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					       "Mountains to the Sea”
A proposed implementation plan for the
   Convention on Biological Diversity



  A tool for assisting the Parties in ecosystem-
based, integrated implementation of the thematic
  programmes and cross-cutting issues of the
        Convention on Biological Diversity


                       November 2005




           WWF Global Freshwater Programme




For more information contact:
Christopher E. Williams, Manager, River Basin Conservation, WWF
+1 202 778 9792       chris.williams@wwfus.org
www.panda.org/freshwater
Executive summary
With this draft report, WWF is proposing that the Parties to the Convention on Biological
Diversity (CBD) develop and adopt a „mountains to the sea‟ implementation tool for the
Convention (M2C), and is providing a draft of that tool for consideration. This tool draws
together all thematic programmes, programmes of work and guidance developed under
the 17 cross-cutting issues into one delivery platform. At present, Parties must examine
documents describing the requirements of a growing list (23 at this point) of thematic
programmes and cross-cutting issues. Initial feedback indicates that implementation of
CBD is hampered in some countries, especially developing countries, by the complex
environment of thematic and cross-cutting programmes of wo rk and associated
guidance.

The proliferation of programmes of work and guidance under the CBD creates enormous
institutional challenges for Parties. Directed to apply an ecosystem approach to
biodiversity conservation, it is left to the Parties to determine how to bring the grow ing
numbers of thematic programmes of work together into one cohesive and integrated
national effort that integrates rather than segregates biomes. The consideration of
cross-cutting issues provides yet another, separate set of programmes that are rarely set
within or designed to work in partnership with the thematic programmes.

In addition to the complexities brought about by the number of thematic programmes
and cross-cutting issues, each differs considerably in their approach, level of detail and
structure. This is due largely to the evolving and thus far ad hoc way that programmes
and guidance documents for the Parties are developed. Each thematic programme of
work is drafted and ne gotiated individually, with scant reference to one another and
virtually no standard substantive requirements, structure, or even terminology.
Similarly, the range of approaches and guidance for addressing cross -cutting issues
varies tremendously, from detailed programmes of work to simple guidance that Parties
are asked to consider. Thus, as they currently stand, the thematic programmes and
cross-cutting issues are not compatible or directly comparable, making it very difficult for
those trying to use them for implementation at a landscape, river basin or seascape
scale.      Different biomes or cross-cutting issues may require highly specialised
approaches, but they ultimately must be linked together and mutually supportive in order
to be effective. As they exist today, the thematic and cross-cutting programmes are not
facilitating the application of the ecosystem approach.

This draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan was developed by WWF to
encourage the CBD to recognise this fundamental issue fac ing the convention and those
implementing it at global, regional, national or local levels.     The principles and
operational guidelines of the ecosystem approach are promoting cross-biome, integrated,
scale-relevant management approaches, yet the CBD‟s thematic and cross-cutting
programmes are inadvertently working against that aspiration.

In the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan proposed here (section 3) the six
CBD thematic programmes have been integrated and condensed. The guidance and
programmes developed under the 17 cross-cutting issues have been integrated into the
same structure, resulting in one, comprehensive implementation plan for the convention;
an 80-page guidance document that condenses hundreds of pages of CBD programmes
and guidance. The plan is not final or complete as presented here, as some specialized
or more complex areas (such as trade) have not been considered in this report. In some
cases, the fine detail of how to implement a certain aspect of a programme of work has
also been omitted and simply cross-referenced. However, despite these omissions, the
report demonstrates the potential of this approach for simplifying implementation,


                                             2
reducing the potential for multiple and duplicative reporting requirements, and assisting
Parties to apply the ecosystem approach of the Convention.

In developing the draft M2C, great care was taken to retain the fundamentals of each
programme (goals, objectives, activities) and guidance document so that the integrated,
cross-biome plan did not lose any of the ideas and ac tivities that each contained. In
addition, M2C implicitly incorporates the provisional framework of goals and targets
agreed to at COP7 (Decision VII/30). M2C does not aim to replace or make redundant
the thematic and cross-cutting issues programmes and guidance; rather it takes their
contents and re-presents them in a standardized f ramework. M2C is designed to be a
tool to help Parties with the complex task of implementing CBD‟s expansive agenda.

Apart from helping to promote a more integrated, ecosystem based approach, M2C also
serves the secondary purpose of illustrating the key management challenges a nd issues
of CBD implementation, irrespective of biome. It also provides a useful struc ture around
which to develo p of goals and targets applicable individually and collectively across the
programmes of work.

WWF encourages Parties of CBD to discuss this proposal at CoP8 in 2006 and prepare a n
M2C implementation plan for consideration and adoption by CoP9 in 2008.




