251        0 fields      33,261        0 fields
Golfing2                                        750,569       0 courses      796,577             0 courses    868,736        0 courses    937,012        0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                             98,258       0 courts       106,225             0 courts     118,713        0 courts     130,523        0 courts
Shuffleboard                                    121,379       0 courts       131,220             0 courts     146,647        0 courts     161,235        0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               263,952       0 fields       285,352             0 fields     318,899        0 fields     350,624        0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                             2,481,500      0 pools       2,578,770            0 pools     2,731,521       0 pools     2,876,226       0 pools
Tennis                                           46,242       0 courts        49,991             0 courts      55,869        0 courts      61,426        0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                Chapter 5 - 20
                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

                                                                   TABLE 5.11
              1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA (REGION 6)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL         STATE          COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT       TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Area                    43           124            492               845            483           1,987
Land Area                       Acres           181,529.43     540,533.85      19,709.69          8,868.07      53,246.83     803,887.87
Water Area                      Acres           127,722.50      28,517.77       7,540.43            838.91       3,966.15     168,585.76
Total Area                      Acres           309,251.93     569,051.62      27,250.12          9,706.98      57,212.98     972,473.63
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                   0             27                0               5            534            566
Tent Sites                      Sites                   30            217              245              47          1,405          1,944
RV Sites                        Sites                  143            203              726               0         26,418         27,490
Commemorative Structures                                 0              0                4              25             12             41
Historic Sites                  Sites                   95             27               20              24             83            249
Museums                                                  3              4               13              10             50             80
Picnic Tables                   Tables                169            902             4,026           2,703         18,924         26,724
Hunting Land                    Acres            78,072.00     470,309.00             0.00            0.00       2,306.00     550,687.00
Hunting Water                   Acres            41,537.00       1,178.00             0.00            1.00         700.00      43,416.00
Hunting Area                    Acres           119,609.00     471,487.00             0.00            1.00       3,006.00     594,103.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                 0.00          13.70            39.40           56.60           6.00         115.70
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                60.00         190.50            17.60            9.10          10.20         287.40
Canoe Trails                    Miles                34.90          87.00            25.00            0.20          81.00         228.10
Hiking Trails                   Miles               108.00         268.00            63.30           30.60          75.00         544.90
Horseback Trails                Miles                32.20         199.20            18.50            3.60          47.70         301.20
Jogging Trails                  Miles                 6.40          15.20            62.10           62.00          31.40         177.10
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                 7.00           0.00             0.00            0.10           0.00           7.10
Nature Trails                   Miles                15.50          22.70            40.90           34.10          56.40         169.60
Freshwater Beach                Miles                  0.15           0.11           4.40              1.79          2.77            9.22
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet       86,500.00      38,000.00     512,350.00        333,280.00    331,420.00    1,301,550.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                   4              4             34                31            37             110
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                     8             25            116                71           164             384
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                     7             31             86                56           102             282
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                      0           410          22,307            16,606        15,283          54,606
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                  0              4             34                54            69             161
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                   0             50            900             8,925         1,051          10,926
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                     0              0              0                 0         1,047           1,047
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                     0             62             26                66         4,130           4,284
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                   0              2              2                22           127             153
Freshwater Piers                Piers                     1             10             22                33            27              93
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                 31.18           3.49          13.92              2.89          0.39           51.87
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet   20,159,000.00   1,840,500.00   3,523,930.00      1,500,190.00    173,925.00   27,197,545.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                  13              2            128               134             8             285
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                    14              5             47                50            55             171
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    10              5             28                44            41             128
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                  7,277             88         15,383             6,546         1,250          30,544
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                 32              2             17                36             6              93
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                      0           500               0                 0           650           1,150
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   200              0            288                 0         1,770           2,258
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   150             20             99               606         3,144           4,019
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                   2              2              2                 1            76              83
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                     3              4             24                20             8              59
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                   9             11             270              394            45             729
Basketball Goals                Goals                   24              4             542              589           133           1,292
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   16              7             224              367           101             715
Football Fields                 Fields                   6              9             139               90            25             269
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                  1              0               3               10           107             121
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                  0              0               0                1            15              16
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                  0              0               1                0            18              19
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                  1              0               4               11           140             156
Multi-use Courts                Courts                   0              4              20               89            38             151
Multi-use Fields                Fields                   2              3             111               93            47             256
Pools                           Pools                    3              4              14               47           236             304
Racquetball Courts              Courts                   8             31              70              160            57             326
Recreation Centers              Centers                  9              6              45              143           166             369
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                   3              0              84              518           390             995
Tennis Courts                   Courts                   8             49             217              420           551           1,245
Volleyball Courts               Courts                   0             13              10               21             2              46


                                                                    Chapter 5 - 21
                                                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                   TABLE 5.12

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                   EAST CENTRAL FLORIDA (REGION 6)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                     1,510,732           0 sites      1,625,394           0 sites      1,815,787           0 sites      2,004,974           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                13,298,190     695.10 miles      14,257,895     774.35 miles      15,829,560     904.15 miles      17,354,030    1,030.04 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                            3,369,667           0 sites      3,625,524           0 sites      4,050,413           0 sites      4,472,691           0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   593,157            0 sites       635,823            0 sites       705,630            0 sites       773,228            0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                    3,219,766        0.00 miles      3,454,499        0.00 miles      3,840,009        0.00 miles      4,215,840        0.63 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        810,139            0 lanes       865,914            0 lanes       956,006            0 lanes      1,041,237           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             784,291         0.00 feet        841,725         0.00 feet       1,015,928        0.00 feet       1,028,443        0.00 feet
Hiking                                         2,451,104     467.19 miles       2,627,373     539.98 miles       2,915,753     659.05 miles       3,194,974     774.35 miles
Horseback Riding                                312,288         0.00 miles       334,367         0.00 miles       370,312         0.00 miles       404,810         0.00 miles
Hunting                                          77,759         0.00 acres        83,092         0.00 acres        91,694         0.00 acres        99,814         0.00 acres
Nature Study                                   1,528,932        0.00 miles      1,637,317        0.00 miles      1,813,906        0.00 miles      1,983,627        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                     2,172,549           0 tables     2,329,717           0 tables     2,587,280           0 tables     2,837,412           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    23,502,702        3.27 miles     25,269,952        7.42 miles     28,197,098       14.29 miles     31,093,277       21.08 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         609,062            0 lanes       654,369            0 lanes       729,192            0 lanes       802,851            0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              2,239,614   11,162.94 feet       2,406,030   15,285.84 feet       2,680,782   22,092.76 feet       2,951,115   28,790.22 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     3,673,714           0 courts     3,932,936           0 courts     4,354,711           0 courts     4,759,095           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                 876,197            0 fields      937,166            0 fields     1,035,961           0 fields     1,129,977           0 fields
Golfing2                                       7,346,156           0 courses    7,894,835           0 courses    8,801,978           0 courses    9,696,711           0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            590,706            0 courts      631,876            0 courts      698,622            0 courts      762,196            0 courts
Shuffleboard                                   1,852,098           0 courts     1,992,603           0 courts     2,225,878           0 courts     2,457,626           0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               911,427            0 fields      976,360            0 fields     1,082,308           0 fields     1,184,400           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                            39,017,787        450 pools      41,973,344        507 pools      46,878,370        602 pools      51,747,970        697 pools
Tennis                                         2,008,884           0 courts     2,153,943           0 courts     2,391,538           0 courts     2,622,064           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                   Chapter 5 - 22
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Central Florida (Region 7)
Coastal Counties: none
Non-Coastal Counties: Desoto, Hardee, Highlands, Okeechobee, and Polk

Located in the south central Florida Peninsula, Central Florida encompasses 4,900 square
miles. The Central Florida region borders Charlotte and Glades Counties to the south, Pasco,
Hillsborough, Manatee and Sarasota Counties to the west, Sumter and Lake Counties to the
north, and Orange, Osceola, Indian River, St. Lucie and Martin Counties to the east.
Significant urban centers are Lakeland, Okeechobee, and Winter Haven. Central Florida’s
sub-tropical climate provides humid summers and short, dry winters. Average annual rainfall
is 55 inches, with peak amounts from May through September.

                                Outdoor Recreation Resources
Central Florida’s low, flat topography provides many wetlands, freshwater swamps, upland
forests and numerous rivers and lakes. These natural resources provide for hiking, camping,
freshwater beach activities, nature study and freshwater boating and fishing.

The region’s rivers and lakes, which include the Peace and Kissimmee Rivers and Lakes
Okeechobee, Arbuckle, and Istokpoga, provide an abundance of freshwater recreation
opportunities. A segment of the Peace River has been designated as a State Canoe Trail
under the Florida Recreational Trails System. This trail winds 67 miles through Polk, Hardee
and Desoto Counties, and provides for canoeing, boating, camping, fishing and other
river-related activities. Table 5.13 shows Central Florida’s outdoor recreation resources by
provider.

                               Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.14 indicates a regional need for resources and facilities to meet demand for bicycle
riding and non-boat freshwater fishing now through 2010. There are no projected needs for
resources to support user-oriented recreation through 2010. Currently, bicycle riding and
freshwater fishing and boating are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools
and golf courses attract the most user-oriented activity.

Tampa Bay (Region 8)
Coastal Counties: Hillsborough, Manatee, Pasco, and Pinellas
Non-Coastal Counties: none

Located on the west-central Gulf Coast midway between the Florida Keys and the Big Bend,
Tampa Bay encompasses 2,818 square miles. The region borders Sarasota County on the
south, the Gulf of Mexico on the west, Hernando County on the north, and Sumter, Polk,
Hardee and DeSoto Counties on the east. Significant urban centers are Bradenton,
Clearwater, New Port Richey, St. Petersburg, and Tampa. Tampa Bay’s sunny, subtropical
climate provides warm, humid summers and mild winters, with an average annual
temperature of 72.7 degrees Fahrenheit. Maximum rainfall occurs May through September.


                                       Chapter 5 - 23
                                                                                          OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                               TABLE 5.13

             1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                CENTRAL FLORIDA (REGION 7)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE        COUNTY        MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT       TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   7         110           214             299             211           841
Land Area                       Acres          106,160.00   145,981.11      3,436.32       2,536.07       31,811.16    289,924.66
Water Area                      Acres               50.00    52,441.00     28,138.00          40.60        6,871.10     87,540.70
Total Area                      Acres          106,210.00   198,422.11     31,574.32       2,576.67       38,682.26    377,465.36
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0            0             0              0            316            316
Tent Sites                      Sites                   0           48             8             10            445            511
RV Sites                        Sites                   0          188           449              0         20,962         21,599
Commemorative Structures                                0            0             0              4              2              6
Historic Sites                  Sites                   0            2             9              6              8             25
Museums                                                 0            3             3              3              9             18
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 55          367           358            791         10,397         11,968
Hunting Land                    Acres           89,950.00    45,143.00          0.00           0.00         850.00     135,943.00
Hunting Water                   Acres               50.00     2,752.00          0.00           0.00           0.00       2,802.00
Hunting Area                    Acres           90,000.00    47,895.00          0.00           0.00         850.00     138,745.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                0.00       11.70          0.00            5.00          16.30          33.00
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                0.00       87.30          7.50            1.40          10.50         106.70
Canoe Trails                    Miles                0.00      130.00          0.00            0.00          27.30         157.30
Hiking Trails                   Miles               50.50      144.50          4.90            0.50          24.20         224.60
Horseback Trails                Miles                0.00       68.00         14.00            0.00           0.10          82.10
Jogging Trails                  Miles                0.00       15.80          1.00            6.20           2.80          25.80
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00        0.00          0.00            0.00           0.00           0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles                7.70        6.40          2.50            1.60          16.40          34.60
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.00         0.00          0.15           0.83            2.76           3.74
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet          0.00         0.00     22,000.00     207,250.00      910,126.00   1,139,376.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 0            0             5             19              36             60
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                   1           27           106             53              88            275
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   1           22            93             47              78            241
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                  100           90         4,124          1,100           2,697          8,111
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                1            2             8              8              39             58
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0            0           100         25,750               0         25,850
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0            0             0              0           1,005          1,005
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                   0           42             0              2           1,042          1,086
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 0            1             0              1             148            150
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   2            0             8             14              19             43
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                0.00         0.00          0.00           0.00            0.00           0.00
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet          0.00         0.00          0.00           0.00            0.00           0.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                    0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0            0             0              0               0              0
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0            0            15              0               0             15
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0            0             2              0               0              2
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   0            0            19              0               1             20
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0           1           135            186              13            335
Basketball Goals                Goals                   0           0            49            212              41            302
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   0           4            77            120              37            238
Football Fields                 Fields                  0           0            34             32               3             69
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0           0             1              2              38             41
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0           0             0              4              13             17
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0           0             1              0              22             23
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0           0             2              6              73             81
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0           0             4             34              23             61
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0           1            24             18              17             60
Pools                           Pools                   0           1             0             16             106            123
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0           3             4             57              14             78
Recreation Centers              Centers                 0           2            16             51             108            177
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0           2             5            190             343            540
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0           8            26            138             174            346
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0           0             1              4               1              6




                                                             Chapter 5 - 24
                                                                                                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                      TABLE 5.14

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                      CENTRAL FLORIDA (REGION 7)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      230,673           0 sites            238,607            0 sites            250,794           0 sites            262,423           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                 6,894,266    495.95 miles            7,079,121    511.21 miles             7,370,645    535.29 miles            7,653,237    558.62 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             624,687           0 sites            646,987            0 sites            681,124           0 sites            713,627           0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                    46,473           0 sites             47,881            0 sites             50,072           0 sites             52,179           0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     782,096        0.00 miles            811,501        0.00 miles             856,307        0.00 miles            898,847        0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        785,229           0 lanes            807,950            0 lanes            843,471           0 lanes            877,728           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                            1,624,816   2,450.46 feet            1,661,802   3,366.78 feet             1,721,354   4,842.16 feet            1,779,778   6,289.60 feet
Hiking                                          258,409        0.00 miles            267,767        0.00 miles             282,074        0.00 miles            295,685        0.00 miles
Horseback Riding                                210,544        0.00 miles            215,489        0.00 miles             223,416        0.00 miles            231,175        0.00 miles
Hunting                                          36,269        0.00 acres             38,131        0.00 acres              40,903        0.00 acres             43,496        0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    348,952        0.00 miles            364,916        0.00 miles             388,863        0.00 miles            411,377        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                      675,219           0 tables           694,246            0 tables           724,081           0 tables           752,905           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                      177,335        0.00 miles            182,530        0.00 miles             190,641        0.00 miles            198,457        0.00 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         147,002           0 lanes            149,662            0 lanes            154,094           0 lanes            158,526           0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                                 4,267        0.00 feet               4,486        0.00 feet                4,813        0.00 feet               5,118        0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                      375,485           0 courts           394,768            0 courts           423,464           0 courts           450,305           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                  53,338           0 fields            56,077            0 fields            60,154           0 fields            63,966           0 fields
Golfing2                                       2,926,416          0 course
                                                                                3
                                                                                    2,999,438           0 course
                                                                                                                      3
                                                                                                                          3,115,609          0 course
                                                                                                                                                           3
                                                                                                                                                               3,228,797          0 course
                                                                                                                                                                                                3


Handball/Racquetball                             12,802           0 courts            13,459            0 courts            14,438           0 courts            15,353           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                   1,194,494          0 courts          1,219,650           0 courts          1,260,600          0 courts          1,301,024          0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               393,758           0 fields           412,023            0 fields           439,394           0 fields           465,111           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                             3,364,654          0 pools
                                                                            2
                                                                                    3,470,938           0 pools
                                                                                                                  2
                                                                                                                          3,635,566          0 pools
                                                                                                                                                       2
                                                                                                                                                               3,793,448          0 pools
                                                                                                                                                                                            2


Tennis                                          403,218           0 courts           423,924            0 courts           454,740           0 courts           483,564           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                       Chapter 5 - 25
                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                  Outdoor Recreation Resources
The topography is primarily low coastal plain. The Gulf of Mexico and its sandy beaches,
Tampa Bay, numerous coastal marshes, freshwater swamps, mangrove forests and numerous
rivers and lakes generously provide opportunities for camping, hiking, bicycle riding,
saltwater beach activities, fishing, and boating.

Tampa Bay’s rivers and creeks, which include the Hillsborough, Manatee, Little Manatee,
Myakka, Anclote, and Pithlachascotee, provide an abundance of recreation opportunities.
Similarly, the region’s Gulf barrier islands, which include Honeymoon, Caladesi, Anna
Maria, Longboat Key, Clearwater Beach, Mullet Key, and Treasure Islands, contribute to
saltwater beach recreation. Other significant resource features, which offer diverse outdoor
recreation, include portions of the Withlacoochee State Forest and the Green Swamp Wildlife
Management Area. Table 5.15 shows outdoor recreation resources of Tampa Bay by
provider.

                               Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.16 indicates needs through 2010 for resources and facilities to meet the demand for
hiking, pool swimming, bicycle riding, golfing and saltwater beach activities. No other
activity shows a resource or facility need except non-boat saltwater fishing which shows a
need in the year 2010. Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and picnicking
are the most popular resource-based activities, while pools and golf courses attract the most
user-oriented activity.

Southwest Florida (Region 9)
Coastal Counties: Charlotte, Collier, Lee, and Sarasota
Non-Coastal Counties: Glades and Hendry

Roughly midway between Tampa Bay and the Florida Keys, the Southwest Florida region
encompasses more than 5,986 square miles. It is bounded on the west by the Gulf of Mexico,
on the north by Charlotte and Glades Counties, on the east by Palm Beach, Broward and
Dade Counties and on the south by Monroe County. Significant urban centers are Fort
Myers, Cape Coral, Naples, Port Charlotte, and Sarasota. Southwest Florida’s sunny
subtropical climate provides warm, humid summers and mild winters, with an average annual
temperature of 73 degrees. High annual rainfall peaks from June through September.

                               Outdoor Recreation Resources
The region’s coastal marshes and inlets, freshwater swamps, mangrove forests and numerous
rivers and lakes provide generous opportunities for outdoor recreation. Some of these
opportunities include camping, hiking, nature study, saltwater beach activities, fishing and
boating. Table 5.17 shows Central Florida’s outdoor recreation resources by provider.

The region’s rivers and lakes, which include the Myakka, Peace, and Caloosahatchee Rivers,
and Lake Okeechobee, provide an abundance of freshwater recreation opportunities. In
addition, the Myakka River is in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System for its
                                        Chapter 5 - 26
                                                                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                  TABLE 5.15

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                   TAMPA BAY (REGION 8)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL        STATE          COUNTY           MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT        TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   6             88               359            972             443           1,868
Land Area                       Acres            3,814.22      79,238.25         78,050.02       8,545.63       22,197.16      191,845.28
Water Area                      Acres                8.60      10,274.60          1,753.62         849.36        1,422.80       14,308.98
Total Area                      Acres            3,822.82      89,512.85         79,803.64       9,394.99       23,619.96      206,154.26
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0              0                10              5             628             643
Tent Sites                      Sites                  50             42               305              7             538             942
RV Sites                        Sites                 294            207               260              0          27,547          28,308
Commemorative Structures                                0              0                 2              9               1              12
Historic Sites                  Sites                   2              7                14             15               6              44
Museums                                                 2              5                24              7              15              53
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 60            638             4,622          2,791          13,139          21,250
Hunting Land                    Acres                0.00      11,955.00         15,000.00           0.00            0.00       26,955.00
Hunting Water                   Acres                0.00           0.00              0.00           0.00            0.00            0.00
Hunting Area                    Acres                0.00      11,955.00         15,000.00           0.00            0.00       26,955.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles                0.00           2.50            25.70           35.70            0.00           63.90
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles                5.00          68.00           248.00            9.10            5.00          335.10
Canoe Trails                    Miles                2.00          48.00            15.30           10.30          136.00          211.60
Hiking Trails                   Miles                1.00         117.60            65.60           30.70            6.70          221.60
Horseback Trails                Miles                0.00          67.00            81.50            1.40           55.40          205.30
Jogging Trails                  Miles                7.50           6.40            24.50           37.20            4.70           80.30
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00           0.00             0.00            0.00            0.00            0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles                4.90          15.20            30.70           20.40            6.40           77.60
Freshwater Beach                Miles                 0.00           0.06           0.44              0.03           23.43           23.95
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet           0.00      11,600.00     266,320.00          6,200.00    1,047,075.00    1,331,195.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                  0              2              3                 5              18              28
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                    0             10             43                15              28              96
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                    0              8             26                10              28              72
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                     0            280          9,290             7,257             634          17,461
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                 0              2             18                26              22              68
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                  0              0              0            30,551               0          30,551
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                    0              0              0                 0             256             256
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                    0              0              0                 2             381             383
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                  0              0              0                 1              14              15
Freshwater Piers                Piers                    0              2              4                 6               3              15
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                 3.32          11.59           6.82             14.60           10.80           47.13
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet   1,077,500.00   5,479,000.00   6,044,755.00      6,686,085.00    2,499,500.00   21,786,840.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                  3              8             27               275              22             335
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                    2              7             98                63              47             217
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    1              7             46                52              40             146
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                   175         14,598          6,390             8,092           3,203          32,458
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                 1             10             35                52              37             135
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    40             50            371            12,325               0          12,786
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                  150              2              0                 0           5,693           5,845
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   35            108              8             1,642           6,201           7,994
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                  1              3              1                13             112             130
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                    1              0             11                25              20              57
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  6             15              331             359              38             749
Basketball Goals                Goals                   2             36              340             567              88           1,033
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   3              7              229             313              49             601
Football Fields                 Fields                  3             12              111             103              17             246
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 2              1                4               9              76              92
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0              0                0               1              21              22
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0              0                0               3              30              33
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 2              1                4              13             127             147
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  4              0              155             121              40             320
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0              6               75              57              61             199
Pools                           Pools                   2              6                8              39             250             305
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0             19               28             102              57             206
Recreation Centers              Centers                 3              2               71             132             172             380
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0              0               19             529             636           1,184
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  6             89              190             417             688           1,390
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0              0                1               3               1               5




                                                                Chapter 5 - 27
                                                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA


                                                                               TABLE 5.16

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                         TAMPA BAY (REGION 8)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      960,647         0 sites     1,006,002           0 sites     1,081,129        0 sites     1,155,444          0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                12,976,672   672.65 miles    13,536,587    718.89 miles      14,455,242   794.75 miles    15,348,562    868.52 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                            1,317,191        0 sites     1,379,888           0 sites     1,483,824        0 sites     1,586,788          0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   101,195         0 sites      104,978            0 sites      111,077         0 sites      116,819           0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                    2,626,168     0.00 miles     2,733,776      0.00 miles       2,909,289     0.00 miles     3,078,119       0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        184,017         0 lanes      190,895            0 lanes      201,987         0 lanes      212,429           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             220,486      0.00 feet       229,318       0.00 feet         243,684      0.00 feet       257,433        0.00 feet
Hiking                                         2,198,497   686.19 miles     2,297,679    727.14 miles       2,461,195   794.66 miles     2,621,598    860.89 miles
Horseback Riding                                101,228      0.00 miles      105,011       0.00 miles        111,113      0.00 miles      116,857        0.00 miles
Hunting                                            9,496     0.00 acres         9,851      0.00 acres         10,424      0.00 acres       10,963        0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    468,566      0.00 miles      487,260       0.00 miles        517,654      0.00 miles      546,719        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                     3,477,540        0 tables    3,624,530           0 tables    3,865,138        0 tables    4,098,124          0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    21,224,724     2.66 miles    22,228,516      5.02 miles      23,891,489     8.92 miles    25,537,011      12.78 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                        1,082,627        0 lanes     1,128,526           0 lanes     1,203,684        0 lanes     1,276,506          0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              2,551,912     0.00 feet      2,657,925      0.00 feet        2,831,116     0.00 feet      2,998,209   2,116.94 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     2,475,299        0 courts    2,567,819           0 courts    2,717,013        0 courts    2,857,481          0 courts
Football/Soccer                                1,085,802        0 fields    1,126,387           0 fields    1,191,831        0 fields    1,253,448          0 fields
Golfing2                                      10,217,915      31 courses   10,703,060       38 courses     11,507,113      49 courses   12,303,283         60 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            441,698         0 courts     458,208            0 courts     484,830         0 courts     509,896           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                   3,628,610        0 courts    3,806,048           0 courts    4,100,978        0 courts    4,394,513          0 courts
Softball/Baseball                               616,357         0 fields     639,630            0 fields     677,210         0 fields     712,681           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                            26,858,556     212 pools     28,069,148      235 pools       30,064,800     274 pools     32,022,111       312 pools
Tennis                                         1,891,028        0 courts    1,969,505           0 courts    2,097,694        0 courts    2,221,342          0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                               Chapter 5 - 28
                                                                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                TABLE 5.17

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                               SOUTHWEST FLORIDA (REGION 9)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE         COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT         TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                  30            44            368             237              428            1,107
Land Area                       Acres          585,347.89    340,871.99      37,922.03        2,449.52        31,141.60       997,733.03
Water Area                      Acres           31,812.00     23,088.90       2,096.60          303.95         2,282.95        59,584.40
Total Area                      Acres          617,159.89    363,960.89      40,018.63        2,753.47        33,424.55     1,057,317.43
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0            18              0               0              181             199
Tent Sites                      Sites                   3            93             50               8              299             453
RV Sites                        Sites                 272           319             40              37           20,170          20,838
Commemorative Structures                                0             2              4               7               10              23
Historic Sites                  Sites                  12            75              4               8                9             108
Museums                                                 2             6             11               8               16              43
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 44           749          1,958             717           14,721          18,189
Hunting Land                    Acres          377,020.00     76,141.00           0.00            0.00             2.00      453,163.00
Hunting Water                   Acres                0.00        414.00           0.00            0.00             0.00          414.00
Hunting Area                    Acres          377,020.00     76,555.00           0.00            0.00             2.00      453,577.00
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles              18.00           0.00          19.40           29.00            38.50          104.90
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles              34.00          20.00          24.30            8.30             7.50           94.10
Canoe Trails                    Miles              44.90          61.00           4.90            8.00            51.00          169.80
Hiking Trails                   Miles             129.50          87.70          19.80            3.20            73.00          313.20
Horseback Trails                Miles               0.00          15.00           3.50            0.00             6.00           24.50
Jogging Trails                  Miles               9.00           0.00          22.60            0.50             6.40           38.50
Motorcycle Trails               Miles              62.50           0.00           0.00            0.00             0.00           62.50
Nature Trails                   Miles              10.70          36.30          19.50            4.80            21.70           93.00
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.00          0.05            0.51            0.12             1.34            2.02
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet          0.00     24,500.00      260,400.00       40,850.00       141,000.00      466,750.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 0             3               6               2                8              19
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                  10            16              38               2               29              95
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   9            11              38               1               23              82
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                  120         2,345           7,788             360              825          11,438
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                1             4               9               3              179             196
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0             0               0           1,340                0           1,340
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0             0               0               0              408             408
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                   0             0               0               0              944             944
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 0             0               0               0               19              19
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   3             0              15               2                4              24
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                0.72         28.32           13.71            6.85            19.97           69.57
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet    182,000.00 11,167,350.00   12,414,075.00    2,155,880.00    10,752,365.00   36,671,670.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 4            17             109              68               35             233
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   1             5              38              15              107             166
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   1             4              32               8               76             121
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                    0         3,130          10,014           6,534            6,952          26,630
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                0             5              47              12               30              94
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    0             0           3,809           7,600               50          11,459
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0             0               0               0            6,406           6,406
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0            40              25             585            6,652           7,302
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0             2               1               5              178             186
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   0             0              17              11               28              56
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  1            0             228              64               10             303
Basketball Goals                Goals                   0            2             205              54               42             303
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   0            6             158              62               42             268
Football Fields                 Fields                  0            0              57              16                2              75
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0            0               2               4              110             116
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0            0               0               0               23              23
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0            0               0               1               29              30
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0            0               2               5              162             169
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0            0              44               4               11              59
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0            1              36               9               22              68
Pools                           Pools                   0            1              23               8              266             298
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  1            1              36              19               23              80
Recreation Centers              Centers                 1            3              59              21              131             215
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0            3             134              34              439             610
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0            6             220              78              683             987
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0            0              12               1                0              13




                                                              Chapter 5 - 29
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


outstanding ecological and recreational values. The region boasts a number of Gulf barrier
islands which include Siesta and Casey Keys and Sanibel, Captiva, North Captiva, Cayo
Costa, Gasparilla, and Boca Grande islands. These islands contribute to the supply of
saltwater beach recreation resources.

                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.18 indicates needs through 2010 for resources and facilities to meet the demand for
hiking, pool swimming, bicycle riding, camping, shuffleboard, and nature study. Demand for
saltwater beach activities and golfing is projected to exceed supply in 2005. Currently,
saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and nature study are the most popular resource-
based activities, while pools and golf courses attract the most user-oriented activity.

Treasure Coast (Region 10)
Coastal Counties: Indian River, St. Lucie, Martin, and Palm Beach
Non-Coastal Counties: none

Located in southeastern Florida, the Treasure Coast region encompasses 3,626 square miles.
It borders Brevard County on the north, the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Broward County on
the south, and Hendry, Okeechobee and Osceola Counties on the west. Significant urban
centers are Boca Raton, Fort Pierce, Port St. Lucie, Stuart, West Palm Beach, and Vero
Beach. The sunny, subtropical climate of the Treasure Coast provides warm, humid
summers and mild winters. Most rainfall occurs between May and September.

                                 Outdoor Recreation Resources
The Treasure Coast contains excellent outdoor recreation resources typical of southern
Florida. Primary natural features include 110 miles of sandy beaches on the Atlantic Ocean,
a chain of barrier islands, coastal inlets, several wetlands, and pine, oak, and palmetto upland
preserves. These resources provide opportunities for fishing, boating, swimming, saltwater
beach activities, camping, hiking, and nature study. Table 5.19 shows Central Florida’s
outdoor recreation resources by provider.

                                Outdoor Recreation Participation
Lake Okeechobee, Blue Cypress Lake, and the Indian and North Fork St. Lucie Rivers
provide opportunities for water-based outdoor recreation. Additionally, a segment of the
Loxahatchee River is in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System for its outstanding
ecological, fish and wildlife, and recreational values. As part of the Florida Recreational
Trails System, a segment of this river is also a State Canoe Trail. Other significant resource
features include the Hobe Sound and Loxahatchee National Wildlife Refuges, and the
Everglades and J.W. Corbett Wildlife Management Areas.

Table 5.20 indicates needs through 2010 for resources and facilities to meet demand for
hiking, pool swimming, bicycle riding, saltwater beach activities and non-boat freshwater
fishing. Demand for non-boat saltwater fishing is projected to exceed supply in 2010.


                                        Chapter 5 - 30
                                                                                                                          OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                TABLE 5.18

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                    SOUTHWEST FLORIDA (REGION 9)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                     1,154,768        0 sites      1,303,665           0 sites      1,550,571          0 sites      1,796,226          0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                11,761,917   771.33 miles     12,926,026    867.46 miles       14,822,423   1,024.07 miles     16,675,164   1,177.08 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                            1,501,713        0 sites      1,706,273           0 sites      2,046,534          0 sites      2,386,127          0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   456,225      112 sites        513,387       183 sites          608,016        300 sites        702,004        417 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     316,175      0.00 miles       342,264       0.00 miles         384,111        0.00 miles       424,329        0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                         78,733         0 lanes        85,544            0 lanes        96,515           0 lanes       107,108           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             543,125      0.00 feet        598,959       0.00 feet          690,177        0.00 feet        779,561        0.00 feet
Hiking                                         1,299,375   223.33 miles      1,464,722    291.60 miles        1,738,696    404.73 miles       2,011,069    517.20 miles
Horseback Riding                                141,087      0.00 miles       156,045       0.00 miles         180,537        0.00 miles       204,592        0.00 miles
Hunting                                         108,131      0.00 acres       115,776       0.00 acres         127,846        0.00 acres       139,247        0.00 acres
Nature Study                                   2,146,713    10.87 miles      2,365,741     21.72 miles        2,723,374     39.44 miles       3,073,615     56.80 miles
Picnicking                                     1,481,400        0 tables     1,645,916           0 tables     1,916,168          0 tables     2,182,492          0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    23,435,685     0.00 miles     26,536,059      0.00 miles       31,684,784       4.27 miles     36,814,999     16.31 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         758,356         0 lanes       845,598            0 lanes       989,249           0 lanes      1,131,154          0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              1,177,022     0.00 feet       1,318,774      0.00 feet         1,552,868       0.00 feet       1,784,807       0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     1,383,739        0 courts     1,530,141           0 courts     1,769,824          0 courts     2,005,199          0 courts
Football/Soccer                                 229,177         0 fields      246,624            0 fields      274,389           0 fields      300,844           0 fields
Golfing2                                       8,191,240        0 courses    9,221,213           0 courses   10,926,626          6 courses   12,620,862        30 courses
Handball/Racquetball                             47,010         0 courts       50,334            0 courts       55,582           0 courts       60,538           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                   4,415,665     409 courts      4,993,132      552 courts        5,951,491       789 courts      6,905,775     1,026 courts
Softball/Baseball                              1,387,365        0 fields     1,540,253           0 fields     1,791,272          0 fields     2,038,508          0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                            20,689,343      95 pools      23,244,339      145 pools        27,470,266       227 pools      31,663,886       308 pools
Tennis                                         3,106,483        0 courts     3,473,075           0 courts     4,077,698          0 courts     4,675,977          0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                Chapter 5 - 31
                                                                                                      OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000




                                                                 TABLE 5.19

            1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                TREASURE COAST (REGION 10)

RESOURCE/FACILITY                 UNITS       FEDERAL       STATE          COUNTY         MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT             TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                  11            56           395             442                   321           1,225
Land Area                       Acres          118,248.00    329,745.23      13,150.86        5,732.72            34,466.01      501,342.82
Water Area                      Acres           33,154.00     11,693.57       1,619.84       14,071.99             3,257.25       63,796.65
Total Area                      Acres          151,402.00    341,438.80      14,770.70       19,804.71            37,723.26      565,139.47
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                  0            13             14               0                  341             368
Tent Sites                      Sites                   3            42            368               0                  150             563
RV Sites                        Sites                   9           176            277           1,040                3,883           5,385
Commemorative Structures                                0             3              4               5                   17              29
Historic Sites                  Sites                   1            13             12               4                    7              37
Museums                                                 3             5             19               2                   14              43
Picnic Tables                   Tables                 12           507          1,462           1,317                2,529           5,827
Hunting Land                    Acres                0.00    300,178.10           0.00            0.00             3,578.00      303,756.10
Hunting Water                   Acres           29,000.00        768.10           0.00            0.00                 3.00       29,771.10
Hunting Area                    Acres           29,000.00    300,946.20           0.00            0.00             3,581.00      333,527.20
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles               0.00           3.00          11.20           42.50                12.60           69.30
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles               0.00          51.90           9.40           16.00                 1.00           78.30
Canoe Trails                    Miles               0.00          12.50           0.00            5.00                 0.00           17.50
Hiking Trails                   Miles             167.00          89.20          18.70            7.70                 6.50          289.10
Horseback Trails                Miles               0.00          87.70          12.40            0.00                 0.00          100.10
Jogging Trails                  Miles               0.00           1.10          29.40           28.50                10.10           69.10
Motorcycle Trails               Miles               0.00           0.00           0.00            0.00                 0.00            0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles               6.40           8.40          33.90            6.70                10.80           66.20
Freshwater Beach                Miles                0.00           0.00           9.62            0.12                 0.15            9.89
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet          0.00           0.00      80,000.00        6,000.00            36,908.00      122,908.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                 0              0              7               2                    4              13
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                  13             14             34              37                   11             109
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                   7             18             24              19                   10              78
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet             2,112.00         150.00         759.00        2,225.00               525.00        5,771.00
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                2              4              8               3                    6              23
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                 0              0            150              50                   50             250
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                   0              0              0               0                   65              65
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                   8              0              2             254                  434             698
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                 1              1              1               4                   11              18
Freshwater Piers                Piers                   0              0              0               7                    0               7
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                3.50           7.22          13.30            9.61                 7.00           40.63
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet    924,000.00   5,012,690.00   5,395,770.00    3,276,400.00         5,479,990.00   20,088,850.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 1              6             87              85                   26             205
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   0              4             51              46                   17             118
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                   0              2             34              36                   17              89
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                  150            212          5,322           9,149                7,761          22,594
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                1              4             38              19                   19              81
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                    0            620          2,700           2,126                  270           5,716
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                   0              0              0             338                4,164           4,502
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                   0             33             49             413                4,962           5,457
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                 0              1              3              14                  182             200
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                   1              0             11               8                    4              24
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  0            10            342             182                   18             552
Basketball Goals                Goals                   0             4            511             288                   66             869
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   1             2            206             189                   47             445
Football Fields                 Fields                  0             5            137              59                    9             210
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0             0              3               9                  157             169
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0             0              7               2                   17              26
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0             0              0               4                   32              36
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0             0             10              15                  206             231
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  0             0             64              35                   24             123
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  0             2            203              67                   11             283
Pools                           Pools                   0             4              9              11                  258             282
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  0            24            195              80                   43             342
Recreation Centers              Centers                 0             3             29              66                  114             212
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0             0             37             205                  271             513
Tennis Courts                   Courts                  0            24            278             267                  980           1,549
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0             0             24               5                    1              30




                                                              Chapter 5 - 32
                                                                                                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                   TABLE 5.20

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                      TREASURE COAST (REGION 10)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                      528,949            0 sites       567,082            0 sites       629,697            0 sites       691,226            0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                11,247,561     781.25 miles      12,011,598     844.35 miles      13,240,243     945.81 miles      14,417,186    1,043.01 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                             501,288            0 sites       537,607            0 sites       597,344            0 sites       656,161            0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   155,069            0 sites       166,564            0 sites       185,613            0 sites       204,538            0 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                     618,064         0.00 miles       662,305         0.00 miles       734,775         0.00 miles       805,784         0.00 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        627,084            0 lanes       673,510            0 lanes       750,415            0 lanes       826,777            0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                            1,276,522   23,654.54 feet       1,370,307   25,978.06 feet       1,525,279   29,817.44 feet       1,678,705   33,618.55 feet
Hiking                                         1,361,764     273.19 miles       1,455,832     312.03 miles       1,608,020     374.87 miles       1,754,904     435.52 miles
Horseback Riding                                594,752         0.00 miles       633,750         0.00 miles       695,637         0.00 miles       753,933         0.00 miles
Hunting                                            6,921        0.00 acres          7,375        0.00 acres          8,095        0.00 acres          8,774        0.00 acres
Nature Study                                    820,221         0.00 miles       877,187         0.00 miles       969,527         0.00 miles      1,058,861        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                     1,267,821           0 tables     1,357,055           0 tables     1,502,381           0 tables     1,643,781           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    16,644,720        0.00 miles     17,855,262        1.26 miles     19,848,866        5.93 miles     21,814,782       10.54 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                         931,191            0 lanes       993,045            0 lanes      1,091,689           0 lanes      1,185,196           0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              1,058,582        0.00 feet       1,130,116        0.00 feet       1,244,929        0.00 feet       1,354,648     326.09 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     1,265,574           0 courts     1,348,558           0 courts     1,480,248           0 courts     1,604,297           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                 579,312            0 fields      617,827            0 fields      679,274            0 fields      737,546            0 fields
Golfing2                                       7,728,579           0 courses    8,293,456           0 courses    9,225,267           0 courses   10,145,927           0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                            656,194            0 courts      699,485            0 courts      768,349            0 courts      833,412            0 courts
Shuffleboard                                    624,657            0 courts      671,719            0 courts      750,120            0 courts      828,478            0 courts
Softball/Baseball                              1,189,504           0 fields     1,267,499           0 fields     1,391,274           0 fields     1,507,866           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                            18,345,542          73 pools     19,654,072          98 pools     21,794,942        140 pools      23,889,579        180 pools
Tennis                                         2,956,559           0 courts     3,158,381           0 courts     3,483,509           0 courts     3,795,649           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                   Chapter 5 - 33
                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and hiking are the most popular
resource-based activities, while pools and golf courses attract the most user-oriented activity.

South Florida (Region 11)
Coastal Counties: Broward, Dade, and Monroe
Non-Coastal Counties: none

Located on the southernmost tip of the Florida peninsula, South Florida encompasses more
than 4,200 square miles. The region borders the Florida Straits on the south, the Gulf of
Mexico, Glades and Hendry Counties on the west, Palm Beach County on the north, and the
Atlantic Ocean on the east. Primary urban centers are Fort Lauderdale, Hialeah, Key West,
and Miami. South Florida’s warm climate is subtropical marine in Broward and Dade
Counties, and tropical marine in Monroe County. Most rainfall occurs from May through
early October.

                                Outdoor Recreation Resources
South Florida has an abundance of natural resources. The Everglades and the Florida Keys
provide South Florida with a rich diversity of plant and animal life within its low coastal
topography. In addition, the Atlantic Ocean and its sandy beaches, numerous bays, coastal
marshes, marine sanctuaries, Florida Bay and Florida Keys offer excellent opportunities for
camping, hiking, swimming, bicycling, fishing, boating and saltwater beach activities. Table
5.21 shows the South Florida region’s outdoor recreation resources by provider.

South Florida’s abundant marine resources, which include the Florida Bay, Biscayne Bay,
Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuaries, and the John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park,
provide world-famous opportunities for nature study, fishing, boating, and swimming. The
Great White Heron, Key West and Key Deer National Wildlife Refuges offer a combination
of land and water-based opportunities, especially for nature study, fishing and boating.

South Florida’s diverse cultural and historical resources are unlike any other region in the
state. There are many recognizable structures and sites, which include Indian mounds,
Miami’s Freedom Tower, Fort Zachary Taylor, the Barnacle, and Cape Florida Lighthouse.

                              Outdoor Recreation Participation
Table 5.22 indicates a regional need for resources and facilities to meet demand for hiking,
swimming, bicycle riding, non-boat freshwater fishing, fresh and saltwater beach activities,
and camping now through 2010. No other activity is projected to exceed supply through
2010. Currently, saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, and picnicking are the most
popular resource-based activities, while pools and golf courses attract the most user-oriented
activity.




