Monday JOHN COLLIER – RE-CAP Instrumental in passing Indian Reorganization Act of 1934 – one of the most influential and lasting pieces of legislation relating to federal Indian policy. Also known as Wheeler-Howard Act Reversed years of assimilation policies – Emphasized Indian self-determination – Return of communal Indian land Johnson-O'Malley Act – Allowed the Secretary of the Interior to sign contracts with state governments – to share responsibility for the social and economic well-being of American Indians. While Collier emphasized and vocally expressed support for Indian self- determination Policies were often seen by American Indians as another paternalistic program forced upon them by the federal government Criticism aside, Collier did more to protect Native American land and culture than any other Indian Affairs Commissioner resigned as Commissioner of Indian Affairs in 1945. During Collier’s tenure other development were taking place 1943 US Senate offered Survey of the Conditions of the Indians of the United States BOI riddled with problems House of Representatives countered with their own investigation End result was the suggestion of an Indian Claims Commission – first suggested in 1935 under Collier From 1778 – First treaty to be made To 1872 – End of treaty Nearly 400 treaties Many conditions not implemented Native nations who wanted to appeal this had a difficult if not impossible job to challenge these problems in court Indian Claims Commission (ICC) set up to solve this issue Driven not by altruistic motivations Congressman Karl Mundt North Dakota Pushed the ICC because he wanted to Abolish BOI End special status of Native Americans Force them to assimilate and acculturate Pendulum swinging Nevertheless many Indians turned to the ICC Under commission nations had 5 years to file grievances Had to prove aboriginal title to the land Then bring suit for settlement Suit were to be brought for claims “in law or equity arising under the Constitution, laws, treaties . . . , and Executive orders” that dealt with “fraud, duress, unconscionable consideration , mutual or unilateral mistake, whether of law or fact, or any other grounds cognizable by a court of equity” By 1978 commission had Adjudicated 285 of 850 cases filed Awarded over $800 million Not always accepted by native nations Taos Indians Rejected $10 million for Blue Lake in northwestern New Mexico “we cannot sell what is sacred” Pit River Indians in Northern California Lost huge acreage to white settlers over the years Rejected 47 cents per acre The Sioux and the Black Hills 1923 filed claim with supreme court With U.S. Court of Claims Dragged feet until 1942 – Dismissed Tried again with ICC denied in 1946 – Already been denied 1956 fired lawyer Claim re-instated “inadequate council” Justice Department fought hard against renewed claim ICC decided that government had taken land in violation of fifth amendment – Protects abuse of government authority in al legal procedure 1974 ICC awarded $17.5 million plus interest Government appealed Court of Claims reversed decision but… stated “a more ripe and rank case of dishonorable dealings will never, in all probability, be found in our history” 1978 Congress passed Act allowing Court of Claims to rehear case – Awarded $17.5 + 5% interest Justice department appealed 1980 went to Supreme Court “taking of tribal property which had been set aside by the treaty of Fort Laramie for the Sioux’s exclusive use” Upheld the award Like the Taos Indians the Sioux refused the money Demanded the Black hills be returned Award still uncollected Stands at over $500 million How to distribute the money Per capita or investment by tribal officials for community Tribal members off reservation Disputes of qualification Many tribes have opted for a middle ground Some per capita some investment in community e.g. Crow Received $10 million 50% per capita Rest on health, housing, education, scholarships, land purchases, and social services Native America & WWII Supported by Collier The BIA hired both native men and women to work at new facilities in Colorado River Indian Reservation – Poston, Arizona Gila River Indian Reservation – South of Phoenix, Arizona These facilities were Japanese Internment camps While Japanese-Americans were confined Native Americans went to war 1940 4,000 in armed forces By end of war 25,000 serving Not only men but women also Over 200 native women served as WAC WAVEs The majority of Native Americans served in Army Of 25,000 approx 21,000 As with all other Americans served in all theatres of war from Africa to the islands of the Pacific Unlike African-Americans Native Americans served in integrated units – Continuation of assimilation? One book that details the achievements of Native Americans in WWII Boarding School Warrior Tradition Clarence Tinker Edward P. Dozier – Born Santa Clara Pueblo 1916 Served in U.S. Army Air Corps After war gained Ph.D. from UCLA Wrote numerous books on Native society Barney Old Coyote – Crow 1st president of American Indian National Bank Professor and Director of Native American Studies at Montana State Ira Hayes Grew up on Pima reservation