                                            3
Table of Contents:

                                                                            Page


1. Introduction                                                               5
    CBD and the ecosystem approach – Is practice matching theory?             6

2. Approach taken and key findings                                            7
    2.1 Phase 1: Integrating the thematic programmes                          7
         2.1.1 Approach                                                       7
         2.1.2 Key findings                                                   7
    2.2 Phase 2: Integrating the cross-cutting programmes                    11
         2.2.1 Approach                                                      11
         2.2.2 Key findings                                                  11

3. Draft ‘mountains to the sea’ implementation plan                          18
Overarching pro gramme - Integrated, ecosystem approach                      18
Programme element 1 – Conservation, sustainable use and benefit -            20
sharing
    1.1 Protect, recover, restore biological diversity                       20
    1.2 Preventing, reducing, mitigating threats to biological diversity     22
           1.2.1 Invasive alien species                                      22
           1.2.2 Climate change                                              27
           1.2.3 Land use practices                                          28
           1.2.4 Pollution                                                   29
           1.2.5 Fires                                                       30
           1.2.6 Threats specific to a particular biome thematic             31
programme
    1.3 Protected area systems                                               33
    1.4 Sustainable use                                                      43
    1.5 Access and benefit sharing                                           48
    1.6 Participation by local and indigenous communities and application    50
of traditional
          knowledge
Programme e lement 2 - Institutional and soc io-economic                     54
enabling env ironment
    2.1 Institutions, plans, policies, programmes and laws                    54
    2.2 Incentives, economic instruments and issues                           65
    2.3 Impact assessment                                                     69
    2.4 Communication, educ ation and public awareness                        71
    2.5 Innovative and appropriate technologies                               78
    2.6 Transboundary, regional and international cooperation                 81
Programme e lement 3 - Knowledge, assessment a nd monitoring                  85
    3.1 Status and trends – assessments, indicators and monitoring            85
    3.2 Research efforts                                                      92
    3.3 Data management and inf rastructure                                   96
4. F inal remarks                                                            101

Appendix A: The ecosystem approach – principles and rationale                102
Appendix B: Provisional framework of goals and targets (Decision VII/30)     104
Appendix C: Issues and challenges to creating M2C                            106




                                            4
Mountains to the sea

1.    Introduction
Since its inception in 1992, the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) has approached
its mandated task by two primary routes; development of six (and soon to be seven)
thematic programmes of work for the major biomes, and guidance in relation to 17
cross-cutting issues that in most cases are common across biomes. Table 1 below shows
the current situation.

Table 1: CBD’s current range of biome-specific thematic programmes of work
and the c ross-cutting issues and programmes

       Thematic          1.        2.         3.         4.       5.        6.         7.
       program-       Mountain   Forests    Inland     Dry &    Agricu   Marine     Islands
       mes                                  waters      sub-    ltural     and     (coming
C                                                      humid    lands    coastal     soon)
r                                                      lands
o          1. 2010 targets
s          2. Access to genetic resources and benefits sharing
s          3. Invasive alien species
-          4. Article 8(j), Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
c          5. Biodiversity and tourism
u          6. Climate change
t          7. Economics, trade and incentive measures
t          8. Ecosystem approach
i          9. Global strategy for plant conservation
n
           10. Global Taxonomy Initiative
g
           11. Impact assessment
           12. Indicators
I
           13. Liability and redress
s
           14. Protected areas
s
s          15. Education and public education
e          16. Sustainable use of biodiversity
s          17. Technology transfer and cooperation

The Parties moved to articulate and develop the ecosystem approach as the fundamental
framework for implementation (see cross-cutting theme 8 above) at COP5 when the
approach and operational guidelines were adopted (decision V/6). COP7 endorsed
additional guidelines (Decision VII/11) and reaffirmed the ecosystem approach as the
overarching blueprint for CBD implementation. COP7 also began to focus on the issue of
how to operationalise the biome-specific thematic programmes under the ecosystem
approach (Decision VII/11). However, w hile the ecosystem approach itself stresses the
importance of integrated planning and implementation (see Appendix A), the proliferation
of programmes of work under CBD has created a different institutional challenge for
Parties: how to draw together these thematic programmes of work into one cohesive and
integrated effort that crosses, and does not segregate, biomes.




                                            5
1.1    CBD and the ecosystem approach – Is practice matc hing theory?

The Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity recognize the ecosystem approach
as the “…strategy for the integrated management of land, water and liv ing resources that
promotes conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way. Application of the
ecosystem approach will help to reach a balance of the three objectives of the
Convention. It is based on the application of appropriate scientific methodologies focused
on levels of biological organization which encompass the essential processes , functions
and interactions among organisms and their environment. It recognizes that humans,
with their cultural diversity, are an integral component of ecosystems .”

As articulated by the Convention and agreed by its Parties, the ecosystem approach is
intended to be applied using 12 principles (see Appendix A), which are described as
being complementary and interlinked. CBD‟s 7 th Conference provided further guidance in
relation to these (decision VII/11). These guidelines state; “There is… a need to integrate
the ecosystem approach into agriculture, fisheries, forestry and other production systems
that have an effect on biodiversity. Management of natural resources, according to the
ecosystem approach, calls for increased intersectoral communication and cooperation at
a range of levels (government m inistries, management age ncies, etc.).” However, while
encouraging management integration across production sectors, the CBD, thro ugh
creation of the thematic programmes of work, has inadvertently segregated ecosystems
into a different set of “sectors” based on biomes.

Initial feedback indicates that the challenge of implementing CBD is being hampered in
some countries, especially developing countries, by the complex environment of thematic
programmes of work, cross-cutting issues, and (in many cases) associated guidance
which CBD has generated (see Table 1). At present there are 6 thematic programmes of
work (soon to be 7) plus 16 cross-cutting issues on the CBD agenda (the ecosystem
approach is the 17th but has been omitted here due to its overarching role). This creates
a complex matrix of expectations and guidance for a Party to digest and then implement
at the landscape/seascape level. One of the very tangible management difficulties this
causes is in the preparation of National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)
where Parties are expected to consider all these various thematic programmes and cross-
cutting issues.