                                        Chapter 5 - 34
                                                                                               OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



                                                                  TABLE 5.21

              1998 OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES BY MAJOR SUPPLIER
                                  SOUTH FLORIDA (REGION 11)

 RESOURCE/FACILITY                UNITS       FEDERAL        STATE          COUNTY          MUNICIPAL NON-GOVERNMENT        TOTAL
Outdoor Recreation Areas        Areas                   42            82           418               1,014          524             2,080
Land Area                       Acres         1,100,940.85    678,573.99      18,195.65           9,557.32     24,095.43     1,831,363.24
Water Area                      Acres         1,135,700.15     68,376.97       1,024.96             436.06      1,574.16     1,207,112.30
Total Area                      Acres         2,236,641.00    746,950.96      19,220.61           9,993.38     25,669.59     3,038,475.54
RESOURCE BASED
Cabins                          Cabins                 53             26               17               0            292             388
Tent Sites                      Sites                209              98               86              29            659           1,081
RV Sites                        Sites                567             175              532             300          9,029          10,603
Commemorative Structures                                0              5                2              28              1              36
Historic Sites                  Sites                   2             24               25              22             20              93
Museums                                                10              7               18               6             23              64
Picnic Tables                   Tables               391           1,584            2,441           3,184          6,847          14,447
Hunting Land                    Acres          204,690.00     664,883.20             0.00            0.00           0.00      869,573.20
Hunting Water                   Acres                0.00       1,578.10             0.00            0.00           0.00        1,578.10
Hunting Area                    Acres          204,690.00     666,461.30             0.00            0.00           0.00      871,151.30
Bike Trails (Paved)             Miles               52.00           3.30            83.90          185.90           2.80          327.90
Bike Trails (Unpaved)           Miles               18.20          16.90             9.00            8.80           1.00           53.90
Canoe Trails                    Miles              184.80          41.70             7.50           12.00          50.00          296.00
Hiking Trails                   Miles              119.10          53.80             6.90           93.90           3.90          277.60
Horseback Trails                Miles                0.00           0.00            17.50           50.00          24.00           91.50
Jogging Trails                  Miles                1.50           3.80            49.40           78.50           9.10          142.30
Motorcycle Trails               Miles                0.00           0.00             0.00            0.00           0.00            0.00
Nature Trails                   Miles               16.90          10.80            49.80           21.20           8.20          106.90
Freshwater Beach                Miles                 0.07           0.00           0.64              0.54           1.05            2.29
Freshwater Beach Area           Square Feet      10,350.00           0.00     295,700.00      3,543,750.00     112,600.00    3,962,400.00
Freshwater Beaches              Beaches                  1              0              8                 2             22              33
Freshwater Boat Ramp Lanes      Lanes                    4             70             20               129             12             235
Freshwater Boat Ramps           Ramps                    4             60             19                25              6             114
Freshwater Catwalk              Feet                  0.00          80.00       1,720.00          3,183.00         215.00        5,198.00
Freshwater Catwalks             Catwalks                 0              1              7                27              5              40
Freshwater Jetties              Jetties                  0             42          1,560             3,125              0           4,727
Freshwater Marina Dry Storage   Boats                    0              0              0                 0            155             155
Freshwater Marina Slips         Slips                    0              0              3                 0            300             303
Freshwater Marinas              Marinas                  0              0              0                 0              6               6
Freshwater Piers                Piers                    0              0              8                13              1              22
Saltwater Beach                 Miles                16.18          10.60           5.19             24.91          10.40           67.28
Saltwater Beach Area            Square Feet   1,717,500.00   2,893,400.00   4,090,250.00     20,275,890.00   3,050,955.00   32,027,995.00
Saltwater Beaches               Beaches                 10             14             14               180             57             275
Saltwater Boat Ramp Lanes       Lanes                   13             18             81                75            130             317
Saltwater Boat Ramps            Ramps                    8             12             44                45            175             284
Saltwater Catwalk               Feet                700.00           0.00       5,578.00         82,022.00      19,730.00         108,030
Saltwater Catwalks              Catwalks                 3              0              9                16             42              70
Saltwater Jetty                 Feet                 9,000           920           9,895             1,367          1,404          22,586
Saltwater Marina Dry Storage    Boats                    0              0            503                 0          9,811          10,314
Saltwater Marina Slips          Slips                  222             66          1,015               995         12,172          14,470
Saltwater Marinas               Marinas                  6              4              8                13            335             366
Saltwater Piers                 Piers                    2              9              2                 9             54              76
USER-ORIENTED
Baseball Fields                 Fields                  4             11             173              496             23             707
Basketball Goals                Goals                  17              8             432              902            117           1,476
Equipped Play Areas             Areas                   6              5             181              498             45             735
Football Fields                 Fields                  2             10              66              226             17             321
Golf Courses (18 hole)          Courses                 0              0               3               10             89             102
Golf Courses (9 hole)           Courses                 0              0               3                2             11              16
Golf Courses (Executive)        Courses                 0              0               0                3             23              26
Golf Courses (Total)            Courses                 0              0               6               15            123             144
Multi-use Courts                Courts                  1              0              25               64             19             109
Multi-use Fields                Fields                  3             11              89              140             20             263
Pools                           Pools                   2              6              26               77            257             368
Racquetball Courts              Courts                  3             40              99              326             72             540
Recreation Centers              Centers                 4              5             110              216            118             453
Shuffleboard Courts             Courts                  0              0              85              265            191             541
Tennis Courts                   Courts                 14             57             274              814            958           2,117
Volleyball Courts               Courts                  0              1              26               19              0              46




                                                                   Chapter 5 - 35
                                                                                                                              OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                   TABLE 5.22

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                      SOUTH FLORIDA (REGION 11)
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                     3,145,775           0 sites      3,373,713           0 sites      3,750,011           0 sites      4,120,126           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                19,654,556    1,241.32 miles     20,710,755   1,328.55 miles      22,432,994    1,470.77 miles     24,089,784    1,607.60 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                            2,203,445           0 sites      2,339,420           0 sites      2,562,521           0 sites      2,779,565           0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                   888,761           10 sites       947,134          82 sites       1,043,150        201 sites       1,136,981        317 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                    1,408,384        1.01 miles      1,468,050       1.15 miles       1,564,085        1.38 miles      1,654,262        1.59 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                        147,616            0 lanes       160,036            0 lanes       180,639            0 lanes       201,078            0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                             774,929     8,355.69 feet        810,849    9,245.60 feet         868,971    10,685.56 feet        924,095    12,051.24 feet
Hiking                                         1,282,041     251.77 miles       1,373,519    289.54 miles        1,524,454     351.87 miles       1,672,767     413.11 miles
Horseback Riding                               1,780,575        0.00 miles      1,877,923       0.00 miles       2,036,790        0.00 miles      2,189,849        0.00 miles
Hunting                                         663,841    79,348.70 acres       690,431 117,421.07 acres         733,076 178,480.96 acres         772,849 235,427.65 acres
Nature Study                                   1,456,739        0.00 miles      1,580,150       0.00 miles       1,784,927        0.00 miles      1,988,143        0.00 miles
Picnicking                                     3,865,010           0 tables     4,161,882           0 tables     4,652,960           0 tables     5,137,669           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                    32,119,905        8.07 miles     34,914,886      14.62 miles      39,556,285       25.51 miles     44,168,645       36.33 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                        1,296,686           0 lanes      1,372,483           0 lanes      1,496,558           0 lanes      1,616,760           0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                              1,957,858        0.00 feet       2,116,524       0.00 feet        2,379,441        0.00 feet       2,639,736        0.00 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                     2,081,984           0 courts     2,166,463           0 courts     2,302,063           0 courts     2,428,732           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                1,674,962           0 fields     1,746,391           0 fields     1,861,404           0 fields     1,969,484           0 fields
Golfing2                                       4,949,664           0 courses    5,335,523           0 courses    5,974,114           0 courses    6,604,961           0 courses
Handball/Racquetball                           1,907,699           0 courts     1,997,126           0 courts     2,141,917           0 courts     2,279,402           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                   1,254,970           0 courts     1,354,039           0 courts     1,518,063           0 courts     1,680,214           0 courts
Softball/Baseball                              1,375,585           0 fields     1,452,374           0 fields     1,577,810           0 fields     1,698,875           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                            27,708,848        162 pools      29,873,857       204 pools       33,457,180        274 pools      36,997,510        342 pools
Tennis                                         2,493,639           0 courts     2,682,442           0 courts     2,994,606           0 courts     3,302,460           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                   Chapter 5 - 36
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Statewide Summary
Table 5.23 indicates statewide needs through 2010 for resources and facilities to meet
demand for bicycle riding, camping, fresh and saltwater beach activities, non-boat fresh and
saltwater fishing, hiking, nature study, golfing, shuffleboard, and pool swimming. Table
5.24 summarizes year 2000 needs by region. As previously noted, due to the limitations of
the 1993 recreation participation survey, the estimates of resident and tourist demand do not
reflect important changes in recreation trends that have occurred since 1993 and are probably
conservative. The most popular resource-based activities in Florida are saltwater beach
activities, bicycle riding, and picnicking, while the most popular user-oriented activities are
pool swimming and golfing. With the exception of picnicking, there is substantial need
across the state for additional resources to support these activities. These needs are projected
to grow as increased population drives up demand.

Relative Need Indices
Since Florida does not have the ability to meet all needs simultaneously, it is necessary to
prioritize the many competing needs in order to guide land acquisition and facility
development to the areas of highest need. The Division of Recreation and Parks
accomplishes this
prioritization by applying the concept of “relative need.” A relative need formula is used to
compare need for any activity in one region to all other activities in all regions. The result is
the "relative need indices," which ranks relative need for all activities across all regions.
Appendix F discusses the methodology behind relative need index calculations and contains
the relative need tables for 1997, 2000, 2005, and 2010.

1997 - 2010 Relative Need Priorities and Trends
The year 1997 relative need table in Appendix F shows that saltwater beach activities in
South Florida (Region 11) and pool swimming in East Central Florida (Region 6) have the
highest relative need for resource-based and user-oriented activities, respectively. In
particular, note that the relative need priority index for pool swimming in East Central
Florida is more than twice that of the next highest index among user-oriented activities (pool
swimming in Tampa Bay, Region 8). Among the top ten indices for resource-based
activities, bicycle riding holds six places, saltwater beach activities hold three places, and
freshwater beach activities hold one place. Among the top eight indices for user-oriented
activities, pool swimming holds six places and golfing and shuffleboard each hold one place.
Overall, bicycle riding is the most common resource-based activity to demonstrate relative
need (nine regions) while swimming is the most common user-oriented activity (six regions).


Among resource-based activities, there are noticeable trends evidenced in the highest indexed
activities. For example, the relative importance of saltwater beach activities shows an
increase in the central and southern regions of Florida until it represents the five highest
indices in 2010. Conversely, bicycle riding falls in relative importance to saltwater beach
activities during the same period. Saltwater beach activities command the most attention in


                                         Chapter 5 - 37
                                                                                                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                                                                                    TABLE 5.23

                              ESTIMATED DEMAND AND NEED FOR OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES AND FACILITIES
                                                          STATE OF FLORIDA
                                                      1997                         2000                         2005                         2010
     RECREATIONAL                           Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource        Demand       Resource
          ACTIVITY                      (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units (User Occasions) Needs Units
    RESOURCE-BASED
Archaeologic/Historic Site                    11,720,339           0 sites      12,474,817             0 sites      13,711,115           0 sites      14,928,715           0 sites
Bicycle Riding                                89,274,458    5,056.43 miles      94,803,751    5,487.79 miles       103,679,946    6,190.02 miles     112,251,459    6,888.19 miles
Camping(RV/Trailer)                           11,560,637           0 sites      12,357,374             0 sites      13,666,194           0 sites      14,959,306           0 sites
Camping(Tent)                                  2,635,257        122 sites        2,830,011        265 sites          3,146,274        501 sites        3,455,498        734 sites
Freshwater Beach Activities                   14,666,736        7.20 miles      15,359,384        7.56 miles        16,462,243        8.14 miles      17,524,486        9.31 miles
Freshwater Boat Ramp Use                       3,594,333           0 lanes       3,807,642             0 lanes       4,142,354           0 lanes       4,464,245           0 lanes
Freshwater Fishing1                            7,034,676   34,460.69 feet        7,432,568   38,590.44 feet          8,098,469   45,345.16 feet        8,680,490   53,083.10 feet
Hiking                                        11,994,964    2,300.09 miles      12,815,602    2,600.00 miles        14,146,595    3,091.73 miles      15,447,251    3,577.65 miles
Horseback Riding                               4,233,721        0.00 miles       4,486,497        0.00 miles         4,884,151        0.00 miles       5,264,234        0.00 miles
Hunting                                        1,873,451 146,315.39 acres        1,977,553 217,272.80 acres          2,130,486 319,405.49 acres        2,274,636 415,559.71 acres
Nature Study                                   8,502,919       11.42 miles       9,145,001       23.66 miles        10,172,004       43.40 miles      11,170,805       62.69 miles
Picnicking                                    16,235,468           0 tables     17,290,687             0 tables     19,004,547           0 tables     20,679,289           0 tables
Saltwater Beach Activities                   143,387,184       15.87 miles     154,932,616       30.36 miles       174,017,175       61.25 miles     192,946,060       99.65 miles
Saltwater Boat Ramp Use                        6,520,596           0 lanes       6,924,456             0 lanes       7,575,152           0 lanes       8,206,107           0 lanes
                  1
Saltwater Fishing                             11,548,358   23,759.96 feet       12,317,090   29,132.24 feet         13,572,296   37,932.35 feet       14,802,977   49,022.23 feet
      USER-ORIENTED
Basketball                                    16,182,690           0 courts     17,161,524             0 courts     18,697,577           0 courts     20,161,378           0 courts
Football/Soccer                                5,406,095           0 fields      5,691,637             0 fields      6,141,224           0 fields      6,566,393           0 fields
Golfing2                                      46,577,475          31 courses    49,956,020            38 courses    55,520,031          55 courses    61,019,345          90 courses
Handball/Racquetball                           4,283,446           0 courts      4,519,034             0 courts      4,890,582           0 courts      5,242,994           0 courts
Shuffleboard                                  13,721,318        409 courts      14,830,380        552 courts        16,668,838        797 courts      18,496,706       1,044 courts
Softball/Baseball                              8,030,084           0 fields      8,577,556             0 fields      9,439,115           0 fields     10,267,055           0 fields
Swimming Pool Use3                           151,734,822       1,008 pools     162,940,791       1,216 pools       181,373,821       1,559 pools     199,571,228       1,898 pools
Tennis                                        15,030,574           0 courts     16,161,691             0 courts     17,989,533           0 courts     19,771,158           0 courts
1
  Boat fishing not included in table
2
  Includes 9-hole and 18-hole courses
3
  4800-square foot minimum




                                                                                     Chapter 5 - 38
                                             OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


            Table 5.24 Year 2000 Resource and Facility Needs by Region

Region                                Resource and Facility Needs - 2000
  1             Bicycle Riding, Hiking, Swimming, Nature Study
  2             Bicycle Riding
  3             Saltwater Non-boat Fishing and Saltwater Beach
  4             Bicycle Riding, Freshwater Beach, Saltwater Non-boat Fishing
  5             Freshwater Beach, Saltwater Beach
  6             Saltwater Beach, Bicycle Riding, Saltwater Non-boat Fishing, Hiking,
                Swimming
    7           Bicycle Riding, Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing
    8           Bicycle Riding, Golfing, Hiking, Saltwater Beach, Swimming
    9           Bicycle Riding, Hiking, Nature Study, Shuffleboard, Swimming, Tent Camping
   10           Bicycle Riding, Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing, Hiking, Saltwater Beach,
                Swimming
   11           Bicycle Riding, Freshwater Beach, Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing, Hiking,
                Saltwater Beach, Swimming, Tent Camping

terms of the distribution of need over the period. Relative need exists in only three
regions for this activity in 1997, but in seven regions in 2010.

Among user-oriented activities, there is no change in the variety of activities that
demonstrate need. Pool swimming, golf and shuffleboard are the only activities showing
relative need through 2010. However, the number of regions that show need for these
activities increases over time. By 2010, seven out of nine regions show relative need for
golf courses, and pool swimming consistently holds the four highest indices from 1997
through 2010.

Meeting Outdoor Recreation Demand and Needs
Meeting the total outdoor recreation demand in Florida requires the division of
responsibilities among the various outdoor recreation resource and facility providers.
The federal government has the primary responsibility to identify and preserve areas of
broad national significance rather than to assume a major role in supporting needs at the
state level. Local governments typically provide user-oriented facilities in predominately
urban areas and are generally not expected to alleviate regional or statewide needs,
particularly for resource-based activities. The private sector, which currently meets a
substantial portion of the overall demand for outdoor recreation, cannot realistically be
relied upon to permanently preserve large natural areas to meet needs for resource-based
recreation at a regional or statewide level. Therefore, the State must assume the primary
responsibility for meeting Florida's future resource-based outdoor recreation needs.

Several state agencies are directly involved in the provision of resource-based outdoor
recreation opportunities. Among the major suppliers, the Department of Environmental
Protection provides a vast array of recreation resources and facilities through its statewide
system of parks, greenways and trails, aquatic preserves and upland buffer preserves. The
Department of Community Affairs under the auspices of the Florida Community Trust


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                                            OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


provides funds to local governments to implement their comprehensive plans through
acquisition of land for urban open space, parks and greenways. The Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission, through public and private cooperative efforts, provides
extensive fishing and hunting opportunities. The Department of Agriculture and
Consumer Services supports numerous forest-related activities through its system of state
forests. The Department of Transportation provides a system of bicycle routes, trails, and
incidental with its transportation systems, access to water resources. The five water
management districts provide recreational access to lands acquired through the Save Our
Rivers Program. The Department of Education contributes a considerable number of
resources and facilities through the State University System.




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                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                           CHAPTER 6
              VISION, GOALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

                   FLORIDA’S OUTDOOR RECREATION VISION
Florida’s outdoor recreation vision was developed with public input obtained from 12 public
workshops and two focus group meetings. Details of the workshops and focus group meetings
are contained in Appendix B. The vision, which is intended to describe an ideal, but as yet
unrealized recreation system, is as follows.

   Florida’s ideal outdoor recreation system will be a diverse, balanced system of outdoor
   recreation resources and suppliers that provides the citizens of the state and visitors--
   regardless of their location in the state, economic status, age, gender, ethnic background,
   or physical or mental disability--with a full range of outdoor recreation opportunities.
   The system will be coordinated at the state level with all agencies working in harmony,
   and with ample opportunity for public participation in decision making. It will have an
   educational component to promote understanding and appreciation of the state’s outdoor
   recreation resources.

                                            GOALS
Based on the focus group meetings and public workshops, DEP staff developed the following
goals for Florida’s outdoor recreation system. Each goal is consistent with the agency’s statutory
authority and responsibilities. In recognition that achieving these goals will require partnerships
with others, they are written in a manner that should allow their adoption as general guidance by
existing and potential partners. The goals are as follows:

1. Improve coordination, communication and cooperation between government, non-profit and
   private recreation providers in outdoor recreation planning and land management.

2. Improve coordination, communication and cooperation between land managing agencies,
   outdoor recreation user groups, and other interested parties.

3. Support conservation and recreation land acquisition programs, and increase public-private
   partnerships for the provision of public recreational access to private lands.

4. Provide more opportunities for a wide range of resource-based outdoor recreation in both
   urban and rural areas, with a range of facility development from the primitive to the fully
   developed.

5. Support special programs to broaden public participation in outdoor recreation, improve
   recreational access for those with physical or mental disabilities, promote a stewardship
   ethic, encourage volunteerism, and increase public understanding of the value and
   importance of Florida’s natural and cultural resources.

6. Increase funding and revenue generating capabilities for outdoor recreation.


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                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


                RECOMMENDATIONS BASED ON PUBLIC INPUT
DEP staff developed the following recommendations based on the many suggestions received at
the 12 public workshops and two focus group meetings. They are intended as specific actions
that can be taken by the DEP and it’s partners to achieve the goals of the State Comprehensive
Outdoor Recreation Plan and meet the needs expressed by the public.

Planning
Quite a number of suggestions related to improving planning coordination among the various
recreation providers. To a large degree this is already being done through various means.
Planning for land acquisition to support outdoor recreation is coordinated through the Florida
Forever Advisory Council and the Acquisition and Restoration Council (ARC). Management
plans for state-owned lands are developed with public input at the local level and multi-agency
review through the ARC. Planning for the statewide greenways and trails system is coordinated
through the Florida Greenways and Trails Advisory Council (FGTC).

Technology has also done much to help planners coordinate their efforts. Most agencies now
have Geographic Information System (GIS) technology available to them which allows sharing
of data relating to land uses, natural and cultural resources, demographic data and other
information important to planning. For the most part, the application software has been
standardized among the agencies to facilitate data sharing.

In spite of these advances in coordination and technology, there are a number of areas where
improvements can be made. Recommendations are as follows:

1. The DEP should work to improve the usefulness of the SCORP as a planning tool for public
   and private recreation planners. Toward this end, the SCORP should be revised to be more
   like the State Action Agenda which would have replaced the SCORP had the federal
   Conservation and Reinvestment Act of 2000 been passed by Congress. SCORP data should
   be converted to GIS data layers and made available on the Internet. Adequate funding and the
   cooperation of other local, state and federal agencies will be essential to this effort.

2. Local governments that have not done so should evaluate current and future local recreation
   needs and address those needs in their local comprehensive plans. Local recreation plans
   should be developed in a regional context in cooperation with other recreation providers in
   the region.

3. The DEP should continue to work through the ARC and the FGTC to promote outdoor
   recreation and assist those bodies in planning to meet future outdoor recreation needs at the
   local, regional and statewide levels.

4. Public and private land planners should identify and pursue opportunities to further the goals
   of the State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan and the Florida Greenways and Trails
   Implementation Plan.




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                                               OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

5. The DEP, in coordination with other state and federal agencies, should continue to pursue
   sources of funding to conduct biennial, county-level demand and need assessments for
   outdoor recreation resources and facilities.

Management
Management of ecological and cultural resources and recreational infrastructure also prompted a
number of suggestions at the public meetings and focus groups. In addition, there was a
common perception that management would benefit from improved cooperation between
agencies.

As with planning, much is already being done to better coordinate management efforts.
Prescribed burning of fire dependent natural communities, exotic species control, and
management of threatened and endangered species are areas where interagency cooperation has
improved management programs. Florida’s greenways and trails program provides an example
of public agencies, private landowners and interested citizens working cooperatively to develop
and manage a statewide system of greenways and trails. There are other examples as well.
These efforts aside, there are management issues that need more attention. The recommendations
that follow are intended to address what staff feel are the most critical of those.

1. Vandalism, dumping and other illegal activities are a problem in some remote or understaffed
   areas where the managing agency cannot provide adequate enforcement without assistance.
   In these areas, the managing agencies should work with local, state and federal law
   enforcement staff, as appropriate, to provide a strong, coordinated law enforcement presence
   as a deterrent to criminal activity on public lands.

2. In some high use areas, recreational activities are causing unacceptable levels of damage to
   natural and cultural resources. Land managing agencies should continually monitor,
   document and evaluate recreation impacts to provide a scientific basis for establishing and
   enforcing resource carrying capacities and other measures to preserve resource quality.

3. As Florida continues to become more urban, conservation and recreation lands are
   increasingly threatened by land use decisions that fragment and degrade the ecosystems of
   which they are a part. Land managers, elected officials, and decision-makers at all levels
   must work cooperatively to ensure that the ecological connections and functions essential to
   the long-term sustainability of our public lands are preserved.

4. Water-based recreation is important to Florida’s economy and quality of life. Yet, many
   water bodies are unsuitable for recreational use due to pollution. Land managing agencies,
   local governments, the DEP and the water management districts should work cooperatively
   to improve the management of surface waters and preserve or restore their suitability for
   water-based recreation.

5. Public land managers should lead by example in the areas of environmentally friendly
   landscaping, energy efficiency, water conservation, use of recycled materials and applying
   the principles of sustainable development in the construction of facilities.



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                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000



Improving Communication
As with planning and management issues, there is a public perception that agencies must do
more to improve communication—with each other and with the public they serve. And as with
planning and management, this issue is being addressed in a number of ways. In some cases,
there are statutory requirements for agencies to solicit public input before taking certain actions.
In other cases, agencies solicit public input as a matter of internal policy. There are also a
number of advisory bodies that have been created as a forum for public input into government
decisions. Also, most agencies now have Internet websites with program information, phone
numbers and e-mail addresses for program staff. The recommendations below are intended to
further these on-going efforts.

1. Public outdoor recreation providers that do not routinely solicit input from users and other
   interested groups in planning and decision-making processes should create forums for that
   purpose.

2. Public outdoor recreation providers should maintain accurate, up-to-date Internet websites
   containing information about their facilities and the types of recreation that they provide.
   Websites should have links to other known sources of outdoor recreation information.

3. Public outdoor recreation providers that do not provide formal opportunities for users to
   evaluate their performance and quantify users’ level of satisfaction should develop a means
   of soliciting this information.

Supporting Land Acquisition
The most essential element of an outdoor recreation program is land upon which to recreate.
Florida has one of the most aggressive conservation and recreation land acquisition programs in
the nation and has been very successful in acquiring many outstanding recreation resources. As
the third fastest growing state in the nation, it is important to give priority to continuing existing
efforts to secure an adequate land base to meet future recreation needs. Recommendations to
accomplish this follow.

1. Outdoor recreation providers and user groups should promote the benefits of outdoor
   recreation, and the acquisition of additional lands to meet future needs. In doing so they
   should emphasize the acquisition of lands within and near urban areas, lands that would
   support multiple outdoor recreation activities, lands that contain highly desirable recreational
   resources, and lands that would connect existing public lands, or link them to communities.
   They should also promote the continuation of less-than-fee acquisition of conservation and
   recreation access easements from willing private landowners.

2. The DEP should continue to produce and distribute an annual report on the status and
   accomplishments of the State’s program to acquire land for conservation and recreation
   purposes and make the information available on the Internet.




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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Trail and Greenway-Based Recreation
The last decade has seen a significant increase in interest in trail and greenway-based recreation.
In response, Florida established an Office of Greenways and Trails (OGT) within the Department
of Environmental Protection to oversee the creation of a statewide system of greenways and
trails. The Florida Greenways and Trails Council, a legislatively created advisory body, serves
as a forum for citizen input into decision making. In 1998 the OGT completed a five-year
statewide greenway and trail implementation plan to guide development of the system. The
following recommendations are intended to further the goals of that plan in meeting public
demand for this type of recreation.

1. All public land and water managers providing trail or greenway-based recreation should
   implement their programs in a way that is consistent with the guidance and recommendations
   of the Florida Greenways and Trails Council and the five-year implementation plan.

2. The Department of Environmental Protection, the Department of Transportation, and other
   partners should continue planning and development of the Lake Okeechobee Scenic Trail,
   the Florida Keys Heritage Trail, and the Marjorie Harris Carr Cross Florida Greenway.

3. State-level land managing agencies, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, the Florida
   Trail Association, local governments and other partners, should continue working toward
   completion of the Florida National Scenic Trail.

4. Trail providers should increase trail support facilities including signage, trailheads, parking,
   restrooms, maps, and campsites.

5. The Department of Transportation should continue working with local communities and trail
   user groups to provide bicycle paths along appropriate roadways and improve bicycle and
   pedestrian access in urban areas.

6. Land managing agencies should work with user groups and other interested parties to
   determine if, and under what conditions, motorized off-road recreational vehicles could be
   allowed on public conservation and recreation lands.

Non-Trail Recreation
The following recommendations were drafted in response to perceived needs expressed by the
public for specific types of recreation or support facilities. All parts of the state may not have
needs in these specific areas. Recreation providers should review the recommendations and
evaluate local needs prior to taking any action.

1. In some localities, there are insufficient opportunities for non-boat, freshwater and saltwater
   fishing. Where this is the case, recreation providers should acquire land or develop facilities
   on existing public lands to support these activities.

2. In some localities, there is insufficient public access to saltwater beaches. In some cases,
   there is access, but insufficient parking. As Florida’s coastline continues to develop, this
   problem will increase in the absence of government intervention. Government at all levels


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                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

   should evaluate future needs and acquire sufficient beach access points and parking areas to
   ensure the public’s continued access to Florida’s beaches. Where on-site parking is not
   possible, a park-and-ride shuttle system or other public transportation should be provided.
   Sanitary facilities should be provided wherever possible.

3. In some localities, there are insufficient sanitary facilities at recreation sites. This can be
   especially problematic at water access points such as boat ramps and marinas. Public and
   private recreation suppliers should identify areas where this is a problem and provide
   restrooms and pump-out facilities where needed.

4. Cave diving is an activity engaged in by a relatively small number of Floridians and tourists.
   Because of the dangers involved, and the concern that divers might damage sensitive
   underwater resources, there are a number of potentially suitable areas where this activity is
   prohibited. Cave diving advocates have expressed a desire to expand the number of areas
   where cave diving is allowed and have suggested that guided tours and restricting use to
   those who meet certain proficiency standards may be a way to meet this need. Recreation
   providers should work with cave diving groups to see if there are ways to safely increase
   opportunities for this activity in ways that do not degrade the resource.

5. Hunting advocates expressed a desire for greater use of “special opportunity hunts” on
   appropriate tracts of public land as a means to provide additional areas to hunt, and as a
   wildlife management tool. Public agencies with suitable lands should consider working with
   the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission to arrange such hunts.

6. Tent campers have expressed dissatisfaction with camping in close proximity to recreational
   vehicles due to noise from generators, televisions, air conditioners, and similar devices.
   Recreation providers should develop strategies to buffer tent campers from recreational
   vehicle campers, including consideration of separate campgrounds.

7. Relative to the kinds of recreation that should be provided for on public lands, there were two
   general schools of thought. Some people favored providing for as many types of recreation
   as possible on any given piece of land, but segregating incompatible activities. Others felt
   that recreation providers should limit their offerings based on compatibility with the
   managing agency’s mission and with the resources on the land. This plan recommends that
   public land managers assess the suitability of their lands for various types of recreation and
   strive to provide a range of opportunities without compromising either the resource or the
   quality of the recreational experience.

8. The need for boat ramps was not addressed at the public meetings, however, a recent report
   published by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission entitled Estimation of
   the Projected Demand of Saltwater Boat Ramps for Florida’s Coastal Counties Through
   2010 indicates there are significant needs. It is recommended that the DEP and the FWCC
   continue to fund the construction and repair of saltwater and freshwater boat ramps, with
   emphasis on meeting the needs identified in the FWCC report and any subsequent analyses it
   might conduct for freshwater boat ramps.




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                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000


Special Programs
There were quite a number of suggestions relating to the continuation of a variety of special
programs for youth, the disabled and volunteers. Recommendations are as follows:

1. There have been a number of studies indicating that recreation programs can have a positive
   effect on at-risk youth, and some programs have been credited with decreases in youth crime.
   Generally, these programs are conducted at the local government level. It is recommended
   that local governments identify under-served and at-risk youth populations in their
   community and develop outdoor recreation programs as appropriate to meet the needs of
   those populations.

2. Advocates for disabled citizens indicated that there is a continuing concern over accessibility
   of outdoor recreation facilities. It is recommended that all outdoor recreation suppliers
   evaluate handicapped/disabled access to resource-based activities and make improvements
   where needed. This should include training for on-site managers on how to make land and
   facilities more accessible. Providers should consult with the Florida Disabled Outdoor
   Association when setting or revising development standards or accessibility policy.

3. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of judges using court ordered
   community service as an alternative to other forms of punishment. It was suggested that
   public recreation suppliers should work with local judges to encourage persons required to
   perform court-ordered community service to work in parks. It is recommended that public
   recreation providers evaluate the feasibility of this approach and work with local judges to
   employ it where appropriate.

4. Many public lands do not have adequate species inventories. It was suggested that public
   land managers could organize amateur bird watchers, butterfly watchers, botanists and others
   into groups to conduct the needed inventories. It is recommended that public land managers
   evaluate the feasibility of this approach on the lands they manage, and make use of such
   volunteers where appropriate.

5. The Division of Recreation and Parks has an extensive park volunteer program. It was
   suggested, and is recommended in this plan, that the Division continue to promote,
   administer and monitor its recreation and resource management volunteer programs.

Funding and Revenue Generation
As in years past, funding and revenue generation continue to be issues of importance. The public
perception is that many outdoor recreation programs at the local, state and federal levels are
under-funded, with local governments generally having the greatest unmet needs. Suggestions
from the public included a number of strategies including changes to tax structures, reprioritizing
use of funds, making more use of volunteers, and changing fee structures to name a few.
Recommendations are as follows:

1. The National Park Service and the states should continue to encourage federal legislation
   similar to the ill-fated Conservation and Reinvestment Act of 2000 to create an outdoor



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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

   recreation trust fund large enough to support a long-term and stable funding assistance
   program to help meet state and local government recreation needs.

2. State-level recreation providers should identify federal recreation grant programs that would
   help meet state recreation needs and seek legislative funding to meet the matching
   requirements where needed.

3. There was a sentiment expressed at the public meetings that public recreation providers do
   not charge enough. This was countered by those who were concerned about pricing public
   facilities out of the reach of lower income citizens. It is recommended that public recreation
   providers consider the use of “add on” user fees for activities that require special facilities.
   It is also recommended that public agencies consider expanding the use of voluntary drop
   boxes to collect fees on recreation lands that are minimally developed and have no on-site
   staff to collect fees.

4. A number of participants at the public meetings expressed a willingness to pay special use
   fees on the condition that those fees were used to improve facilities for the activities that
   generated the revenue. Equestrian and off-highway vehicle advocates are two groups that
   promoted this strategy. It is recommended that public recreation providers consider the
   feasibility of this approach and, if appropriate, seek legislative support for any needed
   statutory changes.

Implementing a Systems Approach
There was considerable discussion centered on a general belief that public outdoor recreation
providers at all levels need to better integrate their efforts. The general theme of the discussions
was that Florida’s various outdoor recreation programs should be viewed as an interconnected
system. The State Comprehensive Outdoor Recreation Plan (SCORP) would be at the center of
the system, providing data, trends analyses, and recommendations to help guide recreation
providers in meeting current and future needs. It would serve as a framework within which to
organize local, state and federal outdoor recreation programs at the regional and statewide levels.

It was suggested that the Department of Environmental Protection, through its Division of
Recreation and Parks (DRP), should develop a list of contacts and hold periodic meetings to
discuss issues and develop a coordinated approach to meeting Florida’s outdoor recreation needs.
It was further suggested that the contact list should be published and the meetings held at times
when the public could participate.

It is recommended that the DRP move toward implementation of these suggestions as staff and
funding permit. As initial steps the following is recommended.

1. The DRP should put the 2000 SCORP on its Internet website. It should promote the SCORP
   as the framework for a systems approach to recreation management and should encourage
   other public, private and non-profit recreation providers and user groups to play a larger role
   in its development and implementation. The website should provide a forum for feedback
   from the public and other recreation providers.



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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

2. The DRP should conduct the public outdoor recreation needs assessment funded by the 2000
   legislature, analyze the results and make that data available for public review.

3. The DRP should identify recreation providers who believe that the concept of an integrated
   recreation system has merit, and solicit their input on the specifics of how such a system
   could work.

Statewide Outdoor Recreation Atlas
It was suggested at the public meetings that there is a need for a single statewide outdoor
recreation atlas that would compile data from all public outdoor recreation providers into a single
document that would be available on an Internet website and in hard copy. This would represent
a significant undertaking at current staffing and funding levels, but would meet an important
public need as expressed by the workshop and focus group participants. It is recommended that
the Division of Recreation and Parks take the following initial steps toward producing the atlas.

1. DRP staff should identify which public recreation providers currently have recreation data in
   downloadable GIS files, and take steps to acquire that data.

2. DRP staff should acquire hard copy maps of data that is not currently available electronically
   and convert it to GIS format.

3. DRP staff should work with other public outdoor recreation providers to put a process in
   place to update the information on a routine basis.

                  RECOMMENDATIONS BY SPECIFIC ACTIVITY
In addition to the above, staff developed the following recommendations to meet needs for
specific selected recreation activities. Among other things, these recommendations are based on
national recreation trend data, observed changes in state recreation patterns and input from other
DEP divisions, state agencies, water management districts and local governments.

Trail Activities
For at least the last two decades, there has been a growing interest in trail-based activities on
both land and water-based trails. While nature trails, hiking trails and paddling trails have
dominated demand in the past, there is currently a great deal more interest in equestrian, biking
(both paved and unpaved), in-line skating, walking/jogging, cultural/heritage, and off-road
vehicle trails. There are localized and, in some cases, regional needs for each of these activities
in both urban and rural parts of the state. There is also a need to further connect cities and towns
to parks and other conservation lands via a network of single and multi-use trails. Meeting these
needs will require a coordinated approach involving recreation providers at all levels. It will
further require continued funding for acquisition of land and rights-of-way, and for construction
of trails and associated infrastructure.

Water-based Activities
Water is Florida’s most abundant resource and, not surprisingly, the most popular resource for
recreation. While Florida has sufficient fresh and saltwater resources to meet anticipated


                                           Chapter 6 - 9
                                                  OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

recreational needs, problems with access, water quality degradation, over-pumping of
groundwater, and the proliferation of invasive exotic flora and fauna limit the recreation potential
of many water bodies.

To address these problems, government at all levels should aim to maintain the State’s fresh and
saltwater resources in a fishable, swimmable condition through enforcement of water quality
regulations, education, technical assistance, improvement of aging or nonexistent storm water
and wastewater treatment systems, and site-specific lake and river restoration projects. A
particular problem that needs to be addressed is the degradation of Florida’s springs, a unique
and popular recreational resource. Nutrient pollution from a variety of sources is causing
harmful changes in water chemistry that must be addressed immediately if we are to maintain
Florida’s springs for public use and enjoyment.

As the state continues to grow, currently accessible beaches, rivers and lakes will become
inaccessible due to development. There is a need for government to ensure continued funding of
projects to acquire land or easements across private land to ensure the public’s continued access
to the waters of the State for recreation purposes. This is especially true in Florida’s most
urbanized coastal areas where there is high local demand for beach recreation.

Most Floridians get their drinking water from groundwater. In some of Florida’s most developed
areas, groundwater withdrawals, in combination with persistent drought conditions has resulted
in the loss of thousands of acres of wetlands, the elimination of formerly large and productive
lakes, and the reduction of spring flows. It is essential that Florida address its water consumption
dilemma and devise solutions that will meet needs for drinking water, agriculture, and industrial
use without harming the water dependent natural systems that support not only recreation, but
quality of life in general.

In many areas, even where water bodies are accessible, they are unusable due to the lack of
facilities. As previously noted, the regional level needs assessments in this plan are not capable
of identifying local needs. Nonetheless, it is well known that there is a need to fund
development of access facilities such as boat ramps, canoe launches, docks, catwalks and piers,
as well as support facilities such as bathhouses, restrooms, and parking areas. Federal, state and
local governments should work together to fund construction of these facilities in all areas where
there is insufficient access to water bodies suitable for recreation.

Finally, there is a need to increase existing efforts to control or eliminate invasive exotic species.
Hydrilla and water hyacynth are well known examples of plants that have rendered many water
bodies unusable for recreation, but there are many other species that pose equal threats. In
addition to funding control programs, there is a need for continued research into biological and
other control methods, and a need to expand public education programs to prevent the further
spread of these species.

Picnicking
Picnicking can take place in conjunction with another activity or by itself as a destination
activity. Local governments and the private sector can best provide for picnicking as a priority



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                                                 OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

activity. Federal, state and local governments should continue to provide for picnicking as a
support activity in conjunction with other uses of parks and recreation areas.

The existing supply of picnic tables is adequate to meet estimated needs at the regional and
statewide levels for the foreseeable future. Nonetheless, to the extent that picnic facilities are
required to provide basic access, comfort and convenience to users of public recreation areas,
they should be provided regardless of identified needs. Private developers should consider
providing picnic facilities in open space or play areas proposed for inclusion in subdivisions or
other residential construction. All suppliers should ensure adequate provision for solid waste
disposal at picnic facilities to maintain health standards and regulations.

Visiting Archaeological and Historical Sites
Florida has a rich and diverse supply of archaeological, historic and cultural resources that
currently provide recreation opportunities for residents and tourists. However, many such
resources remain undiscovered and are vulnerable to looters and unintentional destruction.
Encroaching development, natural deterioration and neglect threaten others. There is a pressing
need to identify, protect and interpret these resources to the public.

A number of ethnic groups played important roles in Florida’s history, roles that have been
largely unacknowledged. There is a need for additional research aimed at discovering these
contributions so that they may be interpreted to the public. There is also a need to identify and
protect structures and historic sites associated with Florida’s ethnic history.

Florida also has an interesting prehistoric past that can be interpreted for the recreational
enjoyment of residents and visitors. In the face of development pressure from a growing
population, there is a need to identify, preserve and interpret important paleontologic and
geologic sites.

Hunting
The development of agricultural land, the loss of native habitat to residential, commercial and
industrial development, and the effects of pollution continue to reduce the overall extent of
habitat capable of supporting native game species in Florida. Also, some large timber companies
that formerly allowed general public hunting on their lands are closing those lands to the public
and leasing them to hunt clubs. On the positive side, the acquisition of new public lands for game
management and hunter access programs has enabled populations of primary game species to
hold their own and, in some instances, increase their numbers. In spite of these efforts, however,
the net result in some parts of the state is a decline in the number of acres available for general
public hunting.

To preserve hunting traditions in Florida, it is necessary to identify and acquire lands for that
purpose. Action must also be taken to preserve habitat for both game and non-game species on
public and private lands whether or not they are open to hunting. Finally, it is necessary to
maintain public access to lands suitable for hunting, and to continue to regulate the harvest of
game species to ensure that populations are sustainable in the long-term.




