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JOHN COLLIER – RE-CAP
   Instrumental in passing Indian
    Reorganization Act of 1934
    – one of the most influential and lasting pieces
      of legislation relating to federal Indian policy.
 Also known as Wheeler-Howard Act
 Reversed years of assimilation policies
    – Emphasized Indian self-determination
    – Return of communal Indian land
   Johnson-O'Malley Act
    – Allowed the Secretary of the Interior to sign
      contracts with state governments
    – to share responsibility for the social and
      economic well-being of American Indians.
 While Collier emphasized and vocally
  expressed support for Indian self-
  determination
 Policies were often seen by American Indians
  as
 another paternalistic program forced upon
  them by the federal government
 Criticism aside, Collier did more to protect
  Native American land and culture than any
  other Indian Affairs Commissioner
 resigned as Commissioner of Indian Affairs in
  1945.
 During Collier’s tenure other development
  were taking place
 1943 US Senate offered
   Survey of the Conditions of the Indians of
    the United States
 BOI riddled with problems
 House of Representatives countered with
  their own investigation
 End result was the suggestion of an
 Indian Claims Commission
    – first suggested in 1935 under Collier
   From 1778
    – First treaty to be made
   To 1872
    – End of treaty
 Nearly 400 treaties
 Many conditions not implemented
 Native nations who wanted to appeal this
  had a difficult
 if not impossible
 job to challenge these problems in court
 Indian Claims Commission (ICC) set up to
  solve this issue
 Driven not by altruistic motivations
   Congressman Karl Mundt
   North Dakota
   Pushed the ICC because
    he wanted to
   Abolish BOI
   End special status of
    Native Americans
   Force them to assimilate
    and acculturate
   Pendulum swinging
 Nevertheless many Indians turned to the ICC
 Under commission nations had 5 years to file
  grievances
 Had to prove aboriginal title to the land
 Then bring suit for settlement
 Suit were to be brought for claims
 “in law or equity arising under the
  Constitution, laws, treaties . . . , and
  Executive orders” that dealt with “fraud,
  duress, unconscionable consideration , mutual
  or unilateral mistake, whether of law or fact,
  or any other grounds cognizable by a court of
  equity”
   By 1978 commission had
   Adjudicated 285 of 850 cases filed
   Awarded over $800 million
   Not always accepted by native nations
   Taos Indians
   Rejected $10 million for Blue Lake in
    northwestern New Mexico