In addition, thematic programmes differ considerably in their organization, detail, and
terminology, while seemingly covering a similar range of management issues. There are
dramatic differences in the way these programmes are organized internally. The same
can be said of the guidance and programmes of work that have developed in relation to
cross-cutting issues. This is due in large part to the evolving and sequential way these
programmes are developed. As they currently stand, the thematic programmes are not
compatible or directly comparable. This is a difficult obstacle for those trying to use them
for implementation at a landscape, river basin or seascape scale. As the number of
thematic programmes and cross-cutting issues increases, and guidance becomes more
detailed and complex, the situation is becoming more and more problematic for Parties
struggling to come to grips w ith CBD‟s w ide-ranging agenda.

This report was developed by WWF ‟s Global Freshwater Programme to encourage the
Parties to the CBD to recognise this fundamental issue that now faces the Convention
and those implementing it; whether at the global, regional, national or local levels. As
shown in the follow ing section, the principles and operational guidelines of the ecosystem
approach are on one hand promoting cross-biome, integrated, scale-relevant
management approaches, yet the CBD thematic (and to a lesser extent the cross-
cutting) programmes are working against that aspiration.


                                             6
The goal of this project was to examine the potential for developing an implementation
plan that could simplify for Parties the task of applying the thematic programmes and
cross-cutting issues. An implementation plan that would preserve the key elements of
these programmes, but integrate and harmonize them into one document, which WWF
has chosen to call the „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan (M2C).

2.      Approach and key findings
The first draft M2C was completed in December 2004, and WWF circulated the resulting
discussion paper and prese nted it at several CBD meetings. Reviewers urged WWF to
further develo p the concept, and specifically to draw CBD‟s cross-cutting programmes
into the analysis and draft plan. WWF was also encouraged to demonstrate how the M2C
related to CBD‟s provisional f ramework for goals and targets, as adopted through
Decision VII/30 of the 7th COP. The steps taken in preparing the first discussion draft
and this follow-up report are set out below.

In undertaking the development of M2C, great care was taken to retain the fundamentals
of each thematic and cross-cutting programme (goals, objectives, activities) so that the
integrated plan did not lose any of the ideas and activities that each contain. The aim of
M2C is not to replace or make the thematic or cross-cutting programmes redundant;
rather it is to take their contents and re-present them in one integrated and standard
framework of sub-programmes. M2C is designed to be a tool to help Parties with the
complex task of implementing CBD‟s expansive agenda.

2.1           Phase 1: Inte grating the thematic programmes

2.1.1         Analysis

Step 1.       Review all six thematic programmes (mountains, forests, inland waters,
              agricultural lands, dry and sub-humid lands and marine and coastal) and
              compare their structure, organization and content.

Step 2.       Design a standard structure to accommodate the content of all six
              programmes (see Table 4 below).

Step 3.       Identify common themes and issues and areas of difference between the
              six thematic programmes.

Step 4.       „Cut and paste‟ text from the six thematic programmes into the relevant
              part of the new standard structure.

Step 5.       Edit the „cut and paste‟ text to remove duplications and repetitious
              language, and, where appropriate, convert biome-specific language into
              cross-biome text.

2.1.2         Key findings

Structures and organisation of thematic programmes

There are signif icant differences in structure, organization and level of complexity of the
six thematic programmes. This reflects their one-by-one development over several years.
Table 2 below summarises the structural differences in terms of programme elements
under which the objectivities and activities are present in the various programmes.



                                             7
Table 2: Comparison of the programme eleme nts and structures of the thematic
programmes

Thematic programme           Programme e lements
Mountains                    1: Direct actions for Conservation, Sustainable Use and
                             Benefit Sharing
                             2: Means of implementation for Conservation, Sustainable
                             Use and Benef it Sharing
                             3: Supporting action for Conservation, Sustainable Use and
                             Benefit Sharing
Forests                      1: Conservation, Sustainable use and benef it -sharing
                             2. Institutional and socio-economic enabling environment
                             3. Knowledge, assessment and monitoring
Inland waters                1: Conservation, Sustainable use and benef it -sharing
                             2: Institutional and socio-economic enabling environment
                             3: Know ledge, assessment and monitoring
Dry and sub-humid lands      Part A: Assessments Operational Objective
                             Part B: Targeted actions in response to identified needs
Agricultural biodiversity    1: Assessment
                             2: Adaptive management
                             3: Capacity building
                             2: Mainstreaming
Marine and coastal           1: Implementation of integrated marine and coastal area
                             management (IMCAM)
                             2: Marine and coastal living resources
                             3: Marine and coastal protected areas
                             4: Mariculture
                             5: Invas ive alien species
                             6: General
Islands                      To be determined

Although there are quite fundamental differences in structure, each thematic programme
contains similar information organised in a different ways.