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                                                OUTDOOR RECREATION IN FLORIDA 2000

A recent development affecting hunting is the removal of a number of large tracts of privately
owned land from public hunting. Some of these lands are now leased to hunt clubs or are being
planned for development. A challenge for the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission will
be to develop strategies to maintain adequate hunting land in the likely event that this trend
continues.

User-Oriented Recreation
User-oriented recreation demand is greatest in the urban areas of Florida, and increases in
proportion to the concentration of population. As with fire and police protection, sanitation and
other urban services, user-oriented outdoor recreation has primarily been the responsibility of
local governments and will largely remain so. Just as the state cannot single-handedly meet all
of the resource-based outdoor recreation needs in Florida, neither can local governments meet all
of the user-oriented needs. Therefore, a mutually supportive arrangement wherein the state and
local governments maintain their respective primary emphasis (resource-based and user-oriented
recreation respectively) is the most reasonable course of action. The Department of
Environmental Protection will continue to provide financial assistance to local governments from
its recreational grants programs to help meet local user-oriented needs. Local governments, on
the other hand, should continue to provide the bulk of user-oriented facilities.

The State will provide outdoor recreation planning information and technical assistance to local
governments for assessing public demand and need for user-oriented recreation resources and
facilities. In addition, the State will continue to assess broad regional needs for user-oriented
recreation as part of its ongoing outdoor recreation planning program. However, the more
detailed analyses and assessments of need for user-oriented facilities must be provided by local
governments themselves, since the factors influencing local demand for these types of facilities
are extremely complex and unique to each individual community. In cases where locally
identified needs exceed those published in this plan those needs should be considered as
applicable to the local jurisdiction and should supercede the State’s regional estimates. To assist
in identifying and prioritizing local needs, and to track local trends, the Department of
Environmental Protection should seek funding to periodically update the 1995 publication Local
Government Recreation and Park Department Facility Needs in the State of Florida. Future
updates of that report should be included in subsequent editions of the SCORP.




                                          Chapter 6 - 12
APPENDICES
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

        Appendix A-1: Specialized Terms
        Appendix A-2: Public Land Classifications
        Appendix A-3: Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation Activity Descriptions

Appendix A-1: Specialized Terms

ARCHEOLOGICAL RESOURCES - The physical evidence or remains of known historic or prehistoric
human life, activity or culture. Significant ruins, artifacts, inscriptions, structural and/or human remains
may be considered archeological resources.

BEACH - The zone of unconsolidated material that extends landward from the mean low water line to the
place where there is marked change in material or physiographic form, or to the line of permanent
vegetation, usually the effective limit of storm waves. "Beach," as used in the coastal management
element requirements, is limited to oceanic and estuarine shorelines.

BICYCLE AND PEDESTRIAN WAYS - Any road, path or way which is open to bicycle travel and
traffic afoot and from which motor vehicles are excluded.

BUFFER AREA - An area, or space, separating an outdoor recreation area from influences which would
tend to depreciate essential recreational values of the outdoor recreation area; needed especially in cases
such as wilderness areas, where the values involved are fragile or volatile, or where the outside influences
are of a particularly harsh and incompatible nature, as in urban or industrial areas, or along a busy
highway.

CARRYING CAPACITY - The amount of outdoor recreation which a given outdoor recreation area,
resource, or facility can actually accommodate or provide at any given time under existing conditions.

COMMUNITY PARK - A park located near major roadways, and designed to serve the needs of more
than one neighborhood.

COMPATIBLE OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITIES - Outdoor recreational activities conducted on
the same resource base without interfering with each other and which are not harmful to the environment.

COMPREHENSIVE PLAN - Plan that meets the requirements of s. 153.3177 and s. 163.3178, F.S., and
thus contains the guidelines, principles and standards for the orderly, coordinated and balanced future
economic, social, physical, environmental, and fiscal development of the area.

CONCURRENCY - The necessary public facilities and services to maintain the adopted level of service
standards are available when the impacts of development occur.

CONSERVATION AND RECREATION LANDS/(CARL) - Land acquisition program administered by
the DEP to acquire property from willing property owners to protect environmentally endangered lands
for state parks, forest, wildlife management areas, beaches and recreation areas which are sensitive due to
the presence of unique or rare habitats, endangered or threatened species or unique historical,
archaeological or geological features.

CONSERVATION USES - Activities or conditions within land areas designated for the purpose of
conserving or protecting natural resources or environmental quality, including areas designated for such
purposes as flood control, protection of quality or quantity of groundwater or surface water, floodplain

                                            Appendix A - 1
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

management, commercially or recreationally valuable fish and shellfish, or protection of vegetative
communities or wildlife habitats.

CULTURAL RESOURCES - Archaeological and historical sites and properties. The significance of
these resources is derived not only from individual artifacts but also from the spatial arrangement of the
artifacts in both horizontal and vertical planes.

DEMAND - See “OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND.”

DENSITY - An objective measurement of the number of people or residential units allowed per unit of
land, such as residents or employees per acre.

DEVELOPMENT - The act of physically altering an area, site, or resource to increase its ability or
capacity to serve outdoor recreation purposes. Also a representative result of such improvement.
Development usually implies improvement by degrees. It pertains primarily to the process of opening up,
landscaping, erecting structures and facilities, etc. It is a more comprehensive term than "improvement."

ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT - An integrated approach to the management of Florida’s green
infrastructure of native landscapes and communities recognizing the biological, physical and chemical
elements of discrete environments conducted through the use of tools such as planning, land acquisition,
environmental education, regulation and pollution prevention designed to maintain, protect, and improve
the state’s natural managed, and human communities.

ECOTOURISM - Tourism based principally upon natural and archaeological/historical resources; that
segment of tourism that involves traveling to relatively undisturbed or uncontaminated natural areas with
the specific object of admiring, studying and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals, as well
as any existing cultural features (both past and present) found in these areas.

EXTENSIVE USE - (As contrasted with "intensive use.") Use of an outdoor recreation area for outdoor
recreation activities which require a relatively high "land/man" ratio (large amount of resource per user
served; e.g. hunting, wilderness camping, etc.).

FLORIDA GREENWAYS AND TRAILS SYSTEM - Statewide system proposed to link natural areas,
open spaces and trails in Florida, consisting of large or medium-sized hubs, smaller sites, and extensive to
small connective landscape features.

FLORIDA SCENIC HIGHWAY - Any public road on the State Highway System that is so designated by
the Department of Transportation pursuant to Section 335.093, F.S.

FUNDING ASSISTANCE - The awarding of funds for assistance in financing the acquisition and
development of an outdoor recreation project.

        COST SHARING - The awarding of funds for financial assistance for the acquisition and
        development of an outdoor recreation project, which is matched in varying amounts by the
        project's sponsor.

        MATCHING BASIS - The awarding of funds for financial assistance in the acquisition and
        development of an outdoor recreation project which is matched equally by the project's sponsor.



                                           Appendix A - 2
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

GREENWAY - A linear open space established along either a natural corridor, such as a riverfront,
stream valley, or ridgeline, or over land along a railroad right-of-way converted to recreational use, a
canal, a scenic road, or other route; any natural or landscaped course for pedestrian or bicycle passage; an
open space connector linking parks, nature reserves, cultural features, or historic sites with each other and
populated areas; or a local strip or linear park designated as a parkway or greenbelt.

HABITAT FRAGMENTATION - Human activity such as agriculture, road building, and suburb and city
development, resulting in the creation of small isolated areas that are poorly suited to maintaining
ecological function and support smaller populations of remaining species. Two components of habitat
fragmentation, which may result in extinction, include the reduction in total habitat area, resulting in
reduction in population sizes, and redistribution of the remaining area into distinct fragments, affecting
dispersal and immigration rates.

HISTORIC RESOURCES - All areas, districts or sites containing properties listed on the Florida Master
Site File, the National Register of Historic Places, or designated by a local government as historically,
architecturally, or archaeologically significant.

INFRASTRUCTURE - Those man-made structures which serve the common needs of the population,
such as: sewage disposal systems; potable water systems; potable water wells serving a system; solid
waste disposal sites or retention areas; stormwater systems; utilities; piers; docks; wharves; breakwaters;
bulkheads; seawalls; bulwarks; revetments; causeways; marinas; navigation channels; bridges; and
roadways.

INTENSITY - An objective measurement of the extent to which land may be developed or used,
including the consumption or use of the space above, on or below ground; the measurement of the use of
or demand on natural resources; and the measurement of the use of or demand on facilities and services.

INTENSIVE USE - (As contrasted with "extensive use.") Use of an outdoor recreation area for outdoor
recreation activities which requires a relatively low "land/man" ratio, or small amount of resource per user
served; e.g. swimming, picnicking, sightseeing, etc.

LAND ACQUISITION - Obtaining land and related resources for public outdoor recreation by various
means.

LAND PURCHASE - The acquisition of land and related resources in which title to the property is
obtained by transaction involving payment to the grantor.

LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY - The study of native landscape structure, function, and change at the scale of
entire landscapes, as well as the application of the results to the design and management of both natural
and human-dominated areas.

LEVEL OF SERVICE - An indicator of the extent or degree of service provided by, or proposed to be
provided by a facility based on and related to the operational characteristics of the facility. Level of
service shall indicate the capacity per unit of demand for each public facility.

MANAGEMENT AREA - An area devoted to specialized management for either game (wildlife
management area) or sport fish (fish management area), and declared to be such by the Florida Game and
Fresh Water Fish Commission.



                                           Appendix A - 3
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

MARINE WETLANDS - Areas with a water regime determined primarily by tides and the dominant
vegetation is salt tolerant plant species including those species listed in Subsection 17-4.020(17), F.A.C.,
"Submerged Marine Species."

MITIGATION BANKING - Preserving, restoring, or enhancing wetland areas for the purpose of setting
them aside to compensate for future conversions of wetlands for development activities. A wetland bank
may be created when a government agency, a corporation, or a nonprofit organization undertakes such
activities under a formal agreement with a regulatory agency. The value of a bank is determined by
quantifying the wetland values restored or created in terms of “credits.”

MULTI-PURPOSE OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITY - (As contrasted to a "single purpose
facility.") an outdoor recreation facility which is designed for more than one activity use; e.g. athletic
field or racquetball/handball court.

MULTIPLE USE - A land management objective seeking to coordinate several environmental,
recreational, economic, historic, cultural and/or social values in the same geographic area in a compatible
and sustainable manner.

NEIGHBORHOOD PARK - A park which serves the population of a neighborhood and is generally
accessible by bicycle or pedestrian ways.

OPEN SPACE - Undeveloped lands suitable for some types of recreation activities or conservation uses.

OUTDOOR RECREATION - The pursuit of leisure-time activities which occur in an outdoor setting.
For clarification on types of outdoor recreation, see “resource-based outdoor recreation” and “user-
oriented outdoor recreation.”

OUTDOOR RECREATION ACTIVITY - A specific, individual type of outdoor recreation. Activities are
divided into two categories: active activities are those which involve some direct and specialized physical
manipulation by the participant such as swimming, hiking, boating, etc.; passive activities are those
which are more mental than physical, such as sightseeing, nature study, scenic appreciation, etc.

OUTDOOR RECREATION AREA - Generally, any expanse of real estate, of no particular size, used for
outdoor recreation. Used in the plural it is all-inclusive, although in specific usage it would be contrasted
with an "outdoor recreation site" by being larger and broader in purpose.

OUTDOOR RECREATION DEMAND - The quantity of outdoor recreation necessary to satisfy all
prospective participants during any given time period. Demand is not strictly a matter of desire, but
rather of desire tempered by such limiting factors as opportunity, awareness, financial ability, physical
ability, and competing uses of available time. Usually expressed in terms of user-occasions or resource
and facility requirements. Specific variations of this general concept used to quantify recreation
participation in this plan are as follows:

        COMBINED DEMAND - The sum of resident and tourist demand.

        DESIGN DEMAND - The level of demand occurring on an average peak-day (weekend or
        holiday), selected as the basis for designing an outdoor recreation system.

        LATENT DEMAND - That demand for goods or services which cannot be met because of a lack
        of market capacity to respond to that demand. In the context of park and recreation Level of

                                            Appendix A - 4
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

        Service (LOS) calculation, latent demand is the need for recreation facilities and activities which
        cannot be satisfied with the existing facility capacity.

        PEAK-DAY DEMAND - The greatest amount of outdoor recreation demand exerted on any
        single day (weekend or holiday) of the year.

        TOTAL DEMAND -The sum of the demand for all separate types of outdoor recreation.

OUTDOOR RECREATION FACILITIES - Those improvements or artificially installed accessories
which facilitate the use of an area or a resource for outdoor recreation. Facilities are divided into two
categories: primary facilities are those that are essential or extremely desirable for conducting a particular
outdoor recreation activity, such as launching ramps for boating, trails for cycling, roads for access to
areas, etc.; secondary facilities are those that are desirable as a further enhancement of the recreational
experience but are still dispensable, such as outdoor grills for picnicking and camping, docks for boating,
etc.

OUTDOOR RECREATION INVENTORY - The sum of all public and private outdoor recreation areas,
resources and facilities making up a complete outdoor recreation system. Also, the process of assembling
and cataloging information on such a system.

OUTDOOR RECREATION NEED - The amount by which outdoor recreation demand exceeds available
outdoor recreation supply in a given area. Used in the plural, "needs" usually refers to the actual
resources and facilities which comprise "need."

        RELATIVE NEED - The commensurable relationship among all outdoor recreation resource and
        facility needs. In this plan, it is compares the needs for any one region compare to the needs for
        all activities in all regions.

OUTDOOR RECREATION OPPORTUNITY - The availability of a preferred type of outdoor recreation
to a potential user or participant. Used in a collective sense, it refers to the total amount of potential
outdoor recreation available at any given time.

OUTDOOR RECREATION PLAN - An overall framework for the planning and provision of balanced
outdoor recreation opportunities for potential and actual users.

OUTDOOR RECREATION PROGRAM - An ongoing series of related and coordinated efforts designed
to further a common outdoor recreation purpose.

OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCE AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS - The total amount of
actual outdoor recreation resources and facilities necessary to supply a specified amount of outdoor
recreation demand at a given time.

OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCE AND FACILITY GUIDELINE - Hypothetical measures of
outdoor recreation opportunities expressed as park, resource or facility units which are intended to
represent conditions of use and optimum levels of supply for the individual user, a given population of
residents, or a specific service area within a city or county.

        USE GUIDELINE (OR USE STANDARD) - A hypothetical measure of use conditions for
        outdoor recreation resources and facilities; e.g. the number of hikers per unit of trail, the number
        of bathers per unit of beach, etc. Use guidelines are used to translate outdoor recreation supply

                                            Appendix A - 5
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

        (expressed in physical units of measure) into outdoor recreation demand (expressed in
        user-occasions).

        POPULATION GUIDELINE - An optimum ratio of a given quantity of resources and facilities to
        a hypothetical number of people; e.g. 1 tennis court per 2,000 population. Population guidelines
        are provided for both resource based and user oriented activities and are used primarily by local
        government and private development agencies.

        SITE GUIDELINE - An estimate of local park and recreation area acreage proposed for serving
        various specific service areas or particular populations residing within a given radius; e.g. 2 acres
        of neighborhood park per 1,000 population, serving not more than 5,000 people, and a population
        residing within 1/4 to 1/2 mile of the park.

OUTDOOR RECREATION RESOURCES - Those natural resources used for the support of outdoor
recreation, such as land, water, wildlife, natural scenery, etc. A special case is made where historical and
archaeological remains are concerned. Although not natural resources, they are included because of their
limited, non-renewable character.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SITE - An outdoor recreation area of relatively small size.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SUPPLIER - An agency, organization, group, or individual, either public or
private, with a broad area of responsibility for providing public outdoor recreation, distinguished on the
basis of both the nature of the supplier and the nature of the outdoor recreation supplied. Six categories
of outdoor recreation suppliers have been defined: federal and state government, county and municipal
government, private commercial enterprise, private non-profit, private club, and private uninventoried.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SUPPLY - The total amount of potential outdoor recreation afforded at any
given time by an outdoor recreation system.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SUPPLY CAPACITY - The amount of outdoor recreation which a given
outdoor recreation area, resource, facility, or site can accommodate or provide at any given time under a
specified measure of use conditions.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SUPPLY POTENTIAL - The amount of potential outdoor recreation
afforded in the future by any outdoor recreation system.

OUTDOOR RECREATION SYSTEM - A purposeful assemblage of physical units or elements made up
of recreation areas, resources, and facilities designed to meet the demands of a given segment of the
public.

OUTDOOR RECREATION USE - The involvement of outdoor recreation areas, resources, or facilities in
the purpose for which they were intended.

OUTDOOR RECREATION USER - One who uses outdoor recreation areas, resources, or facilities.

PARTICIPANT ACTIVITIES - Those outdoor recreation activities which involve direct participation,
either active (as in the case of swimming) or passive (as in the case of nature study), by the individual.
See "spectator activities."



                                            Appendix A - 6
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

PER CAPITA PARTICIPATION RATE - The rate at which a person participates in a particular outdoor
recreation activity, expressed in number of times per year.

PLAYGROUND - A recreation area with play apparatus.

PRIORITY - The ranking or order of precedence assigned to each project or need to establish its place
with respect to all others under consideration at any given time.

PRIVATE RECREATION SITES - Sites owned by private, commercial or non-profit entities available to
the public for purposes of recreational use.

PROJECTION - An extrapolation or extension of known data to derive comparable working data for
selected target dates.

PUBLIC ACCESS - The ability of the public to physically reach, enter or use recreation sites including
beaches and shores.

PUBLIC FACILITIES - Transportation systems or facilities, sewer systems or facilities, solid waste
systems or facilities, drainage systems or facilities, potable water systems or facilities, educational
systems or facilities, parks and recreation systems or facilities and public health systems or facilities.

PUBLIC LANDS - Any lands in the state which are owned by, leased by, or otherwise assigned to the
state or any of its agencies and which are used by the general public for recreational purposes.

PUBLIC RECREATION SITES - Sites owned or leased on a long-term basis by a federal, state, regional
or local government agency for purposes of recreational use.

RECREATION - The infinite variety of activities which people elect to occupy their leisure time and
satisfy their need for diversion.

REGIONAL PARK - A park which is designed to serve two or more communities.

RESOURCE-BASED OUTDOOR RECREATION - Outdoor recreation of types dependent on certain
specific outdoor recreation resources, contrasted with "user-oriented" outdoor recreation. For this plan,
these activities include saltwater beach activities, bicycle riding, boating, camping, fishing, hiking,
horseback riding, hunting, nature study, off-highway picnicking, freshwater swimming, visiting
archaeological and historical sites.

RESOURCE (FACILITY) REQUIREMENTS - The total amount of outdoor recreation resources
(facilities) necessary to accommodate the total outdoor recreation demand at any given time.

RESOURCE TYPE - A class of outdoor recreation resource which can be specifically identified, such as
a freshwater lake, an ocean beach, a hardwood forest, etc.

RURAL AREAS - Low density areas characterized by social, economic and institutional activities which
may be largely based on agricultural uses or the extraction of natural resources in unprocessed form, or
areas containing large proportions of undeveloped, unimproved, or low density property.

SERVICE AREA - The surrounding land area from which an outdoor recreation resource, area, site, or
facility draws its participants.

                                            Appendix A - 7
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000


SHORELINE OR SHORE - The interface of land and water and, as used in the coastal management
element requirements, is limited to oceanic and estuarine interfaces.

SINGLE-PURPOSE FACILITY - (As contrasted to "multi-purpose.") A specialized type of outdoor
recreation facility which is designed for one recreational activity; e.g. tennis court.

SPECTATOR ACTIVITIES - Those outdoor recreation activities which are carried on primarily for the
visual benefit of others rather than for the direct enjoyment of the active participants. These are activities
such as stadium sports, horse races, etc.

STAKEHOLDER - Group or individual who can affect, or is affected by, the achievement of the
organization or program’s mission; examples include managers, employees, policy makers, suppliers,
vendors, citizens, and community groups.

STEWARDSHIP - Sense of responsibility for, desire to participate in, or taking charge of the protection
and management of land and water resources.

SUITABILITY - The degree to which the existing characteristics and limitations of land and water are
compatible with a proposed use or development.

SYSTEMS PLANNING - The process of assessing the park, recreation, open space and greenway facility
needs of a community and translating that information into a framework for meeting the physical, spatial
and facility requirements to satisfy those needs.

TRAIL - Linear corridor and any adjacent support parcels on land or water providing public access for
recreation or authorized alternative modes of transportation. (Ch. 260.013 (1), F.S.)
         Trail Types:
         Hiking: Path used solely for backpacking or long distance hiking
         Bicycle: Designated trail or system of trails used primarily for bicycling
         Interpretative/Nature: Trail designed or marked for nature interpretation and study
         Horseback: Improved or unimproved trail designated and used primarily for horseback riding
         Canoe: Distance along most commonly used route on a designated or undesignated waterway
         used for canoeing.
         Exercise/Parcours: Course designed generally for jogging, but which may or may not have
         exercise stations.
         Multipurpose, Multi-use or Shared: Trail used for more than one of the above activities.

URBAN AREA - An area of or for development characterized by social, economic and institutional
activities which are predominantly based on the manufacture, production, distribution, or provision of
goods and services in a setting which typically includes residential and nonresidential development uses
other than those which are characteristic of rural areas.

URBAN SPRAWL - Urban development or uses which are located in predominantly rural areas, or rural
areas interspersed with generally low- intensity or low-density urban uses, and which are characterized by
one or more of the following conditions: (a) The premature or poorly planned conversion of rural land to
other uses; (b) The creation of areas of urban development or uses which are not functionally related to
land uses which predominate the adjacent area; or (c) The creation of areas of urban development or uses
which fail to maximize the use of existing public facilities or the use of areas within which public services
are currently provided. Urban sprawl is typically manifested in one or more of the following land use or

                                            Appendix A - 8
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

development patterns: Leapfrog or scattered development; ribbon or strip commercial or other
development; or large expanses of predominantly low-intensity, low-density, or single-use development.

USER-OCCASION - One instance of participation in a single outdoor recreation activity by one person.
Commonly used as the basis unit of measure for outdoor recreation demand.

USER-ORIENTED OUTDOOR RECREATION - Outdoor recreation of types that can be placed at the
convenience of the user to take advantage of proximity to population centers. For this plan, these
activities include golf, tennis, baseball/softball, football/soccer, handball/racquetball, shuffleboard,
basketball, volleyball and outdoor pool swimming. Land areas for space is usually the only consideration
dealing with the natural resource base. Some types of outdoor recreation may be either "user-oriented" or
"resource-based" depending on the setting they utilize and the conjunctive values involved, as with the
case of swimming, bicycling, picnicking, camping, etc.

USER-PREFERENCE - The exercise of choice of outdoor recreation activities by a potential participant.
The total impact of user-preference is the determination of activity distribution in outdoor recreation
demand.

USER-SATISFACTION - The measure of the extent to which an outdoor recreation experience satisfies
the desires of the participant. Also sometimes user-enjoyment.

WETLANDS - Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground water at a frequency and
a duration sufficient to support, and [that] under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of
vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils. Soils present in wetlands generally are classified as
hydric or alluvial, or possess characteristics that are associated with reducing soil conditions. The
prevalent vegetation in wetlands generally consists of facultative or obligate hydrophytic macrophytes
that are typically adapted to areas having soil conditions described above. Florida wetlands generally
include swamps, marshes, bayheads, bogs, cypress domes and strands, sloughs, wet prairies, riverine
swamps and marshes, hydric seepage slopes, tidal marshes, mangrove swamps and other similar areas
(Section 62-340.200 (19), F.A.C.).

WILDERNESS - An undeveloped area of land which has essentially retained its primeval character and
influence without permanent alteration.

WILDLIFE - Animals such as birds, fish, insects, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles that are living in
natural or wild environments. Wildlife does not include animals living in aquariums, zoos, and other
artificial surroundings, or domestic such as farm animals or pets.




                                            Appendix A - 9
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

Appendix A-2: Public Land Classifications

Each land managing agency has a classification system for management of public lands. Classifying sites
in this way is a management technique designed to make the sites serve the public recreation purposes
which are in greatest demand and for which the properties themselves are best suited. In striving for such
an objective, some compromise is inevitable. Simultaneous use and protection of the resources of any
given site are not fully compatible. Any use of the site diminishes the quality of the resources to some
extent, while any resource protective measure will similarly reduce the amount of use possible. The
intent is to seek a proper balance between the types and amount of use the site may receive and the degree
of protective management required to insure the long-term maintenance of the resources which support
that use. Classifying each site appropriately is the first major step toward achieving that desired use
protection balance.
Following are descriptions of management classifications implemented by the Department of
Environmental Protection, Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission, National Park Service,
United States Fish and Wildlife Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the
United State Forest Service.

Florida State Park System

Florida's state park system is made up of many diverse areas, held together by only one universally
common trait--the ability to provide public recreational opportunity of one type or another. Traditionally,
these various areas have been grouped loosely into only two categories: parks and historic memorials.
Any area without a distinct historical association was, by default, called a state park, and often this
broader term was applied indiscriminately to all properties under the jurisdiction of the state parks
agency.

Since 1963, the Division has considerably broadened the scope of its responsibilities in the recreation
field. Instead of providing only state parks in the classic sense, the State now fully recognizes the need to
afford other types of legitimate public recreational opportunities and is actively seeking additional lands
for this purpose. Along with the change in program philosophy and scope, however, it has become
urgently necessary to take an equally refined and sophisticated approach to the management of public
recreational land assets--hence the need for a modern, serviceable classification system.

State Parks
State parks are relatively spacious areas established primarily to preserve and maintain a natural setting of
exceptional quality, while at the same time permitting a full program of compatible recreational activities,
both active and passive. To qualify as a state park, an area must have exceptional natural attributes of
statewide or at least broad regional significance. It must have some special quality that will attract
visitors to it, as their destination point from long distances, in spite of closer and more conveniently
located recreation areas.

State Recreation Areas
State recreation areas are sites which are provided to meet the more active recreation needs for the public
in at least a multi-county service area. A recreation area need be of no particular size nor have any set
combination of physical attributes. It is preferably located convenient to its primary using public and is
selected so as to insure the availability of the types of recreational resources most needed in its locality.
Normally, much more intensive use is permitted in a state recreation area than in a state park, although
certain included areas of exceptional natural value may be set aside for special protective management.

State Special Feature Sites

                                           Appendix A - 10
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

A "special feature", for the present purpose, is a discrete and well-defined object or condition which
attracts public interest and provides recreational enjoyment through visitation, observation, and study.
Hence, a state special feature site is an area which contains such a feature, and which is set aside for
controlled public enjoyment. Special feature sites for the most part are either historical or archaeological
by type, but they may also have a geological, botanical, zoological, or other basis. As the features
themselves are usually small in size, so are the sites which contain them, but they may be as large as
necessary to accomplish the purpose. State special feature sites must be of unusual or exceptional
character, or have a statewide or broad regional significance.

State Preserves
A preserve is an area set aside essentially to maintain objects or conditions existing thereon. A state
preserve in the recreation and parks system is thus an area designed to perpetuate certain exceptional
objects or conditions which provide a type of recreational experience which would not be possible
otherwise. Usually, a state preserve is rather large and expansive, and may in some cases contrast with
special feature sites purely on the basis of size. Generally, a preserve is designed to save representative
samples, of variable size, of natural conditions characteristic of Florida.

State Ornamental Gardens
Ornamental gardens are sites which have been intensively landscaped, usually in a formal manner, to
provide aesthetic enjoyment. Such gardens differ from state parks, special feature sites, and preserves in
that their primary recreational attributes are artificially created. Size is immaterial, but the quality of the
gardens must be such that they attract visitors from a broad area. The development of ornamental gardens
as a primary entity is not considered a responsibility of the recreation and parks system, although several
such areas have been accepted through donations and are maintained generally in accordance with their
original concepts.

State Museums
State museums, as a separate class, are interpretive facilities which relate to natural, historical, cultural, or
other such interests important to the general locality but not specifically to the exact sites on which the
museums are located. In this major respect they differ from museums which interpret the intrinsic values
of specific sites, and which are usually provided as adjuncts of special feature sites. In other words, for a
"state museum" it is the museum itself--and not the site where it is located--which is significant. Because
it bears no essential relationship to its site, the state museum may be located on any convenient and
suitable site within the general area of interest. Such area of interest may vary from a neighborhood or
small community to the state as a whole. The site physically supporting the state museum may be of any
reasonable size, but should be appropriately adapted to the need and purpose.

Florida State Forest System

The Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services has operated state forests under the
guidance of the Division of Forestry for more than 60 years.

State Forest
The Division of Forestry manages state forests to protect and maintain the biological diversity of the
many ecosystems found in and around the state forests while integrating public use of the resources.
Through sound forest management practices, the Division of Forestry maintains the integrity of the forest
environment while providing for the state's future natural resource needs. In addition, state forests offer
recreational activities such as camping, swimming, hiking, picnicking, horseback riding, fishing and
nature study. The Division permits hunting on most of the larger state forests and is regulated jointly with
the Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission as part of the state's wildlife management area

                                            Appendix A - 11
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

programs.

Florida Coastal and Aquatic Preserve System

Aquatic Preserve
Aquatic preserves were established for the purpose of being preserved in an essentially natural or existing
condition so that their aesthetic, biological and scientific values may endure for the enjoyment of future
generations. Chapter 18-20 of the Florida Administrative Code identifies eight goals for the
administration and management of aquatic preserves. The general intent of those goals is to balance the
traditional recreational uses, such as boating, fishing and swimming, of the waters within aquatic preserve
boundaries with the protection and preservation of the indigenous life forms and habitats.

Buffer Preserve
Buffer Preserves are publicly owned upland sites adjacent to aquatic preserves that help protect the
submerged resources. State buffer preserves are managed primarily to buffer the impacts from stormwater
runoff and coastal development to aquatic preserves, although the management of endangered species and
habitat diversity in both the upland and aquatic sites is equally important. Buffer preserves are managed
to provide public access and education, to protect archaeological and historical resources, to protect and
topreserve natural species and natural communities, and to restore natural communities.

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission

The Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission manages four types of units that provide various
levels of outdoor recreation access.

Wildlife Management Area (WMA)
An area of private or public ownership established for the management of wildlife or freshwater fish on
which hunting, fishing or other outdoor recreation may be permitted only at such times and under such
regulations as are specifically provided for each individual area.

Type I Wildlife Management Area (WMA)
Such an area upon which the users are subject to the management area stamp requirements of Chapter
372.57(5)(b), F.S.

Type II Wildlife Management Area (WMA)
Such an area upon which users are subject to the requirment of a written authorization of the landowner.

Wildlife and Environmental Area (WEA)
Endangered or environmentally unique habitats which shall have as their primary management objective
the protection and conservation of their endangered or unique resources. Outdoor recreation will be
specifically provided for in regulations established for each area when such use does not conflict with the
primary management objectives.

Fish Management Area (FMA)
A fish management area is a pond, lake or other body of water established for the management of
freshwater fish. The Commission cooperatively manages these areas with the local county governments.
Public fishing and other outdoor recreation activities may be permitted. In many areas, the Commission or
local government stocks these lakes with channel catfish, largemouth bass and sunshine bass.

Mitigation Parks

                                          Appendix A - 12
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

In response to some of the problems associated with "on-site" mitigation, the Commission authorized the
development and implementation of the Mitigation Park Program as an alternative wildlife mitigation
strategy. The goal of this program is to provide development interests with a biologically defensible
offsite alternative for resolving certain wildlife resource conflicts. In practice, this program consolidates
mitigation throughout a geographical region and directs these efforts towards the acquisition of a large
and manageable Mitigation Park. Each park is publicly owned and ranges in size between 350 and 2,000
acres. Management activities are tailored to emphasize the protection and enhancement of habitat
important to upland listed wildlife.
In general, the program is able to increase the biological effectiveness of mitigation while minimizing
economic costs to the development community. More specifically, it (1) provides an opportunity to direct
wildlife habitat protection and acquisition efforts to the most biologically important sites in a region; (2)
can consolidate many otherwise small and isolated protection efforts into larger units which maximizes
resource protection efforts; (3) allows public access and use to mitigation lands that are managed by the
state for the long term protection of wildlife resources; and (4) from an economic perspective, use of
mitigation parks is a cheaper form of mitigation than preserving acreage within a development, and
developers retain greater use of a project site for development.

National Park Service

National Park System includes numerous designations and sites, and the authorizing Congressional
legislation or the president creates all designations and names. The president has the authority to
proclaim "national monuments” under the Antiquities Act of 1906. Many names are descriptive, such as
lakeshores, seashores, battlefields, but others cannot be neatly categorized because of the diversity of
resources within them. In 1970, Congress elaborated on the 1916 National Park Service Organic Act, and
declared that all units of the system have equal legal standing in a national system.

National Park
These are generally large natural places with a wide variety of attributes, at times including significant
historical assets. Hunting, mining and consumptive activities are not authorized.

National Monument
The Antiquities Act of 1906 authorized the President to declare by public proclamation landmarks,
structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest situated on lands owned or controlled by the
government to be national monuments.

National Preserve
National preserves are areas having characteristics associated with national parks, but in which Congress
has permitted continued public hunting, trapping, oil/gas exploration and extraction. Many existing
national preserves, without sport hunting, would qualify for national park designation.

National Historic Site
Usually, a national historic site contains a single historical feature that was directly associated with its
subject. Derived from the Historic Sites Act of 1935, a number of historic sites were established by
secretaries of the Interior, but most have been authorized by acts of Congress.

National Historic Park
This designation generally applies to historic parks that extend beyond single properties or buildings.

National Memorial


                                            Appendix A - 13
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

A national memorial is commemorative of a historic person or episode; it need not occupy a site
historically connected with its subject.

National Battlefield
This general title includes national battlefield, national battlefield park, national battlefield site, and
national military park. In 1958, an NPS committee recommended national battlefield as the single title for
all such park lands.

National Cemetery
There are presently 14 national cemeteries in the National Park System, all of which are administered in
conjunction with an associated unit and are not accounted for separately.

National Recreation Area
Twelve NRAs in the system are centered on large reservoirs and emphasize water-based recreation. Five
other NRAs are located near major population centers. Such urban parks combine scarce open spaces with
the preservation of significant historic resources and important natural areas in locations that can provide
outdoor recreation for large numbers of people.

National Seashore
Ten national seashores have been established on the Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific coasts; some are developed
and some relatively primitive. Hunting is allowed at many of these sites.

National Lakeshore
National lakeshores, all on the Great Lakes, closely parallel the seashores in character and use.

National River
There are several variations to this category: national river and recreation area, national scenic river, wild
river, etc. The first was authorized in 1964 and others were established following passage of the Wild and
Scenic Rivers Act of 1968.

National Parkway
The title parkway refers to a roadway and the parkland paralleling the roadway. All were intended for
scenic motoring along a protected corridor and often connect cultural sites.

National Trail
National scenic trails and national historic trails are the titles given to these linear parklands (over 3,600
miles) authorized under the National Trails System Act of 1968.

Affiliated Areas
In an Act of August 18, 1970, the National Park System was defined in law as, "any area of land and
water now or hereafter administered by the Secretary of the Interior through the National Park Service for
park, monument, historic, parkway, recreational or other purposes." The Affiliated Areas comprise a
variety of locations in the United States and Canada that preserve significant properties outside the
National Park System. Some of these have been recognized by Acts of Congress and others have been
designated national historic sites by the Secretary of the Interior under authority of the Historic Sites Act
of 1935. All draw on technical or financial aid from the National Park Service.

Other Designations
Some units of the National Park System bear unique titles or combinations of titles, like the White House
and Prince William Forest Park.

                                            Appendix A - 14
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000


United States Fish and Wildlife Service

National Wildlife Refuge
The purpose of a National Wildlife Refuge is to "preserve a national network of lands and waters for the
conservation and management of the fish, wildlife and plants of the United States for the benefit of
present and future generations." As long as the goal of wildlife conservation is not compromised, other
uses may be a part of the refuge formula. Nature study, hunting, fishing, canoeing, hiking, and other
nature based activities are permitted in wildlife refuges when compatible with the natural resources.

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

National Marine Sanctuary
Under Title III of the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act of 1972, as amended, the United
States Congress authorizes the designation of discrete areas of the marine environment as National
Marine Sanctuaries to protect distinctive natural and cultural resources whose protection and beneficial
use requires comprehensive planning and management. The mission of the National Marine Sanctuary
Program is to identify, designate and manage areas of the marine environment of special national
significance due to their conservation, recreational, ecological, historical, research, educational, or
aesthetic qualities. The goals of the National Marine Sanctuary Program are to provide enhanced resource
protection through conservation and management of the Sanctuaries that complements existing regulatory
authorities; to support, promote, and coordinate scientific research on, and monitoring of, the site-specific
marine resources of the Sanctuaries; to enhance public awareness, understanding, appreciation, and wise
use of the marine environment; and to facilitate, to the extent compatible with the primary objective of
resource protection, multiple uses of the National Marine Sanctuaries.

National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR)
National Estuarine Research Reserves are a protected areas network of federal, state, and local
partnerships. The estuary reserves represent the wide range of coastal and estuarine habitats found in the
United States and its territories. Through linked programs of stewardship, education and research, the
NERRS enhance informed management and scientific understanding of the Nation's estuarine and coastal
habitats. The reserves serve as classrooms where the effects of both natural and human activities can be
monitored and studied.

United States Forest Service

National Forest
National forests are large areas of protected open space that are managed for multiple use. The uses
permitted in a national forest include consumptive agriculture and hunting recreation, as well as non-
consumptive outdoor recreation activities. Some of the non-consumptive activities available in a national
forest include backpacking in remote, unroaded wilderness areas, mastering an all-terrain vehicle over a
designated trail, enjoying the views along a scenic byway, or fishing in a trout stream.

Appendix A-3: Resource-Based Outdoor Recreation Activity Descriptions

This appendix provides definitions for the following 14 recreation categories.

Bicycle riding                         Horseback riding
Boating                                Hunting
Camping                                Nature study

                                           Appendix A - 15
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

Fishing                               Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) Riding
Freshwater swimming                   Picnicking
Horseback riding                      Saltwater beach activities
Hiking                                Visiting archaeological and historical
                                      sites

Bicycle Riding

Bicycling is an activity that can be enjoyed individually or in groups, and a bicycling experience can be
varied to suit any set of circumstances. For a large percentage of the participants, bicycling provides a
means of economical transportation, healthful exercise, energy conservation, and in some cases, even
competitive sport. There is a growing number of bicyclists who use the bicycle as a means of seeking out
the scenic, educational and spiritual values of the outdoors and as an alternative means for reaching
outdoor recreational destinations. It is this group with which the state outdoor recreation program is
primarily concerned.

In the type of overall outdoor recreational experience it provides, bicycling is much like hiking,
horseback riding and canoeing. It is what is absorbed along the way, complementing the physical activity
itself, that is of utmost importance. For this reason, care must be used in selecting and developing
bikeways. A statewide system of properly marked and mapped, paved and un-paved recreational
bikeways is an important part of the State outdoor recreation program. Complementing this, local
governments should take the initiative in providing organized bicycling programs and in making available
appropriate bikeway facilities of their own. Bicycle facilities should include safe parking structures, bike
lanes on roadways, paved and unpaved paths and trails separate from roadways; and trailheads that
include automobile and bicycle parking, restrooms, and maps.

Boating

Although they differ greatly from each other in many respects, all forms of boating are included in this
outdoor recreation category. All of them have their basic similarity in the fact that they require water
surface as their principal supporting resource.

Florida offers almost ideal boating conditions. Navigable waters are abundant, ranging widely in size and
character. Virtually unlimited expanses of coastal and deep sea waters are provided by the Atlantic Ocean
and the Gulf of Mexico, and numerous intracoastal and inland water bodies exist throughout the state.

Powerboating is probably the most popular form of boating in Florida. Powerboats range from simple
outboard runabouts to large luxury cruisers. During the last decade, sales and registration of personal
watercraft (commonly referred to as “jet skis”) and air boats have significantly increased. Usually a
launching ramp and a parking area for vehicles and trailers constitute the basic access needs for
powerboating. To expand the opportunities for recreational boating, however, more sophisticated
improvements are necessary: docking facilities, marina services, channel dredging, and aids to navigation
such as charts and guide maps, channel markers.

Sailing and paddling as yet do not compare in popularity with powerboating, but each has its own devoted
and growing group of participants, particularly as scarce energy resources and the cost of motor fuels
begin to take their toll. Many large sailing rigs merely use Florida as a home port and do most of their
cruising on the open seas. Smaller sailboats are confined primarily to more sheltered waters closer to
shore, and sailing on interior freshwater lakes is becoming increasingly more common. Paddling also is
pursued in the more sheltered water areas, and Florida's numerous streams and chains of lakes offer

                                          Appendix A - 16
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

exceptional opportunities for short and long-distance trips. Historically, land managers believed that
canoes and kayaks required very little in the way of improvements or supporting facilities. Increasing
shoreline development coupled with an increasing interest in canoeing and kayaking have triggered a
need for designated launching facilities adjacent parking and restrooms. Additionally, land managers
should designate campsites adjacent to paddling trails for long-distance paddlers.

The state outdoor recreation program has given a great deal of attention to boating. The basic resource,
water surface area, is relatively fixed in quantity and location, but it has been enhanced in many respects.
More access and service facilities have been provided and new inter-connected waterway systems
developed. New use regulation measures will be inevitable to provide for safety and maximum enjoyment
from the boating experience. Both areal and temporal zoning of certain water bodies may become
necessary to permit full enjoyment by basically incompatible types of boating, such as airboating and
canoeing. Through proper planning, this important activity can be well served by Florida's extensive
surface water resources.

Camping

For planning purposes, camping is regarded here as an activity in which the true outdoor experience is
more important than just passing the night. In this sense, two types of camping may be
identified--recreational vehicle/trailer camping and tent camping. Both types of camping involve the use
of designated sites. Because of the fixed nature of these sites, many different kinds of facilities and
services can be, and usually are, made available: hard surface trailer camps, tent mounds, water,
electricity, sanitary facilities, outdoor stoves, picnic tables, and an unlimited variety of others.

