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NPS Space Systems Program

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					       NAVAL
   POSTGRADUATE
      SCHOOL

NPS Space Systems
    Research
                       NPSAT1 Small Satellite Project

                                                                    Operational Payoff/Transition Targets:
                                                                    •Space weather now-casting / Ionospheric modeling
                                                                    •Technology transition of lithium-ion batteries; triple-junction solar cells;
                                                                    Linux-based processor board; micro-electromechanical system (MEMS)
  NPS Spacecraft Architecture and Technology                        sensors; configurable, fault-tolerant computing targeting
  Demonstration Satellite                                           operational/micro/nano satellites
  Space Systems Academic Group                                      Deliverables:
                                                                    Space savvy officers – Space Cadre
                                                                    Space flight data on spacecraft technology for transition to operational
  •   Space Cadre Graduate Education                                systems
                                                                    Space weather data for improved forecasting / nowcasting with
  •   Small Vehicles Technology                                     implications for navigation, targeting, communications
  •   Space Power                                                   Concurrent ground and spaced based measurements of ionospheric
  •   Space Weather                                                 phenomenology

Technical Objective                                                 Cost and Schedule:
NPSAT1 is a low-cost technology demonstration satellite             •Spacecraft development & test cost (thru launch): $1.4M
•Space Weather
                                                                    •Spacecraft build complete:                   June 2011
•Spacecraft Technology
                                                                    •System-level test complete:                  Nov. 2011
•Graduate Education
                                                                    •NPSAT1 earliest launch:                      Jan. 2012
Technology Challenges
Built and flown by officer students, faculty and staff. Full life   Student Involvements
cycle development of a space system.                                More than 20 MS theses completed.
Technical Approaches:
•Officer Student Theses and Directed Study Projects                           Contact Info:
•Ionospheric scintillation measurements and in-situ                           PI:             Rudolf Panholzer
Langmuir Probe measurements                                                                   rpanholzer@nps.edu (831) 656-2154;
•On-orbit solar cell performance measurements 2                               Tech. Lead:     Dan Sakoda
•Ground operations facility at NPS.                                                           dsakoda@nps.edu; (831) 656-3198
                                UNCLASSIFIED
                           NPS – Solar Cell Array Tester (NPS-SCAT)
Description of Research: As NPS’s first                                Objectives:
                                                                       Provide an inexpensive space platform based on COTS technology to
CubeSat, SCAT is intended to prove CubeSat                                    perform focused research objectives of national interest. Start
viability as a technology test bed and research                               with a simple on-orbit solar cell tester while focusing on the
platform using an inexpensive system to measure                               education of NPS students with the development of an NPS
solar cells on orbit while focusing on the                                    CubeSat program.
education of NPS students and the development                          Background:
of an NPS CubeSat program.                                             Solar panels on existing satellites have experienced failure due to
                                                                              interactions with the space environment.
                                          SMS Circuit JUL 09
                                                                       Intended Applications and Intended Customers
                                                                       CubeSat form factor reduces the complexity of the structure, power, and
                                                                             communication portions of the satellite, it allows for an effective,
                                                                             responsive, and relatively inexpensive way to test solar cells on
SMS Circuit AUG 08
                                                                             orbit. Goal is to use CubeSats for focused research of national
                                                                             interest.
                     SMS Circuit MAR 09

                                                                       . Technology Challenges


                                                                        COTS component integration (ensuring
                                                                        manufacturer specifications match actual
                                                                        performance and meet requirements)
                                                                        Launch vehicle integration.


The solar cell measurement system (SMS) will calculate I-V               Funding and Collaborations
curves (electric current of the solar cell as a function of the
                                                                         Phase I and II funding provided by NRO AS&T. Phase III proposal
voltage). By comparing the data with pre-flight values, the
                                                                         submitted to AS&T Outreach Program. On-going collaborations with
performance of the cells in the space environment will be able to
                                                                         faculty at NPS and CalPoly.
be determined. Measurements will continue throughout the
lifetime of the experiment, providing the rate of degradation of the
test cells.                                                             PI:    James H. Newman, jhnewman@nps.edu, 831-656-2487
                                                                               Professor, Space Systems Academic Group
  Nanosatellites Advanced Concepts Laboratory (PI: Prof. Marcello Romano)
                                              Objectives:
Project TINYSCOPE                             1) To contribute to the education of the NPS student-officers of the
(Agile Nanosatellite for Earth Imaging)              Space Engineering and Space Ops curricula.
                                              2) To design, integrate, and test on-orbit one agile nanosatellite able to
                                                     take panchromatic images, at 3-to-4m GSD from 500 Km, and
                                                     transmit them back to the field.