These differing fundamental structures add an unnecessary level of complexity to
implementation of thematic programme in concert with one another, which will certainly
be required in order to effectively implement an ecosystem approach. For example, a
Party planning the management of an alpine region wo uld need to consider at the very
least the thematic programmes on mountains, forests and inland waters. The aim of the
M2C is to simplify that task. Significantly, the forests and inland waters programmes
adopted the same basic structure, which provided a familiar and accepted basis for M2C.

It is also notable (as show n by Table 3 below) that each programme element has
different internal organisation in terms of goals, objectives, activities etc. While there
are some common themes, the differing approac hes to presenting and mandating
activities by the Parties through goal and objective statements is not uniform, and thus
are not helpful for the people trying to apply these programmes.

Table 3: Comparison of the inte rna l structures of the thematic programmes

Thematic programme           Internal structura l features
Mountains                    Under each programme element there are:
                             Goals (several)
                             Under each goal there are:


                                            8
                             Actions
                             Supporting activities of the Executive secretary
Forests                      Under each programme element there are:
                             Goals (several)
                             Under each goal there are:
                             Objectives (several) and under each of these are:
                             Activities
Inland waters                Under each programme element there are:
                             Goals (several)
                             Under each goal there are details on the context and
                             linkages as follows:
                             Strategic plan objectives
                             Related elements of first programme of work
                             Intra and inter-programmatic linkages
                             Plan of implementation of the WSSD
                             And also objectives (several) and under each of these there
                             are:
                             Activities of the Parties
                             Supporting activities
                             Main partners
                             Other collaborators
Dry and sub-humid lands      Under each programme element there are:
                             Activities
                             Ways and means
Agricultural biodiversity    Under each programme element there are:
                             Operational objective (one)
                             Rationale
                             Activities
                             Ways and means
                             Timing of expected outputs
Marine and coastal           Under each programme element there is the following:
                             Goal (only one)
                             Operational objective
                             Activities
                             Ways and means
Islands                      To be determined

The inland waters programme has the most detailed structure and is the only programme
that sets the activities within the context of the CBD‟s Strategic Plan and the WSSD‟s
Plan of Implementation. It creates a structure that is comprehensive and places inland
waters biodiversity conservation activities in the broader context of CBD implementation.
COP7 endorsed the inland waters programme of work in early 2004. For these reasons,
the structure of the inland waters programme of work was used as the basic t emplate for
the draft M2C plan.

Designing the structure of the ‘mountains to the sea’ impleme ntation pla n

As indicated above (Section 2.1.1) step 2 of the project involved comparing the content
of the thematic programmes, „mapping‟ the issues they cover, and then using this to
design a structure for the M2C that could accommodate all of them. Table 4 shows the
results of this mapping exercise, which provided the structure – the “table of contents” -
for M2C. Table 4 also provides a „gap analysis‟ by showing those issues that certain
thematic programmes have not considered. This is not to say they necessarily should
have, but it may be useful if thematic programmes come up for revision. Importantly,


                                            9
Table 4 may assist those undertaking the current drafting of the new thematic
programme of work on „islands biodiversity‟.

Table 4: Structure of the draft M2C implementation plan and comparison of
contents of the six thematic programmes.

 Shaded cells indicate the thematic programme contains elements related to that issue




                                                                                Agriculture



                                                                                              Coasts and
                                                                                sub-humid
                                                 Mountains




                                                                                Dry and
                                                             Forests




                                                                                              marine
                                                                       waters
                                                                       Inland
Structure of the draft ‘mountains to the sea’




                                                                                lands
implementation plan

Over-arching Programme: Integrated, ecosystem-based approach
Applying the ecosystem approach
Programme element 1. Conservation, Sustainable use and Benefit-sharing
1.1 Protect, recover, restore biological diversity
1.2 Preventing, reducing, mitigating threats to
biological diversity
  1.2.1 Invasive alien species
  1.2.2 Climate change
  1.2.3 Land use practices
  1.2.4 Pollution
  1.2.5 Fires
  1.2.6 Threats specific to a particular biome
thematic programme
1.3 Protected area systems
1.4 Sustainable use
1.5 Access to genetic resources and benefit sharing
1.6 Participation by local and indigenous
communities and application of traditional
knowledge
Programme element 2. Institutional and socio-economic enabling environment
2.1 Institutions, plans, policies, programmes and
laws and capacity building
2.2 Incentives, economic instruments and issues
2.3 Impact assessment
2.4 Communication, education and public
awareness
2.5 Innovative and appropriate technologies
2.6 Transboundary, regional and international
collaboration
Programme element 3. Knowledge, assessment and monitoring
3.1 Status and trends – assessments, indicators
and monitoring
3.2 Research efforts
3.3 Data management and infrastructure

Overvie w of conte nt similarities and diffe rence

Despite the considerable differences in basic structure and organisation of the six
thematic programmes, the goals, operational objectives and act ivities/actions are very
similar in terms of issues addressed and suggested responses by the Parties. There are
some notable exceptions, such as the specialised elements of the marine and coastal
programme relating to mariculture, coral bleaching and the physical degradation and
destruction of coral reefs.


                                            10
Most thematic programmes also tend to have some unique research priorities and a
„sprinkling‟ of unique management issues. Overall, however, approximately 80-90% of
each programme of work‟s content is not unique, and can be found repeated in most of
the other programmes.      These common elements are often expressed differently,
probably because each programme has been developed by a different group of specialists
for each biome.