In this plan, tent camping refers to the sites in campgrounds that cannot accommodate a recreational
vehicle - often these sites do not have electricity Tents are used, however, in primitive camping. Primitive
camping is also known as backcountry camping. This type of camping does not rely upon any formal
facilities. Often, primitive camping is an adjunct of other outdoor recreation activities such as hunting,
fishing, hiking, horseback riding, off-road bicycling, and nature study. Generally, the participants prefer a
more remote outdoor experience than their designated-site counterparts. To provide opportunity remote
primitive camping, an outdoor area of suitable size and means of access are all that are basically
necessary.

An adequate program for camping as a true outdoor recreation experience must include a balanced
statewide system of both designated campgrounds and primitive camping areas that considers the range of
camping experiences between RV campers and tent/primitive campers. To meet this need, the resources
of major parks and multi-purpose outdoor recreation areas must be utilized, and in some instances,
campgrounds as single-purpose facilities may be justified. As providers of recreational camping
opportunities in Florida, public and private interests each have a significant role to play.

Fishing

Fishing ranges from the conventional methods such as rod and reel casting to some highly specialized
forms such as castnetting, spearfishing, floundering, crabbing, and gathering oysters and other shellfish.
Virtually everyone can participate in sport fishing of some sort. While there is a vast range between cane
pole fishing in a roadside canal and trolling for marlin in the Gulf Stream, fishing in general is universally
available to and enjoyed by all.




                                           Appendix A - 17
                                         Appendix A
                  Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                        SCORP 2000

Florida provides a great abundance of water resources, both freshwater and saltwater, for recreational or
sport fishing, and the ready access from any point within the state places almost unlimited fishing
opportunity before all who desire to participate.

Freshwater Swimming

To be resource-based outdoor recreation, freshwater swimming must be carried on in essentially natural
waters, and the participant must be in the water and not dependent upon an external source of locomotion.
An artificial water body created through the impoundment of a natural water supply in a largely
unimproved basin could be classed within the definition of swimming intended here.

It is possible to identify two principal types of swimming in Florida in terms of the recreational resource
needed in each case. The first type is still-water swimming and almost any sheltered body of water in
Florida is suitable for this purpose. The second type is underwater swimming, such as is engaged in while
skin diving and SCUBA diving. In this case, the deep springs, sinkholes, coral reefs and other areas of
underwater interest provide the primary resource.

Countless bays, lakes, springs and reservoirs provide almost unlimited still-water swimming
opportunities. The quality of Florida's springs and underwater caverns for skin diving is nationally
known. Added to the abundance and variety of resources, climatic conditions in Florida are highly
favorable for freshwater swimming. Temperatures permit participation throughout most of the state. As a
result of these conducive circumstances, freshwater swimming is a highly popular outdoor recreation
activity in Florida. Participation can be as active as the individual prefers, thus, age and physical ability
are not particularly limiting factors. Although small user fees are normally charged for most designated
swimming areas, the cost of the activity is still negligible with the exception being in such cases as scuba
diving, where a considerable investment in equipment may be necessary.

With the natural abundance of suitable resources, the primary concern of Florida's outdoor recreation
program in creating sufficient public swimming opportunities is to acquire needed water access areas
without delay. Waterfront property is in great demand for residential and other uses, and the cost of such
lands is accordingly very high. Considerable development is also necessary to support recreational
swimming, including the construction of bathhouses, rest rooms, parking lots and related facilities. As a
parallel effort, water quality regulation also should be vigorously enforced to keep the swimming waters
of the state free of pollutants and other noxious matter.

Hiking

Hiking is simply defined as walking in the outdoors though it can vary considerably in concept according
to the participant. Hiking has increased in popularity in recent years and the trend indicates further
increase. The recreational satisfaction is derived not so much from the walking itself but from the sights
encountered along the way and the general experience of being outdoors.

There are countless opportunities available on both public and private lands which enhance an already
satisfying outdoor recreational experience through the provision of well-planned hiking facilities. These
consist primarily of trails, carefully laid out and marked, which take advantage of scenery, interesting
terrain, and points of natural or historic significance. Trail maps and interpretive devices along the way
help the hiker understand the countryside and derive maximum enjoyment from the experience. Rest
facilities and picnic and camp sites along the way are also desirable on longer trails.

Horseback Riding

                                           Appendix A - 18
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000


As a resource-based recreation activity, horseback riding involves the riding of horses in casual outdoor
surroundings. In this respect it may be contrasted with the formal or specialized types of horseback riding
usually associated with horse shows, rodeos, horse racing, and other forms of equestrian recreation. In the
present sense, horseback riding may vary considerably in degree, from a simple turn around a
neighborhood bridle path to a prolonged trek through the back-country. Florida conditions are generally
favorable to horseback riding as an outdoor recreation activity, although relatively little effort has been
made to provide for this activity as a part of public outdoor recreation programs. Much of the present
participation takes place on farms and other privately owned lands, although public land managers are
coordinating with local equestrians to develop equestrian trails, campsites, and trailer parking on public
lands. Commercial facilities, offering rental horses and bridle paths or riding areas, also account for much
of the participation, even through the dude ranch concept popular in other parts of the country is largely
lacking in Florida. In many instances, horseback riding facilities and programmed activities have been
provided through equestrian clubs and organizations.

Although horseback riding as defined here requires no great amount of skill, it still is not an outdoor
recreation activity in which the general public can readily participate. The expense of either owning or
renting a horse is relatively high, and the physical problems of maintaining horses are such that certain
location restrictions result. It is difficult, for instance, to stable horses in highly urbanized areas or in
small public parks. Negative community attitudes and unfamiliarity are also limiting factors. These
factors pose special problems for urban dwellers who enjoy the activity or desire to undertake it. To a
great extent, horseback riding participation trends will be influenced by the opportunities made available
through public programs. It is not likely that the horses themselves can be provided in quantity, but
facilities such as trails, underpasses at major highways, and various rider conveniences can be installed
through public efforts for those who own horses and seek new riding experiences.

Hunting

Hunting in its various aspects is probably one of the oldest forms of outdoor recreation known to man. In
its basic concept of stalking and taking game animals for sport, it has changed little through the years.

Although declining, hunting opportunity is still relatively plentiful throughout most of Florida. Habitat
conditions have actually improved in some cases incident to land development and use, and this,
combined with carefully practiced wildlife management, has resulted in increased populations of some
major game species. Waterfowl, unfortunately, have suffered greatly from rapid drainage and reclamation
of wetland areas, not only in Florida but at many other places in their nesting areas along their migration
routes.

From the resource standpoint, hunting is the most demanding of all outdoor recreation activities. It
generally requires extensive land areas to support sustainable game population and to provide for the
safety of the hunters. The tremendous land requirements impose certain geographical limitations on
hunting activity. A further complication is introduced by the posting of much private land against public
hunting. Depending on the sophistication of the hunter and the degree of success desired, it may be
necessary to travel considerable distances to suitable public hunting areas.

To adequately provide for public hunting, the outdoor recreation program must strive to keep game
populations at maximum levels through intensive management and vigorous law enforcement.
Fortunately, Florida has established a highly successful system of public game management areas.
Cooperative private hunting preserves and commercially operated hunting areas are other possibilities for


                                           Appendix A - 19
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

meeting a part of the future demand, and these will probably become more common as the limitations on
general public hunting continue.

Nature Study

The studious observation and appreciation of the natural landscape in its various aspects is called nature
study. Bird watching is probably the classic example of nature study. Other participants in nature study
activity may be interested in various forms of wildlife, plants, rocks or minerals. One of the principal
advantages of nature study as an outdoor recreation activity is its basic simplicity and informality.
Anyone with sufficient interest, whether motivated by scientific, artistic, philosophical, or other reasons,
can participate. No special equipment is necessary, although such items as binoculars and cameras are
frequently employed, and other limitations are minor. While abundant opportunities for nature study are
available at every hand, for the more serious and sophisticated students it may be desirable to travel
considerable distances and across difficult terrain to gain access to natural features of particular interest.

Program measures in support of nature study must consist primarily of setting aside suitable areas as
nature preserves. These preserves should be designed to provide variety and quality representative of the
entire state. They should also be large enough to effectively buffer the desired natural conditions from
unnatural outdoor influences. Because much of the state serves informally as a resource for nature study,
protective measures must be general and far-reaching rather than confined solely to areas set aside under
public management. For the less well-initiated, it is highly desirable to incorporate in outdoor recreation
programs, at all levels, provisions for interpretation of natural phenomena and education in nature
appreciation.

Off Highway Vehicle (OHV) Riding

An off-highway vehicle is any mechanical propelled vehicle used off the roads or highways of this state
for recreational purposes, including trail bikes, all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), and conventional motor
vehicles when used off-highway for recreation. Off highway vehicles (OHVs) provide a popular
alternative for Floridians and visitors alike to enjoy Florida’s trails and natural areas throughout the state.
Florida’s land offers a variety of opportunities for all skill levels.

Most OHV riders travel the forests seeking the same general experience as other trail users, such as off-
road bicyclists and equestrians. The main difference is the combination of enjoying the great outdoors
with the use of a motorized OHV. OHVs can add many enjoyable miles on a trail, and trails provide
opportunities for a wide variety of outdoor recreation activities. A spirit of compromise from all sides is a
key to continuing this enjoyable use of trails as well as other uses of Florida trails. Currently, the state
does not provide many designated OHV areas. The most popular OHV area is the Croom Riding Area in
the Withlacoochee State Forest. As the OHV user group increases in size, land managers will need to
provide suitable areas for this activity. Reclaimed mining sites and other disturbed areas may be the areas
most suited for motorized recreation.

Picnicking

There are very few variations that can be applied to the outdoor recreational character of picnicking
except in the selection of the picnic site and the number or size of tables. In this sense, the quality of the
picnicking experience is largely determined by the quality of the immediate surroundings. A scenic view
is desirable. Florida has an infinite number and variety of such spots throughout its countryside.
Undoubtedly, much of the picnicking activity in Florida is of this informal type, utilizing areas not
necessarily set aside for picnicking purposes. For the people of urbanized areas, for the tourists, and for

                                            Appendix A - 20
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

those who desire to picnic as a part of a visit to other public outdoor recreation areas, however, designated
picnic areas are desirable. Such formally established areas usually have appropriate facilities such as
tables, grills, and garbage cans. To enhance the overall picnicking experience, either natural scenery or
compatible artificial beautification is essential.

While picnicking is a highly popular outdoor recreation activity, with the prospect of a steadily increasing
demand, it presents no major problem in terms of outdoor recreation planning and programming. The land
requirements are relatively small and can be provided for in conjunction with other substantial land using
activities. Suitable facilities must be made available in formally designated picnic areas, of course, and
these should be designed and spaced in such a way as to promote maximum enjoyment from the
picnicking experience.

Saltwater Beach Activities

Saltwater beach activities is a composite type of outdoor recreation comprised of several pastimes in
which the beach or seashore is used as the primary resource. Saltwater beach activities primarily consist
of swimming, sunbathing, beachcombing, and shell collecting. Surfing and windsurfing are also included
in this category even though they are not treated quantitatively in this plan.

While a sandy beach is the principal prerequisite for participation in beach activities, adjacent areas for
parking, bathhouses, beach access structures and other similar supporting facilities are generally
necessary. The actual resource and facility needs may vary considerably, depending on the location and
other circumstances. Providing adequate beaches and related lands to satisfy the public demand for beach
activities is a tremendous undertaking. Waterfront property, especially gulf or oceanfront property, is
generally the most expensive in the state, especially in the urban areas where the demand is greatest. In
addition to land acquisition and development to accommodate the various beach activities, the outdoor
recreation program must provide for suitable protection and management of the beach resources.

Saltwater beach activities as a group constitute the most popular form of resource-based outdoor
recreation in Florida, and there is every indication that this popularity will continue to increase. Provision
for this activity is thus one of the most important objectives of the state outdoor recreation program.

Visiting Archaeological and Historical Sites

As a true outdoor recreation activity, visiting archaeological and historical sites qualifies only in certain
respects. If the sight can be seen, and its archaeological and historical significance appreciated in an
outdoor setting, the experience is considered outdoor recreation. Archaeological and historical resources
are not natural in a strict sense of the word, but they do share with natural resources the important
characteristic of being fixed in both amount and location. Therefore, they should be treated similarly in
planning for their outdoor recreational development and use. Visiting archaeological and historical sites is
another simple, passive type of outdoor recreational activity which may be participated in by almost
anyone. Although educational background and the amount of basic interest in history or archaeology can
influence the benefit derived from this activity by each individual, suitable development and
interpretation at the site itself can ensure that every visitor enjoys a satisfying outdoor recreational
experience.

Battlefields, forts and fortifications, Indian mounds and village sites, old trails, historic districts, and
plantations are examples of archaeological and historical resources that lend themselves well to outdoor
recreation purposes. From an outdoor recreation standpoint, artifacts and antiques, in general, are of little
concern unless they relate to a specific site or circumstance that does have outdoor recreation value.

                                           Appendix A - 21
                                          Appendix A
                   Specialized Terms, Classifications and Activity Descriptions
                                         SCORP 2000

Neither are old houses and other generally commonplace structures of particular importance just because
of their antiquity unless they are an integral part of a larger outdoor recreation complex.

Visiting archaeological and historical sites is another simple, passive type of outdoor recreational activity
which may be participated in by almost anyone. Although educational background and the amount of
basic interest in history or archaeology can influence the benefit derived from this activity by each
individual, suitable development and interpretation at the site itself can ensure that every visitor enjoys a
satisfying outdoor recreational experience.

Florida's outdoor recreation program must attempt to preserve, reconstruct, and interpret enough sites of
archaeological and historical significance to constitute a systematic representation of these unique
resources as they occur in the state. Others sites, although not associated with typical outdoor recreation
areas, may be so important that their acquisition should be pursued. Many of these sites can be acquired
and developed in conjunction with state parks and other major outdoor recreation areas. Many can be
provided through quasi-public and private commercial undertakings. In cases where there is no definite
focus for an historical event, and in cases where site acquisition is not feasible, an appropriate historical
marker may suffice.




                                           Appendix A - 22
                                         Appendix B
                                    Public Meetings
                                     SCORP 2000

                               SCORP Focus Group Meetings

October 3, 1997 9:00 AM                         July 9, 1998 9:00 AM
Department of Environmental Protection          Cypress Grove Park
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard                     Orlando, Florida
Tallahassee, Florida

                                    Public Workshops

Tallahassee                                     Orlando
February 4, 1998 10:00 AM                       February 26, 1998 7:00 PM
Department of Environmental Protection          Orange County Administration Building
Douglas Building, Conference Room A             1st Floor Meeting Room
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard                     201 South Rosalind

Jacksonville                                    Tampa
February 10, 1998 7:00 PM                       March 4, 1998 7:00 PM
Department of Environmental Protection          Department of Environmental Protection
Northeast District Office                       Southwest District Office, 2nd Floor
Conference Room A & B                           3804 Coconut Palm Drive
7825 Baymeadows Way
                                                Fort Myers
Pensacola                                       March 5, 1998 7:00 PM
February 12, 1998 1:00 PM                       Department of Environmental Protection
Department of Environmental Protection          South Florida District Office
Northwest District Office, Room 502             Room 165 C&D
160 Governmental Center                         2295 Victoria Avenue

Gainesville                                     Miami
February 18, 1998 6:00 PM                       March 11, 1998 7:00 PM
Alachua County Library, 4th Floor               Miami Shores Community Center
401 East University Avenue
                                                North Palm Beach
Ocala                                           March 12, 1998 1:00 PM
February 19, 1998 7:00 PM                       John D. MacArthur State Park Nature
Silver River State Park                         Center
Environmental Center
7165 Northeast 7th Street                       Ft. Lauderdale
                                                March 12, 1998 7:00 PM
Bartow                                          Broward County Government Center
February 25, 1998 7:00 PM
Department of Transportation
801 North Broadway




                                     Appendix B - 1
                                          Appendix B
                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
                              SCORP PUBLIC PARTICIPATION

In October 1997 the Division of Recreation and Parks hosted a SCORP Focus Group meeting for
interested outdoor recreation stakeholders. Following that meeting, during March and February
1998, the Division held 12 public workshops around the state to gather additional public input. In
July 1999 the Division hosted a second Focus Group meeting to review the public input from the
previous meetings and develop a vision for Florida’s outdoor recreation system and a list of
priority actions to achieve that vision. The second Focus Group identified seven “themes” that in
combination would create a vision for the outdoor recreation program. The seven themes are:

•   Access
•   Coordinated system of statewide spaces and places
•   Balance
•   Diversity of activities and providers
•   Public participation and ownership
•   Education
•   Funding

The group then developed clarifying points to help define what is meant by each particular theme.
DEP staff later used this input in the development of the following vision statement.

    Florida’s ideal outdoor recreation system will be a diverse, balanced system of outdoor
    recreation resources and suppliers that provides the citizens of the state and visitors--,
    regardless of their location in the state, economic status, age, gender, ethnic background,
    or physical or mental disability--with a full range of outdoor recreation opportunities.
    The system will be coordinated at the state level with all agencies working in harmony,
    and with ample opportunity for public participation in decision making. It will have an
    educational component to promote understanding and appreciation of the state’s outdoor
    recreation resources.

Criteria for Allocation of Resources

The Focus Group then developed criteria for prioritizing the allocation of resources to achieve the
vision. The criteria that follow are ranked in terms of their relative priority as determined by vote
of the participants. The criteria are:

1. The project would meet a system-wide deficiency determined through a thorough
   understanding of supply and demand as it changes through time.

2. The project presents an opportunity for sustainable use of the resource and is a responsible
   use of the specific resource that supports it.

3. The project represents an opportunity that will be lost or protects a resource that would be
   lost without action.

4. The agencies involved can commit time to the project, and the project represents an
   opportunity for grants, formalized collaboration, or competent, capable partnerships with
   complementary resources.
                                         Appendix B - 2
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                                          Public Meetings
                                           SCORP 2000

5. The project furthers the separation of uses to preserve the quality of the experience.

6. There are funds to carry out the project.

7. The project represents an interaction or reaction to other growth management mechanisms.

8. The project will build momentum for future action—a quick victory.

9. The project provides equal opportunity for all.

10. The project is identified in a master plan.

11. The project provides education on the value of resources and the need for protection and
    management.

12. For off-road vehicle activities, the project makes use of impacted landscapes that are of low
    ecological value.

13. The project is consistent with ecosystem planning, not just reactive to vocal constituencies.

14. The project does not represent a health or safety hazard.

15. The project helps establish or reinforce foundations of the state outdoor recreation system.

16. The project is required by statute.

17. The project is compatible with state objectives and plans.

Goals

Based on the first Focus Group meeting and the subsequent public workshops, Division staff
compiled the following preliminary list of goals and actions for consideration by the second focus
group.

Goal: Improve interagency coordination, communication and cooperation in outdoor
recreation planning with the following considerations:

•   Standardize and integrate planning practices among recreation providers, especially all state
    agencies.
•   Increase coordination between park planners and local government comprehensive planning
    initiatives (i.e., begin comprehensive planning for recreation).

•   Develop regional strategies by all agencies to address competing demands (define regions).
•   Provide incentives for comprehensive access development - share money and resources
    across political boundaries.
•   Coordinate the greenway movement with the state park system.


                                          Appendix B - 3
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•   Develop appropriate classifications for all public lands based on land use and focus specific
    planning strategies on those classifications.
•   Improve planning by focusing on protection and limitation of resources and the appropriate
    location of infrastructure.

Goal: Improve interagency coordination, communication and cooperation in land management
with the following considerations:

•   Increase law enforcement and use of public lands to eliminate illegal dumping and illegal
    activities on public lands. Implement stiffer penalties for vandalism and environmental
    damage, and promote independence of environmental enforcement from political arena.
•   Reduce conflicts over use of public lands. Develop a strategy that would balance competing
    demands between recreation user groups and environmental groups while maintaining
    consensus and public support for recreation and conservation.
•   Standardize land management practices among recreation providers.
•   Involve more universities and colleges in land management (i.e., research).
•   Increase cooperation with military recreation providers - use state as a liaison between
    military land managers and user groups.
•   Identify recreation responsibilities of public agencies. Focus on strengths of each agency - all
    agencies shouldn’t provide all activities.
•   Develop interagency management agreements.
•   Set long-term goals for each recreation area that will continue when management changes,
    and review goals regularly to ensure that they are current with user needs and activities.
•   Increase cooperation between school boards and local recreation agencies.
•   Involve recreation providers in environmental regulation development process.
•   Develop joint use agreements among neighboring municipalities for shared programming and
    funding.
•   Continually evaluate and educate on the impacts of recreation activities and development to
    the natural ecosystem and use the evaluations to develop natural resource carrying capacities.
•   Promote benefits of recreation and natural resource lands.
•   Enhance the ecosystem management program.
•   Improve surface water management.
•   Continue beach restoration programs and better address environmental concerns.
•   Close fishing areas during spawning.
•   Conduct new study about watercraft in deeper channels and impacts to manatees.
•   Reduce development in parks - use National Park Service examples.
•   Evaluate the impact and benefits of ecotourism to the natural environment.
•   Park lands and facilities must be developed and maintained by using principals of sustainable
    development: 1) Buildings should be constructed from locally available, renewable
    materials, non-toxic materials, etc.; 2) Buildings should be designed to be as energy efficient
    as possible using both passive and active design features, such as solar water heaters, photo-
    voltaic battery powered components, Cracker architecture, proper use of trees and shade, etc.;
    3) Park service vehicles should be converted to operate on zero or near zero emissions; 4)
    Rain water should be captured and reused with cisterns and retention basins to reduce
    demands for groundwater and to reduce peak run off flow rates; 5) Use composting toilets at
    all state parks; 6) Compost all organic solid waste collected at parks on-site; 7) Discourage

                                         Appendix B - 4
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    driving private autos within parks by providing zero-pollution shuttle buses and better access
    via public transportation for urban parks.
•   Local governments need carrying capacity guidelines in addition to Level of Service figures
    for outdoor recreation.
•   Plant more native species instead of grass where appropriate to enhance native habitats &
    connect natural areas, and promote wise use of pesticides and fertilizers.
•   The Florida Park Service needs to lead by example to encourage private landowners and city
    dwellers to learn to be stewards of the land and water.

Goal: Improve and increase coordination, cooperation and communication between land
managing agencies and outdoor recreation user groups.

•   Educate recreation providers on the needs of users.
•   Expand participation (encourage and actively solicit input) of user groups in planning and
    decision making processes.
•   Initiate more interactive problem solving for user group conflicts (i.e. focus groups and
    workshops).
•   Encourage electronic data sharing for communication, information and management.
•   Use the Internet for ongoing dialogue and coordination with user groups, planners and
    managers.
•   Be aware of local issues and demand in formulating regional and statewide plans.
•   Educate user groups regarding each agency’s mission and objectives.
•   Cross-reference other resources in individual agency guidebooks.
•   Hold “partnering sessions” on new and old parks to build user support.
•   Institute a statewide activity coordinator.
•   Schedule public input meetings at night when the public is available.
•   Go to the public - PTA meetings, Girl Scout and Boy Scout meetings, etc.
•   Encourage partnerships with local users who can provide development assistance and
    ongoing maintenance.
•   Integrate users into more aspects of outdoor recreation planning and management processes
    to alleviate perception that each user group has to compete for resources.
•   Improve communication regarding available grant funding.
•   Provide staff funding to work with users/volunteers.
•   Consider turning some sites over to organized groups for management (under approved
    plans).
•   Open surplus lands to be maintained by local groups.
•   Educate recreation managers about new trends and demands (i.e. off road bicycles,
    motorcycles, inline skating, etc.).
•   Recruit and educate local groups and volunteers on how to construct and maintain trails.
•   Grade public agencies - quantify level of satisfaction of all user groups.
•   Increase staff education on liability, safety and prevention.

Goal: Improve and increase coordination, communication and partnerships among outdoor
recreation user groups.

•   Formally create a statewide outdoor recreation advisory group (or council) with
    representation from all user groups (1-2 statewide representatives for each activity). The
                                        Appendix B - 5
                                          Appendix B
                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
    group would promote more partnerships at the state and local levels among user groups (ex:
    common workdays); develop and promote a user ethic with emphasis on etiquette for user
    interaction, consideration for the natural resources, and user safety; initiate statewide and/or
    regional outdoor recreation summits for all user groups; work toward resolution of common
    user conflicts which would include evaluation of current planning and management
    techniques that may stimulate conflicts and development of process for all user groups and
    agencies to follow when conflicts do arise.
•   Allow representation of Off Highway Vehicles on the Florida Greenways and Trails Council.

Goal: Support continuation of the P2000 land acquisition program.

•   Increase lands acquired for outdoor recreation uses with emphasis on lands within and near
    urban areas; lands that would support multiple outdoor recreation needs/activities,
    particularly motorized recreation; and lands that would connect existing public lands and
    non-traditional lands, such as closed landfills and brownfields.
•   Streamline the land acquisition process for all funding programs (CARL, FCT, etc.).
•   Include land management funding.
•   Public land acquisition criteria should include an assessment (cost-benefit analysis) of the
    economic impacts to local economies and environmental benefits.
•   The next land acquisition funding program should require improved interagency
    coordination. Agencies should designate a central point-of-contact to coordinate interagency
    communication during acquisition and management phases.

Goal: Increase public-private partnerships for the provision of public recreational access to
private lands.

•   Strengthen liability legislation that protects providers from lawsuits and explore options for
    executive action.
•   Provide incentives to large private landowners who provide public access (i.e., recreation
    easements through P2000); increased fines for illegal dumping on private lands; tax breaks,
    bidding for leases, insurance assistance, etc.
•   Promote use of reclaimed mining lands for Off-Highway Vehicle recreation.
•   Use of power line easements for recreation access.
•   Joint-use agreements between school boards and local governments.
•   Promotion of multi-use golf courses for activities such as, inline skating, fishing, bicycling,
    and Off-Highway Vehicle use.
•   Create legislation that opens up road right-of-ways and drainage canals for recreation access.
•   Open public lands to “for-profit” businesses that provide recreation.
•   Establish credits and/or requirements of developers to provide recreation facilities that meet
    local needs in their developments.
•   Get users and parents to assume responsibility for recreation activities to reduce liability on
    property owner and manager.

Goal: Provide more trails.

•   Establish a statewide, designated trail system.
•   Open more single-use trails to minimize multi-use conflicts.

                                         Appendix B - 6
                                          Appendix B
                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
•   Establish and mark more multi-use trails.
•   Provide more long distance trails for each and all user groups (include primitive camping).
•   Provide more trails with different skill levels and terrain.
•   Develop greenway areas to same extent as parks.
•   Increase trail support facilities (signage, trailheads w/parking, restrooms, maps, rules,
    camping).
•   Consider trails as recreation and transportation corridors (“linear parks”) - creates more
    access to recreation opportunities (i.e. trail to a park).
•   Increase off-road bicycle trails, especially near population centers, and coordinate with local
    mountain bikers (through Florida Off Road Bicycle Association) to do the work of designing,
    establishing and patrolling these trails.
•   Increase the number of equestrian trails and facilities (trailheads w/adequate parking) with
    more overnight horse camps.
•   Overcome "hiking only" mentality of land mangers.
•   Increase the amount of trails for motorized vehicles.
•   Emphasize recreation needs in urban areas (bike and pedestrian friendly access, coordinate
    with FDOT on road improvements).
•   Allow motorized vehicles access to DEP managed lands.
•   Develop a statewide plan for Off-Highway Vehicle use which would establish designated off-
    road riding areas for motorized recreational vehicles, identify suitable existing public lands
    for OHV use, identify suitable areas for acquisition and include federal land (national forests,
    national parks, military lands).

Goal: Provide more non-trail, resource-based opportunities:

•   Increase shore based fishing opportunities.
•   Increase number of publicly accessible freshwater fishing areas.
•   Provide active and organized fishing programs.
•   Provide funds for beach access easements.
•   Provide adequate sanitary facilities for river users.
•   Provide pump out facilities for recreational boaters.
•   Provide more piers for saltwater fishing.
•   Expand opportunities for cave diving through guided tours and proficiency standards.
•   Provide special opportunity hunts.
•   Limit camping to designated areas.
•   More accommodations for tent camping and less for recreation vehicles.
•   Create separate, more secluded and smaller sites for tents only, especially in sensitive, natural
    areas to eliminate tent versus RV camping conflict.
•   Provide more camping facilities where compatible.
•   Do not restrict recreation during hunting season.
•   Include shooting activities on state lands.
•   Convert landfills for various types of recreation activities.
•   Designate both single and multi-use zones to meet diverse needs of user groups.
•   Less emphasis on expensive high impact recreation.
•   Develop more multi-use facilities.
•   Segregate uses where necessary (i.e. sufficient public land available for separate user groups).

                                         Appendix B - 7
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                                       Public Meetings
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•   Establish "Wilderness Passes" for Florida residents.
•   Create a systematic approach to opening public and private lands to motorized uses.
•   Evaluate all state lands for appropriate recreation uses.
•   Develop standards for equal distribution of uses.
•   Sell stickers that allow use of paved roads in state forests.

Goal: Promote special programs

•   Provide more youth oriented recreation programs at local government level.
•   Provide more special and annual events.
•   Improve handicapped/disabled access for all resource-based activities (hunting, fishing,
    nature study, camping).
•   Improve minority use of public facilities.
•   Increase urban education opportunities - involve vendors for funding.
•   Increase education for accessibility.
•   Court-ordered community service should be directed to severe improvements.
•   Increase youth environmental and outdoor education in parks and schools:
     - Encourage more emphasis in schools on earth sciences and outdoor/physical activities;
      - Create an education program for students centered around inquiry, and encourage and
        allow students to work outdoors in the parks directly with wildlife. Coordinate between
        state, local, and national parks for a consistent, high quality program.
       - Educate about variety of recreational activities and needs in schools and civic
         organizations.
     - Educate children for proper use and behavior in recreation setting.
•   Organize amateur bird watchers, butterfly watchers, botanists, etc. into groups that will
    inventory and monitor park wildlife.
•   Initiate special programs to accommodate on-site learning, including field courses and natural
    history clubs and learning/teaching networks (for adults and children).
•   Increase education on how land is used, resource management, and interpretation.
•   Educate on "Leave No Trace" land ethic.
•   Ongoing personal watercraft education.
•   Increase training for community service and volunteers.
•   Increase supervision of community service persons by participating agencies.
•   Support “legacy program” through park funding.

Goal: Increase funding and revenue for outdoor recreation.

Grant Programs

•   Appropriate Land and Water Conservation Fund at statewide level.
•   Provide a dedicated funding source for the Florida Recreation Development Assistance
    Program and similar programs; continue and expand development funding.
•   Remove "strings" on the Florida Recreation Development and Assistance Program funds.
•   Provide local and state funds to match federal funds for Off Highway Vehicle and other
    recreational uses.
•   Provide funds for beach access easements.

                                        Appendix B - 8
                                           Appendix B
                                         Public Meetings
                                          SCORP 2000
•   Develop a program of matching funds for OHV development grants--blend funding for multi-
    use parks/recreation areas.
•   Educate volunteers on grant writing.

Fees and revenue

•   Move the "green sticker" program from the Fish and Wildlife Commission to another agency.
•   Collect user fees where feasible - increase the use of voluntary drop boxes.
•   Initiate sticker program for motorized use to be administered by agency other than Fish and
    Wildlife Commission.
•   Recreation fees must go back to specific use rather than general fund to provide recreation.
•   Require title/registration of Off Highway Vehicles.
•   Create an annual fee/pass/"green sticker" for motorized vehicles.
•   Annual fee/pass to use public lands for all activities--funds return for outdoor recreation
    opportunities.
•   Increase user fees to fund land acquisition rather than taxes.
•   Initiate tax programs to create designated funding source for recreation activities.
•   Revamp Equine Infectious Anemia (E.I.A.) programs by FDACs so that money goes toward
    equine facilities and infrastructure.
•   “Pay to Play” licenses for all users.
•   Change homestead exemption to 2nd $25,000 and direct increased revenue to recreation
    lands.
•   Impact fees for businesses relocating to Florida.
•   Charge fees for use of improved facilities and state lands that are high enough to offset costs.
•   Institute uniform fee structures.
•   Money from horse trailer license fee should be put back into equestrian facilities.
•   Assess taxes, licenses and fees equally among all users.
•   Establish "Wilderness Passes" for Florida residents.
•   Implement a stable funding base--examples: state income tax, user fees, non-consumptive
    user surcharge, penny sales tax.
•   Expand existing Green Sticker Fund now for hunters to other users and to trails.
•   Money collected for OHV fee program should go back into education, land management and
    facility development.
•   Increase/initiate user fees for special use activities--designated tax set aside (i.e. local version
    of ISTEA).
•   Shift lottery money to recreation.
•   Create recreation user automobile tag--money towards increasing recreation opportunities and
    existing facilities.
•   Larger proportion of tax dollar towards recreation.
•   Fund Off Highway Vehicle trails through fuel tax, special tag, voluntary add-on to licenses,
•   Conservation tax credit should also include recreation tax credit.
•   Collect day use fees for wildlife management areas and other Game and Fish lands.
•   Charge non-resident rate for use of state facilities.
•   Discontinue senior discounts since they have highest disposable income.
•   Get Legislature to redefine millage rate.
•   Increase follow through funding for access to recently acquired lands.

                                          Appendix B - 9
                                           Appendix B
                                         Public Meetings
                                          SCORP 2000
•   Create a permanent funding source for recreation activities.
•   Designate a dedicated funding source for maintenance and operation.
•   Distinguish between developed recreation and primitive recreation in funding and
    improvements.
•   Increase funding sources for park development and recreation programming.
•   Fund land management programs, and coordinate between different kinds of parks--share
    knowledge and network.
•   Organize local fundraising events.
•   Encourage corporate sponsorships.
•   Identify long term funding for all new projects prior to planning.
•   Increase funding for school sports programs.

Goal: Improve dissemination of information, marketing and support for outdoor recreation
opportunities and programs:

•   Create a statewide outdoor resource guide.
•   Develop a website of recreational opportunities: local, regional, state and federal, and add a
    button on such a website that tells public how to get involved.
•   Attach a recreation survey to agency Internet home pages to monitor recreation use.
•   Create a map of all recreation opportunities and use it to develop financial support and
    awareness.
•   Provide more publications and information.
•   Create a clearinghouse for all recreation information.
•   Develop more private business partnerships.
•   Continue and expand “Benefits” approach.
•   Increase state park outreach program.
•   Improve meeting advertisements (i.e., mailing lists, local newspapers, email, etc.).
•   Educate and inform public (i.e. public service announcements, utilizing current technology,
    purchase mailing lists for various user groups, use of mass transit for advertising).
•   Involve civic groups and clubs with juveniles to get them off streets and reduce crime.
•   Increase ecotourism.
•   Get balanced reporting of events/emphasize public relations.
•   Annual day set aside to recognize recreation.
•   Self service public information booth at libraries, toll facilities, service facilities, HRS service
    offices.
•   More publicity and education for all recreation areas--state, federal and local.
•   Publicize Florida Park Service volunteer services/programs.
•   Build public support through public relations campaigns and education.
•   Quantify positive economic benefits of all outdoor recreation to provide incentives for further
    funding.
•   Increase non-profit organization involvement/sponsorship.
•   Create laws to protect the recreation user.
•   Make recreation a priority in legislation; secure stronger legislative lobbyists for recreation.
•   Distribute fresh and salt water fishing rules and regulations to public regularly.

SCORP:

                                          Appendix B - 10
                                         Appendix B
                                       Public Meetings
                                        SCORP 2000

Staff is not recommending a specific goal related to SCORP though the following actions and
recommendations from the workshops will be considered as the SCORP is developed.

Supply/Inventory

•   Motorized trail use and OHV activities, inline skating, and personal watercraft users need to
    be recognized as a legitimate recreation activity.
•   Separate off-road and on-road bicycling.
•   Increase the availability of inventory.
•   Inventory access opportunities for disabled users.
•   All trails and issues should be addressed comprehensively in SCORP.
•   The state should keep informed of nationwide trends (e.g. new sports).

Demand and Need Analysis

•   Provide scientific needs assessment on recreation (all aspects).
•   Design a better survey; redefine need at the local (county) level.
•   Expanding vision for recreational needs.
•   Provide funding for SCORP study.
•   Require land managers to follow the SCORP.
•   SCORP survey should be a partnership with Regional Planning Councils and counties to
    recognize uniqueness of each region and to increase use by local government to meet needs.
•   Continually evaluate trail uses to make sure that trails are meeting current needs.
•   On-going surveys for demand/need to direct funding for management.
•   Re-evaluate visitor experiences in terms of the need to provide more facilities to alleviate
    crowding and overuse.
•   Attach a recreation survey to Division page to monitor recreation use.

Implementation

•   SCORP should be considered a top priority in Division of Recreation and Parks.
•   Initiate SCORP 94 Recommendation #61 with VISIT FLORIDA's ecotourism efforts.
•   Comprehensive planners should use SCORP as a tool.
•   Require land managers and planners to abide by SCORP.
•   Coordinate with the Florida League of Cities for implementation of SCORP.
•   Increase flexibility in SCORP to address on-going changes.
•   Provide adequate funding for a useful SCORP.
•   Incorporate other recreation planning documents in SCORP.


The Focus Group discussed the above goals and modified them as shown below. The group did
not discuss the action steps. Instead, they elected to review the revised goals against the vision
themes to identify any gaps.

Goals as Revised by the Focus Group

                                       Appendix B - 11
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                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
1. Improve coordination, communication and cooperation between government, non-profit and
   private recreation providers in outdoor recreation planning.

2. Improve coordination, communication and cooperation between government, non-profit and
   private recreation providers in land management.

3. Improve and increase coordination, cooperation and communication between land managing
   agencies and outdoor recreationists.

4. Improve and increase coordination, communication and partnerships among outdoor
   recreation user groups.

5. Support local, regional, state, federal, non-profit and private conservation and recreation land
   acquisition programs.

6. Increase public-private partnerships for the provision of public recreational access to private
   lands.

7. Provide more trails.

8. Provide more non-trail, resource-based opportunities.

9. Promote special programs

10. Increase funding and revenue for outdoor recreation.

11. Improve public education, the dissemination of information, marketing and support for
    outdoor recreation opportunities and programs, and to promote public stewardship of natural
    resources.

The Focus Group suggested the following additional goals to fill in gaps between the initial goals
and the vision themes. The group did not discuss them at great length, electing to let Division
staff sort and revise them into new goals.

Additional Goals Suggested by the Focus Group

1. Increase in understanding of expected outdoor experiences.

2. Increase understanding of outdoor recreation needs; benefits approach.

3. Use science to guide decisions.

4. Develop park constituents and advocates.

5. Provide opportunities, not plans.

6. Focus on ends, not means.


                                        Appendix B - 12
                                          Appendix B
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7. Improve communication through the Internet and full range of techniques.

As its final activity, the Focus group revisited the "vision" themes identified earlier. Participants
tried to answer the question: In order to move the state toward this aspect of the vision, what
should be done next and who should take the lead in doing it? The goal of each discussion was to
develop a plan for next steps which could be acted-upon by those present and which was clear
enough and explicit enough to make it easy to act on. In all, participants developed action steps
for three of the "vision" themes from the morning's discussion. The three themes are:
Coordinated System of Spaces and Places; Diversity of Activities and Providers; and Access.
The group also developed action steps for a subcategory of the Access theme that they termed
“proximity.” The discussion concluded with the development of expanded action steps for one of
the tasks under the “proximity” subcategory. The themes and action steps developed by the
group follow:

Theme: Coordinated System of Spaces and Places

•   A mechanism is needed for pulling the right people together around specific issues--a forum.
•   The forum should include a contact person from each agency.
•   A contact list should be distributed.
•   Consider using the Internet as a forum--chat room or list serve.
•   Use the SCORP (each activity in turn) as a framework around which to hold meetings and
    discuss issues.
•   The forum should be organized around both specific issues and common goals (which need to
    be discussed and agreed upon).
•   Someone has to be in charge for this to work. (Need a network coordinator.)
•   We need more frequent meetings for discussion of issues. Use FRPA meetings.
•   We also need a source of communication and information for on-going issues.
•   Use existing coordination efforts as a springboard.
•   Attendance at coordination meetings is key. They won't work if people and agencies don't go
    to them.
•   Accommodate recreation user groups with meeting times.
•   Regional planning councils may be used?
•   An outline of the different agencies' missions would be useful.
•   Need regional as well as statewide coordination efforts.
•   Consider a leadership council (with a formalized structure) that would help direct all outdoor
    recreation activities/services. Formalized (?)
•   Focus on maximizing each agency's resources--who does what?
•   Directing local activities.
•   Analysis of land resources--recently acquired land--and common agreement on use should be
    done regionally.
•   SCORP plan should give appraisal of resources statewide and examine potential outdoor
    recreation resources--provide context.
•   Not every piece of property needs to provide every opportunity. Look at ongoing efforts (i.e.
    Greenways plan.)
•   Provide education for participants in forum, by experts in field, about the issues being
    addressed.


                                         Appendix B - 13
                                          Appendix B
                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
At the conclusion of this discussion, participants agreed that the above list largely represented a
coherent program of next steps that should be undertaken. DEP representatives at the meeting
agreed that DEP would assume the role of network coordinator and begin to act on the list.

Theme: Diversity of Activities and Providers

For this theme, the group decided to prioritize the action steps. The number following each
action step represents the number of votes the step received. Steps followed by an asterisk
indicate those that were deemed to be easily integrated into ongoing agency activities.

•   Revamp the SCORP recreation inventory in terms of presentation and dissemination. It
    needs to be much more widely disseminated and usable. Tools may include: GIS and the
    Internet. Capture in the inventory the full range of activities offered on each piece of land.
    Many activities and opportunities are not currently reflected, sometimes because there are no
    corresponding facilities, which provide the opportunity.* (16)

•   Identify appropriate uses of land when acquired. This should be an interagency effort,
    science based, with appropriate public process and opportunities for public input. (2)

•   Evaluate new recreation uses (serious, science-based, interagency evaluation to which an
    adequate amount of staff time and other resources are dedicated). Then refer users to
    appropriate places. (8)

•   Develop experience/landscape inventory of activities related to certain environments.* (13)
       - Recreation Opportunity Spectrum analysis as previously conducted in Washington,
         Oregon, and Idaho.
       - Use the Greenways GIS modeling as a starting point.