                                              Background:
                                              Recent developments in nanosatellites technology will soon enable
                                                    significant missions which used to be exclusive realm of much
                                                    larger and expensive systems.

                                              Intended Applications and Intended Customers
                                              Contribute to provide DOD and Government with new critical
                    30 cm = ~1 ft             capabilities for Earth imaging, complementing the ones available.



A constellation of TINYSCOPE spacecraft can   Technology Challenges
                                              Achieve, for the first time on a nanosatellite, high three-axis pointing
provide imaging of any place on Earth:        accuracy, high slewing agility, and high data rates.
-either with short revisit time;              Keep low the cost per unit, in order to make possible the acquisition of
-(or even) up to persistent monitoring.       a constellation of tenths of spacecraft.

                                              Funding and Collaborations
                        13:14 Zulu
                                              Three MS theses completed. Six more ongoing.
                                              Funding provided by NRO in FY08 and FY09. Additional funding
                                              sought.
                                              Collaboration with Prof. Jim Newman (TINYSCOPE Co-PI).
                        13:27 Zulu            Listed on DOD STP-SERB for launch and operation of 1st unit in 2012.
                                              Contact information:
                                              Prof. Marcello Romano, mromano@nps.edu
                                              Prof. Jim Newman, jhnewman@nps.edu
                                NPS CubeSat Launcher (NPSCuL)

Description of Research: NPSCuL-Lite evolved as a       Objectives:
means to leverage affordable capabilities of CubeSats   High capacity launch of CubeSats utilizing single ESPA-class payload.
and excess payload capacity on U.S. EELVs to provide           Hands-on education of NPS officer students; foster innovation
high capacity routine access to space for university,          and interest in STEM in university students in support of future
                                                               aerospace workforce development.
government and industry CubeSats from the U.S. while
focusing on the education of NPS students.
                                                        Background:
                                                        U.S. launch opportunities for CubeSats are scarce. Out of 44 CubeSats
                                                                launched worldwide, only 5 successfully launched from the US.

                                                        Intended Applications and Intended Customers
                                                        NPSCuL-Lite provides CubeSat developers high capacity routine
                                                              access to space from the U.S.
                                                        Goal is to enable launch of CubeSats used for education and focused
                                                                research of national interest.


                                                         Technology Challenges
                                                         Low frequency modes and
                                                         ensuring fastener integrity during
                                                         vibration testing
                                                         ADAMSat and launch vehicle
                                                         integration in support of launch on
                                                         Aft Bulkhead Carrier (ABC) on
                                                         NRO L-41 NET August 2010
                                                         Funding and Collaborations
                                                         Funding provided by NRO AS&T (directly and from the NSF) and
                                                         California Space Education Workforce Institute (CSEWI) . On-going
                                                         collaborations with CalPoly, Aerospace Corp, Ecliptic Enterprises, and
                                                         ULA.
           2009 DoN SERB Ranking- #8 out of 24           PI:   James H. Newman, jhnewman@nps.edu, 831-656-2487
                                                               Professor, Space Systems Academic Group
                     Size comparison (we jump every 3 years)
                   Last Generation              Next Generation



     Every
generation
    of each
    new IC
technology
   reduces      Number of critical atoms for 250nm technology
       it’s           50E6 atoms (1997) (10 year life)
                       100nm * 5nm * 1000nm = 5E5nm3
operational              4E6 atoms (2001) (5 year life)

 lifetime by   65 nm feature – 500,000 atoms ( today) (3 year life)
               23nm feature – 80000 atoms (2013) (1 year life),
     50%       11nm feature – 10000 atoms (2016) (0.5 year life)
 Electronic Component Failure Prediction Tool Development
                                (NPS (Weatherford) & AFIT(Coutu) joint proposal)
   Reverse Use of Semiconductor Industry Virtual           Objectives:
   Fabrication Tools to “Unprocess” ICs to predict         To develop initial techniques that converts transistor’s electrical/
                                                                 thermal/ radiation energy to material movement to show
               degradation and failure.
                                                                 electrical RF or power degradation.