The CBD‟s biome-specific approach to developing the thematic programmes of work has
resulted in significant „reinvention of the wheel‟ as each programme provided different
ways to say much the same things about what is needed for management and
conservation within each biome. In some respects, this is a positive and not a negative
for the convention, as it indicat es that irrespective of the biome, there are clearly
identif ied fundamentals that Parties need to consider. The downside is that the six
thematic programmes, due to fundamental structural dif ferences, are not readily
integrated and this promotes biome-specific management rather than holistic,
ecosystem-level implementation.

The draft M2C condenses the six thematic programmes from close to 100 pages (as
downloaded f rom the CBD web site) to less than 50 pages without signif icant loss of
content. This illustrates that a tool that integrates all programmes of work and cross -
cutting issues could be much easier to access and use. Moreover, combined programmes
of work and combined goals and targets could significantly streamline reporting
requirements of implementing Parties by eliminating duplication and multiple reports.

2.2      Phase 2: Integrating the cross-cutting programmes

2.2.1          Approach

The steps taken here continued on from steps 1-5 of Phase 1 (see Section 2.1.1) and
followed a similar process except that the focus of attention here was the 17 cross-
cutting issues of the convention.

Step 6.        Review all 17 cross-cutting issues to establish whether they provide
               guidance in any form or have a programme of work associated with them.

Step7.         Review guidance or dedicated programme of work for structure and range
               of content.

Step 8.        „Map‟ the issues covered by the guidance or dedicated programme of work
               against the structure developed for the M2C implementation plan.

Step 9.        „Cut and paste‟ text from the guidance or dedicated programme of work
               (where these exist) into the relevant part of the new standard structure.


2.2.2          Key findings

This review highlights the marked differences in the way that the CBD is progressing
against this suite of 17 c ross-cutting issues. For some (such as protected areas, Global
Strategy for Plant Conservation, Global Taxonomy Initiative and communication,
education and public awareness) there are detailed programmes of work. For others
(sustainable use, tourism, Article 8(j) implementation, incentives and impact
assessment) guidance has been developed to assist Parties, and this is made available
for voluntary application. Given these differences in approach, it is not surprising that

                                            11
the way that each guidance or programme of work is presented differs signif icantly. In
fact, there is little or no consistency in the way these are presented for application by the
Parties; even less than was evident with the six thematic programmes. This presents a
significant challenge to integration of work under the cross-cutting issues. The Parties
should consider standardising the format of guidance and programmes of work for the
cross-cutting issues.

As was done for the thematic programmes, Step 8 above generated a „map‟ show ing how
the guidance or programmes of work developed under the various cross -cutting issues
relates to the structure of the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan, and this
is presented in Table 5 below.

Table 6 puts it all together, thematic pro grammes and cross-cutting themes in the
framework of M2C.




                                             12
  Table 5: Comparison of the contents of the cross-cutting issues (guidance and programmes of work) against the structure of the
  draft M2C implementation plan. The shaded cells indicate that the cross-cutting issues guidance and programme of work contains elements
                                                          related to that issue


                                                                                                         Cross-cutting issues and progra mme s

Structure of the


                                   Inva sive a lie n




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Conservation
draf t ‘mountains




                                                                                                                                                                                       Liabili ty a nd




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Strate gy for
                                                                                                                                                      assessment
                                                                              Susta ina ble




                                                                                                                                                                          Technology
                                                                                                                        Article 8(J)
                                                                                                         Acce ss a nd
                       Ecosystem




                                                                                                                                       Ince nt ives




                                                                                                                                                                                                         Indi cators
to the sea’




                                                                 Protecte d
                       approach



imple me ntation




                                                                                              Touri sm




                                                                                                                                                                          transfer
                                                       Climate
                                   spe cie s




                                                                                                                                                                                       redress
                                                                                                         shari ng
                                                       cha nge




                                                                                                         benefit




                                                                                                                                                      Impact




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Global
pla n




                                                                 areas




                                                                                                                                                                   CEPA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Plant




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       GTI
                                                                              use
Over-arching Progra mme: I ntegrated, ecosy stem-ba sed approa ch
Applying the
ec osys tem
approach
Progra mme ele me nt 1. Conse rvation, Sustaina ble use a nd Be nef it -sha ri ng
1 .1 P rotec t,
rec over, res tore
biological divers ity
1 .2 P reventing,
reduc ing,
mitigating threats
to biologic al
     divers ity
 1.2.1 Invasive
  alien species
 1.2.2 Climate
  change
 1.2.3 Land use
 practices
 1.2.4 Pollution
 1.2.5 Fires
 1.2.6 Threats
  specific to a
  particular biome
  thematic
  programme
1 .3 P rotec ted
area sys tems
1 .4 Sus tainable
use
1 .5 Acc ess to
genetic resourc es
and benefit
s haring
1 .6 P artic ipation
by local and
indigenous
c ommunities and
applic ation of
traditional
knowledge
Progra mme ele me nt 2. Institutional a nd soci o-economic e na bli ng e nvironment
2 .1 I nstitutions ,
plans , policies ,
programmes and
laws and c apac ity
building
2 .2 I ncentives ,
ec onomic
ins truments and
iss ues
2 .3 I mpac t
ass ess ment
2 .4
Communication,
educ ation and
public awareness
2 .5 I nnovative
and appropriate
tec hnologies
2 .6
T rans boundary,
regional and
international
c ollaboration
Progra mme ele me nt 3. Knowle dge , a ssessment a nd monitori ng
3 .1 Status and
trends –
ass ess ments ,
indicators and
monitoring
3 .2 Researc h
efforts
3 .3 D ata
management and
infras tructure