•   Identify where more difficult recreation uses are appropriate (i.e. OHV, model airplanes,
    equestrian). Develop guidelines for these recreation activities prior to the development of the
    experience/landscape inventory. (6)

•   Establish a statewide contact/coordinator for handling more difficult recreation uses.* (0)

•   Educate users on environmental resources and corresponding limitations on recreation. Make
    use of already planned conferences or meetings, such as the statewide Trails and Greenways
    conference and the state lands/WMD Partnership conference. (This could also be a way to
    identify guidelines for where difficult uses are appropriate, as discussed above).* (7)

Theme: Access

ADA Physical Accessibility

•   Accessibility inventory by all agencies - make the inventory accessible to the public
•   Training of land managers on how to make land accessible, including accessibility standards.
•   Program accessibility (camping, fishing, etc.). Needs training. Private sector may provide
    universal access programs on public lands.

                                        Appendix B - 14
                                        Appendix B
                                      Public Meetings
                                       SCORP 2000
•   Include a representative from the Florida Disabled Outdoor Association on agency
    committees.

At the end of this discussion, DEP representatives agreed to take the above list as a whole as
direction.

Subcategory “Proximity”

The group elected to prioritize these items through voting, but did not choose to identify those
that could be readily integrated into existing programs and activities.

•   All forms of recreation should be in reasonable proximity to metro areas. (5)
•   Statewide recreation website, may use the existing Great Outdoor Recreation Program
    (GORP) pages. Needs marketing by possibly user groups and/or FL USA. (22)
•   Develop a universal symbol program--build upon the work of the Florida Recreational Trails
    Council.
•   Urban sidewalk/bikeway initiative that is strongly supported. (2)
•   Increase coordination of private and public land managers to improve access. (6)
•   Outdoor recreation activity within 15 minutes of every home address--cultural context of
    community. (4)
•   Generate funding needed to provide facilities for access. Leverage user group efforts. (10)

Following the prioritization of the action steps the group elected to develop additional
considerations and actions to implement the task relating to the statewide recreation website.
Those steps are:

•   Could be a compilation of individual agency or organization guides.
•   Use existing Great Outdoor Recreation Program Internet pages (GORP).
•   New website.
•   Could be done through an RFP--there probably would be some money to be made from it,
    and the private sector might be interested.
•   Even if extremely bulky, hard copies could be available at libraries and visitor centers.
•   Who:
        Point person for each agency
        DEP and partnerships
        Visit Florida
•   Best undertaken as a joint effort of Tourist Development Councils and state agencies.

At the conclusion of this discussion representatives of Greenways and Trails and VISIT
FLORIDA agreed to accept joint responsibility for pursuing this further.

This concluded the formal public input part of the SCORP development process. Staff took the
information gathered and used it in the development of the vision, goals and recommendations
contained in Chapter 6.




                                       Appendix B - 15
                                       Appendix B
                                     Public Meetings
                                      SCORP 2000
                        October 1998 SCORP Focus Group Attendees

Name                                  Organization
Mr. Bill Cutie                        Metro Dade County Parks & Rec. Department
Mr. John Waldron                       Dept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services
Ms. Janetta Worth                     South Florida Water Management District
Mr. Jim Miller                Department of State
Mr. Larry Kolk                U.S. Forest Service
Mr. Theo Petritsch                    Florida Department of Transportation
Mr. Fred Ayer                 FDEP Office of Greenways and Trails
Ms. Eleanor Warmack           Florida Recreation and Parks Association
Mr. Dale Allen                Trust for Public Land
Mr. Bob Bendick                       The Nature Conservancy
Mr. Rick Smith                Governor's Office of Planning & Budgeting
Dr. Stephen Holland                   University of Florida
Mr. Scott Sanders                     Bureau of Wildlife Management
Mr. David Barth                       Gladding, Jackson, Kercher, Anglin, Lopez, Rinehart,
                                      Inc.
Staff:
Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks:
Fran Mainella, Albert Gregory, Lew Scruggs, Tammy Seale, Collier Clark, Linda
Reeves, Sarah Siwiecki, and Kerri Cahill


                         July 1999 SCORP Focus Group Attendees

Name                                 Organization
Ms. Eva Armstrong                    Florida Audubon Society
Mr. Joe Striska                      Florida Assn. of RV Parks & Campgrounds
Mr. John C. Waldron                  Division of Forestry
Mr. Kent Wimmer                      Office of Greenways and Trails
Mr. Mighk Wilson                     Florida Off-Road Bicycle Association
Mr. Joe Faulk                        Florida Professional Paddlesports Assn.
Mr. Jim Miller                       Bureau of Archeological Research
Mr. David Jones                      Florida Disabled Outdoors Association
Mr. Hugh Boyter                      Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Ms. Julia Recker                     City of Kissimmee, Parks & Recreation Dept.
Ms. Kerri Post                       Visit Florida
Mr. Peter S. Durnell                 Florida Trail Association
Mr. Mark Schmidt                     Florida Motorcycle Dealers Association
Mr. Howard Gregg                     Metro-Dade Park & Recreation
Ms. Jackie Baker                     Sunshine State Horse Council
Mr. Bob Bendick                      The Nature Conservancy
Mr. Larry Kolk                U.S.D.A. Forest Service
Mr. Delaney Faircloth                Suwannee River Water Management District
Ms. Janetta Worth                    South Florida Water Management District
                                     Appendix B - 16
                                        Appendix B
                                      Public Meetings
                                       SCORP 2000
Ms. Lisa Northrop                   St. Johns River Water Management District
Mr. Robert Maglivez                 Southwest Florida Water Management District
Ms. Eileen Nunez                    U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
Ms. Edwolyn Dooley-Higgins National Park Service, SE Regional Office
Ms. Francie Wynalda                 City of Orlando
Ms. Christi Flood                   County Parks & Recreation Dept.
Ms. Catherine Vanden Houten St. Johns River Water Management District
Mr. Bruce Martin                    Florida Off-Road Bicycle Association
Mr. David Barth                     Glatting, Jackson, Kercher, Anglin, Lopez, Rinehart,
                                    Inc.

Staff:
Mr. Rafael Montalvo, Facilitator, Florida Conflict Resolution Consortium
Florida Department of Environmental Protection, Division of Recreation and Parks:
 Ms. Fran P. Mainella
 Mr. Albert Gregory
 Ms. Tammy Seale
 Mr. Lew Scruggs
 Ms. Kerri Cahill




                                      Appendix B - 17
                                           Appendix B
                                         Public Meetings
                                          SCORP 2000
                                 SCORP Workshop Attendees

                  Name                          Organization

Tallahassee       Parker Keen                   Cargill Fertilizer
3 February 1998   Bernie Koagel                 City of Callaway
                  Mary Ann Lee                  DRP, Design & Recreation Services
                  Linda Reeves                  DRP, Design & Recreation Services
                  Lucinda Coverston             DRP, Design & Recreation Services
                  Rita Ventry                   DRP, Design & Recreation Services
                  Alexandra Weiss               DRP, Design & Recreation Services
                  Lyle Fowler                   DRP, Operational Services
                  Marlane Castellanous          Ecosystem Management
                  John Waldron                  FDACS, Division of Forestry
                  Bob Dennis                    Fl Department of Community Affairs
                  David Jones                   Fl Disabled Outdoors Association
                  Ken Shannon                   Florida Motorcycle Dealers Association
                  Dustin Smith                  Gadsden County
                  Marsha Messersmith            Office of Greenways & Trails
                  Catherine Arnold              Southern Equestrian Trail Riders
                  Gina Gainey                   Washington County
                  David Corbin                  Washington County
                  Charles Brevek                Washington County
                  Allen Davis                   Washington County
                  Gary Williams                 Interested citizen
                  David M. Tharp                Interested citizen
                  Collier Clark                 DRP, Design & Recreation Services

Jacksonville      Cynthia Irvin                 Air & Water Quality Division
10 February 98    Donny Wells                   Azalea City Motorcycle Club
                  Dewayne Brantley              Azalea City Motorcycle Club
                  Chip Carter                   Bicycle Pedestrian Advisory Council
                  Bill Potter                   Director, Recreation & Entertainment
                  Dick Jackson                  Florida Professional Paddlesports
                  Gary Wyatt                    Florida Trail Riders
                  Tom Manone                    Florida Trail Riders
                  John Smulan                   Florida Trail Riders
                  Joel Perez                    Florida Trail Riders
                  Dennis Vickery                Florida Trail Riders
                  Chri D'Zamko                  Florida Trail Riders
                  Paul Gallup                   Florida Trail Riders/AMA
                  Mark Palmer                   Florida Trail Riders/AMA
                  John Ault                     Game and Freshwater Fish Commission
                  Howard Soloman                President, Outdoor Adventures
                  Bill Goetz                    Regency Kawasaki & Sea Doo
                  Dan Donaldson                 Sierra Club
                  Maurice Coman                 Sierra Club

                                         Appendix B - 18
                                           Appendix B
                                         Public Meetings
                                          SCORP 2000
                 Jerry Blount                   Suzuki Sea Doo of Orange Park
                 Jim King                       Suzuki Sea Doo of Orange Park

Pensacola        Laura Fulton                   "Blue Dolphin" Kayak Tours
12 February 98   Dave Barker                    "Blue Dolphin" Kayak Tours
                 Bob Austin                     Bayou Chico Association
                 Celeste Cobena                 Beach to Bay Committee
                 Richard Collins                Blackwater Heritage ST C.S.O.
                 Robert Borlon                  Blackwater River State Park
                 Dick Smith                     City of Gulf Breeze
                 Clark Reames                   Eglin AFB, Natural Resources
                 Mark Thornton                  Escambia County
                 Chris Verlinde                 FDEP/Aquatic Preserves
                 Buo Chambless                  FL Motorcycle Dealers Association
                 Henry N. Lawrence              Florida Bicycle Association
                 Mark Sasser                    Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Chris Newbold                  Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Greg Peterson                  Florida Motorcycle Club
                 Bonnie Hickman                 Florida Park Service
                 George Brinkman                Florida Trail Association
                 Wayne Briske                   Florida Trail Riders
                 Ken Evans                      Florida Trail Riders
                 Vernon Compton                 Florida Trail Association
                 Randal Baker                   Motorcycle Club
                 Doug Kadrovach                 Motorcycle Club

Gainesville      Linda B. Crider                (Bicycling)
18 February 98   Herb Hiller                    (Ecotourism)
                 Albert L. Starr, AICP          Alachua County Office of Planning & Development
                 Michael Niccum                 Big Scrub Trail Riders
                 Heidi Denis                    Citrus County Dept of Community Services
                 Karen V. Barnett               Citrus County Parks & Recreation
                 Jason Simmons                  City of Gainesville
                 Cliff Crawford                 City of Gainesville Recreation & Parks Department
                 Maria Minno                    Eco-Cognizant, Inc
                 Victor Doig                    Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Dewey Weaver                   Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Joy Hill                       Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Mike Jones                     Florida Motorcycle Dealers Association
                 Dave Edwards                   Florida Trail Riders
                 James Disterhaupt              Florida Trail Riders/Big Scrub Trail Riders
                 Lys Burden                     FORBA/FBA/SBA/FRTC
                 Kathryn Mattson                Marion Concerned Horsemans Assoc.
                 Michael Tennant                National Association for Cave Diving
                 Jason Richards                 National Speleological Society - Cave Diving
                 Lisa Northrop                  St Johns River Water Management District
                 James W. Opp                   Streets, Inc.

                                         Appendix B - 19
                                        Appendix B
                                      Public Meetings
                                       SCORP 2000
                 Pat & Bill Davis            Sun Country Trail Blazers
                 Wayne Koehler               Sunshine State Horse Council
                 Greg Scott                  Suwannee County Recreation Department
                 Jerry Scarborogh            Suwannee River Water Management District
                 Helen Koehler               The Goethe Trail, Inc.
                 Steve Holland               University of Florida
                 Linda Ledbetter             Interested citizen
                 George Edwards              Interested citizen
                 Jennifer Buxe               Interested citizen
                 Alison Law                  Interested citizen
                 David E. Bruderly, P.E.     Interested citizen

Ocala            Jack Evans                  Citrus Co. Horse Riders
19 February 98   Eileen Evans                Citrus Co. Horse Riders
                 Kim Higgins                 DEP, Florida Park Service
                 Frank M. Garcia             DEP, Florida Park Service
                 Mark Banker                 Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Gary Wyatt                  Florida Trail Riders
                 Frank Bush                  Florida Trail Riders
                 Dewayne Brantley            Florida Trail Riders
                 Helen Koehler               Goethe Trail, Inc
                 John Ross                   Interested Citizen
                 Joyce-ChatBoggs             Marion County Horesmans Association
                 Ray Austin                  Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Bobette Ron                 Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Pamela McGurk               Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Don Hart                    Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Loretta Armanno             Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Lorene Dickey               Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Terry Brose                 Marion County Horsemans Association
                 Allan Pohlman               Marion County Paddlers Aquaholics
                 Rich Noyes                  Marion County Park
                 Brent McCallister           Marion County Parks
                 Christopher L. Boreych      Ocala Mountain Bike Association
                 Dale Gikiere                Ocala Mountain Bike Association
                 Larry Reiche                Ocklawaha Outpost
                 Patty Schwarze              Old Spanish Sugar Mill DeLeon SRA
                 Dick Stockmider             Sun Country Trail Blazers
                 Wayne Koehler               Sunshine State Horse Council
                 Delaney Faircloth           Suwannee River Water Management District
                 Frank Armanno               Interested citizen
                 George Edwards              Interested citizen
                 Brian Henley                Interested citizen
                 Darlene Weesner             Interested citizen
                 Jessie Barnard              Interested citizen
                 Carol Perez                 Interested citizen


                                      Appendix B - 20
                                          Appendix B
                                        Public Meetings
                                         SCORP 2000
Bartow           Becky Bragg                   Canoe Outpost
25 February 98   Cindy Hummel                  City of Auburndale
                 Chuck Vilushis                City of Lakeland
                 Cherry Platt                  Division of Forestry
                 Dwight Myers                  Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Phil Chapman                  Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Jack R. Hall Jr.              Florida Trail Riders
                 Todd Bynum                    Florida Trail Riders
                 Jim Franks                    Florida Trail Riders
                 David Smith                   Florida Trail Riders
                 Hayden Skinner                Florida Trail Riders
                 Rob Nance                     Florida Trail Riders
                 Corey Steffes                 Florida Trail Riders
                 Jerome Elmore                 Florida Trail Riders
                 Dennis Guenther               Fort Meads Leisure Service
                 Jon Ackerly                   IMC Agrico
                 Michael Chakan                Polk Area Bicycling Association
                 Donna Borchert                Polk Area Bike Association
                 Gaye Sharpe                   Polk County Natural Resources
                 Don W. Wilson *               Polk County Parks and Recreation
                 David Borisenko               Polk County Parks and Recreation
                 Ryan Kordek                   Polk Transportation Planning Organization
                 Eric Sequeira                 Recreation Coordinator
                 Tom Palmer                    The Ledger
                 PG Gaillard                   Trailriders
                 AJ Barfield                   Triple "B" Riding Club
                 E.K. Allen                    Interested citizen
                 Ron Hurst                     Interested citizen
                 Bill Swister                  Interested citizen
                 Loren Unser                   Interested citizen
                 Kathryn Unser                 Interested citizen

Orlando          Marsha A. Schloesser          AHOOF/Sunshine State Horse Council
26 February 98   Rose Raymond                  AQHA/AHR/Bit n Spur
                 Monica Boatman                Central Florida Trail Riders
                 Keith Finnerty                Central Florida Trail Riders
                 Candy McCrary                 City of Apopka Parks and Recreation
                 Wes Hoagland                  City of Titusville
                 Roger L Swartz                Equestrian
                 Jackie Baker                  Equestrian
                 Michele Southerland           Equestrian
                 Rebecca Murray                Florida Equestrian Trail Riders
                 Bill Fernandez                Florida Equestrian Trail Riders
                 Linda Fernandez               Florida Equestrian Trail Riders
                 Nelson Blackmore              Florida Equestrian Trail Riders
                 J.R. Ries                     Florida Equestrian Trail Riders
                 Tom Punzak                    Florida FreeWheelers

                                        Appendix B - 21
                                   Appendix B
                                 Public Meetings
                                  SCORP 2000
             Art Ackerman               Florida FreeWheelers
             Judy Ackerman              Florida FreeWheelers
             Lyndy Lyle                 Florida FreeWheelers
             Deborah DeVoe              Florida FreeWheelers
             Pat Perry                  Florida FreeWheelers
             Bob Stone                  Florida FreeWheelers
             David Lancaster            Florida FreeWheelers and AJ Barns Bikes
             Dave Turner                Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
             Bob Micheals               Florida Off Road Bicycle Association
             Bill Lites                 Florida Trail Riders
             Scott Lamb                 Florida Trail Riders
             Jenni Lamb                 Florida Trail Riders
             Kip Carroll                Florida Trail Riders
             Tom Mahone                 Florida Trail Riders
             Bruce Martin               FORBA/Florida FreeWheelers
             Chuck Pula                 Lake County
             Patty Schwartz             Old Spanish Sugar Hill
             Sherry Williams *          Orange County Parks & Recreation Dept.
             Linda K. Swartz            S.HADO Riders
             Cindy Gennell              Seminole County Trails Task Force
             Richard Gennell            Seminole County Trails Task Force
             Dave Birdsall              South Florida Water Management District
             Karen Schroeder            Sunshine State Horse Council
             Richard Huck               Triple B Riding Club
             Kimberly Huck              Triple B Riding Club
             Patricia Hardy             Interested citizen
             Tom Ward                   Interested citizen

Tampa        Michael Gottesman          A.J. Barnes Bicyle Emporium & BPAC
4 March 98   Jean Faulk                 Canoe Escape
             Diane Richards             City of Pinellas Park
             J. Pat Plocek *            City of Tampa, Park Dept.
             Dianne McCommons Beck      FDEP
             Chris Balzer               Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
             Paul W. Thomas             Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
             Ray Hempstead              Florida Motorcyle Dealers Assoc/FTR
             Cheryl Myers               Florida Trail Riders
             Tim Myers                  Florida Trail Riders
             Lynda Foster               Florida Trail Riders
             Jim Foster                 Florida Trail Riders
             Jack Terrell               Florida Trail Riders
             Sally Terrell              Florida Trail Riders
             William C. Rodgers         Florida Trail Riders
             Leigh Brooks               FORBA
             Rudy Miller                FORBA
             Lawson Mitchell            FSKA & TBSK
             Erle Boynton               Hillsborough County Greenways TF

                                 Appendix B - 22
                                    Appendix B
                                  Public Meetings
                                   SCORP 2000
             Peter Fowler                Hillsborough County Rec and Parks
             Jim Hartnett                Hillsborough Greenways
             Robert Wilhelm              Hillsborough River State Park
             Eric Santman                Inline skating
             Michelle M. Ponce           Pinellas County Planning Department
             Trish Stratton *            Post, Buckley, Schuh & Jernigan Inc.
             Wes Eubank                  SWAMP
             Jim Fleming                 SWAMP, BPAC, Hillsborough Greenways
             Vicki Lawry                 Triple B Riding Club
             Jack M. Lawry               Triple B Riding Club
             Bill Cook                   Wilderness Trails Assoc/SWAMP
             Ed Conway                   Wilderness Trails Assoc/SWAMP
             Sharon Noll                 Wildnerness Trails Assoc./SWAMP
             Jonathon Noll               Wildnerness Trails Assoc./SWAMP
             Judy Gibson                 Interested citizen
             Joe Mustion                 Interested citizen

Ft. Myers    Liz Pasnak                  Charlotte County Cooperative Extension
5 March 98   Lisa Beever                 Charlotte County-Punta Gorda Metropolitan Planning
                                         Organization
             Brad Cornelius              City of Cape Coral
             Ellen Lindblad              Crew Trust
             Mike Malsom                 Cypress Cycle
             Craig Max                   Cypress Cycle
             Heather Stafford *          Florida Department of Environmental Protection
             Lori Haynes                 Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission
             Grant Steelman              Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission
             Tammy Wactor                Florida Game and Freshwater Fish Commission
             Gene Sips                   Florida Off Road Bicycling Association
             Andy Sips                   Florida Off Road Bicycling Association
             Jeff DeMais                 Florida Trail Riders
             Kurt Kalivoda               Florida Trail Riders
             Roger Clark                 Lee County
             John Yarbrough              Lee County Parks and Recreation Dept.
             John Kiseda                 Lee County Parks and Recreation Dept.
             Jack Horner                 Lee County Parks and Recreation Dept.
             Marlene Marchand            Port Of the Islands RV Resort
             Jon Brija                   South Florida Trail Riders
             Steven Shafer               Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Bill Narus                  Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Deb Narus                   Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Gordon White                Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Hans Wilson                 Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Doug Silkwood               Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Kevin Dzielak               Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Robert White                Southwest Florida Trail Riders
             Daniel Tripp                Southwest Florida Trail Riders

                                  Appendix B - 23
                                   Appendix B
                                 Public Meetings
                                  SCORP 2000
              Jeanne Cornele            Sunshine State Horse Council
              Anton Jacobson            Interested citizen
              James Gleisle             Interested citizen
              Scott Gleisle             Interested citizen
              Pat Copp                  Interested citizen
              Brandon Lee               Interested citizen
              Chad Wilson               Interested citizen
              Greg Soriano              Interested citizen
              Dawn Baxter               Interested citizen

Miami         Joe Abel                  Coral Gables Parks and Recreation
11 March 98   Mike Dmytriw              Dade County Parks
              EA Thompson               Florida Trail Riders
              Andy Dickinson            Florida Trail Riders
              Herb Doan                 Florida Trail Riders
              W. Thompson               Florida Trail Riders
              Ervin Smith               Metro-Dade Park and Recreation
              Soheila Ajabshir          Metro-Dade Park and Recreation
              Amy Wolf                  Metro-Dade Park and Recreation
              Kevin Asher               Metro-Dade Park and Recreation
              Jordan Bess               Metro-Dade Park and Recreation
              Adrienne Kurtz            N. Miami Beach Parks and Recreation
              Steve Lefton              Urban Resources Group
              Jon Robinson              Interested citizen
              Lynda Shannon             Interested citizen
              Jerry Hettel              Interested citizen
              Rand Franklin             Interested citizen
              Bill Anderson             Interested citizen
              Todd Sandoval             Interested citizen
              Ray Pena                  Interested citizen
              Maris Rivera              Interested citizen

Palm Beach    John Overstreet           City of Lake Worth Leisure Services
12 March 98   Chuck Proulx              City of Port St. Lucie
              Jim Schuette              Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
              Joseph E. Smyth           Florida Park Service
              Paul Cummings             Florida Trail Association
              Sherry Cummings           Florida Trail Association
              Rick Binder               Florida Trail Association
              Daryl Craig               Florida Trail Riders
              Mark Borders              Florida Trail Riders
              Fred Storm                Florida Trail Riders
              Craig Wallace             Florida Trail Riders
              Sean Wallace              Florida Trail Riders
              William Girard            Florida Trail Riders
              Judy Spillman             Jupiter Horseman's Assoc & FL Foxtrotter Assoc
              Jim Spillman              Jupiter Horseman's Association

                                 Appendix B - 24
                                      Appendix B
                                    Public Meetings
                                     SCORP 2000
                 Barb Blaine               Jupiter Horsemans Association
                 Linda Hoppes              Palm Beach County Planning Division
                 Sue Craig                 Palm Beach Track & Trail Riders
                 Lori Craig                Palm Beach Track & Trail Riders
                 Brandy Girard             Palm Beach Track & Trail Riders
                 Donald Kraker             Palm Beach Track & Trail Riders
                 Paul Buxe                 Palm Beach Track and Trail Riders
                 Peter Malecki             West Palm Beach Bicycle Club
                 John Phillips             West Palm Beach Bicycle Club/FORBA

Ft. Lauderdale   John Fcore                Broward County
12 March 98      Buddy Parks               City of Boca Raton
                 Runnie Lakates            City of Ft. Lauderdale Parks and Recreation
                 Jack Mathison             City of Hollywood
                 Darlene Harris            City of Hollywood Parks & Recreation Advisory Board
                 Mimi Andresky             City of North Lauderdale
                 Kathie Margoles           City of Tamarac
                 Edgar Dan                 Club Mud
                 Carlos Galvis             Club Mud
                 Robert E. Guerra          Florida Game & Fresh Water Fish Commission
                 Edgar Chardon             Florida Offroad Bicycling Association
                 Stuart Krantz             Florida Offroad Bicycling Association
                 Bob Hoysgaard             Ft. Lauderdale Recreation & Park Advisory Board
                 Sharon Kent               Parks and Recreation Director
                 Katherine Cramer          Interested citizen




                                    Appendix B - 25
                                               Appendix C
                                       State Comprehensive Plan
                            Goals and Policies Relating to Outdoor Recreation
                                               SCORP 2000

In 1985, the Legislature directed the Governor's Office to prepare a state comprehensive plan to provide
"...long range guidance for the orderly social, economic, and physical growth of the state." This plan, as
adopted in Chapter 187, Florida Statutes, and updated during the 1991 Session, consists of 25 goals and
their respective policies, seven of which pertain directly or indirectly to the provision of outdoor
recreation opportunities for the general public.

The seven goals and their respective policies are as follows:

                                                  Education
    Goal

The creation of an educational environment which is intended to provide adequate skills and knowledge
for students to develop their full potential, embrace the highest ideas and accomplishments, make a
positive contribution to society, and promote the advancement of knowledge and human dignity.

•     Promote educational and cultural enrichment and recreational activities outside traditional systems
      through the increased use of community and educational facilities and develop creative alternatives to
      educational programs in order to serve a larger segment of the population.

                                              Water Resources
Goal

Florida shall assure the availability of an adequate supply of water for all competing uses deemed
reasonable and beneficial and shall maintain the functions of natural systems and the overall present level
of surface and ground water quality. Florida shall improve and restore the quality of waters not presently
meeting water quality standards.

•     Reserve from use that water necessary to support essential nonwithdrawal demands, including
      navigation, recreation, and the protection of fish and wildlife.

                                       Coastal and Marine Resources
Goal

Florida shall ensure that development and marine resource use and beach access improvements in coastal
areas do not endanger public safety or important natural resources. Florida shall, through acquisition and
access improvements, make available to the state's population additional beaches and marine
environment, consistent with sound environmental planning.

•     Accelerate public acquisition of coastal and beachfront land where necessary to protect coastal and
      marine resources or to meet projected public demand.

•     Ensure the public's right to reasonable access to beaches.




                                          Appendix C - 1
                                             Appendix C
                                     State Comprehensive Plan
                          Goals and Policies Relating to Outdoor Recreation
                                             SCORP 2000

                               Natural Systems and Recreational Lands
Goal

Florida shall protect and acquire unique natural habitats and ecological systems such as wetlands, tropical
hardwood hammocks, palm hammocks, and virgin longleaf pine forests, and restore degraded natural
systems to a functional condition.

•   Conserve forests, wetlands, fish, marine life, and wildlife to maintain their environmental, economic,
    aesthetic, and recreational values.

•   Acquire, retain, manage, and inventory public lands to provide recreation, conservation, and related
    public benefits.

•   Encourage multiple use of forest resources, where appropriate, to provide for timber production,
    recreation, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, erosion control, and maintenance of water quality.

•   Protect and restore the ecological functions of wetlands systems to ensure their long-term
    environmental, economic, and recreational value.

•   Expand state and local efforts to provide recreation opportunities to urban areas, including the
    development of activity-based parks.

•   Protect and expand park systems throughout the state.

•   Encourage the use of public and private financial and other resources for the development of
    recreational opportunities at the state and local levels.

                                                Land Use
Goal

In recognition of the importance of preserving the natural resources and enhancing the quality of life of
the state, development shall be directed to those areas which have in place, or have agreements to provide,
the land and water resources, fiscal abilities, and the service capacity to accommodate growth in an
environmentally acceptable manner.

•   Enhance the livability and character of urban areas through the encouragement of an attractive and
    functional mix of living, working, shopping, and recreational activities.

                                   Cultural and Historical Resources
Goal

By 1995, Florida shall increase access to its historical and cultural resources and programs and encourage
the development of cultural programs of national excellence.

•   Promote and provide access throughout the state to performing arts, visual arts, and historic
    preservation and appreciation programs at a level commensurate with the state's economic
    development.



                                        Appendix C - 2
                                              Appendix C
                                      State Comprehensive Plan
                           Goals and Policies Relating to Outdoor Recreation
                                              SCORP 2000

•   Ensure the identification, evaluation, and protection of archaeological folk heritage and historic
    resources properties of the state's diverse ethnic population.

•   Stimulate increased private-sector participation and support for historical and cultural programs.

•   Encourage the rehabilitation and sensitive, adaptive use of historic properties through technical
    assistance and economic incentive programs.

•   Ensure that historic resources are taken into consideration in the planning of all capital programs and
    projects at all levels of government, and that such programs and projects are carried out in a manner
    which recognizes the preservation of historic resources.

                                                   Tourism
Goal

Florida will attract at least 55 million tourists annually by 1995, and shall support efforts by all areas of
the state wishing to develop or expand tourist-related economies.

•   Acquire and manage public lands to offer visitors and residents increased outdoor recreation
    experiences.

•   Promote awareness of historic places and cultural and historical activities.




                                          Appendix C - 3
                                                Appendix D
                                  The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                             Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                                SCORP 2000

                                        Background and Introduction

In 1987, the Florida Legislature established the Florida Recreational Trails System under Chapter 260, Florida
Statutes. The intent of the Legislature was that the “recreational trails will serve to encourage horseback riding,
hiking, bicycling, canoeing, and jogging and thereby improve the health and welfare of the people.” The
Department of Natural Resources, Division of Recreation and Parks, was given direction under Chapter
260.016, Florida Statutes, to establish the Florida Recreational Trails Council (Council) which “shall advise the
division in the execution of its powers and duties under this chapter.” This 26 member body is comprised of
representatives from various recreational user groups; private landowners; as well as local, state, and federal
government. The Council’s primary role would be to provide a forum for discussion of trails issues between the
trail users and trail providers. At its first “working” meeting, held in November of 1988, the members agreed
after much discussion, that there was a definite need for a formally recognized set of trail development and
maintenance standards suitable for Florida’s natural environment. The Council immediately set out to create
these standards.

The 10 years to follow would not always be easy for this Council. The merging of the Department of Natural
Resources and the Department of Environmental Regulation in 1992, created the Department of Environmental
Protection as we know it today. In 1994, just as things were settling down from the merger, the responsibility of
the Council was transferred to the Office of Greenways and Trails from the Division of Recreation and Parks.
Even though the Council had new faces to learn and new rules to follow, they continued with the development
of the trail standards as one of their top priorities. After years of research and input from many groups the idea
of creating trail standards evolved into this working document, The Florida Greenways and Trails System -
Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails. This document is meant to serve strictly as a guideline for
the design and development of unpaved trails and should be adapted to local environmental and site conditions.

The members of the Florida Recreational Trails Council’s sub-committee who dedicated many long hours and
weekends to the completion of this document should be commended for their extraordinary efforts. The Council
also owes its gratitude to the staff of the Office of Greenways and Trails for all of their patience and support
throughout the development of these guidelines. Thanks are also extended to the Department of Environmental
Protection, the Division of Recreation and Parks, and the members of the Florida Greenways Coordinating
Council. Our greatest thanks go to the citizens of the State of Florida for their tremendous response to our
request for ideas and suggestions. This support has fueled the efforts of the Council as they have worked to
develop these guidelines.

Please direct questions or comments regarding these guidelines to the Office of Greenways and Trails, 850-488-
3701.




                                                 Appendix D - 1
                                                Appendix D
                                  The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                             Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                                SCORP 2000

       Florida Recreational Trails System                   Community Affairs. Refer to Universal Access to
               Design Objectives                            Outdoor Recreation: A Design Guideline,
                                                            published by PLAE, Inc. from MIG
1.1 Primary goal                                            Communications 1802 5th Street, Berkley,
The primary goal of this manual is to provide               California 94710, for additional resources.
minimum design guidelines for unpaved non-                  Modifications can be made to existing trails
motorized trails for uses such as hiking, jogging,          without reducing the quality of the experience.
bicycling, horseback riding, paddling, as well as           1.2.4 Routing - Select routes where minimum
multiple use for trails in Florida. Successful trail        barriers and road crossings occur while
development depends upon our ability to                     considering natural resources and natural
recognize existing and future recreational needs in         topography.
Florida. It is the intent of these design guidelines        1.2.5 Trailheads - Create trailheads that have safe
to assist in the development and improvement of             and clear access points and are adjacent to the trail
non-motorized trails to suit our state’s recreational       with well marked trail maps, restrooms and other
needs now and in the future.                                amenities. Appropriate parking facilities should be
                                                            provided where possible and/or feasible.
Design criteria will vary and are intended to be            Trailheads should be classified as primary,
flexible according to the expected volume, type of          secondary or remote.
trail and abilities of the trail users. Besides it’s        1.2.6 Rest stops - Rest stops should be
diverse user groups, Florida’s varied natural               appropriately placed based on the type of trail.
environment will require special support facilities         Include amenities where possible.
under certain conditions to minimize impact. It is          1.2.7 Signage – Provide educational and or
imperative that minimum design guidelines are               interpretive directional, informational, regulatory,
established to promote consistent, safe,                    warning, site sensitive festival signage.
environmentally compatible and enjoyable trail              1.2.8 Bridges - Provide bridges, walkways and
development throughout the state. These                     other crossing facilities where necessary with
minimum design guidelines have been developed               appropriate safety measures or provide for safe
with the goal of establishing a balanced                    passage.
interconnecting system of recreational trails               1.2.9 Guardrails - Use guardrails on dangerously
throughout the state for use by the public.                 steep terrain, near water hazards and where trails
                                                            are adjacent to motor vehicle roadways.
1.2 Objectives                                              1.2.10 Visibility - Provide for clear visibility
1.2.1 Degree of difficulty - Establish the degree of        corresponding to travel speed of trail users,
difficulty for each trail and/or portion of the trail       especially at trail intersections, corners and
as required. The degrees of difficulty are defined          curves.
as easy, moderate and difficult and should be               1.2.11 Topography - Follow the existing
indicated at the trailhead and included in all trail        topography. Lay out trails to minimize cut and fill
information.                                                of natural topography, while maintaining an
1.2.2 Trail access/crossings - Provide safe and             appropriate grade for each trail use.
adequate trail access, while minimizing trail               1.2.12 Drainage - Lay out paths that conform to
crossings by motor vehicles. Provide grade                  the existing topography and minimize impact to
separated crossings, such as bridges, overpasses,           natural drainage. Design trails according to the
underpasses, or traffic control devices for high            Department of Environmental Protection’s (DEP)
volume/speed motor vehicle crossings.                       regulations. To prevent erosion on trails, water
                                                            should be diverted using water breaks or bars (at
1.2.3 Accessible trails - Trails and facilities shall       an angle other than 90 degrees to the trail), graded
be developed in accordance with the guidelines              dips, and out sloping. Drainage ditches or culverts
set forth by the Americans With Disabilities Act            may also be needed for cross drainage. Use
(ADA) published by the Department of

                                                  Appendix D - 2
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

indigenous vegetation to prevent erosion wherever         groups in an effort to maximize resources and
appropriate and feasible.                                 efforts.
1.2.13 Vertical/horizontal clearance - Clear              1.2.23 Aesthetics – Trail design, signage, and
overhanging limbs and vegetation, to maintain             amenities should be in keeping with the trail
safe trail height and width guidelines, according to      setting and should not detract from the trails’
the intended use of the trail.                            character. For example, wilderness trails should
1.2.14 Obstructions - Eliminate or modify large           maintain a wilderness look and feel.
obstructions that prevent or hinder passage or
provide alternative passage if possible, feasible or      2. Design guidelines
appropriate. Where this is not possible, clearly          2.1 Location and routing
notify of the obstruction sufficiently in advance of      2.1.1 Topography and Drainage - Trails should be
the obstruction.                                          designed to limit cut and fill and take advantage
1.2.15 Organic Materials - Use organic and                of varied topography that does not restrict travel
indigenous materials when possible and practical          and maintains natural drainage where possible.
for the construction of trails.                           2.1.2 Diversity of Natural Experiences - Locate
1.2.16 Trash Receptacles - Provide trash                  trails in areas with diverse habitats, ecosystems,
receptacles at primary and secondary trailheads,          landscapes, areas of natural scenic beauty and
picnic areas and campsites. All trail corridors           proximity to water bodies whenever possible. This
should be subject to a “pack it in, pack it out”          diversity should provide for a wide range of
policy.                                                   opportunities and a variety of experiences.
1.2.17 Inspections/Evaluations - Trail managers           2.1.3 Environmental Impact - Trails should be
should conduct preventative maintenance                   developed with an awareness of regulations and
inspections of trails at a minimum of once per            environmentally sensitive resources and areas.
year and schedule repairs as necessary.                   Planning and construction techniques should be of
1.2.18 Maintenance - Trails should have regularly         minimal impact and should strive to protect all
scheduled tread maintenance, pruning, removal of          lands, wildlife, vegetation and water related
exotic plants, hazards and unsightly debris and           features. Trails should not adversely impact
trash. Encourage volunteers to assist in trail            sensitive environmental areas, ecosystems, major
maintenance.                                              wildlife migration patterns, or endangered plant
1.2.19 Flood-Prone Areas - Route trails around,           and animal communities. Locate trails to avoid
provide alternative trails or temporarily close           fragmenting large intact habitats and provide spur
trails during periods of flooding. Boardwalks,            trails to points of interest. Where a trail crossing
bridges, culverts, existing roads and abandoned           of a sensitive ecosystem is necessary, either utilize
rail beds should be utilized for traversing the flood     abandoned roads, railroads and other abandoned
prone area during periods of flooding.                    travelways, or develop other acceptable
1.2.20 Wetlands/Environmentally Sensitive Areas           alternatives. Trail alignment should follow the
- Route land based trails around wetlands                 natural contours of the landscape and should
wherever possible. Utilize boardwalks, bridges,           avoid being constructed in “Ecotones”. The trail
and culverts to cross wetlands wherever feasible,         should provide for a variety of trail distances,
in accordance with applicable regulations.                loops, ecosystems, scenery and degrees of
1.2.21 Buffers - Preserve or replant native or            difficulty.
indigenous vegetation to be used as screens where         2.1.4 Urban/High Volume Trails - Urban/high
necessary to buffer trails from surrounding areas         volume trails should be conveniently connected to
and to enhance the trail user’s experience.               residential areas, schools, activity centers, parks,
1.2.22 Community Involvement - Solicit                    recreational areas, cultural and historical points of
community leadership support for trail                    interest. Where feasible, plan trails to be utilized
development. Promote local involvement with               as transportation alternatives to motorized use and
trail planning, construction and maintenance.             to promote local commuter, leisure and tourism.
Promote alliances between various trail user              Urban/high volume trails shall accommodate all


                                                Appendix D - 3
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

user types where appropriate and shall comply              be made to make interpretation of these sites an
with the guidelines set forth by the Americans             integral part of the trail system. Where feasible,
with Disabilities Act (ADA).                               archaeological and historic sites (including ruins,
2.1.5 Rural/Primitive/Low Volume Trails -                  working landscapes and historical landscapes)
Rural/primitive/low volume trails should take into         should be included in trail brochures and maps as
consideration accessibility to areas with diverse          points of interest.
natural and cultural experiences. These trails tend        2.1.12 Air Quality & Noise - Whenever possible,
to experience a low volume of users at any given           avoid locating trails in close proximity to heavy
time, contain few amenities and are usually                traffic and/or active industrial areas.
located away from populated areas.                         2.1.13 Contaminated Sites - Do not locate trails on
2.1.6 Accessible Trails - Trails and facilities shall      known contaminated sites.
be developed in accordance with the guidelines             2.1.14 Prescribed Burns - Consider that prescribed
set forth by the (ADA) published by the                    burning in naturally vegetated areas is an
Department of Community Affairs. Refer to                  acceptable management practice and may
Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: A                  temporarily impact trail access.
Design Guideline, published by PLAE, Inc. for IG           2.1.15 Consultation with Authorities - Consult
Communications 1802 5th St., Berkeley,                     with Federal, State, Local, and other land
California 94710 for additional resources.                 management authorities to determine regulations
Modifications can be made to existing trails               for appropriate trail use.
without reducing the quality of the experience.            2.2 Self direction
2.1.7 Trail Linkages - Trail location and routing          2.2.1 Standardized Trail Marking System -
should encourage connections to other trails               Provide a standardized, universally recognized,
throughout the state. Strive for linkages from local       and easily understandable trail and marking
to regional to statewide trail systems to provide          system. This trail marking system should be used
for trail continuity and long distance users.              at hazardous points and directional changes along
2.1.8 Public Land Use - Utilize public land and            the trail.
rights-of-ways whenever possible to minimize               2.2.2 Signs/Maps - Provide signs, maps and
private property acquisition. Check land                   brochures at all trailheads, information kiosks
ownership and ensure proper easements, use                 appropriately placed along the trail, to indicate
permits, licenses and agreements/contracts have            permitted type of trail use, and to inform trail
been obtained. Consideration should be given to            users how far they have traveled, trail difficulty
state, regional and local comprehensive plans and          rating and their approximate location on the trail.
land development codes for future trail                    Signs and maps may also make note of such
development.                                               things as landmarks, commonly seen wildlife,
2.1.9 Road/Railroad Crossings and Sight Lines -            unusual features and sites of historical or
Design and route trails to minimize contact and            ecological significance. All signs should be easily
conflict with motorized vehicles and provide the           identifiable, vandal resistant, weather resistant and
appropriate sight lines for safety at the trail            durable.
crossing. Refer to the Florida Department of               2.2.3 Private Property – Trails often go through or
Transportation (FDOT) Bicycle Facilities                   border private property. Trail users should respect
Planning and Design Manual for the appropriate             posted signs and exercise caution to avoid
manner to cross motorized corridors.                       trespassing. It is the responsibility of the trail user
2.1.10 Social and Economic Impact -                        to know they are not trespassing. Information
Consideration should be given to both negative             should be provided at kiosks or on trail maps or en
and beneficial impact of trails on other public            route to inform the trail user.
facilities, activities and transportation.                 2.3 Aesthetics
2.1.11 Archaeological and Historical Resources -           2.3.1 Routing - Wherever possible or feasible
Consider the impact to known and unknown                   route trails along the most visually pleasing
archaeological and historical sites. Efforts should