                                                           Background:
                                                           Many space systems fail due to electronic component failure. Prediction
                                                                 is done by limited life testing only. Present industry tools predict
                                                                 performance of “brand new” devices, not aged devices. No code
                                                                 exists to show gradual electrical degradation of transistors.
                                                           Intended Applications and Intended Customers
                                                           1) Accurate Life Prediction of components showing initial
                                                           degradation on orbit (operators), 2) End-of-Life prediction tool for
  Large temperature gradients inside a GaN RF transistor   specific modulation/power levels (contractors), 3) Assistance to
  to determine mass migration, then recalculate “aged”     technology developers examining new IC technologies such as
  transistor for reduced performance.                      Carbon nanotubes, GaN RF, 22nm CMOS (S&T technologists)

   Observation of reduced comm link, or system              Technology Challenges
      anomaly, engineers examine possible                   •Implementation with two present competing Industry tools
                                                            (NPS/Silvaco, AFIT/Synopsis) within their framework.
       component suspects with this tool.
                                                            •Techniques to revert between electrical/thermal modeling
                                                            and process modeling tools at specified time intervals.
   Modify component operation such as energy,               •Transition new findings on electronic failure mechanisms.
     frequency, duty cycle to buy extended                 Funding and Collaborations
               operational time.                           Related funding provided by AFRL PACE program, ONR ESO,
                                                           NAVSEA. 4 pubs, 8+ thesis on reliability of RF/power device topic.
                                                           On-going collaborations with AFOSR/ONR Electronic Reliability
  Each new generation IC lifetime shrinks by a             MURIs (MIT, U-FL,UCSB, NCSU, OSU). Part of Tri-Service team
 factor of 2 , failures occur sooner with next gen         (ARL/NRL/AFRL) to transition MURI findings. Code support by
                                                           Silvaco, Synopsis and Univ. FL).

Less atoms per device = shorter functional lifetime.       Contact information: Prof. T.R.Weatherford, trweathe@nps.edu
                           Multi-Source Fusion of Ship-Tracking Information

We believe successful MDA requires fusion of
many disparate data sources:
     NTM data
     OSINT from
             Shipping companies
             Port authorities
             Vessel-tracking systems (USCG)
     HUMINT
     IMINT
     OTHER Exploitable Sources

       We have built an evaluation environment
       for testing and
       developing fusion of algorithms and
       systems.


Description/accomplishments;                                  Objectives;
•   Continuing development of Fusion support environment      •  Continue development of multi-level fusion
       •    Including availability of MASTER Tracks
                                                                 environment
•   Supported work on multi-level security
•   Participated in TEXAS workshops                           •  Evaluate contributions of additional data sources
•   Organized MDA session at Classified Advanced Technology      to MASTER Tracks
    Update (CATU)                                                   • Radar, Acoustics
                                                              •  Develop Track Model to protect sources and
Key Participants:                                                methods
•   NPS                                                       •  Support work on multi-level security
       •   Prof. Hersch Loomis
       •   Prof. Alan Ross
       •   Prof. Tom Betterton
       •   Prof. Bret Michael
                  LIDAR applications to FOPEN
                               Objectives:
                               To study the utility for LIDAR systems in foliage penetration, particularly
                                      as regards detection of trails.

                               Background:
                               LIDAR offers great promise as an airborne system, with successful
                                     testing in a variety of environments. Thesis work at NPS has
                                     shown good results in interactive analysis.



Trails Detected                Intended Applications and Intended Customers:
Under Canopy
                               Applications are in various SOCOM theaters, and utility is present
                               for PACOM and SOUTHCOM.




                               Technology Challenges:
                                 Automated trail detection in near-real-time is needed.
                                 Modeling is needed to provide predictive capability.


                               Funding and Collaborations:
                                  Funding not currently available.

                               Contact information: Prof. Richard C Olsen, olsen@nps.edu

                               References:

                               Espinoza, F. & Owens, R. (2007) Identifying roads and trails hidden
                               under canopy using LIDAR, Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School

                               Kim, A. (To be published 2009) Simulating full-waveform LIDAR,
                               Master’s Thesis, Naval Postgraduate School
                                       Large Aperture Lightweight Space-Based Optics