                                                                                      14
Table 6 (drawn from Tables 4 and 5): Comparison of the contents of the thematic programmes and the cross-cutting issues
(guidance and programmes of work) against the structure of the draft M2C implementation plan. Th e shaded cells indicate that the
cross-cutting issues guidance and programme of work contains elements related to that issue




                                                                                                                              Inva sive a lie n
                                                   Inla nd water s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Conservation
                                                                     Dry and sub-
                                                                     humi d l ands




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Liabili ty a nd
                                                                                     Agricultural




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 assessment
Structure of the




                                                                                                                                                                         Susta ina ble




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Article 8(J)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Acce ss a nd
                                                                                                    Coasts a nd


                                                                                                                  Ecosystem




                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ince ntives
                             Mountains




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Indi cators
                                                                                                                                                            Protecte d
draf t ‘mountains to




                                                                                                                  approach




                                                                                                                                                                                         Touri sm




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     transfer
                                                                                                                                                  Climate
                                         Forests




                                                                                                                              spe cie s




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  redress
                                                                                                                                                                                                    shari ng
the sea’




                                                                                                                                                  cha nge




                                                                                                                                                                                                    benefit




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Impact
                                                                                                    marine




                                                                                                                                                            areas




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CEPA




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Plant
imple me ntation




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 GTI
                                                                                                                                                                         use
pla n

                            T hematic programmes of work                                                                                                                 C ross-c utting iss ues (guidance and programmes of work)
Over-arching Progra mme: I ntegrated, ecosy stem-ba sed approa ch
Applying the
ec osys tem approac h
Progra mme ele me nt 1. Conse rvation, Sustaina ble use a nd Be nef it -sha ri ng
1 .1 P rotec t, rec over,
res tore biologic al
divers ity
1 .2 P reventing,
reduc ing, mitigating
threats to biological
divers ity
 1.2.1 Invasive alien
  species
 1.2.2 Climate change
 1.2.3 Land use
practices
 1.2.4 Pollution
 1.2.5 Fires
 1.2.6 Threats specific to
  a particular biome
  thematic programme
1 .3 P rotec ted area
sys tems
1 .4 Sus tainable us e
1 .5 Acc ess to genetic
res ources and benefit
s haring
1 .6 P artic ipation by
loc al and indigenous
c ommunities and
applic ation of
traditional knowledge
Progra mme ele me nt 2. Institutional a nd soci o-economic e na bli ng e nvironment
2 .1 I nstitutions ,
plans , policies ,
programmes and laws
and c apacity building
2 .2 I ncentives ,
ec onomic instruments
and iss ues
2 .3 I mpac t
ass ess ment
2 .4 C ommunication,
educ ation and public
awareness
2 .5 I nnovative and
appropriate
tec hnologies
2 .6 T rans boundary,
regional and
international
c ollaboration
Progra mme ele me nt 3. Knowle dge , a ssessment a nd monitori ng
3 .1 Status and trends
– assess ments ,
indicators and
monitoring
3 .2 Researc h efforts
3 .3 D ata
management and
infras tructure




                                                                    16
At present there is no way to directly cross-reference activities under the guidance
and programmes of work for cross-cutting issues w ith activities under the the matic
programmes of w ork. There is signif icant overlap and duplication among them.
Table 6, w hich draws together tables 4 and 5, illustrates this point very clearly. Fo r
example, for a Party to fully understand the CBD‟s guidance on issues of
transboundary, regional or international cooperation, a review of four thematic
programmes and seven cross-cutting issues would be required. Likewise, if the
theme of interest is institutions, plans, policies and laws, one needs to consult all six
thematic programmes and nine of the 17 cross-cutting issues.

Absent a mechanism for coordinating efforts, the current disconnect between the
thematic programmes and the guidance and programmes of work under the cross -
cutting issues is likely to foster piece-meal implementation rather than ecosystem
approaches. M2C is an attempt to bridge the gaps and establish the necessary
coordination.
3. Draft ‘Mountains to the sea’ implementation plan
Over-arching Programme :             Integrated, ecosystem-based approac h

Applying the ecosystem approach
Goal :
To apply the ecosystem approach to the integrated management of all biomes from
the mountains to the sea.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on         8 (f), 9 (c) and 10 (d)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):            1.5, 3.1, 3.3 and 3.4
Related (provisional) goals and         All
targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic           Mountains: Goal 1.2
programmes:                             Forests: Goal 1, Objectives 1
                                        Inland waters: Goa l 1.1
                                        Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (f & l)
                                        Coasts and marine: Operational objectives
                                        1.1 and 6.1
Source elements from cross-cutting      The „Mountains to the Sea‟ programme
issue guidance and programmes           follow ing integrates all 17 cross-cutting
                                        programmes, including that for the
                                        „Ecosystem approach” (which is this sub-
                                        element) and that for the „2010 biodiversity
                                        targets‟, which are considered in each sub-
                                        element.