                                                 Appendix D - 4
                                              Appendix D
                                The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                           Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                             SCORP 2000

corridor, while maintaining considerations for           3.1.1 Tread Width
safety and ecological impact.                            Low volume use1 to 2 Feet
2.3.2 Sensory Experience - Stimulate the user’s          Medium volume use2 to 5 Feet
senses by providing a route that includes not only       High volume useover 5 Feet
scenic views, but also sounds (streams, waterfalls,      3.1.2 Horizontal Clearance - 1 foot minimum on
etc.), smells (pine, ferns, damp earth, etc.), and       each side of tread. Additional clearance should be
things to touch (vegetation, rock formations,            provided in hazardous areas (e.g. road crossings,
water, etc.). Take advantage of scenic vistas for        sharp drop offs, tripping hazards).
rest stops. Provide amenities where possible.            3.1.3 Vertical Clearance - 8 feet minimum
2.4 Cost-Efficiency                                      clearance.
2.4.1 Materials and Equipment - Use locally              3.1.4 Grades
obtainable or salvage materials and equipment            Desirable grade          0 to 10%
when possible.                                           Maximum grade for extended slope 10%
2.4.2 Community Involvement - Encourage                  Maximum grade for shorter slope 15%
corporate sponsors, local user groups, volunteers        Steps/water bars will be needed >15%
and donations to help plan, build and maintain           Ramps to bridge/boardwalks         8%
trails.                                                  3.1.5 Drainage - Unpaved trails should be cross-
2.4.3 Rehabilitation of Existing Trails -                sloped or crowned 2% to 5% per foot where
Rehabilitate or upgrade existing trails when             needed to ensure the integrity of the tread. See
possible as an ecological and economical                 Objective 1.2.12.
alternative to constructing new trails. Encourage        3.1.6 Surfaces - Unimproved, unpaved: Natural
the use of abandoned railroads, easements and            materials such as indigenous soil, leaf litter, pine
other rights-of-ways.                                    straw, mowed grass, wood chips. Improved,
2.4.4 Recycled Materials - Utilize recycled              unpaved: Gravel, compacted limestone, soil
materials wherever appropriate.                          stabilizers crushed shell and graded road base.
2.4.5 Life Cycle Costs - Consider life cycle costs       Consideration should be given to the type of
in the selection and use of materials for trail          surface used depending on location, cost, expected
construction.                                            volume of use and type of users.
2.4.6 Routing and Location - Consider routing and        3.1.7 Length of Hike
location during the trail planning phase. Review         Short Hike 3 to 5 miles
alternate routes for cost effectiveness,                 Half-day to One Day Hike 6 to 12 miles
environmental impact of that development and             Overnight Hike           over 12 miles
public safety.                                           3.1.8 Trail Marking - See Appendix A
3. Trail design and construction guidelines              3.2 Off road bicycling trails
3.1 Hiking and jogging trails                            Non-motorized bicycling trails are classified into
Hiking and jogging trails may be classified into         two types: Paved and unpaved. These guidelines
three general categories: Low, Medium and High           address only those bicycle trails that are unpaved.
usage. Hiking trails should be kept to a minimum         The Florida Department of Transportation
width in more sensitive, natural and rural settings      (FDOT) has developed guidelines for the
if the volume of use is projected to be low.             construction of bicycle lanes, paved shoulders,
Medium and high volume trails should be                  wide curb lanes and paved multi use trails. The
designed wider and stabilized to prolong the life        guidelines are provided in the Florida Bicycle
of the trail. Location and volume of use may             Facilities Planning and Design Manual. This may
require a design standard for high volume use,           be obtained from the FDOT, Pedestrian/Bicycle
such as paved and/or natural surface trails through      Program, 605 Suwannee Street, MS 82,
parks, neighborhoods or activity centers. The            Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450. The American
following trail design specifications are only           Association of State Highway and Transportation
guidelines.                                              Officials (AASHTO) and the Manual on Uniform



                                               Appendix D - 5
                                              Appendix D
                                The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                           Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                             SCORP 2000

Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) has also                 to 6 feet. The turning radius may be constrained
established guidelines.                                  by natural obstructions such as trees, water, rocks
3.2.1 Tread Width - 18 inches minimum                    or environmentally sensitive areas.
3.2.2 Horizontal Clearance - 1 foot minimum on           3.3 Equestrian trails
each side of tread. Additional clearance should be       Equestrian trails usually occur on natural and
provided in hazardous areas (e.g. road crossings,        unpaved surfaces and are designed for a horse and
sharp drop offs).                                        rider traveling in single file to achieve a
3.2.3 Vertical Clearance - 8 feet minimum                “backwoods experience” and facilitate a closeness
(Except to allow for the occasional natural              with nature. Any site considering equestrian trails
obstruction which enhances the experience, but           should have access to sufficient land to develop or
does not prevent passage)                                connect to at least five miles of trail. Horse-drawn
3.2.4 Grades - 0% to 50% (0% to 5% at                    wagons or carriages are gaining in popularity and
approaches to intersections)                             usually travel on jeep or two-lane dirt roads where
3.2.5 Drainage - Unpaved trails should be cross-         access is available to bridges for crossing creeks
sloped or crowned 2% to 5% per foot where                and streams. Consideration should be given to
needed to ensure the integrity of the tread. See         identifying appropriate road systems on public
Objective 1.2.12.                                        lands that could accommodate “driving trails”.
3.2.6 Surfaces - Unimproved, unpaved: Natural            3.3.1 Tread Width - 18 inch minimum
materials such as indigenous soil, leaf litter, pine     3.3.2 Horizontal Clearance - 2 feet on each side of
straw, mowed grass, wood chips. Improved,                the tread width. Additional clearance should be
unpaved: Gravel, compacted limestone, soil               provided in hazardous areas (e.g. road crossings,
stabilizers crushed shell and graded road base.          sharp drop offs, tripping hazards).
Consideration should be given to the type of             3.3.3 Vertical Clearance - 10 feet minimum
surface used depending on location, cost, expected       clearance overhead.
volume of use and type of users. (Soft sandy soils       3.3.4 Grades
should not be considered for extended bicycle            Desirable grade        0% to 10%
trails).                                                 Maximum grade for extended slope 18%
3.2.7 Length of Ride                                     Maximum grade for shorter slope 25%
Short ride 1 to 10 miles                                 3.3.5 Drainage - Unpaved trails should be cross-
Medium ride 10 to 40 miles                               sloped or crowned 2% to 5% per foot where
Long ride over 40 miles                                  needed to ensure the integrity of the tread. See
3.2.8 Trail Marking - See Appendix A                     Objective 1.2.12.
3.2.9 Design Speed - The speed that a bicyclist          3.3.6 Surfaces - Unimproved, unpaved: Natural
travels depends on several factors. Type of              materials such as indigenous soil, leaf litter, pine
bicycle, condition of bicycle, purpose of ride, the      straw, mowed grass, wood chips. Improved,
surface condition, location of trail, the wind speed     unpaved: Compacted limestone, soil stabilizers
and direction, and the condition of the rider.           and graded road base. Consideration should be
Bicycle trails should be designed for speeds that        given to the type of surface used depending on
are appropriate for the particular terrain and           location, cost, expected volume of use and type of
topography.                                              users. (Soft sandy soils and gravel should not be
3.2.10 Turning Radius - Urban/high volume                considered for extended horse trails).
bicycle trails should have a 20 foot minimum             3.3.7 Length of Ride
turning radius. Each trail should consider that the      Short to half-day5 to 16 miles
design of trail curvature is dependent on the            Full day17 to 32 miles
average speed of the cyclist. Increased speed due        Overnight tripOver 32 miles
to a downhill slope requires a longer radius of          (Access to water should be provided every 5 to 10
curvature. Banking and widening the tread on             miles along trail)
curves provides increased safety. Wilderness             3.3.8 Trail Marking - See Appendix A.
bicycle trails should have a turning radius from 2       3.4 Paddling Trails


                                               Appendix D - 6
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

Paddling trails are publicly owned waterways that          straw, mowed grass, wood chips. Improved,
possess scenic and recreational qualities and are          unpaved: Compacted limestone, soil stabilizers,
accessible by the public. Florida has a great              and graded road base. Consideration should be
diversity of waterways systems suitable for                given to the type of surface used depending on
paddling trails. These include rivers, creeks, lakes,      location, cost, expected volume of use and type of
estuaries and coastlines, including all waters of          users. (Soft sandy soils and gravel should not be
the state. Paddling trails shall comply with U.S.          considered for extended multi-use trails).
Coast Guard and Florida Marine Patrol (FMP)                3.5.8 Trip Length - Will vary according to user
regulations. Contact the FMP Office of                     type.
Waterways Management for an in-water                       3.5.9 Trail Marking - See Appendix A.
informational signage installation permit.
3.4.1 Water Depth - Except for periods of extreme          4. Support facilities
drought, paddling trails should be a minimum               Support facilities consisting of trailheads, parking
depth of 6 inches.                                         and staging areas are necessary to the function,
3.4.2 Portage - Use hiking trail guidelines for land       management, accessibility and safety of trails. Not
based portage trails.                                      all trails are required to have a primary or
3.4.3 Trip Length                                          secondary trailhead. Location and layout of
Short to half day 2 - 08 miles                             support facilities should be designed uniformly
Full day      8 - 15 miles                                 with sensitivity to the environment, should
-Overnight Over 15 miles                                   accommodate users and should be constructed in
3.4.4 Trail Marking - See Appendix A.                      compliance with ADA guidelines.
3.5 Unpaved Multi-Use Trails                               4.1 Trailheads
For the purposes of this document multi-use trails         Trailheads are points of beginning or starting on a
are categorized as trail corridors for multiple trail      trail system. A trailhead will be designated as a
user groups.                                               location for information about the trail. Provisions
3.5.1 Trail Corridors - Single use trails in close         should include parking and staging areas.
proximity to each other with the same                      Trailheads are classified as follows:
geographical location should consider using more           4.1.1 Primary - A primary trailhead consists of
than one tread type where appropriate. Refer to            designated parking and staging area, public
specific trail design and construction guidelines          telephone, public restrooms, refuse containers,
for each user group.                                       information and interpretive signs, maps or
3.5.2 Unpaved Multi-use Trail - Unpaved multi-             brochures, potable water, picnic facilities, covered
use trail for high volume usage is not                     shelters, electric service, other appropriate
recommended. Unpaved multi-use tread for low               amenities, and direct access by management
and medium volume should be as follows:                    personnel.
3.5.2.1 Tread Width - Optimum 5 feet minimum.              4.1.2 Secondary - A secondary trailhead includes
3.5.3 Horizontal Clearance - 1 foot minimum on             a designated parking and staging area, possibly
each side of tread.                                        restrooms, refuse containers, information signs,
3.5.4 Vertical Clearance - 10 feet minimum.                maps or brochures, potable water, covered shelter,
3.5.5 Grades                                               and access by management personnel.
Desirable grade 0% to 5%                                   4.1.3 Remote - A remote trailhead includes
Maximum grade for extended slopes 10%                      parking and staging area, information signs, maps
Maximum grade for shorter slope         15%                or brochures, and access by management
3.5.6 Drainage - Unpaved trails should be cross-           personnel.
sloped or crowned 2% to 5%' per foot where
needed to ensure the integrity of the tread. See           4.2 Rest stops
Objective 1.2.12.                                          A designated place to stop along a trail. A rest
3.5.7 Surfaces - Unimproved, unpaved: Natural              stop may consist of, as a minimum, a bench
materials such as indigenous soil, leaf litter, pine       placed in the shade or with a roof structure.


                                                 Appendix D - 7
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

Consider issues such as surveillance, security &          •    Hiking, Bicycling Camping - Provide space to
distance when planning rest stop.                              be used as designated camping areas. Area
4.3 Parking and staging areas                                  needs to be well defined.
It is important to consider the average and               • Equestrian Camping - Provide an area in close
maximum user capacity of a trail when planning                 proximity to camping area for tying or tether
parking needs. Parking lots should be sized                    lines for horses. Area needs to be well
consistent with the use demands, trail activity, and           defined.
user type. Minimum parking for 25 vehicles                • Paddling Camping - Where no dry land is
should be provided at primary trailheads and may               available along paddling trails, a covered
be extended to 100 spaces. Parking lots must                   platform may be provided above the high
provide adequate space for vehicles with trailers              water mark. Provide a self contained or
and include the proper turning radii. Staging areas            equivalent restroom facility.
at trailheads should be located with convenient           4.4.2 Location - Camping zones should be
and safe access to the trail.                             designated a short distance off the main trail and
4.3.1 General Parking - Follow FDOT guidelines.           well marked.
4.3.2 Equestrian Trailer Parking - Should be non-         4.4.3 Space Standard - Where appropriate land is
asphalt and designed as a row of pull-through             available, provide a minimum of 1 acre (8 to 10
spaces each 45 feet deep and 15 feet wide for             campsites) as a designated camping zone. If
unloading horses and to allow horses to be tied to        possible, provide multiple sites appropriately
trailer sides. To accommodate overflow parking,           spaced. Larger areas should be designated for
additional space is recommended. When                     trails with greater use. Equestrian camping zones
designing for equestrian parking consider                 will require a minimum of 2 acres (8 to 10 camp-
accessibility to shade and potable water.                 sites) for camping and horse accommodations.
4.3.3 Canoe Trailer Parking - Canoe trailer               4.4.4 Amenities - Suggest fire pits or fire rings
parking design should be similar in size to the           where permitted. Consideration should be given
equestrian trailer parking. Canoe parking spaces          when choosing areas for camping, where natural
should be pull-through. A staging area should be          water systems are located for potential sources of
designed with close proximity to the water edge to        drinking and cooking water.
control access.                                           4.4.5 Developed/Group Camping - Developed
4.3.4 Bicycle Racks - Racks should be provided at         camping should contain amenities. The campsite
all primary trailheads. They should meet all              should be screened from the main trail. Clearly
FDOT design guidelines. Staging areas are the             define the camping zone with signs. Design
most suitable location for bicycle racks.                 should consider the lay of the land, with level,
4.4 Camping                                               normally dry forested areas preferred. Campsites
Where desired, permitted and appropriate, provide         located within various public agency lands shall
for camping as follows:                                   comply with those agency regulations. Provide
4.4.1 Primitive Camping - zones shall contain             vertical, open space for tents and horse areas.
minimal amenities and be in remote areas.                 4.5.1 Location - Camping zones should be
Primitive campgrounds should be accessible only           designated off the main trail at a short distance.
by foot, horseback, bicycle, or canoe. The                Access by management and emergency vehicles
campsite should be screened from the main trail.          shall be designed.
Clearly define the camping zone with signs.               4.5.2 Space Guidelines - Developed camping
Design should consider the lay of the land, with          areas should be designed with space available for
level, normally dry forested areas preferred.             use by all user groups. Campsites should be built
Campsites located within various public agency            to accommodate travel trailers, motor homes,
lands shall comply with those agency regulations.         horse trailers, canoe trailers. Equestrians,
Provide vertical, open space for tents and horse          bicyclists and canoeists will require additional
areas. All primitive camping should be under the          space for racks, stalls, corral, wash down areas,
“pack it in-pack it out” policy.                          hitching posts, trailer parking.


                                                Appendix D - 8
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

4.5.3 Amenities - Types of amenities may include          Bridges with an elevation of over 36" above grade
electrical hookups, water hookups, designated and         or swift moving water shall have railings at a
numbered sites, trailer dump station, refuse              minimum height of 42 inches.
station, restroom with showers, picnic tables, fire       5.5 Fence, Gate and Barricade Crossings
rings, security, pavilions, cabins, concessions,          Trails often run through property boundaries.
docks firewood, stables, corrals and access by            Where the trail meets a fence that must remain
management personnel.                                     intact, a fence crossing or stile is needed. Gates
                                                          which must be opened and closed should have
5. Trail crossings                                        signs to remind trail users of their responsibility to
5.1 At-Grade Crossings                                    close gates after use or should be equipped with
Whenever it is necessary to cross roadways and            an automatic closer, however, this situation should
railroad tracks with a trail, special care must be        be avoided where ever possible. Barricades should
taken to ensure the safety of trail users. Selection      be installed to prevent unauthorized users from
of a safe crossing may take precedence over a             entering a trail. They should allow for unrestricted
scenic route or require the lengthening of the trail      access by the appropriate trail user, as well as
to allow for both.                                        controlled access for emergency, main-tenance
Appropriate signs should be installed to warn trail       and patrol vehicles. (See Appendix C).
users as well as motorized traffic of the crossing
and any dangers or hazards that might be                  6. Accessible facilities
encountered. Clear visibility at road crossings is        Modifications can be made to existing trails
required. Adequate stopping sight distance must           without reducing the quality of the experience.
be provided for motorists and trail users.                Refer to the Americans With Disabilities Act
Equestrian trail crossings at paved roads and             (ADA) and/or Universal Access to Outdoor
railroad tracks, should have enough cleared space         Recreation: A Design Guidelines, on how to
on both sides of the road or track to allow riders to     achieve increased outdoor access. Parking lots,
gather in a group and cross together. On                  buildings and walkways at trailheads must be
equestrian trails, a ford through the water may be        constructed in compliance with ADA guidelines.
used for crossing a waterway that is less than 30         Appendix A - Trail signs and markings
inches deep, where approach is gentle and stream          Trail Marking - Signage provides trail users with
bottom is firm. Avoid fording areas where erosion         information they need to use trails and trail
and resource damage may occur. Water level                facilities. Trail signs need to be carefully designed
indicators are required at all fords.                     and appropriately installed according to type and
5.2 Above-Grade Road Crossings                            level of use expected. However, trail
Refer to Florida Department of Transportation             users/builders should avoid oversigning, which
guidelines.                                               can clutter the environment and result in
5.3 Above-Grade Trail Crossings                           information overload. Signs must be clear, concise
Bridges and boardwalks should be used where               and legible. Their location and placement is
necessary. Trails approaching any crossing should         critical.
not be reduced in width. It should also be straight       I.Trail Signs are divided into six categories:
and cross at a right angle to the road or rails.          Directional, Informational, Regulatory, Warning,
When it is not possible to cross at 90 degrees, the       Educational and Festival.
trail should be widened to allow the users to cross       A.Directional Signs are used to inform trail users
as close to 90 degrees as possible. Bridges should        of their bearing and route of travel. Signs are
be constructed above the seasonal high water              recommended to contain some form of graphic
mark.                                                     symbol and/or a brief description.
5.4 Water Crossings                                       1. Clearly distinguish all primary trail routes from
When crossing over paddling trails, allow for a           side, access, loop, connector or cross trails.
minimum of four (4) feet of vertical clearance            2. Use double blazes or some form of graphic
under the bridge at the seasonal high water mark.         symbol for changes in trail direction.


                                                Appendix D - 9
                                              Appendix D
                                The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                           Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                             SCORP 2000

B.Informational Signs are used to orient trail users      1. Blazes should be painted vertically at a
as to their location on or within a trail system,         minimum of 2 inches wide and 6 inches long.
provide an overview of facilities and/or amenities        2. Double Blazes or a sign should be used to
and a description of the route to reach them.             indicate a change of direction, when the trail is
Informational signs can also indicate trail length,       departing from an obvious path. Double blazes
number of miles traveled (milepost), as well as           should be painted one above the other at 2 inches
other information.                                        apart.
1. Material, color, and size of sign used should be       3. Blazes or signs should be frequent enough
consistent within a given trail.                          along the trail and indicate the appropriate user
2. Use international symbols for all graphics.            type on the correct trail.
3. Designated camping areas should be blazed              a. The distance between blazes will vary with
with 6 inch wide bands painted around trees, poles        terrain or water body.
or posts or marked with a graphic symbol,                 b. The trail must be blazed or signed so it can be
surrounding the entire boundary of the camping            followed in either direction.
zone.                                                     B.Camping Blazes or Signs
C.Regulatory Signs are used to notify trail user of       1. Designate camping areas with 6 inch wide
laws, regulations and rules governing the trail,          bands painted around trees, poles or posts
such as permitted uses, hours of operation or             surrounding the camping area.
accessibility.                                            2. Designated camping areas may be signed on
1. Signage must comply with the agency having             trees, poles or posts surrounding the
jurisdiction over land trail crosses.                     camping area.
2. All regulatory signs should be of black                C.Graphic Symbols - Utilize international
lettering on a white reflective background, unless        symbols wherever possible.
otherwise directed by the agency having                   D.Attachment methods
jurisdiction.                                             1. Paint - Paint directly to tree surface.
3. Check with local authorities for specific              2. Nailed - Use aluminum nails only for use on
regulations.                                              trees.
D.Warning Signs are used to caution trail users           3. Post-mounted
about hazards that may be encountered on trails,          a. Land Based - Lumber buried directly into
such as sharp curves in the trail, slippery bridges,      ground a minimum of 2 feet deep, preferably with
roadway crossings, steep downhill or uphill               a cross member at bottom for stability.
conditions, blind intersections, changes in trail         b. Water Based - Refer to section III. Trail User
surface conditions and waterway hazards.                  Signage and the attached “Specifica-tions for
1. Warning signs should be of uniform size and            Marking Canoe/ Kayak Trails” as approved by the
placed at a minimum of 50 feet before the hazard          Florida Marine Patrol.
and located at the hazard.                                III.Trail User Signage
2. Warning sign should be of black lettering on a         A.Hiking
reflective yellow background.                             1. Marking should be 4 to 6 feet high on poles or
3. Sign should be consistent along the same trail.        posts along the trail.
E.Educational/Interpretive Signs describe unique          2. Marking should be 5 to 6 feet high on trees
natural or cultural features along the trail.             along the trail.
Material, color and size should be consistent along       B.Bicycling
the same trail.                                           1. Marking should be 4 to 6 feet high on poles or
F.Festival Signs are used to promote and advertise        posts along the trail.
special activities and event and are designed at the      2. Marking should be 5 to 6 feet high on trees
discretion of the trail manager.                          along the trail.
II.Trail Marking and Signing                              C.Equestrian
A.Trail Blazes and Signs                                  1. Marking should be 4 to 6 feet high on poles or
                                                          posts along the trail.


                                               Appendix D - 10
                                              Appendix D
                                The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                           Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                             SCORP 2000

2. Marking should be 7 to 8 feet high on trees
along the trail.
D.Paddling
1. Land-based signage – Signs placed on
waterway banks shall be visible at varying water
levels by the paddlers and should follow the
attachment methods in II.D. 1 through 3a.
2. In-Water informational signage – Review by
the U.S. Coast Guard and the U.S. Army Corps of
Engineers has been completed. The following
conditions have been approved for use as
described below.
a. Signs placed in Florida waterways require a
permit and shall comply with U.S. Coast Guard
and Florida Marine Patrol regulations. Contact the
FMP Office of Waterways Management for
installation permit.                                      Appendix B
b. Markers/signs shall only be placed on one side
of the paddling trail. Markers/signs                      I. Fence Crossings, Gates and Barricades should
shall be placed on shore or as close as possible to       be kept to a minimum to traverse trails. When
the shoreline, so as not to be mistaken for               safety, security, legal requirements, etc., require
navigational aids.                                        fence, gate or barricade crossings, to access the
c. Markers/signs shall be placed out of the “main”        trail, the following guidelines are suggested:
body of water so as not to become a hazard to
navigation and/or safety for powered boats.               A. Fence and Gate - If a permanent pedestrian
d. Markers/signs shall be a minimum of 12 inches          opening cannot be negotiated through a fenced
by 12 inches and a maximum of 18 inches by 18             area, then a gate should be installed with a sign to
inches.                                                   trail users to be sure to close gate behind them or
e. Markers/signs material shall be white reflective       with instructions about who to contact if it must
background with an international                          be kept locked. Another standard that may be used
orange border, black block characters and brown           is a self-closing hinge on a gate that will
crossed kayak and canoe paddles.                          automatically close due to a spring mechanism in
 (To be utilized on signs only.)                          the hinge. Fences maintaining livestock in a field
f. Markers/signs to be mounted on min. schedule           or pasture can be fitted with a pedestrian baffle or
40 PVC                                                    a stepladder crossing (stile).
g. Pile markers/signs are recommended in areas
where facilities are not available, or it is not          B. Barricades - Barricades are usually used to
possible to install the larger signage. Utilize min.         prohibit motorized vehicles from trails or to
schedule 40 PVC pipe, min. 6 inches in diameter.             separate one trail use from another. Signs
Markings on the pile markers/signs shall be white            should accompany the barricade explaining
                                                             what is expected so that intentions are clear
reflective background with an international orange
border, black block characters and brown crossed             and enforcement is easy. Barricades should
kayak and canoe paddles.                                     allow for unrestricted access by pedestrians,
h. See next page for illustration.                           equestrians and cyclists as well as controlled
E. Multi-Use - Use biking/hiking marking                     access for emergency, maintenance and patrol
heights.                                                     vehicles. Wooden or reinforced concrete posts
                                                             should be 24 inches to 30 inches in height and
                                                             placed 4 feet to 5 feet apart and be marked
                                                             with a readily visible reflective or painted
                                                             surface.

                                               Appendix D - 11
                                               Appendix D
                                 The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                            Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                              SCORP 2000

                                                           Trailhead - A point of access or starting place of a
Appendix C                                                 trail system. A trailhead will function as a location
                                                           for information about the trail. Trailheads are
Terms Used in the Trail Guidelines Document                classified into three categories: Primary,
                                                           Secondary and Remote, and should include as a
Amenities - Any element used to enhance the                minimum:
user’s experience and comfort.                             •        Primary Trailhead consists of improved
                                                                    parking areas, public telephone, sanitary
Debris - Any undesirable material that encroaches                   facilities, information and interpretive
on a trail that hinders the intended use.                           signs, maps and brochures, potable water,
                                                                    picnic facilities, electric service, direct
Ecotone - Transition zone between 2 plant                           access by management personnel and
communities.                                                        other amenities.
                                                           •        Secondary Trailhead consists of
Guardrail - A protective barrier placed along                       unimproved parking areas, sanitary
hazardous sections of a trail.                                      facilities, information signs, maps or
                                                                    brochures, potable water and access by
Interpretive Sign or Display - An educational sign                  management personnel.
or display that describes and explains a natural or        •        Remote Trailhead consists of an
cultural point of interest on or along the trail.                   unimproved parking area, bench
                                                                    information signs, maps or brochures and
Kiosk - A structure housing informational or                        access by management personnel.
interpretive displays.
                                                           Wetland - a lowland area, such as a marsh or
Multi-use Trail - A non-motorized trail shared by          swamp, that is saturated with water, creating a
more than one user group.                                  unique naturally occurring habitat for plants and
                                                           wildlife.
Off Road Bicycle/Bike - A term used to define the
non-motorized bicycle ridden on unpaved trails.
Synonymous terms include: Fat Tire Bike, All
Terrain Bicycle (ATB) and Mountain Bike.                   Appendix D
                                                           Trail Construction Bibliography
Staging Area - A short term parking area located
within close proximity to the trail for off landing        A Design Guide, Universal Access to Outdoor
gear.                                                             Recreation. PLAE, Inc. of Berkley,
                                                                  California, MIG Communications,
Trail Degree of Difficulty Rating - A rating of                   Berkely, California.
trail difficulty based on an average user with
average physical abilities.                                Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA)
•         Easy is defined as relaxing, posing                     published by the Florida Department of
          minimal difficulties and able to be                     Community Affairs.
          traveled with little physical effort.
•         Moderate is defined as not requiring             Flink, Charles A. and Robert M Searns.
          excessive or extreme physical effort.                    Greenways: A Guide to Planning, Design,
•         Difficult is defined as physically                       and Development. Washington, D.C.:
          strenuous requiring excessive or extreme                 Island Press, 1993. Ed. Loring LaB.
          physical effort.                                         Schwarz. Washington, D.C.: Island Press
                                                                   1993.



                                                Appendix D - 12
                                              Appendix D
                                The Florida Greenway and Trail System
                           Design Guidelines for Unpaved and Paddling Trails
                                             SCORP 2000

Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT)
        Bicycle Facilities Planning and Design
        Manual.

Florida National Scenic Trail: Appendix J. United
        States Department of Agriculture, Forest
        Service. Tallahassee: National Forests in
        Florida, 1986.

International Mountain Bicycling Association.
         Trail Package. Los Angeles: IMBA 1986,
         pp. 28-35.

Keller, Kit. Mountain Bikes on Public Lands: A
        Manager’s Guide to the State of Practice.
        Washington, D.C. Bicycle Foundation of
        America, 1990.

Moore, Roger L. Conflicts on Multiple-Use
       Trails. Washington, D.C.: United States
       Department of Transportation, 1994.

Ryan, Karen-Lee, Rails-to-Trails Conservancy.
       Trails for the Twenty-First Century.
       Washington, D.C.: Island Press, 1993.

Smith, Daniel S. and Hellmund, Paul Cawood,
        eds. Ecology of Greenways: Design and
        Function of Linear Conservation Areas.
        Minneapolis: University of Minnesota
        Press, 1993.

Trail Manual of the Florida Trail. Florida Trail
       Association, Inc. Gainesville, 1988.

Trails South: A Guide Dealing with Forest Trails
        in the Southern Region. United States
        Department of Agriculture, Forest
        Southern Region.

Universal Access to Outdoor Recreation: A
       Design Guideline, published by PLAE,
       Inc. from MIG Communications 1802 5th
       Street, Berkely, California 94710

Vachowski, Brian. Trail Construction and
      Maintenance Notebook. United States
      Department of Agriculture, Forest
      Service, 1996.


                                               Appendix D - 13
                                               Appendix E
                  1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                              SCORP 2000

                          1992 RESIDENT OUTDOOR RECREATION SURVEY


County ________ Month _________ Phone ______-_______-_________


Hello, my name is ________________________, representing the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks.
The State of Florida is conducting a survey to determine the kinds of outdoor recreation activities in which
people participate and their opinions about outdoor recreation in Florida. This information is being collected to
help plan for the public's use of recreation facilities. This survey should take about 10 minutes.

I would like to ask you a few questions regarding recreation activities in which you may have participated
during the past TWELVE months.

1. Did you participate in any SWIMMING or BEACH activities during the past TWELVE months?
    IF YES: Which of the following?
                                    # of county            # times        # times
                                    times (or city)       weekend          you got in
                                                          & holiday        the water
Saltwater Beach Activities     01   ___ _________          ___               ___

Freshwater Beach Activities      02      ___    _________         ___               ___

Outdoor Swimming Pool Use 24             ___    _________         ___               ___

2. Did you participate in any FISHING or BOATING activities during the past TWELVE months?             IF YES:
Which of the following?
                                                             # THAT OCCURRED
                                      # OF     COUNTY                ON WEEKENDS
                                      TIMES (or CITY)                & HOLIDAYS?

Saltwater Boat Fishing           03      ___ _________            ___

Saltwater Non-Boat Fishing       04      ___ _________            ___

Freshwater Boat Fishing          05      ___ _________            ___

Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing     06       ___ _________            ___

Saltwater Boat Ramp Use         07       ___ _________            ___

Freshwater Boat Ramp Use         08      ___ _________            ___


3. Did you participate in any CAMPING or PICNICKING activities during the past TWELVE months?                IF
YES: Which of the following?

                                                                          # THAT OCCURRED




                                                Appendix E - 1
                                                Appendix E
                   1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                               SCORP 2000
                                       # OF      COUNTY             ON WEEKENDS
                                                                                      # NIGHTS
                                       TIMES      (or CITY)         & HOLIDAYS? CAMPED

RV/Trailer Camping             09     ___     _________              ___                 ___

Tent Camping                   10     ___      _________             ___          ___

Picnicking                     11     ___     _________              ___


4. Did you take part in any of the following TRAIL RELATED activities during the past TWELVE months?

                                                                           # THAT OCCURRED
                                             # OF        COUNTY            ON WEEKENDS
                                             TIMES       (or CITY)         & HOLIDAYS?

Horseback Riding               12            ___     _________                    ___

Nature Study                   13            ___     _________                    ___

Hiking                         14            ___     _________                    ___

Bicycle Riding           16           ___    _________                     ___

Canoeing                       15            ___     _________                    ___

5. Did you participate in any of the following activities during the past TWELVE months?
                                                                           # THAT OCCURRED
                                                 # OF          COUNTY            ON WEEKENDS
                                                 TIMES        (or CITY)          & HOLIDAYS?

Visiting Historical or         17            ___     _________             ___
 Archaeological Sites

Hunting                        26            ___     _________             ___

Golfing                        18            ___     _________             ___
(Other than miniature)

Outdoor Tennis                 19            ___     _________             ___

Baseball or Softball           20            ___     _________             ___

Football, Soccer or Rugby      21            ___     _________             ___

Outdoor Handball               22            ___     _________             ___
 or Racquetball

Outdoor Basketball             23            ___     _________             ___



                                            Appendix E - 2
                                                 Appendix E
                    1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                                SCORP 2000

Outdoor Shuffleboard                 25             ___     _________                 ___

6. Among those activities that you did participate in, which was your favorite? FAVORITE ACTIVITY (#___)

7. How important are public parks, recreation and open spaces to you?

        (a)   Very Important
        (b)   Important
        (c)   Slightly Important
        (d)   Not At All Important
        (e)   Undecided

8. Would you be willing to pay additional taxes if they went to purchase additional parks or recreation facilities?

        (a)   Yes
        (b)   No
        (c)   Unsure / Neutral
        (d)   Refused

IF QUESTION #6 DID NOT ELICIT A RESOURCE BASED ACTIVITY (i.e. one of the activities listed below),
ASK:

9. Which one of the following 13 activities is your FAVORITE?

                                          FAVORITE ACTIVITY (#___)

Saltwater Beach Activities           01            Freshwater Beach Activities        02
Saltwater Fishing                    30            Freshwater Fishing                 50
RV/Trailer Camping                   09            Tent Camping                       10
Picnicking                           11            Horseback Riding                   12
Nature Study                         13            Hiking                             14
Bicycle Riding          16                  Canoeing                      15
Hunting                              26

 None of these are my favorite [55], SKIP Question 10


10. I'm going to read you descriptions of five types of areas. After I read them, I will ask you which type of area that
you used MOST OFTEN during your most FAVORITE activity (question #6 or #9).

        A. PRIMITIVE SETTING: An unmodified, natural setting where you will meet few, if any, other
people. Access is cross-country travel to rough trails. Motorized use is prohibited. Recreation facilities are
generally not provided.

          B. SEMI-NATURAL SETTING: A predominantly natural environment where you will occasionally
meet other people. Access is generally by trails and the area is closed to motorized use. Few recreation
facilities are provided.




                                                   Appendix E - 3
                                                  Appendix E
                   1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                                 SCORP 2000
        C. ROADED NATURAL SETTING: Settings where nature has been altered through development or
agriculture. Road access is common and developed campgrounds may be available in some locations. Expect to
see other people in trucks, cars and motorbikes.

         D. RURAL SETTING: Rural area with development such as farms, houses, stores, equipment, etc.
commonly visible; access is by paved road and the interaction between people can be moderate to high; rustic
bathrooms + showers, some electricity, lighted fields, etc. are provided; facilities for motorized use and parking
are available.

        E. URBAN SETTING: Area is characterized by a developed, urbanized environment, although the
background may have some natural features; constant contact with other people can be expected; modern
conveniences are available (modern bathrooms, full electrical hook-ups, stores, food vendors, etc.); buses may
by used to get to some areas.

        A. PRIMITIVE SETTING                            D. RURAL SETTING
        B. SEMI-PRIMITIVE SETTING                 E. URBAN SETTING
        C. ROADED NATURAL SETTING

Which ONE of these five types of areas do you use most often for your favorite recreation activity, (restate the
activity for Q#6 or #9)? (Area ____)

Which ONE of these five types of areas would you prefer to use for your favorite recreation activity, (restate the
activity for Q#6 or #9)? (Area____)


I'd like to ask you a few questions about your background for statistical purposes only. The information you
provide will remain STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL.


11. What is your race or national origin?

        A. Black                 D. American Indian
        B. Hispanic              E. Other
        C. White                 F. (Refused)


12. Are you of Spanish/Hispanic origin?

        A. No
        B. Yes, Cuban
        C. Yes, Puerto Rican
        D. Yes, Central American
               (Nicaragua, Columbia, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama)
       E. Yes, South American
       F. Yes, other Spanish/Hispanic

13. In what year were you born? __________ Year        X. Refused


14. Did your household earn more or less than $20,000 in 1991?



                                                 Appendix E - 4
                                                Appendix E
                   1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                               SCORP 2000

       IF LESS THAN $20,000: Did your household earn more or
       less than $10,000 in 1991?

       IF MORE THAN $20,000: Did your household earn more or
       less than $30,000 in 1992.

       IF MORE: Did your household earn more or less than
       $40,000 in 1991.

[continue until they say LESS]


15. What was the highest grade or year of school you COMPLETED?

        A.   8 years or less (no high school)
        B.   9-11 years (some high school)
        C.   High School Degree
        D.   Some College
        E.   College Degree
        F.   Graduate/Professional School
        X.   (Refused)


16. What is the ZIP code of your home residence? __________


17. IF NEEDED: Lastly, what is your gender?

M. Male        F. Female      X. (Refused)


That completes our survey. Thank you very much for your assistance.
_________________________________________________________________

IF THEY ASK FOR INFORMATION OR RESULTS, ADVISE THEM TO CONTACT:

Steve Holland, Department of Recreation, Parks, and Tourism, 214 FLG, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611-2034 ; (904) 392-4048

Tim Bradle, Division of Recreation and Parks, Florida Dept. of Natural Resources, 3900 Commonwealth Blvd.,
Tallahassee, FL 32399-3000; (904)488-2300.




                                                Appendix E - 5
                                                Appendix E
                   1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                               SCORP 2000
                     1992 FLORIDA VISITOR OUTDOOR RECREATION SURVEY


Location ________ Month _________ Survey Number_____________

Hello, my name is ________________________, representing the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks.
The State of Florida is conducting a survey to determine the kinds of outdoor recreation activities in which
people participate. This information is being collected to help plan for the public's use of recreation facilities.
The survey will take about 10 minutes.

I would like to ask you a few questions regarding recreation activities in which you may have participated in
during your visit to Florida. First, I would like to verify that you are a visitor to the state of Florida.

What is your current state of residence? _____________________
 [IF ANSWER IS FLORIDA, TERMINATE INTERVIEW.] Thank you.

In what year were you born? _________ (Year)
   [IF BORN AFTER 1976, TERMINATE INTERVIEW.]

How many people are in your traveling party?                        __________

How many days did you spend in Florida on this trip?        __________

How many times have you been to Florida before?             __________

Was this trip a:                  Business/Conference Trip          __________

                                       Vacation/Leisure Trip        __________

                                  Visit Friends + Relatives Trip __________

I would like to read to you a list of outdoor recreation activities, and when I name an activity in which you
participated during this or any other visit to FLORIDA, please stop me. I would also like to know the number of
times and in what Florida cities that you participated in the activity. Please feel free to stop me at any time if
you have any questions.


1. Did you participate in any SWIMMING or BEACH activities during your current trip to FLORIDA? IF
YES: Which of the following?
                                                           # THAT OCCURRED # OF
                                    # OF      COUNTY ON WEEKENDS                     TRIPS
                                     TIMES     (or CITY) & HOLIDAYS                  YOU GOT
                                                                                     IN THE WATER
Saltwater Beach Activities      01   ___    _________              ___              ___

Freshwater Beach Activities       02       ___     _________                 ___              ___

Outdoor Swimming Pool Use 24               ___     _________                 ___              ___




                                                  Appendix E - 6
                                               Appendix E
                  1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                              SCORP 2000
2. Did you participate in any FISHING or BOATING activities during you current trip to FLORIDA?     IF
YES: Which of the       following?
                                                             # THAT OCCURRED
                                      # OF      COUNTY              ON WEEKENDS
                                      TIMES (or CITY)                & HOLIDAYS?

Saltwater Boat Fishing          03      ___     _________                ___

Saltwater Non-Boat Fishing      04      ___     _________                ___

Freshwater Boat Fishing         05      ___     _________                ___

Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing     06      ___     _________                ___

Saltwater Boat Ramp Use          07     ___ _________                    ___

Freshwater Boat Ramp Use        08      ___ _________                    ___


3. Did you participate in any CAMPING or PICNICKING activities
   during your current trip to FLORIDA? IF YES: Which of the   following?

                                                                                # THAT OCCURRED
                                                # OF        COUNTY              ON WEEKENDS     #
NIGHTS
                                                TIMES        (or CITY)          & HOLIDAYS?      CAMPED

RV/Trailer Camping              09      ___ _________           ___             ___

Tent Camping                    10      ___ _________           ___             ___

Picnicking                      11       ___ _________          ___


4. Did you take part in any of the following TRAIL RELATED activities during your current trip to
FLORIDA?
                                                                    # THAT OCCURRED
                                         # OF     COUNTY            ON WEEKENDS
                                         TIMES    (or CITY)         & HOLIDAYS?

Horseback Riding                12      ___             _________        ___
Nature Study                    13      ___             _________        ___

Hiking                          14      ___            _________         ___
Bicycle Riding           16     ___             _________     ___
Canoeing                        15      ___            _________         ___

5. Did you participate in any of the following activities during your current trip to FLORIDA?
                                                                   # THAT OCCURRED
                                          # OF         COUNTY              ON WEEKENDS



                                               Appendix E - 7
                                                Appendix E
                   1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                               SCORP 2000
                                       TIMES      (or CITY)         & HOLIDAYS?