   “we cannot sell what is sacred”
 Pit River Indians
  in Northern
  California
 Lost huge
  acreage to white
  settlers over the
  years
 Rejected 47 cents
  per acre
The Sioux and the Black Hills
                    1923 filed claim with
                     supreme court
                    With U.S. Court of
                     Claims
                    Dragged feet until 1942
                     – Dismissed
                    Tried again with ICC
                     denied in 1946
                     – Already been denied
 1956 fired lawyer
 Claim re-instated “inadequate council”
 Justice Department fought hard against
  renewed claim
 ICC decided that government had taken
  land in violation of fifth amendment
    – Protects abuse of government authority in al
      legal procedure
 1974 ICC awarded $17.5 million plus
  interest
 Government appealed
 Court of Claims reversed decision but…
 stated “a more ripe and rank case of
  dishonorable dealings will never, in all
  probability, be found in our history”
   1978 Congress passed Act allowing Court of
    Claims to rehear case
    – Awarded $17.5 + 5% interest
 Justice department appealed
 1980 went to Supreme Court
 “taking of tribal property which had been set
  aside by the treaty of Fort Laramie for the
  Sioux’s exclusive use”
 Upheld the award
 Like the Taos Indians the Sioux
  refused the money
 Demanded the Black hills be
  returned
 Award still uncollected
 Stands at over $500 million
 How   to distribute the money
 Per capita or investment by tribal
  officials for community
 Tribal members off reservation
 Disputes of qualification
 Many tribes have opted for a middle ground
 Some per capita some investment in
  community
 e.g. Crow
 Received $10 million
 50% per capita
 Rest on health, housing, education,
  scholarships, land purchases, and social
  services
      Native America & WWII
 Supported by Collier
 The BIA hired both native men and women
  to work at new facilities in
 Colorado River Indian Reservation
    – Poston, Arizona
   Gila River Indian Reservation
    – South of Phoenix, Arizona
 These facilities were
 Japanese Internment camps
 While Japanese-Americans were confined
 Native Americans went to war
 1940 4,000 in armed forces
 By end of war 25,000 serving
 Not only men but women also
 Over 200 native women served as WAC
  WAVEs
 The majority of Native Americans served in
  Army
 Of 25,000 approx 21,000
 As with all other Americans served in all
  theatres of war from Africa to the islands of
  the Pacific
 Unlike African-Americans
 Native Americans served in integrated units
    – Continuation of assimilation?
   One book that details
    the achievements of
    Native Americans in
    WWII
   Boarding School
   Warrior Tradition
   Clarence Tinker
   Edward P. Dozier
    – Born Santa Clara
      Pueblo 1916
   Served in U.S. Army
    Air Corps
   After war gained
    Ph.D. from UCLA
   Wrote numerous
    books on Native
    society
   Barney Old Coyote
    – Crow
 1st president of
  American Indian
  National Bank
 Professor and
  Director of Native
  American Studies
  at Montana State
   Ira Hayes
   Grew up on Pima
    reservation
   Joined the Marines
   All was quiet until
   February 23, 1945
   Part of attack on Iwo
    Jima
   Part of group of six to
    raise the flag
 IfIra Hayes was
  the most well
  known individual
 The most well
  known group are
 Navajo Code
  Talkers
   A   Wollachee        Ant          N   Neshchee      Nut
   B   Shush            Bear         0   Neahshah      Owl
   C   Mbsi             Cat          P   Bisodih       Pig
   D   Be               Deer         Q   Cayeilth      Quiver
   E   Dzeh             Elk          R   Gah           Rabbit
   F   Ma-e             Fox          S   Dibeh         Sheep
   G   Klizzie          Goat         T   Thanzie       Turkey
   H   Klee             Horse        U   Nodaih        Ute
   I   Tin              Ice          V   Akehdiglini   Victor
   J   Tkelechogi       Jackass      W   Gloeih        Weasel
   K   Klizzie-Yazzie   Kid          X   Alanasdzoh    Cross
   L   Debe-Yazzie      Lamb         Y   Tashaszih     Yucca
   M   Naastsosi        Mouse        Z   Beshdogliz    Zinc
   Alongside termination a second governmental
    policy would appear
   Relocation
   In many ways a reaction to activities already
    occurring
   Both positive and negative outcome
   What led government to think of relocation
   Native Americans have always been in white
    cities
   From colonial times onward
   Often seasonal work as part of reservation
    life
   For over 120 years
   Mohawk ironworkers,
    helped shape New York
    City's skyline
   Came to Manhattan from
    reservation in Canada
   Framed the city's
    skyscrapers and bridges.
   The Empire State Building
   Chrysler Building
   George Washington Bridge
   World Trade Center
 Events beyond native choice also affected
  movement
 Allotment act
    – Reduced land base and ever shrinking
      allotments due to inheritance
   Great depression
    – Had caused many more to move looking for
      work
   WWII
    – Many moved to cities to work in war related
      industries
 Examples of urban migration post WWII
 Minneapolis
    – Less the 1000 in 1920s
    – After WWII 6000
   Los Angles
    – Less than 1000 before WWII
    – By 1980 50,000
 According to the U.S. Census
 1950 13.4 % lived in urban areas
 1970 44%
 1980 50%
 Government seized on this trend
 Seeing that many natives had
  successfully moved and prospered into
  cities
 They assumed that this was a natural
  process of assimilation
 Decided to enhance the process and
  organize a mass relocation plan
    – Ignored those who hadn’t succeeded in the
      movement
 “Indian will be the first to be affected by
  the shrinkage of employment subsequent
  to the war”
 “a means of livelihood for each of the
  returning soldiers and workers will prove a
  staggering task”
    – John Collier 1941
 “A profound change in fortunes sent home
  by service men and women”
 A downward trend in family income”
    – William Brophy 1946
   All which the BIA had to address
   Government created G.I. Bill
   Included commercial loans for Native
    Americans to purchase
    –   Farms
    –   Ranches
    –   Livestock
    –   Farm equipment
    –   Dairies
    –   Construction equipment
    –   Small businesses
   Yet the BIA new that this would not be
    enough
 1948 BIA first experimented with
  Relocation
 Plan to relocate Navajos to
 Salt Lake City
 Los Angles
 Denver
 1952 – 1960
 BIA provided incentives to move 30,000
  Indians
 By 1973 100,000
   1900 Native American population
    – 250,000
   As chart shows growth was limited until the 60s on
   Expanded program in 1950 to help Indians
   “who wished to seek permanent employment
    opportunities away from the reservation”




   Thousands of Native Americans were given
    one-way bus tickets to cities
   Expected to live and work like other Americans
   relocation centers established
   The first in Chicago in 1953
   Created by the local urban native population
   Offered help to new arrivals
   1951 congress passed Bill to fund job
    placement and relocation program in
    –   California
    –   Colorado
    –   Arizona
    –   Oklahoma
    –   New Mexico
    –   Utah
   The BIA responded by setting up field
    relocation offices in
    –   Los Angeles
    –   Salt Lake City
    –   Denver
    –   Chicago
   Later expanded greatly
   Program received yet
    another congressional
    boost when funds where
    enacted for
   Vocational and industrial
    training
   Program did not force
    natives away from
    reservation
   But used well designed
    posters and brochures
    Persuasive agents
Short Video Clip taken from
PBS’s Indian Country Diaries
 Upon  arrival
 Help came in many forms
 Help with the move and finding
  accommodation
 Job training
 Free medical care for one year
 One month subsistence
 Greeted them and attempted to
  prepare them for the adjustment in life
  to come
 But like many other immigrants to
  Americas growing cities
 Many faced adjustment problems
 Close knit families and small communities
 Gave way to
 Individual capitalist competition
 “They never told us it would be like this”
 Depending on tribe between 30 and 75%
  returned
 Sometimes   the move back was
  permanent
 Signaled failure of relocation
 Sometimes temporary –
  attending family gatherings and
  ceremonies
 Sometimes natives remained and
  prospered
   An unlikely supporter of the benefits
    relocation brought is Earl Dean Sisto
    – Yavapai/ Apache
    – born on Apache Indian Reservation in
      San Carlos, Arizona
   Attended federal government school
    on the reservation
    – received perfect attendance awards for
      six years.
   During his 7th year, as his peers
    watched in horror, a mean Caucasian
    teacher literally tried to choke him to
    death in class for uttering a few
    words in the Apache language.
                                     1964 moved to Los
                                      Angeles via relocation
                                      program worked for
                                      Southern California
                                      General Telephone
                                      Company
                                     1974, graduated from
                                      UCLA
                                     worked in several native
                                      education and
                                      recruitment programs
                                     1991UC Riverside directs
                                      the Native American
Earl Sisto with Joshua Gonzales
                                      Student Programs.

				
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posted:10/19/2010
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