                                        The programme of work on protected areas
                                        includes as Goal 1.2 to integrate protected
                                        areas into broader land and seascape
                                        planning and this is accommodated below as
                                        operational objective (d).

                                        Also, Guiding Principle 3 from the
                                        programme on invasive alien species, as
                                        adopted by Decision VI/23, promotes
                                        adoption of the ecosystem approach.
Operational objectives:
(a) Adopt integrated management approaches for the land (mountains, forests, dry
and sub-humid lands and agricultural lands), inland water, coastal and marine
biomes that incorporate the ecosystem approach, and the conservation and
sustainable use of biodiversity.

(b) Apply integrated, ecosystem-based management approaches, where
appropriate, for transboundary land, inland water, coastal and marine systems.


                                          18
(c) Integrate into landscape/seascape management approaches appropriate
adaptive management and mitigation responses to combat, and prevent where
possible, the negative impacts of climate change, El Niño, unsustainable land use,
desertification and other threatening processes (see Sub-program 1.2).

(d) Integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors so as to
maintain ecological structure and function. (Goal 1.2 from protected areas
programme – see 1.3 below)
Activities of the Parties:
(i) Implement the integrated cross-biome programme of work set out below in
Programme elements 1,2 and 3 following.

(ii) Develop and implement legal and policy strategies, and institutional
arrangements for land and water-use planning at the landscape* level, taking into
account issues of ecological integrity and connectivity, while emphasizing upstream-
downstream relations, the prevention of losses of mountain and forest biological
diversity due to fragmentation and land-use conversion, and linkages with the
coastal and marine biomes.

(iii) Develop practical methods, guidelines, indicators and strategies to apply the
ecosystem approach across the biome transition from the mountains to the sea.

(vi) As part of integrated, ecosystem-based management approaches establish
ecological corridors on a national and regional basis.

(v) Promote effective collaboration among scientists, local stakeholders, planners,
engineers, and economists, and including indigenous and local communities with
their prior informed consent (both within and among countries) in the planning and
implementation of development projects to better integrate the conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity into integrated, ecosystem-based management
approaches.

(vi) Encourage the development of new methodologies and new mechanisms, such
as the upland-low land contract that sustain biological diversity and the provision of
goods and services.

(vii) Hold workshops to train and familiarize decision makers and managers with the
foundations, principles and modalities of the integrated, ecosystem-based planning
and management approach.

(viii) Identify obstacles to the implementation of integrated, ecosystem-based
planning and management nationally and regionally, and develop and implement
strategies, such as partnerships, tools and other means, to overcome those
obstacles, including provision of guidance on the application of such tools.

(ix) Establish, within the integrated, ecosystem-based planning and management
framework, effectively managed networks of protected areas comprising the
appropriate blend of management regimes across the IUCN categories (see Sub-
programme element 1.3 below).
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry
(x) Support efforts to clarify the conceptual basis of the ecosystem approach in
relation to sustainable use of the biodiversity-derived resources within each biome,


                                           19
and develop guidance for applying the ecosystem approach in these ecosystems, and
within the framework of integrated, ecosystem-based management.

(xi) In collaboration with relevant part ners as appropriate, compile and disseminate,
including through the clearing-house mechanism of the Convention on Biological
Diversity case-studies, lessons learned and best -practice guidance on ways and
means to promote integrated, ecosystem-based planning and management
approach.

(xii) See others under Sub-programme element 1.3 below
Main partners:
Ramsar Secretariat and STRP, River Basin Initiative, UNEP, UNESCO, International
Water Management Institute (IWMI), subsidiary scientific bodies of UNFCCC, CCD
and the Ramsar Convention, IPCC, WMO. [it is acknowledged that this is an
incomplete list]
Other collaborators:
Relevant international, regional and national organizations such as UNEP,
International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU), DIVERSITAS, IU CN, FAO.

*= for many Parties river basins may provide a useful scale in order to achieve
integrated, „mountains to the sea‟ planning and management .

Programme e lement 1.        Conservation, Sustainable use and Be nefit-sharing

1.1 Protect, recover, restore biological diversity
Goal:
To protect, recover and restore biological diversity across all biomes.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on          8(d, (f) & (k), 9
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):             3.1, 3.3, 3.4
Directly related (provisional) goals     Goals 1, 2, 3 and their associated targets
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goal 1.2
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 3, Objectives 1; 2 & 3
                                         Inland waters: Goal 1.3
                                         Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (b)

Source elements from cross-cutting       Global Strategy for Plant Conservation –
issue guidance and programmes            Targets 5, 7 (see sub-element 1.3 also) and
                                         8 (see below)
Operational objectives:
(a) Degraded ecosystems are rehabilitated or restored, where appropriate and
possible.

(b) The conservation status of threatened species is improved.

(c) Promote land, water and sea management practices that further the
conservation of endemic and threatened species.



                                           20
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
1.1.1 Identify national priority candidate ecosystems and/or sites for rehabilitation
or restoration and proceed to undertake such works, as resources allow. In
identifying potential candidate sites, consider the relative conservation status of the
threatened species involved, and the potential gains for the overall ecosystem
functioning, productivity and "health" within each biomes.