Visiting Historical or             17       ___     _________              ___
 Archaeological Sites

Hunting                            26       ___     _________              ___

Golfing                            18       ___      _________             ___
(Other than miniature)

Outdoor Tennis                     19       ___     _________              ___

Baseball or Softball               20       ___     _________              ___

Football, Soccer or Rugby          21       ___     _________              ___

Outdoor Handball                   22       ___     _________              ___
 or Racquetball

Outdoor Basketball                 23       ___     _________              ___

Outdoor Shuffleboard               25       ___     _________              ___


6. Among those activities listed that you did participate in, which was your favorite?       FAVORITE
ACTIVITY (#___)

IF QUESTION #6 DID NOT ELICIT A RESOURCE BASED ACTIVITY (i.e. one of the activities listed
below), ASK:

7. Which one of the following 13 activities, is your FAVORITE?

FAVORITE ACTIVITY (#____)

Saltwater Beach Activities         01              Freshwater Beach Activities     02
Saltwater Fishing                  30              Freshwater Fishing              50
RV/Trailer Camping                 09              Tent Camping                    10
Picnicking                         11              Horseback Riding                12
Nature Study                       13              Hiking                          14
Bicycle Riding         16                   Canoeing                      15
Hunting                            26

I can't say that any of these are a favorite activity (55)
 [SKIP Question #8]


8. I'm going to read you descriptions of five types of areas. After I read them, I will ask you which type of area
that you used MOST OFTEN during your most FAVORITE activity (from question #6 or #7).




                                                   Appendix E - 8
                                                   Appendix E
                  1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                                  SCORP 2000
        A. PRIMITIVE: An unmodified, natural setting where you will meet few, if nay, other people.
Access is cross-country travel to rough trails. Motorized use is prohibited. Recreation facilities are generally
not provided.

         B. SEMI-PRIMITIVE SETTING: A predominantly natural environment where you will
occasionally meet other people. Access is generally by trails and the area is closed to motorized use. Few
recreation facilities are provided.

        C. ROADED NATURAL SETTING: Settings where nature has been somewhat altered through
development or agriculture. Road access is common and developed campgrounds may be available in some
locations. Expect to see other people in trucks, cars, and motorbikes.

         D. RURAL SETTING: Rural area with development such as farms, houses, stores, equipment, etc.
commonly visible; access is by paved roas and the interaction between people can be moderate to high; rustic
bathrooms + showers, some electricity, lighted fields, etc. are provided; facilties for motorized use and parking
are available.

        E. URBAN SETTING: Area is characterized by a developed, urbanized environment, although the
background may have some natural features; constant contact with other people can be expected; modern
conveniences are available (modern bathrooms, full electrical hook-ups, stores, food vendors, etc.); buses may
be used to get to some areas.

        A. PRIMITIVE SETTING                      D. RURAL SETTING
        B. SEMI-PRIMITIVE SETTING                 E. URBAN SETTING
        C. ROADED NATURAL SETTING

FAVORITE ACTIVITY                AREA USED                AREA PREFERRED
Question #6 or #7                      _____             _____


9. How important are public parks, recreation and open spaces to you?

        (a) Very Important       (d) Not At All Important
        (b) Important            (e) Undecided
        (c) Slightly Important

I'd like to ask you a few questions about your background for statistical purposes only. The information you
provide will remain STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL.

10. What is your race?

        (a) White        (d) American Indian
        (b) Black        (e) Other
        (c) Asian        (f) (Refused)

11. Are you of Spanish/Hispanic origin?

        (a) No
        (b) Yes, Cuban
        (c) Yes, Puerto Rican


                                                 Appendix E - 9
                                              Appendix E
                 1992-93 Resident and Tourist Outdoor Recreation Participation Survey
                                             SCORP 2000
       (d) Yes Central American
               (Nicaragua, Columbia, Honduras, El Salvador, Panama)
       (e) Yes, South American
       (f) Other Spanish/Hispanic

12. I'm going to read you some income ranges. Please stop me when I read the range which best describes your
1991 ANNUAL HOUSEHOLD income.

       A.      Less than $10,000
       B.      $10,000 to under $20,000
       C.      $20,000 to under $30,000
       D.      $30,000 to under $40,000
       E.      $40,000 to under $50,000
       F.      $50,000 to under $60,000
       G.      $60,000 to under $70,000
       H.      $70,000 to under $80,000
       I.      $80,000 to under $90,000
       J.      $90,000 to under $100,000
       K.      $100,000 or more

13. What was the highest grade or year of school you COMPLETED?

       A. 8 years or less (no high school)
       B. 9-11 years (some high school)
       C. High School Degree
       D. Some College
       E. College Degree
       F. Graduate/Professional School
       X. (Refused)

14. What is the ZIP code of your home residence? __________

15. IF NEEDED: Lastly, what is your gender?

       M. Male      F. Female      X. (Refused)

That completes our survey. Thank you very much for your assistance and have a safe return home.
_________________________________________________________________
IF THEY ASK FOR MORE INFORMATION OR RESULTS, ADVISE THEM TO CONTACT:

Steve Holland, Department of Recreation, Parks and Tourism, 214 FLG, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
32611-2034; (904) 392-4048




                                             Appendix E - 10
                                                    Appendix F
                                            Relative Need Methodology
                                                   SCORP 2000

Since there are 26 activities in each of the 11 regions, there are 286 relative needs indexes. However,
since most activities per region demonstrate zero need, the majority of these indexes are zero. To
calculate the relative need index for a particular category in a particular region:

1) Multiply the resource and facility needs for each activity in each region (Tables 5.1 through 5.22
in Chapter 5) by the appropriate activity use guidelines for each activity in each region (Tables 4.1
and 4.2 in Chapter 4), to convert needs from activity units into user-occasions. The purpose of this
step is to put all needs in the same units for useful comparison.

((Activity Need in user-occasions)i)j = ((Activity Need in activity units)i x (Activity Use Guideline)i)j

where: i indicates the particular activity
       j indicates the particular region

2) Sum the activity needs, in user-occasion units, for all activities for all regions.

Σij(Activity Need in user occasions)ij = (Activity Need in user occasions)Archaeologic/Historical Site, Region 1 +
(Activity Need in user occasions)Bicycle Riding, Region 1 + ... + (Activity Need in user occasions)Tennis, Region 1 +
(Activity Need in user occasions)Archaeologic/Historical Site, Region 2 + ... + (Activity Need in user occasions)Tennis,
Region 11


where: i indicates the particular activity
       j indicates the particular region

3) Divide each activity need in each region (from Step 1) by the sum of all activity needs in all
regions (from Step 2) to obtain the relative needs index for each activity.

                              ((Activity Need in user-occasions)i)j
(Relative Needs Index)ij = Σij(Activity Need in user occasions)ij

where: i indicates the particular activity
       j indicates the particular region

4) Finally, to facilitate comparison, multiply each relative need index by 10,000. The Tables X
through X show these values, ranked from highest to lowest for the years 1997, 2000, 2005, and
2010.




                                                    Appendix F - 1
                                          Appendix F
                                  Relative Need Methodology
                                         SCORP 2000

                           1997 Relative Need Priorities Index
         Resource-Based Activities                      User-Oriented Activities
Region            Activity             Relative Need Region      Activity      Relative
                                                                                 Need
  11 Saltwater Beach                      1362.66          6   Swimming           4231.21
  11 Bicycle Riding                       1191.57          8   Swimming           1991.12
   5   Freshwater Beach                    935.90         11 Swimming             1525.50
  10 Bicycle Riding                        749.94          9   Swimming             897.07
   9   Bicycle Riding                      740.42         10 Swimming               686.87
   6   Bicycle Riding                      667.24          9   Shuffleboard         300.29
   8   Bicycle Riding                      645.69          8   Golfing              225.09
   6   Saltwater Beach                     553.05          1   Swimming             142.85
   7   Bicycle Riding                      476.07
   8   Saltwater Beach                     449.59
  10 Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing           378.44
   5   Saltwater Beach                     234.21
   4   Bicycle Riding                      231.36
   6   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          178.59
  11 Freshwater Beach                      171.22
   4   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          146.70
  11 Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing           133.68
   1   Bicycle Riding                      131.60
   4   Freshwater Beach                    109.07
   8   Hiking                                87.82
   3   Saltwater Beach                       82.46
   6   Hiking                                59.81
   3   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing            54.83
   1   Hiking                                50.99
   7   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing           39.20
   9   Hiking                                34.22
  11 Hiking                                  32.21
  10 Hiking                                  27.29
   2   Bicycle Riding                        19.88
   9   Nature Study                          15.65
   9   Tent Camping                           7.18
   1   Nature Study                           0.80
  11 Tent Camping                             0.64




                                         Appendix F - 2
                                           Appendix F
                                   Relative Need Methodology
                                          SCORP 2000

                           2000 Relative Need Priorities Index
           Resource-Based Activities                       User-Oriented Activities
Region           Activity              Relative Need     Region     Activity      Relative
                                                                                    Need
  11   Saltwater Beach                   1885.87          6    Swimming              3938.58
  11   Bicycle Riding                      973.51         8    Swimming              1826.34
   6   Saltwater Beach                     956.88        11    Swimming              1585.17
   5   Freshwater Beach                    724.68         9    Swimming              1124.75
   8   Saltwater Beach                     646.91        10    Swimming               763.88
   9   Bicycle Riding                      635.65         9    Shuffleboard           334.77
  10   Bicycle Riding                      618.71         8    Golfing                227.55
   6   Bicycle Riding                      567.42         1    Swimming               198.96
   8   Bicycle Riding                      526.77
   7   Bicycle Riding                      374.60
  10   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing         317.26
   4   Bicycle Riding                      191.97
   5   Saltwater Beach                     189.21
   6   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          186.68
  10   Saltwater Beach                     161.89
  11   Freshwater Beach                    148.76
   4   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          120.25
  11   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing         112.91
   1   Bicycle Riding                      111.09
   4   Freshwater Beach                    101.67
   8   Hiking                               71.04
   3   Saltwater Beach                      53.39
   6   Hiking                               52.76
   1   Hiking                               42.96
   7   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing          41.12
   3   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing           38.30
  10   Hiking                               30.49
   9   Hiking                               28.49
  11   Hiking                               28.29
   9   Nature Study                         23.87
   2   Bicycle Riding                       21.54
   9   Tent Camping                           8.94
  11   Tent Camping                           4.02
   1   Nature Study                           2.13




                                          Appendix F - 3
                                          Appendix F
                                  Relative Need Methodology
                                         SCORP 2000


                          2005 Relative Need Priorities Index
         Resource-Based Activities                      User-Oriented Activities
Region           Activity           Relative Need Region        Activity   Relative Need
  11   Saltwater Beach                  2224.67          6    Swimming           3620.73
   6   Saltwater Beach                  1245.83          8    Swimming           1646.51
   8   Saltwater Beach                   777.62         11    Swimming           1644.47
  11   Bicycle Riding                    728.71          9    Swimming           1362.68
  10   Saltwater Beach                   517.32         10    Swimming             840.63
   9   Bicycle Riding                    507.38          9    Shuffleboard         370.75
   5   Freshwater Beach                  500.97          1    Swimming             254.38
  10   Bicycle Riding                    468.61          8    Golfing              229.67
   6   Bicycle Riding                    447.97          9    Golfing               26.71
   8   Bicycle Riding                    393.76          1    Shuffleboard           3.47
   9   Saltwater Beach                   372.26
   7   Bicycle Riding                    265.21
  10   Freshwater Non-Boat               246.22
       Fishing
   6   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing        182.43
   4   Bicycle Riding                    146.34
   5   Saltwater Beach                   139.02
  11   Freshwater Beach                  120.23
   4   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing         90.39
   4   Freshwater Beach                   88.57
  11   Freshwater Non-Boat                88.24
       Fishing
   1   Bicycle Riding                     85.67
   8   Hiking                             52.50
   6   Hiking                             43.54
   7   Freshwater Non-Boat                39.98
       Fishing
   1   Hiking                             33.46
   9   Nature Study                       29.31
   9   Hiking                             26.74
   3   Saltwater Beach                    24.92
  10   Hiking                             24.76
  11   Hiking                             23.24
   3   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing         21.37
   2   Bicycle Riding                     20.12
   9   Tent Camping                        9.91
  11   Tent Camping                        6.65
   5   Bicycle Riding                      3.12
   1   Nature Study                        2.94




                                        Appendix F - 4
                                          Appendix F
                                  Relative Need Methodology
                                         SCORP 2000

                             2010 Relative Need Priorities Index
        Resource-Based Activities                          User-Oriented Activities
Region            Activity          Relative Need       Region        Activity    Relative Need
  11   Saltwater Beach                   2267.93         6    Swimming                  3008.01
   6   Saltwater Beach                   1315.93        11    Swimming                  2115.02
   9   Saltwater Beach                   1017.77         8    Swimming                  1477.23
   8   Saltwater Beach                    797.62         9    Swimming                  1329.40
  10   Saltwater Beach                    658.21        10    Swimming                   778.95
  11   Bicycle Riding                     570.15         9    Shuffleboard               412.17
   9   Bicycle Riding                     417.46         1    Swimming                   346.09
  10   Bicycle Riding                     369.92         8    Golfing                    334.57
   5   Freshwater Beach                   366.12         9    Golfing                    100.11
   6   Bicycle Riding                     365.32         1    Shuffleboard                 60.55
   8   Bicycle Riding                     308.03         6    Golfing                      24.04
  10   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing        198.72
   7   Bicycle Riding                     198.12
   6   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing         170.18
   4   Bicycle Riding                     115.89
   5   Saltwater Beach                    107.05
  11   Freshwater Beach                    99.27
   4   Freshwater Beach                    76.75
  11   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing         71.24
   4   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          70.99
   1   Bicycle Riding                      68.64
   8   Hiking                              40.71
   6   Freshwater Beach                    39.29
   7   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing         37.18
   6   Hiking                              36.62
   9   Nature Study                        30.22
   1   Hiking                              27.09
   9   Hiking                              24.46
  10   Hiking                              20.60
  11   Hiking                              19.54
   2   Bicycle Riding                      18.16
   8   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          12.51
   3   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing          12.01
   5   Bicycle Riding                      11.29
   9   Tent Camping                         9.85
   3   Saltwater Beach                      9.80
  11   Tent Camping                         7.51
   4   Freshwater Non-Boat Fishing          6.64
   1   Nature Study                         3.14
  10   Saltwater Non-boat Fishing           1.93
   4   Hiking                               0.17




                                         Appendix F - 5
                                               Appendix G
                             Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                              SCORP 2000


The purpose of this section is to update the SCORP reader with the progress report on Implementation Measures
contained in the previous report. During the intervening years, several governmental reorganizations and
privatizations took place and agency names have changed. The SCORP editor has reflected these changes and
used the current agency/organization name.

                         Recommendation                                                  Status
                                                                                    As of April 1, 2000

1. The Department of Environmental Protection should attempt to                    Not Initiated
develop a methodology for calculating the "economic" or "latent"
demand for outdoor recreation resources and facilities.

2. The Department of Environmental Protection should recommend                     Not Initiated -
legislation to amend Chapter 375, Florida Statutes, to provide annual              Not Recommended
funds for recreation planning research purposes based upon an
appropriate percentage of funds authorized from state trust funds
used for financing state and local government recreation projects.

3. The Department of Environmental Protection should determine                     Initiated/ongoing
trends in outdoor recreation participation, demographics and origin-
destination patterns and make the information available to public
and private outdoor recreation providers in Florida.

4. The Department of Environmental Protection should conduct                       Not Initiated
county-level demand and need assessments on a biennial basis.

5. The Department of Environmental Protection should strengthen                    Initiated/ongoing
its public awareness and education activities and increase the
provision of interpretive programs.

6. The public schools in Florida, with leadership from the                         Initiated/ongoing
Department of Education, should integrate environmental education                  Office of
for both children and adults throughout their curricula to create a                Environmental
continuing awareness of the threats to the State's natural systems.                Education

7. The Division of Forestry should educate the public on protection                Initiated/ongoing
of forest resources through its Environmental Camp, Local
Environmental Education Program and Arbor Day Program.

8. The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission should inform                     Initiated/ongoing
and educate the public on protection of fish and wildlife resources
through its hunter education, threatened and endangered fish and
wildlife, and non-game fish and wildlife programs, and through
publications such as Florida Wildlife.

9. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue its                  Completed
efforts to stimulate public awareness of the destruction of natural
resources and encourage involvement in the protection of the
environment through the Resource Alert Program.

10. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue                     Initiated/ongoing
the efforts to inform the public about the sensitivity of Florida's
natural resources through its numerous publications concerning


                                             Appendix G - 1
                                                Appendix G
                              Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                               SCORP 2000
threats to Florida's environment.

11. Local governments should develop a liaison between civic and         Initiated/ongoing
education groups to disseminate information regarding local
environmental problems and laws.

12. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue           Completed
its involvement in the Take Pride in America program to promote
and encourage public awareness of the State's natural resources.

13. The Department of Environmental Protection should initiate           Not Initiated
efforts to conduct a Governor's conference on outdoor recreation to
stimulate the coordination of resources and facilities among public
and private suppliers.

14. The Department of Environmental Protection, with the                 Not Initiated
assistance of public and private recreation providers, should develop
a computerized database and communication network should be
created to function as an information clearing-house, providing
technical information on recreation planning, and resource and
facility opportunities.

15. The Department of Environmental Protection should establish          Initiated/ongoing
strategies to identify, promote, administer and monitor recreation
volunteer programs at all levels.

16. The Department of Environmental Protection should coordinate         Initiated/ongoing
efforts of the natural resource agencies to establish a statewide
communication network to coordinate and promote environmental
improvement clean-up projects and the recruitment of volunteers.

17. The Department of Environmental Protection should publish            Not Initiated
and distribute a recreation planning and technical assistance
newsletter to inform public recreation suppliers about important
events and opportunities for contributing to the provision of outdoor
recreation opportunities.

18. VISIT FLORIDA and the State University System should                 Initiated/ongoing
continue to assist the Department of Environmental Protection in
assessing Florida resident and tourist demand for outdoor recreation
activities through the use of surveys and other activities.

19. VISIT FLORIDA, the Department of State and the Department            Ongoing
of Environmental Protection should coordinate their efforts to
increase the dissemination of information about historical, cultural
and archaeological resources and programs available to residents
and out-of-state visitors.

20. VISIT FLORIDA should assist the Department of                        Ongoing
Environmental Protection and the Department of State in developing
programs to increase awareness and appreciation of Florida's
historical and cultural resources.

21. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue           Ongoing
its cooperation with the Department of State to interpret and make


                                             Appendix G - 2
                                                Appendix G
                              Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                               SCORP 2000
available visitation to archaeological and historical resources.

22. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue to         Ongoing
inventory the outdoor recreation resources and facilities among all
public, private and non-profit suppliers throughout Florida.

23. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue            Ongoing
the development of management plans for each unit in the state park
system.

24. The VISIT FLORIDA and the Department of Environmental                 Initiated/ongoing
Protection should implement a coordinated program aimed at
increasing the awareness of Florida's state parks among out-of-state
visitors.

25. The Department of Environmental Protection should increase its        Initiated/ongoing
research efforts to obtain a clearer understanding of state park
visitation and park visitor characteristics as part of its overall
program for increasing public awareness and use of the parks.

26. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage           Ongoing
the use of state park lands for scientific research of natural systems.

27. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue to         Ongoing
develop greenline peripheral zones surrounding state park lands and
monitor development activities within these zones for impacts on
resources within the parks.

28. The Department of Environmental Protection should                     Ongoing
periodically hold conferences and other public forums to evaluate
the administration of the state park system to ensure that its
resources are being optimally utilized to meet outdoor recreation and
resource management needs.

29. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue to         Initiated/ongoing
explore new ways of involving the private sector in the provision of
state park recreation opportunities consistent with the parks'
management objectives and purposes.

30. The Department of Environmental Protection should make                Ongoing
greater use of volunteer assistance in developing, operating and
maintaining state parks to supplement insufficient appropriations for
these purposes.

31. The Department of Environmental Protection should examine             Ongoing
the existing volunteer activities in state parks to determine where
volunteers are being underutilized.

32. The Department of Environmental Protection should coordinate          Ongoing
with the Department of Corrections to expand and increase the use
of inmate labor in the park system.

33. The Department of Environmental Protection should further             Ongoing
develop and expand the Americorps Program.



                                               Appendix G - 3
                                               Appendix G
                             Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                              SCORP 2000
34. The National Park Service should encourage federal legislation      Ongoing
to create an outdoor recreation trust fund large enough to support a
long-term and stable funding assistance program to help serve state
and local government recreation needs.

35. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage         Ongoing
the legislature to authorize a larger share of the funds annually
accruing to the Land Acquisition Trust fund for the public recreation
purposes they were intended to serve.

36. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage         Ongoing
the development of effective partnerships between state and local
governments and the private sector to assist in the provision of
outdoor recreation opportunities.

37. All public agencies should determine the potential of operating     Ongoing
parks or park facilities jointly with private suppliers which would
contribute start up and construction costs for providing new outdoor
recreation opportunities.

38. The Department of Environmental Protection should consider          Ongoing
opportunities for requesting Land and Water Conservation Fund
monies to finance specific recreation planning studies.

39. Local governments should examine the feasibility of collecting      Ongoing
impact fees to fund renovation and improvement projects.

40. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage         Ongoing
public and private recreation providers to establish non-profit
organizations to solicit financial support and manpower to acquire
and develop additional park lands.

41. State and local governments should encourage citizen                Ongoing
volunteers to conduct interpretive programs and other services to
supplement existing park and recreational personnel.

42. The Department of Environmental Protection should provide           Ongoing
technical assistance to local governments in identifying and
evaluating alternative sources of revenue such as impact fees, user
fees, and bond referendums for local recreation programs.

43. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage         Ongoing
local government agencies to promote the formation of non-profit
organizations to help offset the operation and maintenance costs of
existing facilities.

44. The Department of Environmental Protection, in close                Initiated/ongoing
coordination with state agencies and local and private interests
should develop a statewide greenway plan to establish recreation
and wildlife corridors between existing public lands. Specifically,
the plan would identify roles and responsibilities, implementation
measures, legislation, and funding needs.

45. The Department of Environmental Protection, in conjunction          Ongoing
with other land management agencies, should continue to publicize


                                             Appendix G - 4
                                                Appendix G
                              Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                               SCORP 2000
and distribute an annual report on program accomplishments related
to the State's conservation and recreational land resources in an
effort to stimulate additional actions by other public and private
interests.

46. The Division of Forestry should develop a long-range                   Ongoing
comprehensive forest recreation plan for the state forest system to
provide for resource management and operations while providing for
the protection of the surrounding environment.

47. The Department of Environmental Protection should assist the           Ongoing
water management districts in determining what types of compatible
recreation opportunities could be made available on lands acquired
through the Save Our Rivers program.

48. The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, through its             Ongoing
non-game program, should continue to develop and distribute
educational materials concerning the need to establish and maintain
wildlife corridors.

49. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue to          Initiated/ongoing
seek funding to eliminate facility and program barriers in state parks
to comply with the ADA.

50. Local governments should use funding sources such as outdoor           Ongoing
recreation impact fees, land and other dedications, special taxation
districts, and local option taxes to fund the expansion of local
recreation delivery systems for meeting the demands of new
residents.

51. The Department of Environmental Protection should encourage
recreation suppliers to arrange energy audits of their facilities and to
incorporate energy-efficient and energy-saving features into the
design and operation of new facilities.

52. The Department of Community Affairs, with the assistance of            Ongoing
other state agencies, should provide technical and financial
assistance to local governments to help them meet the planning
requirements of Chapter 9J-5, Florida Administrative Code.

53. The Department of Environmental Protection and Enterprise              Not initiated
Florida Inc. should jointly establish a task force to identify possible
means for increasing private sector investment in outdoor recreation.


54. The Department of Environmental Protection should establish a          Initiated/ongoing
landowner relations program to establish formal and effective lines
of communication with the large landowners in the state especially
the timber, ranching and mining interests.

55. The Department of Environmental Protection and other public            Initiated/ongoing
agencies should establish formal programs for utilizing volunteers in      Ongoing
all aspects of their outdoor recreation programs.

56. Enterprise Florida Inc. should target specific recreation and          Ongoing


                                               Appendix G - 5
                                                 Appendix G
                               Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                                SCORP 2000
leisure-related industries and actively recruit them to locate in
Florida.

57. The Land Acquisition Advisory Council should encourage                Ongoing
private organizations and foundations to continue to acquire lands
with significant ecological, geological, or biological characteristics.

58. The Department of Environmental Protection and the Florida            Initiated/ongoing
Recreation and Park Association should assist local governments in
establishing a program to encourage, coordinate and promote private
foundation and industry support of recreation facilities and programs
for employees and members of their families.

59. The Department of Environmental Protection should seek                Not Initiated
authorization to establish a joint public and private recreation
council at the state level to address issues and opportunities to
achieve a high level of coordination in the provision and promotion
of recreational opportunities.

60. The Department of Environmental Protection, in conjunction            Not initiated
with other state agencies, should encourage private recreation
manufacturers and suppliers to promote and educate the public about
recreation opportunities in Florida.

61. The Department of Environmental Protection should develop,            Initiated/ongoing
with assistance from the Florida Recreational Trails Council, a
comprehensive recreational trails plan for Florida.

62. The Department of Environmental Protection should continue to         Initiated/ongoing
investigate abandoned railroad rights-of-way and other potential trail
resources, and encourage their acquisition to meet identified trail
needs.

63. The Department of Environmental Protection should map all             Initiation/ongoing
trails designated as components of the statewide trail system.

64. The Department of Environmental Protection should work with           Initiated/ongoing
other agencies to evaluate existing trails as prospective additions to
the Florida Recreational Trails System and to determine the potential
and feasibility for establishing additional trails on lands under their
jurisdictions.

65. All recreation suppliers should identify public waters under          Initiated/ongoing
their jurisdiction for which insufficient public access exists.

66. State and local governments should obtain, where appropriate          Ongoing
and practical, access right-of-way easements across private property
and encourage the private sector to provide water-based recreational
facilities.

67. The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission should                  Initiated/ongoing
refurbish its existing boat ramps where needed and construct new
facilities, particularly on lakes and rivers in urban areas and on all
water bodies with insufficient public access.



                                               Appendix G - 6
                                                Appendix G
                              Status of 1994 SCORP Implementation Measures
                                               SCORP 2000
68. The Department of State, Division of Historical Resources            Initiated/ongoing
should continue efforts to inform the public about the sensitivity of
Florida's historical resources, the value of such resources to our
quality of life, and the recreational and educational benefits of
historical resource interpretation and visitation.

69. The State's efforts in the area of beach restoration and             Initiate/ongoing
enhancement should be significantly increased.

70. The Department of Environmental Protection and the Fish and          Initiated/ongoing
Wildlife Conservation Commission should continue to preserve and
enhance environments and specific habitats as well as wildlife
corridors that will maintain or increase present populations of
resident and migratory species of wildlife.

71. The Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission should explore         Initiated/ongoing
every feasible means, including legislation if needed, for providing
inducements and incentives to landowners to keep their lands under
lease for public hunting.

72. The Department of Environmental Protection should                    Not Initiated
recommend legislation to amend Chapters 375, and 253, F.S., to
further expand appropriate eminent domain authority for the
acquisition of outdoor recreation and environmental preservation
lands.

73. The Department of Environmental Protection should                    Not Initiated
recommend legislation to establish a formal statewide program for        During last 5 yrs.
protecting the natural, cultural and recreational values of Florida's
Rivers through their designation and management as wild, scenic or
recreational.

74. The Department of Environmental Protection should                    Not Initiated
recommend legislation to amend Section 193.501, F.S., to make it
mandatory that local tax assessors recognize and appropriately
assess properties encumbered for recreational, environmental
preservation, wildlife management and historic preservation
purposes.

75. The Department of Environmental Protection should                    Completed
recommend legislation to amend Section 375.251, F.S., to provide a
definitive reaffirmation of intent to limit landowner liability and
outlaw unsanctioned access and use of private lands made available
for public recreational use.

76. The Department of Environmental Protection should establish a        Not Initiated
committee of state agency representatives to coordinate outdoor
recreation planning activities and assign appropriate allocations of
responsibility for meeting statewide outdoor recreation demand.

77. All resource-based recreation suppliers should recognize the         Ongoing
public's preferred recreation resource settings when developing new
resources and facilities in order to meet identified needs.




                                              Appendix G - 7
                                              Appendix H
                                          Wetlands Component
                                             SCORP 2000

                                           Wetlands Protection

Wetlands are an important natural resource because of their many environmental and economic benefits.
However, at one time, people thought of wetlands as being “useless wastelands.” That antiquated
perception led to the destruction of a large portion of Florida’s wetlands. Presently, efforts are being
made at all levels of government to halt the destruction of this natural resource.

The Emergency Wetlands Resources Act of 1986 (PL99-645) requires each state comprehensive outdoor
recreation plan to include a component that identifies wetlands as a priority concern within that state.
This addendum identifies the wetlands communities that exist in Florida, discusses major threats to the
State's wetlands, and describes the wetlands protection programs that exist today. It also identifies the
major policies that will guide wetlands protection and lists specific wetlands that have been identified for
acquisition under various government programs.

                                           What is a Wetland?

Generally speaking, a wetland is an area that is neither dry land nor open water. All wetlands are formed
and sustained by the influence of water on land; however, the depth and duration of water in different
types of wetlands can be extremely variable. In some wetlands the water is at ground level, where the
saturated soils stay wet most of the time. Other wetlands are inundated, with normal water levels above
ground. Many wetlands are dry for extended periods, but these same wetlands at other times may contain
several feet of water. This is why it can be difficult to define and delineate a wetland (Florida Department
of Environmental Protection, 1997). The State of Florida defines wetlands in Section 373.019 (17) of the
Florida Statutes, and Section 62-340.200 (19) of the Florida Administrative Code, as follows:

        "'Wetlands' . . . means those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface water or ground
        water at a frequency and a duration sufficient to support, and [that] under normal circumstances
        do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soils. Soils present
        in wetlands generally are classified as hydric or alluvial, or possess characteristics that are
        associated with reducing soil conditions. The prevalent vegetation in wetlands generally consists
        of facultative or obligate hydrophytic macrophytes that are typically adapted to areas having soil
        conditions described above. These species, due to morphological, physiological, or reproductive
        adaptations, have the ability to grow, reproduce or persist in aquatic environments or anaerobic
        soil conditions. Florida wetlands generally include swamps, marshes, bayheads, bogs, cypress
        domes and strands, sloughs, wet prairies, riverine swamps and marshes, hydric seepage slopes,
        tidal marshes, mangrove swamps and other similar areas. Florida wetlands generally do not
        include longleaf or slash pine flatwoods with an understory dominated by saw palmetto...."

The method of determining the limits of a wetland is found in Section 62-340.300 of the Florida
Administrative Code. This method is based on the concept that a wetland can be identified by looking for
indicators that show the influence of water. Certain plants do better than others in an environment that is
generally or occasionally wet. Similarly, soils develop certain characteristics in response to periodic and
sustained saturation. Also, there are other physical traits such as water stains or special plant adaptations



                                              Appendix H - 1
                                                 Appendix H
                                           Wetlands Component
                                                SCORP 2000
that indicate wet situations (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1997). Although not exact,
a thorough analysis of these various traits aids in the boundary delineation between uplands and wetlands.

                                    The Value of Florida’s Wetlands

Determining the value of Florida’s wetlands is as difficult as trying to define them due to the complexity
of their ecological, economic, and aesthetic functions. Characteristics such as a wetland’s location, size
and relationship to adjacent land and water areas can help in the assessment of its functional value. A
detailed discussion of the value of Florida’s wetlands follows.

Ecological value
Wetlands are important to the health of the environment for various reasons including their capacity to
filter pollutants, provide species’ habitat and food, and reduce flooding and erosion. As water passes
through a wetland, much of the pollution that is dissolved or suspended in the water becomes trapped by
the wetland plants and soils. The pollutants are then converted into food material for aquatic organisms.
This filtering capability of wetlands helps to keep surface water bodies suitable for wildlife habitat and
human recreation activities. In addition, the filtering capacity of wetlands improve water quality by
capturing sediment, thereby reducing the siltation of nearby rivers and lakes.

Besides filtering pollutants, wetlands are valuable because they are among the most biologically
productive natural ecosystems in the world. Vegetation grows very quickly in wetlands, producing a
great deal of food for plant-eating animals. Plant material that is not eaten directly is broken down into
rich organic soil as well as a material called “detritus.” Detritus is a valuable food source for aquatic
animals. In addition to serving as a food source, wetlands provide habitat for a diverse assortment of
animals. For some species, wetlands are primary habitats, while for others, wetlands provide important
seasonal habitats where food, water and shelter are plentiful. In Florida, many endangered and threatened
species, such as the wood stork and the Florida panther, are dependent upon wetlands for their survival.

Wetlands are also important due to the amount of water that they can hold and the manner and rate that
water passes through them. Most ground water supplies are recharged from the water that collects in
wetlands and then infiltrates into the ground. Wetlands help control flooding and erosion by collecting
and storing the excess stormwater that runs off uplands as well as the waters from flooding rivers. By
providing temporary storage areas for this surplus water, wetlands slow down the rate at which the waters
rise and reduce the maximum elevation of flood waters. The wetland vegetation and gradually sloping
topography also absorb much of the energy from fast flowing waters and waves, thereby reducing erosion
(Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1997).

Economic value
Wetlands contribute to the economy by producing resources and commodities and providing other
benefits. For instance, wetlands serve as important nursery areas, and provide plant food for commercial
and recreational fish and shellfish industries. The commercial fishing industry brought in more than 5
million pounds of fish and shellfish, worth almost $13.5 million, to Franklin County in 1994. Many of
Florida’s commercially important fish, shrimp, and oysters grow to maturity in the wetland areas around
Apalachicola Bay.



                                              Appendix H - 2
                                             Appendix H
                                         Wetlands Component
                                            SCORP 2000

In addition, all revenue generated by outdoor recreation activities such as camping, hunting, fishing,
canoeing, sailing, nature photography, bird watching, or hiking in and near wetlands must be included
when assessing the economic benefits of wetlands. This assessment must also include services and goods
needed for the outdoor recreation activities including motels, meals at restaurants, and purchases of
gasoline and outdoor gear.

Wetlands also help protect the value of waterfront property by buffering the effects of floods. It is
believed that floods may cause as much as $4 billion worth of damage each year in the United States.
The flooding of private property financially affects both the flooded property owners as well as the
general public, who pay for the loss through increased insurance premiums. In addition, the force of
moving water can erode upland property. It is easily observed that the erosive effects of waves and
flowing water are much more dramatic along shorelines not protected by wetlands. Maintaining wetlands
between moving water and uplands is an economical way to protect property from erosion (Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, 1997).

Aesthetic value
Finally, it can be argued that wetlands have aesthetic value. Wetlands offer people a sense of both beauty
and well-being. It is comforting to spend time in these natural areas to enjoy the sights, sounds and
smells. However, each person has his or her own opinion about the natural beauty of wetlands and the
relative worth of that beauty.

In summary, Florida wetlands have significant economic, ecological, and aesthetic value. Table H-1
summarizes the diverse functions and values that characterize the wetland communities. Since more than
half of Florida’s original wetlands have been lost to drainage and development, the integrity of the system
in terms of its resource function and value has been weakened (Florida Department of Environmental
Protection, 1997).




                                             Appendix H - 3
                                                                Appendix H
                                                            Wetlands Component
                                                               SCORP 2000

Table H-1: MAJOR WETLAND FUNCTIONS AND VALUES
Fish and Wildlife Habitat     Environmental Quality Support                          Socio-Economic Values                    Hydrologic Functions

Fish and shellfish                       Water quality maintenance                   Product Source                           Flood control
Waterfowl, wading birds, shorebirds             pollution filter                             timber, peat, forage,            Wave dampening
Furbearers and other mammals                    sediment & toxicant trapping                 fish and shellfish, fur&         Erosion control
Reptiles and amphibians                         oxygen production                            other wildlife products, food,   Groundwater discharge
Plant communities                               nutrient cycling                             medicine, aquaculture            Flow stabilization
Endangered species                              chemical & nutrient absorption       Recreation                               Saltwater intrusion
                                                                                                                              prevention
                                                 Biogeochemical cycling              Wastewater treatment
                                                 Primary productivity                Water supply
                                                 Microclimate regulation             Aesthetics
                                                 Biospheric stabilization            Education & scientific research
                                                 Biodiversity                        Bank stabilization
                                                                                     Cultural heritage
                                                                                     Archaeological resource
                                                                                     Uniqueness
Source: United States Fish and Wildlife Service and United States Environmental Protection Agency, 1994




                                                               Appendix H - 4
                                               Appendix H
                                         Wetlands Component
                                              SCORP 2000
                                      Threats to Florida’s Wetlands

Human activity and natural factors are directly responsible for the loss and degradation of wetland
habitat. In Florida, natural threats such as droughts, hurricanes and natural succession are relatively
insignificant when compared to the losses incurred through human actions such as drainage for
agriculture, flood control, and filling for development. Given all the benefits of wetlands, it is important
to recognize what kinds of activities threaten these important areas.

Conversion
Florida’s wetlands have been converted for numerous purposes including agriculture, urban development
and mining. In addition, the proliferation of exotic species has significantly altered Florida’s landscape.
Each of these activities has had a unique impact on the integrity of the wetland system.

A vast amount of wetlands in Florida have been converted to agricultural production, principally row
crops, pasture and rangeland. From the mid-1970s to the mid-1980s, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
estimated that 175,100 wetland acres were lost to agriculture and another 66,000 wetland acres were lost
to urban and other forms of development. Water management practices on these and other agricultural
lands in Florida often impact adjacent wetlands when excess surface water is pumped from flooded
agricultural lands onto the adjoining wetlands, extending their hydroperiods. This unnaturally long
inundation coupled with excess nutrients may reduce biological productivity and threaten plants and
wildlife.

The conversion of Florida's coastal wetlands is directly related to the State's population growth and
corresponding urban development. Currently, about 80 percent of Florida’s residents are living within
coastal counties, and a 50 percent increase in the coastal population is expected by the year 2020 (Florida
Department of Community Affairs, 1997). The loss of wetlands in these areas through dredging and
filling for urban development has been significant at both the state and national levels. Based upon U.S.
Fish and Wildlife estimates, vegetated coastal wetlands in Florida averaged a loss rate of over 3,100 acres
per year between 1953 and 1973. This loss of 62,200 acres represents about 17 percent of the entire
vegetated estuarine wetland loss in the nation during the same period. However, from the mid-1970s to
the mid-1980s, no significant changes have occurred with the marine intertidal wetlands, although a loss
of 2,700 acres of vegetated estuarine wetlands in Florida was estimated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Service during the ten-year period. In addition to the enormous fisheries losses and a host of other related
problems, urbanization and its concomitant conversion of coastal wetlands have resulted in saltwater
contamination of groundwater supplies in coastal communities.

Mining activity has also disturbed considerable wetland acreage. Although current regulations require
reclamation at a rate of one acre restored for every acre disturbed, past mining practices caused permanent
and historic losses of wetlands and their supporting watersheds. In addition, mining has many secondary
impacts that are not accounted for under the current regulations. Phosphate mining is particularly
destructive to wetlands in the immediate vicinity of areas being mined and in downslope areas which may
be inundated by accidental discharges of sediment from clay settling areas and phosphogypsum stacks. In
addition to phosphate mining, Florida’s wetlands are disturbed by peat, lime rock and shell mining. Most
of the vast peat deposits have yet to be mined, although three-fourths of Florida's peat resources are in the
Everglades and other wetlands in central and south Florida, and extraction of these deposits would have a
devastating effect on the already stressed Everglades ecological systems. Lime rock and shell mining
result in the conversion of sawgrass prairie systems to deep lakes, and impact wetlands on the edges of
the Everglades.




                                               Appendix H - 5
                                                 Appendix H
                                             Wetlands Component
                                                 SCORP 2000
Another serious threat to the integrity of wetlands in Florida is the proliferation of exotic species.
Melaleuca, Brazilian pepper, Australian pine, water hyacinth and hydrilla have three characteristics in
common which make their presence in wetland environments a formidable problem. These related
characteristics are (1) their adaptability to new surroundings and changing conditions, (2) their tendency
to crowd out or displace native vegetation and (3) their resistance or cost to control or eradicate.
Generally, the melaleuca, Brazilian pepper, hydrilla, and water hyacinth are better able to adapt to local
disturbances in hydrologic conditions than native plants. The native species are unable to compete on an
equal footing with the exotics when their specialized environments change. Once exotic plants become
established in wetland systems with shallow bottoms, they promote a build-up of decayed vegetative
matter, eventually filling in the depressions to the point that the wetlands become mesic flatlands. As
exotic species become established in new settings, they proliferate in dense concentrations resulting in an
environment which further diminishes plant and animal species diversity. Eradication or control of exotic
species is difficult and expensive because of their rapid growth and the difficulty in killing or removing
the plants in sensitive wetland ecosystems.

Pollution
Although wetlands do assist in the filtration of pollutants, as previously discussed, there is a threshold to
the amount of pollution that can be assimilated. Water pollution has a compounding effect on wetlands,
resulting in problems such as algal blooms, disruption of natural plant succession, proliferation of aquatic
weeds, and destruction of fish, crustaceans, mollusks and other aquatic life. As the result of past,
short-sighted land and water management practices, a lack of adequate regulations and enforcement
capabilities, and such "modern" threats as acid rain, many wetlands have been polluted by runoff,
discharge of municipal and industrial wastes, and illegal dumping of hazardous wastes, garbage and spoil.
The outcome is that many formerly viable wetlands no longer function effectively or support the resource
values characteristic of wetlands.