                                                NPS space telescope testbeds                          Objectives:
                                                are used to develop key
                                                                                                      The objective of this research is to develop key technologies for large
                                                technologies for large aperture
                                                                                                      space mirrors to improve the capability of future imaging spacecraft to
                                                lightweight space-based optics
                                                                                                      provide high resolution, persistent surveillance.
                                                such as wavefront sensing and
                                                correction, segment alignment,                        Background:
                                                vibration isolation, jitter control,
                                                and multi-input multi-output                          For an imaging spacecraft to provide truly persistent surveillance
3m Segmented Mirror Telescope                   adaptive optics control.                              capability, the satellite should be in a higher orbit, requiring large
 (Scheduled operation at NPS in Nov 2009)                                                             aperture lightweight deployable mirrors, in the range of 10-20 meters
                                                                                                      in diameter. Achieving high surface accuracy of a large segmented
                                                                                                      mirror for high resolution imaging is very challenging. Key
                                                                                                      technologies for large aperture lightweight space mirrors need to be
                                                                                                      identified and developed.



Description of Research                                                                                Technology Challenges
Focus of the research is on surface control of a large segmented
flexible mirrors including the following technology development                                        • Extremely fine surface control of flexible mirrors
     Adaptive Optics                                                                                   • Vibration isolation and jitter control
                                                                                                       • Deployable mirror segment alignment
                                                                                                       • Wavefront sensing and correction
                                                                                                       • Prevention of surface control performance degradation due to
                                                                                                         control-structure interaction
    Without Adaptive Optics     With Adaptive Optics             Adaptive Optics Testbed
                                                                                                       • Thermal distortion correction
  Wavefront Sensing and                                Advanced Vibration and Surface                 Funding and Collaborations
  Segment Alignment                                    Control
                                                                                                      Funding provided by NRO. NPS participated in the Segmented
                                                                                                      Mirror Demonstrator (SMD), Segmented Mirror Testbed (SMT), and
                                                                                                      Advanced Mirror Development (AMD) projects in collaboration with
                                                                                                      NRO, Lockheed Martin, ITT, and NRL.
                                                       Closed loop frequency and time response of a
    16in 6 element segmented mirror testbed
                                                         segmented mirror telescope using Robust
                                                           Control method with model reduction
                                                                                                       Contact information: Prof. Brij Agrawal, agrawal@nps.edu
                           Spacecraft Robotics Laboratory (PI: Prof. Marcello Romano)
                                                                             Objectives:
Guidance, navigation and control of                                          1) To contribute to the education of the NPS student-officers of the
autonomous spacecraft for proximity                                                  Space Engineering, Space Ops and Mech. Eng. curricula.
                                                                             2) To invent new solutions and improve existing ones regarding both
operations: analysis, numerical simulations                                          hardware and software technologies for spacecraft proximity
and experimentation on a flat floor test-bed.                                        maneuvering and operations.

                                                                             Background:
                     I/R LEDs                    Target
      Camera                                   Spacecraft
               Vision PC
               Batteries
                                               Simulator
                                                                             In 2007, the Orbital Express mission demonstrated for the first time the
 Control PC

  IMU
                                                                                    autonomous docking and servicing between two US spacecraft.
 Reaction
  Wheel                                                                      The capability of conducting increasingly sophisticated autonomous
  Tank
  Thruster
                                                                                    proximity operations will be a critical assets for
  (1 of 8)

                             Docking I/F
                                                                                    achieving/maintaining superiority in the space theater.
                           (Passive portion)
   Chaser          Docking I/F
                 (Active portion)
                                                     1m
                                                     stick
                                                                             Intended Applications and Intended Customers
  Spacecraft
  Simulator                                Epoxy Floor
                                                                             Provide DOD and Government with new/improved capabilities for space
                                                                             proximity operations.

Autonomous spacecraft proximity maneuvering                                  Technology Challenges
                                                                             Achieve robust autonomous relative Guidance, Navigation and Control
and operations are enabling technologies for                                 of an aggregate of possibly different spacecraft with realistic limitations
several important missions, as:                                              in sensors, actuators, and on-board computers.
-Monitoring of Resident Space Objects;                                       Enable proximity operations to be conducted by nanosatellites.
-Docking and servicing;
-Multiple spacecraft assembly.                                               Funding and Collaborations
                                                                             Nine Ms theses and two PhD Theses completed. Three more ongoing.
                                                                             Funding provided by AFRL in FY09. Additional funding sought.
                                                                             Filed a patent on a novel docking interface for small spacecraft


                                                                             Contact information:
                                                                             Prof. Marcello Romano, mromano@nps.edu
                                                             Credit: DARPA

				
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