Joined the Marines All was quiet until February 23, 1945 Part of attack on Iwo Jima Part of group of six to raise the flag IfIra Hayes was the most well known individual The most well known group are Navajo Code Talkers A Wollachee Ant N Neshchee Nut B Shush Bear 0 Neahshah Owl C Mbsi Cat P Bisodih Pig D Be Deer Q Cayeilth Quiver E Dzeh Elk R Gah Rabbit F Ma-e Fox S Dibeh Sheep G Klizzie Goat T Thanzie Turkey H Klee Horse U Nodaih Ute I Tin Ice V Akehdiglini Victor J Tkelechogi Jackass W Gloeih Weasel K Klizzie-Yazzie Kid X Alanasdzoh Cross L Debe-Yazzie Lamb Y Tashaszih Yucca M Naastsosi Mouse Z Beshdogliz Zinc Alongside termination a second governmental policy would appear Relocation In many ways a reaction to activities already occurring Both positive and negative outcome What led government to think of relocation Native Americans have always been in white cities From colonial times onward Often seasonal work as part of reservation life For over 120 years Mohawk ironworkers, helped shape New York City's skyline Came to Manhattan from reservation in Canada Framed the city's skyscrapers and bridges. The Empire State Building Chrysler Building George Washington Bridge World Trade Center Events beyond native choice also affected movement Allotment act – Reduced land base and ever shrinking allotments due to inheritance Great depression – Had caused many more to move looking for work WWII – Many moved to cities to work in war related industries Examples of urban migration post WWII Minneapolis – Less the 1000 in 1920s – After WWII 6000 Los Angles – Less than 1000 before WWII – By 1980 50,000 According to the U.S. Census 1950 13.4 % lived in urban areas 1970 44% 1980 50% Government seized on this trend Seeing that many natives had successfully moved and prospered into cities They assumed that this was a natural process of assimilation Decided to enhance the process and organize a mass relocation plan – Ignored those who hadn’t succeeded in the movement “Indian will be the first to be affected by the shrinkage of employment subsequent to the war” “a means of livelihood for each of the returning soldiers and workers will prove a staggering task” – John Collier 1941 “A profound change in fortunes sent home by service men and women” A downward trend in family income” – William Brophy 1946 All which the BIA had to address Government created G.I. Bill Included commercial loans for Native Americans to purchase – Farms – Ranches – Livestock – Farm equipment – Dairies – Construction equipment – Small businesses Yet the BIA new that this would not be enough 1948 BIA first experimented with Relocation Plan to relocate Navajos to Salt Lake City Los Angles Denver 1952 – 1960 BIA provided incentives to move 30,000 Indians By 1973 100,000 1900 Native American population – 250,000 As chart shows growth was limited until the 60s on Expanded program in 1950 to help Indians “who wished to seek permanent employment opportunities away from the reservation” Thousands of Native Americans were given one-way bus tickets to cities Expected to live and work like other Americans relocation centers established The first in Chicago in 1953 Created by the local urban native population Offered help to new arrivals 1951 congress passed Bill to fund job placement and relocation program in – California – Colorado – Arizona – Oklahoma – New Mexico – Utah The BIA responded by setting up field relocation offices in – Los Angeles – Salt Lake City – Denver – Chicago Later expanded greatly Program received yet another congressional boost when funds where enacted for Vocational and industrial training Program did not force natives away from reservation But used well designed posters and brochures Persuasive agents Short Video Clip taken from PBS’s Indian Country Diaries Upon arrival Help came in many forms Help with the move and finding accommodation Job training Free medical care for one year One month subsistence Greeted them and attempted to prepare them for the adjustment in life to come But like many other immigrants to Americas growing cities Many faced adjustment problems Close knit families and small communities Gave way to Individual capitalist competition “They never told us it would be like this” Depending on tribe between 30 and 75% returned Sometimes the move back was permanent Signaled failure of relocation Sometimes temporary – attending family gatherings and ceremonies Sometimes natives remained and prospered An unlikely supporter of the benefits relocation brought is Earl Dean Sisto – Yavapai/ Apache – born on Apache Indian Reservation in San Carlos, Arizona Attended federal government school on the reservation – received perfect attendance awards for six years. During his 7th year, as his peers watched in horror, a mean Caucasian teacher literally tried to choke him to death in class for uttering a few words in the Apache language. 1964 moved to Los Angeles via relocation program worked for Southern California General Telephone Company 1974, graduated from UCLA worked in several native education and recruitment programs 1991UC Riverside directs the Native American Earl Sisto with Joshua Gonzales Student Programs.