Water Quantity
The seasonal fluctuations of water quantity, i.e. hydroperiod, is vital to the survival of many wetland
plants and animals. The alteration of natural water cycles in wetlands is generally caused by upstream or
on-site modification of water flow commonly for purposes of increasing water supply for potable or
agricultural uses or decreasing water levels for flood protection. Regardless of the purpose or manner in
which natural hydroperiods are altered, the effects of such disruptions on wetlands are generally the same.


The alteration of wetland hydroperiods accentuates the intensity and length of droughts and floods. For
instance, when surplus water drained from developed lands is pumped onto wetlands, unnaturally long
inundations adversely affect the germination and development of native plants. Wildlife is also impacted
by unnaturally long hydroperiods. In contrast, shortened hydroperiods and low water levels can promote
the decline of wetland species, invasion of native hardwoods and exotic species, and eventual conversion
of shallow wetlands to mesic bottomlands.

Lack of Information
A final problem contributing to wetland loss and degradation is the lack of understanding about wetlands
and their locations in the State. Not surprisingly, the absence of a comprehensive source of wetland
information impedes the development of effective and responsive management programs at the state and
local levels.

State agencies are often lacking baseline data to support staff recommendations for wetland legislation
and program reforms. Agencies are in an even weaker position to educate the general public about the
need for wetland management and protection. This problem first began to be addressed by the



                                              Appendix H - 6
                                               Appendix H
                                           Wetlands Component
                                               SCORP 2000
Legislature in 1984 through passage of the Warren S. Henderson Wetlands Protection Act (Section
403.91, Florida Statutes). The Act provided for a statewide data base to inventory existing wetlands and
monitor wetland changes resulting from permitting actions by state regulatory agencies. From October 1,
1984, the adoption date of the Act, through September 30, 1991, there have been 63,147 wetland acres
created, 199,169 wetland acres preserved, 160,018 acres improved and 30,531 wetland acres lost as a
result of permitting activities by the Department of Environmental Protection and the five water
management districts. (Table H-2) The creation of this program was an important step in remedying the
problem, but much remains to be done. Progress in restoring critically imperiled wetland areas in Florida
will continue to be hampered without additional accurate, up-to-date research on wetlands loss and
wetlands restoration strategies.

                                   Description of Florida’s Wetlands

Just as the definition and evaluation of wetlands varies, the methods used for classifying the various types
of wetlands also differ. For the purposes of describing the wetlands in this report, the natural community
classification system developed by the Florida Natural Areas Inventory is used. The premise of this
system is that physical factors, such as climate, geology, soil, hydrology and fire frequency, generally
determine the species composition of an area, and that areas which are similar with respect to these
factors will tend to have biological communities with similar species compositions. This classification
system separates wetlands into four broad types: lacustrine, riverine, marine and estuarine, and
palustrine. A second level is utilized at which twenty-one specific natural communities are identified.
Each community has been preliminary evaluated for its condition within the state by the Florida Natural
Areas Inventory based upon the community's estimated rarity and threat of destruction. The Florida
Natural Areas Inventory is actively gathering data to continue estimating these conditions. The plants and
animals identified in this chapter have been or are proposed for designation as




                                              Appendix H - 7
                                             Appendix H
                                         Wetlands Component
                                            SCORP 2000
                                              Table H-2

                Analysis of Wetland Acres Lost, Created, Preserved, and Improved
                              October 1, 1984 - September 30, 1993

                                                  Wetland        Wetland          Wetland            Wetland
                                                  Acreage        Acreage           Acreage           Acreage
Agency                                             Lost          Created          Preserved         Improved
Dept. of Environmental Protection                     7,854          39,272              20,900          123,843
Northwest Florida WMD                                   187             170               1,986                0
Suwannee River WMD                                      188              45               7,343                0
St. Johns River WMD                                   4,351           8,719              65,256           14,028
Southwest Florida WMD                                 4,293           3,409              30,549            1,254
South Florida WMD                                    13,658          11,532              73,135           20,893

Totals                                             30,531        63,147          199,169    160,018
Source: Department of Environmental Protection, Bureau of Submerged Lands and Environmental
Resources, 1998.
AGENCIES: DEP = Department of Environmental Protection; SJRWMD = St. Johns River Water
Management District;
NWFWMD = Northwest Florida Water Management District; SWFWMD = Southwest Florida Water
Management District;
SRWMD = Suwannee River Water Management District; SFWMD = South Florida Water Management
District

____________________________________________________________________________________
______
NOTE: The WMDs and the DEP used similar and compatible tracking systems, but with several
significant differences. Therefore, comparisons should be made with caution. The major differences are:

    1. Jurisdictional differences between the agencies will result in instances where review of the same
        proposed development may result in differing wetland acreages being recorded by the agencies.

    2. The WMDs' "preserved" category includes wetlands which are unaffected by the permitted project
       design, as well as those preserved by measures such as conservation easements and land
       dedications. The DEP s' "preserved" category is more restrictive, and only includes such
       permanent preservation measures.

    3. The additional category, "improved," includes lands which were considered wetlands prior to
       project construction, but which are improved in function. "Improvement" may take the form of
       plantings, removal of exotic species, improvements in hydrological conditions, enhancement of
       water quality, etc.

    4. The DEP categories of "lost" and "created" may include lands which are "wet," both before and
       after the permitted activity, but which are either severed from, or brought into, DEP dredge and
       fill jurisdiction, respectively. WMD jurisdiction is not generally effected by isolation.




                                             Appendix H - 8
                                                 Appendix H
                                           Wetlands Component
                                                SCORP 2000
threatened, endangered or of special concern under state or federal programs. The following is a
description of the various wetland community types. For the purposes of this addendum, lacustrine and
riverine will not be discussed as they pertain to open bodies of water, lacking persistent emergent
vegetation.

Marine and Estuarine Wetlands
Marine and estuarine wetlands occur along coastlines and include subtidal, intertidal, and supratidal
zones. The distinction between zones is often subtle. Generally, estuarine wetlands are those within
which seawater is significantly diluted by freshwater from the land, while marine areas lack significant
freshwater inflow. The primary criterion for separation is the salinity of the water, which often varies
with climate and weather conditions. For example, estuarine wetlands may temporarily undergo
freshwater conditions during periods of heavy runoff, or marine conditions when upland runoff is low.
Differences in species composition may exist between otherwise similar marine and estuarine wetlands
because of differences in salinity tolerance or other physical or biological factors.

Vegetation in marine and estuarine wetlands is composed mainly of grasses, rushes and sedges in north
Florida, and mangrove forests in south Florida. The soils of these communities are generally saturated at
all times, and are inundated during high tides. Freshwater flows into the estuary via surface runoff or is
discharged from underground sources. Quantity and quality of the freshwater are critical to the health and
productivity of these wetlands, as are the daily tidal infusions of saltwater.

Marine and estuarine wetlands are some of the world's most biologically productive communities. They
provide food sources and nursery habitat for a variety of marine species, including a large number of
sport and commercial fishes. These diverse habitats support a wide variety of resident and migratory
wildlife and particularly for many that are threatened or endangered species. In addition, these wetlands
buffer coastal environments from developed uplands by retaining contaminants in runoff. Additionally,
the wetlands serve to protect inland communities by dampening the impact of storms and hurricanes.

The greatest threats to marine and estuarine wetlands come from the socio-economic pressures to develop
Florida's attractive coastal areas. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has estimated that less than 960,000
acres of marine and estuarine vegetated wetlands remained in Florida by 1984. The State lost nearly
seven percent of its marine and estuarine wetlands between the mid-1950s and mid-1970s, and an
additional 2,800 acres by the mid 1980s, primarily because of dredge and fill activities to accommodate
urban development.

Palustrine Wetlands
Palustrine wetlands occur in association with freshwater mainly in the interior of Florida. They are
typically situated along lakes, streams, rivers or estuaries. Their vegetation varies from grasses and
herbaceous cover to well developed, mixed hardwood forests. Hydroperiods in the individual
communities vary widely, ranging from only seasonal flooding to nearly constant inundation throughout
the year. Fire is an essential factor in maintaining the character of some palustrine wetlands. Periodic
fires are often beneficial in wet flatwoods and prairies, but severe peat fires can destroy the community
and upset the plant and animal balance of the ecosystem.

Palustrine wetlands provide ideal plant and animal habitats. Some harbor an impressive array of rare
herbs, orchids and insectivorous plants. Many of the plant species that are found in such communities are
threatened or endangered, as are some of the animals. Palustrine wetlands are also inhabited by an
abundance of fishes and birds, particularly wading birds, which find many of the communities ideal for
food gathering and nesting. Palustrine wetlands are also important to migratory birds which use them for
wintering or as resting stops in their migration.



                                             Appendix H - 9
                                                 Appendix H
                                             Wetlands Component
                                                SCORP 2000

Many of Florida's palustrine wetlands have been altered or destroyed for the economic values of their
resources. Based on the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's estimates, palustrine wetlands covered some
11.4 million acres in 1953, comprising 92 percent of the State's vegetated wetlands. By 1984, this figure
had declined by nearly two million acres, representing an average annual loss of just over 65,000 acres
over the 30-year period. Forested palustrine wetlands have been logged heavily in Florida, and virgin
stands are nearly non-existent. Logging of the remaining smaller trees continues today, as does the
harvesting of cypress buttresses and knees for souvenir items. Harvested areas were once commonly
replanted as pine plantations, or converted to agriculture, but today are often developed for homesites. A
further threat to palustrine wetlands is the mining of peat and topsoil. Additionally, the biological
integrity of some communities is being threatened by over-collection of orchids, bromeliads, ferns and
other epiphytes.

                                         Wetland Protection Efforts

Since statehood in 1845, nearly nine million acres of wetlands have been altered during the settlement and
development of Florida. Between 1906 and 1973, the State experienced an estimated 40 percent
reduction in its vegetated wetlands primarily through drainage and filling, representing an average annual
loss of nearly 120,000 acres. The population during the same period grew eight-fold, increasing by
approximately 100,000 people per year. In the late seventies and early eighties the political and social
forces in the state recognized that protecting Florida’s wetlands was of vital importance, and that there
was a direct connection between the economic health of Florida and the health of Florida’s environment.
As a result of this change in public sentiment and policy, wetland losses were reduced to an average of
26,000 acres per year (Florida Department of Environmental Protection, 1998). The following is a
discussion of both state and federal efforts that have led to a reduction in wetland conversion and
destruction in Florida.

State Efforts
Until recently in Florida's history, little statutory authority existed at the state level for the protection of
wetlands. Much of the present legislation has evolved as an outgrowth of the State's regulatory system
for protecting water resources. Although not always directed specifically at wetlands, historical water
management regulations and policies have had a direct impact on the quality and quantity of wetland
habitats found throughout the State.

A major step in the evolution of wetlands protection took place in 1967 with the passage of the Florida
Air and Water Pollution Control Act (Section 403.011, Florida Statutes). The Act consolidated pollution
control authority in the Governor and Cabinet as the Florida Air and Water Pollution Control
Commission, and repealed many of the existing environmental statutes replacing them with a pollution
control program, much of which remains in effect today. The law strengthened state regulation of dredge
and fill by creating a permitting process designed to prohibit construction activities which adversely
affect water quality. Landmark federal legislation followed in 1969 with the passage of the National
Environmental Policy Act (42 United States Code 4321). This established a national environmental
protection policy and created the federal Council on Environmental Policy to coordinate federal programs
related to environmental policy. The act also greatly expanded the courts' role in reviewing federal
agency decisions which have environmental consequences, and changed the basic process of
administrative decision making by requiring greater consideration of environmental impacts.

The 1970s brought the passage of a number of important pieces of environmental legislation that directly
or indirectly affected wetlands protection efforts. The 1972 Legislature enacted four major statutes
relating to state-level wetland protection and management. The State Comprehensive Planning Act



                                                Appendix H - 10
                                                Appendix H
                                            Wetlands Component
                                                SCORP 2000
(Chapter 23, Florida Statutes), provided for a state comprehensive plan which was to coordinate various
state and local planning activities, including marine and water resources, pollution control, and fish and
wildlife. The Environmental Land and Water Management Act of 1972 (Chapter 380, Florida Statutes),
created the Development of Regional Impact and Area of Critical State Concern programs as a means of
bringing about state oversight and coordination of local land use decisions affecting critical
environmental areas. The Land Conservation Act of 1972 (Chapter 259, Florida Statutes), authorized the
sale of $200 million in state bonds to raise revenue for the purchase of wetlands and other
environmentally endangered lands. Finally, the Water Resources Act (Chapter 373, Florida Statutes),
created the forerunner of today's administrative structure of five regional water management districts.

Additional protection efforts were made in 1990, when the Department of Environmental Protection and
the Water Management Districts’ attempted to reduce duplication in wetlands permitting. The Legislature
ratified a statewide unified wetland delineation methodology and required the merging of two existing
programs that protect wetlands, the wetland resource and Management and Storage of Surface Waters
(MSSW) programs, into the Environmental Resource Permitting program which took effect in October,
1995. Effective implementation of these programs is critical to effectively evaluating wetlands losses and
gains on a statewide basis and dealing with the continued loss of viable wetland acreage.

Regarding state wetland protection strategies for the future, the Environmental Resource Permit Program
will require that mitigation offset the wetland impacts that do not meet permitting criteria (Florida
Department of Environmental Protection, 1998). In addition, wetland restoration efforts are increasing,
including the development of tools such as “mitigation banking,” which will be discussed below.

Federal Efforts
Federal laws that affect wetlands have also been evolving over the past two decades, as the value of
wetlands has been recognized. Previously, certain laws, such as the federal tax code, public works
legislation, and farm program encouraged destructive development practices that damaged wetland
resources. Federal laws now either encourage wetland protection or prohibit their destruction. The
central federal regulatory program, Section 404 of the Clean Water Act, was established in 1972 and
requires landowners or developers to obtain permits from the Corps of Engineers to carry out activities
involving disposal of dredged or fill materials into waters of the United States, including wetlands.
Another program, Swampbuster, is a disincentive program that indirectly protects wetlands by making
agricultural farmers who drain wetlands ineligible for federal farm program benefits.

During the past decade, federal wetland policies have become more focused on wetland restoration. A
large portion of the restoration stems from the efforts to mitigate wetland loss at off-site locations. The
restoration and creation of wetlands with ecological and functional value equivalent to those of natural
wetlands that have been lost is an issue of debate and concern for scientists and policy makers. Results of
restoration efforts seem to vary considerably depending on the type of wetland.

In recent years, the Section 404 program has included mitigation actions. A 1990 Memorandum Of
Agreement signed by all agencies with regulatory responsibilities outlined the following sequence of
steps leading to mitigation: first, activities in wetlands should be avoided when possible; second, when
they can not be avoided, impacts should be minimized; and third, where minimum impacts are still
acceptable, mitigation is appropriate. The MOA directs mitigation wetland acreage to be replaced on a
one-for-one functional basis. Mitigation may become a requirement of a Section 404 permit in the future
(National Institute for the Environment, 1998).

Currently, a new strategy for restoration, “mitigation banking, ” has become popular. According to the
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, a wetlands mitigation bank is “a wetland area that has been



                                             Appendix H - 11
                                                Appendix H
                                           Wetlands Component
                                                SCORP 2000
restored, created, enhanced, or (in exceptional circumstances) preserved, which is then set aside to
compensate for future conversions of wetlands for development activities. A wetland bank may be
created when a government agency, a corporation, or a nonprofit organization undertakes such activities
under a formal agreement with a regulatory agency. The value of a bank is determined by quantifying the
wetland values restored or created in terms of “credits”’ (Committee for the National Institute for the
Environment, 1998). Several private and public mitigation banks have been established, but it is too early
to determine their success. Several benefits to wetland mitigation banking have been defined by the EPA
as follows:
• Banking can provide more cost effective mitigation and reduce uncertainty and delays for qualified
    projects, especially when the project is associated with a comprehensive planning effort.
• Successful mitigation can be ensured since the wetlands can be functional in advance of project
    impacts.
• Banking eliminates the temporal losses of wetland values that typically occur when mitigation is
    initiated during or after the development impacts occur.
• Consolidation of numerous small, isolated or fragmented mitigation projects into a single large parcel
    may have greater ecological benefit.
• A mitigation bank can bring scientific and planning expertise and financial resources together,
    thereby increasing the likelihood of success in a way not practical for individual mitigation efforts.

The state of Florida has also taken steps to implement wetlands mitigation banking throughout the state.
The rules on mitigation banking were developed jointly by the Department of Environmental Protection
and water management districts, and took effect in early 1994. The South Florida Water Management
District is developing mitigation banks for lands in their district. The Department and the other water
management districts have no immediate plans to establish mitigation banks, although private groups
have shown interest in the concept. Private interests have applied for or received permits for about
twenty mitigation banks in the St. Johns, Southwest Florida and South Florida Water Management
Districts. They range in size from 345 to 4,700 acres. Groups that want to use credits from a mitigation
bank must meet criteria set out by rule (62-342, F.A.C.):
• The type of mitigation must be appropriate to offset the impacts (restoring a cypress swamp for
    impact to a cypress swamp, etc.);
• The construction to be mitigated must be within the service area for the bank; and
• On-site mitigation would not be hydrologically or ecologically viable in the long term (Florida
    Department of Environmental Protection, 1997).

In summary, wetland protection and restoration efforts have been increasing in the nation as well as in
Florida. However, wetland loss is still a problematic issue for a state that is continuing to grow at such a
rapid rate. Since the vast majority (74%) of the wetlands in the lower 48 States are privately owned, the
system of wetlands is quite vulnerable. Efforts to protect and restore wetlands should be increased at all
levels of government in the future. The continuing involvement of state and federal agencies in the
protection and management of Florida’s wetlands is summarized in Table H-3.




                                              Appendix H - 12
                                                        Appendix H
                                                    Wetlands Component
                                                       SCORP 2000
                                                          TABLE H-3

                                    Federal, State, Local and Private Programs Related to
                                                Wetlands Protection in Florida

                                                  Selection/ Technical/
                                        Land     Evaluation/ Advisory Planning/
                Agency                Acquisition Acquisition Services Management   Research   Regulation
Fl. Dept. of Environmental Protection    X             X         X         X          X           X
Fl. Water Management Districts           X             X         X         X          X
Fl. Fish & Wildlife Conservation         X             X         X         X
Commission
Fl. Dept. of Agriculture & Consumer      X             X         X         X           X           X
Services
Fl. Regional Planning Councils                                             X           X
Fl. Department of State                                          X         X
Fl. Department of Transportation         X                                 X
Fl. Department of Community Affairs                                        X           X           X

U.S. Department of Interior              X           X            X        X           X
U.S. Department of Agriculture           X                        X        X
U.S. Department of Defense               X           X            X        X           X
U.S. Department of Transportation                                 X
U.S. Department of Commerce                                       X
U.S. Environmental Protection                                              X
Agency

Local Governments                        X           X            X        X           X           X
Non-Governmental Organizations           X           X            X        X           X




                                                         Appendix H - 13
                                           Appendix H
                                       Wetlands Component
                                          SCORP 2000
WETLAND PROTECTION POLICIES

The State's efforts to protect Florida's remaining wetland resources are carried out within the
broad framework of the State Comprehensive plan’s goals and policies, Section 183, Florida
Statutes. Listed below are policies from the State plan, as well as those of state and regional
agencies, that pertain directly or indirectly to the protection of wetlands and their resources.

Water Resource Management Policies

1.     Eliminate the discharge of inadequately treated wastewater and stormwater runoff into
       waters of the State.
2.     Protect surface and groundwater quality in the State.
3.     Discourage the channelization, diversion or damming of natural riverine systems.
4.     Reserve from use that water necessary to support essential non-withdrawal demands,
       including navigation, recreation, and the protection of fish and wildlife.
5.     Protect water storage and water quality enhancement functions of wetlands, floodplains,
       and aquifer recharge areas through acquisition, enforcement of laws, and the application
       of land and water management practices which provide for compatible uses.
6.     Mitigate adverse impacts resulting from prior alteration of natural hydrologic patterns
       and fluctuations in surface and groundwater levels.
7.     Identify and develop alternate methods of wastewater treatment, disposal, and reuse of
       wastewater to reduce degradation of water resources.
8.     Promote water conservation as an integral part of water management programs, rules, and
       plans and the use and re-use of water of the lowest acceptable quality for the purpose
       intended.
9.     Utilize, preserve, restore, and enhance natural water management systems and discourage
       the channelization or other alteration of natural rivers, streams, and lakes.
10.    Establish minimum flows and levels to protect water resources and the environmental
       values associated with marine, estuarine, freshwater, and wetlands ecology.
11.    Encourage non-structural solutions to water resource problems and give adequate
       consideration to non-structural alternatives whenever structural works are proposed.
12.    Encourage the development of a strict floodplain management program by state and local
       governments designed to preserve hydrologically significant wetlands and other natural
       floodplain features.
13.    Identify and protect the functions of water recharge areas and provide incentives for their
       conservation.
14.    Protect and use natural water systems in lieu of structural alternatives and restore
       modified systems.
15.    Establish minimum seasonal flows and levels for surface watercourses with primary
       consideration given to the protection of natural resources, especially marine, estuarine,
       and aquatic ecosystems.
16.    Protect aquifers from depletion and contamination through appropriate regulatory
       programs and through incentives.


Habitat Management Policies


                                          Appendix H - 14
                                        Appendix H
                                    Wetlands Component
                                       SCORP 2000

1.    Conserve forests, wetlands, fish, marine life, and wildlife to maintain their
      environmental, economic, aesthetic, and recreational values.
2.    Protect and restore the ecological functions of wetland systems to ensure their long-term
      environmental, economic, and recreational values.
3.    Promote restoration of hydrological and ecological functions to degraded or substantially
      disrupted surface waters.
4.    Avoid the expenditure of state funds that subsidize development in high-hazard coastal
      areas.
5.    Acquire lands for environmental protection purposes and for recreational uses through
      the Conservation and Recreation Lands Program. These lands shall include:
      environmentally unique and irreplaceable lands as valued ecological resources of the
      State, and natural floodplain, marsh, or estuary lands if needed to a) enhance water
      quality or quantity, or b) protect fish and wildlife habitat that cannot otherwise be
      protected.
6.    Encourage the development of a strict floodplain management program by state and local
      governments designed to preserve hydrologically significant wetlands and other natural
      floodplain features.
7.    Emphasize preserving natural habitats and their associated wildlife to ensure the survival
      of threatened and endangered species.
8.    Develop a system of incentives and disincentives which encourages a separation of urban
      and rural land uses while protecting water supplies, resource development, and fish and
      wildlife habitats.
9.    Encourage land and water uses which are compatible with the protection of sensitive
      coastal resources.
10.   Promote restoration of the Everglades systems to ensure their long-term environmental,
      economic, and recreational values.
11.   Protect coastal resources, marine resources, and dune systems from the adverse effects of
      development.
12.   Establish an integrated regulatory program to assure the survival of endangered and
      threatened species within the State.
13.   Encourage multiple use of forest resources, where appropriate, to provide for timber
      production, recreation, wildlife habitat, watershed protection, erosion control, and
      maintenance of water quality.

Planning and Public Education Policies

1.    Conduct research to increase the State's knowledge of wetland values and to identify
      appropriate uses of wetlands without sacrificing their environmental integrity.
2.    Emphasize the acquisition and maintenance of ecologically intact systems in all land and
      water planning, management and regulation.
3.    Develop and implement a comprehensive planning management, and acquisition program
      to ensure the integrity of Florida's river system.
4.    Ensure proper implementation of Florida's wetland laws, rules and policies through
      adequate staffing, planning, monitoring and enforcement.



                                       Appendix H - 15
                                           Appendix H
                                       Wetlands Component
                                          SCORP 2000
5.     Provide tax and other incentives to private landowners and industry to encourage wetland
       preservation and remove existing tax benefits which encourage wetland destruction.
6.     Carefully evaluate cost-benefit analyses and justification for flood control projects such
       as the channelization of the Kissimmee River and hydrologic modification of Lake
       Okeechobee.
7.     Increase public awareness of wetland values and the status of wetlands through
       interpretive programs, research, dissemination of plans, reports and informational
       literature on wetland permitting and regulatory programs.

                            WETLAND ACQUISITION POLICIES

The Florida Statewide Land Acquisition Plan describes the goals and objectives of the primary
state-level land acquisition programs. The plan is intended as a guide to the Governor and
Cabinet and the Land Acquisition Selection Committee (the interagency committee responsible
for recommending properties for acquisition under the Conservation and Recreation Lands
Program, the State Recreation and Parks Land Acquisition Program, and the Save Our Coast
Program). Only those priorities which have direct or indirect relevance to wetlands habitats or
surface water resources have been excerpted from the plan for inclusion in this report.

Natural Communities: Identify, acquire, and protect examples of natural communities which
(1) are inadequately represented on protected lands in Florida, or (2) represent the best remaining
examples of each of Florida's natural communities, with priority given to the most endangered or
rarest communities. Rare and endangered wetland communities include the floodplain marsh
and the freshwater tidal swamp.

Forest Resources: Acquire lands to (1) maintain representatives of the various forest or timber
types, and (2) conserve and maintain Florida's forests so as to perpetuate their environmental,
economic, aesthetic and recreational values. Special consideration should be given to
manageable forests which have income producing potential which help defray management
costs, and to upland forests which help meet resource-based recreation needs of Florida's
growing population.

Vascular Plants: Identify, acquire, and protect sites which contain habitat for rare, endangered,
and threatened plant species, with priority given to those sites which are (1) critical to the
survival of these species, or (2) are not critical but contain important assemblages of rare or
endangered species.

Fish and Wildlife: Acquire lands which (1) are critical to the survival of endangered and
threatened animals, (2) represent significant colonial bird nesting sites, or (3) are necessary to
maintain the State's native animal species diversity.

Fresh Water Supplies: Acquire protective buffers along the Special Water category of
Outstanding Florida Water rivers and lakes; acquire areas around first magnitude springs,
including the spring run for an appropriate distance. (Incorporate second magnitude and smaller
springs, whenever possible, into project boundaries of lands being purchased primarily for other
purposes); and identify and acquire protective buffers around examples of the different lake


                                          Appendix H - 16
                                          Appendix H
                                      Wetlands Component
                                         SCORP 2000
types. (Cooperative acquisition projects involving the Conservation and Recreation Lands
Program and the Save Our Rivers Program should be considered for resources having attributes
desirable for purchase under both programs.)

Coastal Resources: Acquire upland and wetland buffers to protect Florida's significant
commercial and recreational saltwater fisheries, particularly those fisheries which are designated
state aquatic preserves, national estuarine or marine sanctuaries, Areas of Critical State Concern,
Outstanding Florida Waters, or Class II waters; and acquire upland and wetland buffers to
protect Florida's most significant reef communities, particularly areas within or adjacent to
designated Areas of Critical State Concern, Outstanding Florida Waters or Class II waters, state
aquatic preserves parks and national estuarine or marine sanctuaries,wildlife refuges, parks and
seashores.




                                         Appendix H - 17
                                              Appendix I
                                              References
                                             SCORP 2000


Bannon, James. 1998. Sea Kayaking Florida & the Georgia Sea Islands. Out There Press, Asheville,
       North Carolina.

Barth, David. 1997. A Parks and Open Space Philosophy for the 21st Century. Glatting Jackson
        Kercher Anglin Lopez Rinehart, Orlando, Florida.

Bureau of Economic and Business Research, University of Florida. 1996. Florida Statistical Abstract.
       University of Florida Press, Gainesville, Florida.

Cerulean, Susan and Ann Morrow. 1998. Florida Wildlife Viewing Guide. Falcon Press, Helena,
       Montana.

Ecotourism/Heritage Tourism Advisory Committee. 1997. Recommendations on the Statewide Plan to
       Protect and Promote the Natural, Coastal, Historical, Cultural and Commercial Assets of
       Florida. Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Commerce. 1995. Florida Visitor Study, 1995. Bureau of Economic Analysis,
        Office of Tourism Research, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Commerce, Division of Tourism. Florida Trails: A guide to Florida’s Natural
        Habitats.

Florida Department of Community Affairs. 1997. Florida Assessment of Coastal Trends. Florida Coastal
        Management Program, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1997. Ecotourism and the Florida State Parks.
        Division of Recreation and Parks, Ecotourism Marketing Program, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1997. Florida State of the Environment: Wetlands.
        Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Environmental Protection. 1998. FY 1990-2004: Draft Agency
     Strategic Plan. Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Natural Resources, Division of Recreation and Parks. 1979. The Selection and
        Capacity of Use Sites. Policy Manual Memo No. 3. 1979.

Florida Department of State. 1995. More Than Orange Marmalade: A Statewide Comprehensive
        Historic Preservation Plan for Florida. Division of Historical Resources, Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 1997. Nature Based Tourism, A Workbook.
        Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Game and Fresh Water Fish Commission. 1997. GFC Means Business, Economic Opportunities
        in Nature-Based Tourism. Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Department of Transportation. 1998. Florida Scenic Highways Program Manual. Tallahassee,
        Florida.



                                             Appendix I-1
                                              Appendix I
                                              References
                                             SCORP 2000

Florida Planning and Zoning Association and Florida Recreation and Parks Association. 1975. Criteria
        for Leisure Facilities: Florida Design Standard and Quantities for Parks, Recreation and Open
        Space. Tallahassee, Florida.

Florida Tourism Industry Marketing Corporation. 1996. 1996 Florida Visitor Study. Tallahassee,
        Florida.

Giongo, Francesca and Jean Bosco-Nizeye. 1998. A Study of Visitor Management in the World’s
       National Parks and Protected Areas. Colorado State University, Department of Recreation
       Resources, Denver, Colorado.

Jones, Steve. 1997. Mountain Bike Florida: A guide to the classic trails. Menasha Ridge Press,
        Birmingham, Alabama.

Katz, Peter. 1998. “What Makes a Good Park?” Land and People.

Lancaster, Roger A. (ed.) 1983. Recreation, Park, and Open Space Guidelines. National Recreation and
       Parks Association, Alexandria Va.

Lascurain, Hector Ceballos. 1992. “Tourism, Ecotourism, and Protected Areas.” IUCN, The World
       Conservation Union, Switzerland.

Lerner, Steve and William Poole. 1999. The Economic Benefits of Parks and Open Space: How Land
        Conservation Helps Communities Grow Smart and Protect the Bottom Line. The Trust for Public
        Land, San Francisco, California.

Marion, Jeffrey L. 1993. Recreation Ecology Research Findings: Implications for Wilderness and Park
       Managers. Virginia Cooperative Extension Service, Blacksburg, Virginia.

Myers, Ronald L. and John J. Ewel, eds. 1990. Ecosystems of Florida. University of Central Florida
       Press, Orlando, Florida.

National Institute for the Environment. 1998. 97014: Wetland Issues in the 105th
       Congress. http://www.cnie.org/nle/wet~5.html.

Northwest Florida Water Management District. 1997. Exploring District Lands. Havana, Florida.

Noss, Reed and Robert Peters. 1995. Endangered Ecosystems: A Status Report on America’s Vanishing
       Habitat and Wildlife. Defenders of Wildlife, Washington, D.C.

O’Keefe, M. Timothy. 1993. Hiking Florida. Falcon Press, Helena, Montana.

Roe, Dilys, Nigel Leader-Williams and Barry Dalal-Clayton. 1997. Take Only Photographs, Leave Only
        Footprints: The Environmental Impacts of Wildlife Tourism. Environmental Planning Group,
        International Institute for Environment and Development, London.

Rosen, Martin. 1997. Partnerships: “The Key to the Future for America’s Urban Parks.” Urban Parks
        and Open Space. Trust for Public Land and the Urban Land Institute, San Francisco, California.
St. Johns River Water Management District. 1995. Recreation Guide to District Lands. Palatka, Florida.



                                             Appendix I-2
                                               Appendix I
                                               References
                                              SCORP 2000

South Florida Water Management District. 1998. Public Use Guide to Land Management Areas. West
       Palm Beach, Florida.

Southwest Florida Water Management District. 1997. Recreation Guide to Southwest Florida Water
      Management District. Brooksville, Florida.

Suwannee River Water Management District. 1996. District Lands . . . yours to enjoy. Live Oak, Florida.

Trust for Public Land. 1994. Healing America’s Cities: How Urban Parks Can Make Cities Safe and
        Healthy. San Francisco, California.

Trust for Public Land. 1998. Green Cities Initiative. San Francisco, California.

United State Department of Interior, Bureau of Outdoor Recreation. 1970. Outdoor Recreation Space
        Standards. Washington, D.C.

United States Department of the Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, and United States Department of
        Commerce, Bureau of the Census. 1998. 1996 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting, and
        Wildlife-Associated Recreation (Florida). Washington, D.C.

United States Environmental Protection Agency. 1998. Wetland Fact Sheets. http://www.epa.gov/
        OWOW/wetlands/wetlanda.html.

United States Environmental Protection Agency and United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
        1994.Southeast Wetlands: Status and Trends, Mid-1970s to Mid-1980s.
        http://www.nwi.fws.gov/sewet/index.html.

Urban Parks Institute. 1996. "Good Places." Park Talk, 1(1): Fall.

Younger, Leon. 1997. Partnerships that Work. LWRD Urban Parks Institute, New York, New York.




                                             Appendix I-3
                                              Appendix J
                             Outdoor Recreation Agencies and Organizations
                                             SCORP 2000

State Agencies                                          2051 E. Dirac Drive, MS 715
                                                        Tallahassee, Florida 32310
Department of Agricultural and Consumer Services        http://www2.dep.state.fl.us/water/Mines/office.htm
Division of Forestry
3125 Conner Boulevard, C-25                             Department of Environmental Protection
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-1650                         Division of State Lands, CARL Program
(850) 488-6611                                          3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 140
http://www.fl-dof.com                                   Tallahassee, Florida 32399
                                                        http://www.dep.state.fl.us/stland/oes/carlmain.htm
Department of Community Affairs
Division of Community Planning                          Department of Environmental Protection
2555 Shumard Oake Boulevard                             Office of Greenways and Trails
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2100                         325 John Knox Road
http://www.dca.state.fl.us/fdcp/DCP                     Woodcrest Office Park, Building 500
                                                        Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Department of Community Affairs                         http://www.dep.state.fl.us/gwt
Coastal Management Program
2555 Shumard Oak Boulevard                              Department of State
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2100                         Division of Historical Resources
http://www.dca.state.fl.us/ffcm                         5000 S. Bronough Street
                                                        Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0250
Department of Community Affairs                         http://dhr.dos.state.fl.us
Florida Communities Trust
2555 Shumard Oak Boulevard, Suite 310                   Department of Transportation
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-2100                         State Bicycle and Pedestrian Program
http://www.dca.state.fl.us                              602 Suwannee Street, MS 82
                                                        Tallahassee, Florida 32399-0450
Department of Environmental Protection                  http://www.dot.state.fl.us
Office of Coastal and Aquatic Managed Areas
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 235                     Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission
Tallahassee, Florida 32399                              620 South Meridian Street (Bloxham Building)
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/marine/html/cama             Tallahassee, Florida 32399-1600
                                                        http://fcn.state.fl.us/gfc/gfchome.html
Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Recreation and Parks                        Northwest Florida Water Management District
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard                             Land Management
Tallahassee, Florida 32399-3000                         US 41 South
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/parks                        2379 Broad Street
                                                        Brooksville, Florida 34609-6899
Department of Environmental Protection                  http://sun6.dms.state.fl.us/nwfwmd
Bureau of Beaches and Coastal Systems
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 310                     St. Johns River Water Management District
Tallahassee, Florida 32399                              Land Management
http://www2.dep.state.fl.us/water/beaches               32177 Highway 100
                                                        P.O. Box 1429
Department of Environmental Protection                  Palatka, Florida 32178-1429
Division of Law Enforcement                             http://sjr.state.fl.us
3900 Commonwealth Boulevard, MS 600
Tallahassee, Florida 32399
http://www.dep.state.fl.us/law


Department of Environmental Protection
Division of Mine Reclamation


                                              Appendix J - 1
                                              Appendix J
                             Outdoor Recreation Agencies and Organizations
                                             SCORP 2000


South Florida Water Management District                    U.S. Department of Agriculture
Land Stewardship                                           Natural Resources Conservation Service
3301 Gun Club Road                                         Southeast Regional Office
West Palm Beach, Florida 33416-4680                        1720 Peachtree Road, NW, Suite 446N
http://www.sfwmd.gov                                       Atlanta, Georgia 30309
                                                           (404) 347-6105
Southwest Florida Water Management District
US 41 South                                                Non-Government Organizations
2379 Broad Street
Brooksville, Florida 34609-6899                            1000 Friends of Florida
http://www.swfwmd.state.fl.us                              P.O. Box 5948
                                                           Tallahassee, Florida 32314
Suwannee River Water Management District                   (850) 222-6277
Land Acquisition and Management                            http://www.1000fof.usf.edu/default.htm
9225 CR 49
Live Oak, Florida 32060                                    American Planning Association
http://www.srwmd.state.fl.us                               122 S. Michigan Ave., Suite 1600
                                                           Chicago IL 60603
Federal Agencies                                           http://www.planning.org

National Park Service                                      American Planning Association- Florida Chapter
Rivers, Trails and Conservation Assistance                 707 Park Avenue East
Atlanta Federal Center                                     P.O. Box 754
1924 Building                                              Tallahassee, Florida 32302-0754
100 Alabama Street, S.W.                                   http://www.mindspring.com/~york/fapa.htm
Atlanta, Georgia 30303
http://www.ncrc.nps.gov/rtca                               Audubon Society-Florida Chapter
                                                           1331 Palmetto Avenue, Suite 110
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers                               Winter Park, Florida 32789
400 West Bay Street                                        407-539-5700 voice
Jackonsville, Florida 32202                                407-539-5701 fax
904-232-2244 or 1-800-291-9405                             http://www.ficus.usf.edu/orgs/Audubon/default.htm
http://www.saj.usace.army.mil/recreation                   http://www.audubon.org

U.S. Fish and Wildlfe Service                              Enterprise Florida
(Region IV)                                                325 John Knox Road, Suite 201
75 Spring Street, SW                                       Tallahassee, Florida 32303
Atlanta, Georgia 30303                                     (904) 488-6300
(404) 679-7319                                             http://www.floridabusiness.com
http://www.fws.gov
                                                           Florida Association of Counties
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service             P.O. Box 549
325 John Knox Road                                         100 South Monroe Street
Suite F-100                                                Tallahassee, Florida 32302
Tallahassee, Florida 32303                                 (850) 224-3148
(850) 942-9300                                             http://www.fl-counties.com
http://www.fs.fed.us/recreation




                                                 Appendix J - 2
                                                Appendix J
                               Outdoor Recreation Agencies and Organizations
                                               SCORP 2000
Florida Bicycle Association
737-South Mills Avenue
Orlando, Forida 32801                                     Florida Sierra Club
(407) 898-4137                                            462 Fernwood Road
http://www.flbicycle.org                                  Key Biscayne, Florida 33149

Florida Canoeing and Kayaking Association                 Florida Sports Foundation
P.O. Box 20892                                            1319 Thomaswood Drive
West Palm Beach, Florida 33416                            Tallahassee, Florida 32312
                                                          (904) 488-8347
Florida Conservation Foundation, Inc.                     Florida Trail Association
1251-B Miller Ave.                                        P.O. Box 13708
Winter Park, FL 32789                                     Gainesville, Florida 32604
(407) 644-5377                                            (800) 343-1882
                                                          E-mail: fta@florida-trail.org
Florida Defenders of the Environment                      http://members.atlantic.net/~fta/index.html
2606 N.W. 6th St.
Gainesville, FL 32609                                     Florida Trail Riders
(352) 378-8465                                            PO Box 1071
                                                          DeBary, Florida 32713-1071
Florida Disabled Outdoor Association                      Phone 407-668-9700
David Jones, Executive Director                           http://home.earthlink.net/~jmd19c
2213 Tallahassee Drive
Tallahassee, Florida 32308                                Florida Wildlife Federation
(850) 668-7323                                            P.O. Box 6870
http://www.istal.com/fdoa                                 Tallahassee, Florida 32314-6870
                                                          (850) 656-7113
Florida League of Cities
P.O. Box 1757                                             Leave No Trace, Inc.
Tallahassee, Florida 32302-1757                           P.O. Box 997
(800) 342-8112                                            Boulder, Colorado 80306
                                                          http://www.lnt.org
Florida Native Plant Society
P.O. Box 680008                                           National Association of Recreation
Orlando, Florida 32868                                      Resource Professionals
                                                          P.O. Box 270067
Florida Natural Areas Inventory                           St. Paul, Minnesota 55127
1018 Thomasville Road, Suite 200-C                        http://www.narrp.org
Tallahassee, Florida 32303
(850) 224-8207                                            National Fish and Wildlfe Foundation
                                                          Bender Building, Suite 900
Florida Professional Paddlesports Association             1120 Conneticut Avenue, N.W. #900
P.O. Box 1764                                             Washington, D.C. 20036
Arcadia, Florida 33821                                    (202) 857-0166
(941) 494-1215
                                                          National Recreation and Park Association
Florida Recreation and Park Association, Inc.             2775 S. Quincy Street, Suite 300
411 Office Plaza Drive                                    Arlington, Virginia 22206
Tallahassee, Florida 32301-2756                           (703) 820-4940
(904) 878-3221                                            http://www.nrpa.org
http://www.frpa.org




                                                Appendix J - 3
                                              Appendix J
                             Outdoor Recreation Agencies and Organizations
                                             SCORP 2000


The Nature Conservancy, Florida Regional Office
222 S. Westmonte Drive, Suite 300
Altamonte Springs, Florida 32714
(407) 682-3664
http://www.tnc.org

Rails to Trails Conservancy, Florida Chapter
2545 Blairstone Pines Drive
P.O. Box 1797
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
(850) 942-2379
http://www.railtrails.org

Sunshine State Horse Council
P.O. Box 4158
North Ft. Myers, Florida 33918-4158
(813) 731-2999
http://www.SSHC.org

Trust for Public Land
Southeast Regional Office
306 North Monroe Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
(850) 222-7911
http://www.tpl.org/nearu

VISIT FLORIDA Inc.
661 East Jefferson Street
Tallahassee, Florida 32301
(904) 488-5607
http://www.flausa.com




                                                  Appendix J - 4

								
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