1.1.2 Identify and protect unique, fragile ecosystems, other biological diversity
hotspots and their associated species, especially threatened species, giving priority
consideration to measures aimed at strict in situ protection and/or developing ex situ
mechanisms whenever feasible.

1.1.3 Establish and strengthen adequate, effective national, regional and
international networks of protected areas, in accordance with decisions of the
Conference of the Parties on protected areas, while respecting the rights and full
participation of indigenous and local communities (see Sub-programme 1.6 also).

1.1.4 Identify nationally and then act, as appropriate, to improve the conservation
status of threatened species, including migratory species, taking into account the
programme of work on restoration and rehabilitation of degrade d ecosystems being
developed by the Conference of the Parties as part of its multi-year programme of
work up to 2010.

1.1.5 Develop and implement conservation strategies for endemic, threatened and
narrow ly-distributed taxa for global or regional applic ation, and practical systems of
adaptive management at national level.

1.1.6 Develop and implement programmes to restore degraded ecosystems and
protect natural dynamic processes and maintain biological diversity in order to
enhance the capacity of ecosystems to resist and adapt to climate change, or recover
from its negative impacts including, inter alia, by establishing corridors and taking
appropriate measures to maintain ecological functions of natural corridors, where
appropriate, to enable vertical migration of species, ensuring minimal viable
population sizes to enable genetic adaptation to changing environmental conditions.
These programmes should include socio-economic considerations, especially in
relation to indigenous and local communities.

1.1.7 Provide, as appropriate, to the Executive Secretary case-studies, national
experiences and any relevant local, national or regional guidance relating to the
successful rehabilitation or restoration of degraded ecosystems, and the recovery of
threatened species.

Cross-cutting guidance and programmes
Re levant targets from the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation :
Target 5: Protection of 50 per cent of the most important areas for plant diversity
assured.
Target 7: 60 per cent of the world's threatened species conserved in situ.
Target 8: 60 per cent of threatened plant species in accessible ex situ collections,
preferably in the country of origin, and 10 per cent of them included in recovery and
restoration programmes
Supporting action(s) of the Executive Sec retary:
1.1.8 Collaborate with relevant organizations and bodies to compile and disseminate


                                            21
information on:
       (a) Components of biodiversity important for conservation, in particular, on
       endemic species, hotspots and their associated species and threatened
       species;
       (b) Best practices for their conservation, sustainable use and benefit -sharing.

1.1.9 Compile and disseminate case-studies on methods and economic aspects of
restoration of degraded ecosystems and recovery of endangered species.
Main partners:
Ramsar Secretariat and STRP, Wetlands International, CMS Secretariat and Scientific
Council, CMS related agreements, IUCN, DIVERSITAS [it is acknowledged that this is
an incomplete list]
Other collaborators
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, and stakeholders. [it is
acknowledged that this could be better articulated]


1.2 Preventing, reduc ing, mitigating threats to biological diversity
Goal:
To reduce the threats and mitigate the impacts of threatening proces ses on biological
diversity.

Context and linkages: Note, the cross-cutting programmes and guidance on
Protected areas, Sustainable use and Biodiversity and Tourism contain elements in
relation to addressing threats or mitigating their impacts. These aspects are
considered in the respective sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea programme
below, namely, 1.3 and 1.4, respectively.

1.2.1 Invasive alie n spec ies
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on          7(c), 8(h), (l), 10 (b), 14(a), (b), (c), (d) &
Biological Diversity:                    (e)
Strategic Plan objective(s):             1.5, 1.6, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals     Goal 6, both targets
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goal 1.1
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 2, Objective 1
                                         Inland waters: Goal 1.4
                                         Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (c)
                                         Coasts and marine: Programme element 5 -
                                         Operational objectives 5.1, 5.2 & 5.3
Source elements from cross-cutting       Guiding principles on invasive alien species
issue guidance and programmes            as adopted by Decision VI/23. Note, some
                                         of these relate to other sub-elements of the
                                         Mountains to the Sea programme and have
                                         been presented there.

                                         Global Strategy for Plant Conservation –
                                         Target 10 (see below)




                                           22
                                         Global taxonomy initiative – Planned activity
                                         15
Operational objective:
Prevent the introduction of invasive alien species, including exotic stocks that
potentially threaten biological diversity, and to control and, where possible, eradic ate
established invasive species.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(i) Reinforce, develop and implement strategies at regional and national level to
prevent and mitigate the impacts of invasive alien species that threaten biodiversity
and ecosystems, including risk assessment, strengthening of quarantine regulations,
and containment or eradication programmes taking into account the guiding
principles on invasive alien species as adopted at the sixth meeting of the
Conference of the Parties (Decision VI/23).

(ii) As recommended by the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (Target 10 – see
above) develop management plans for at least 100 major alien species that threaten
plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems .

(iii) Promote and implement relevant guidelines and/or guiding principles in relation
to invasive alien species making use of the expert guidance available such as
through the "toolkit " of the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), the Scientific
Committee on Problems of the Environment of the International Council of Scientific
Unions (ICSU), and other relevant sources.

(iv) Provide the Executive Secretary, as appropriate, with examples of the impacts
of invasive alien species and of programmes used to control their introduction and
mit igate negative consequences on biodiversity within each biome.

(v) Raise awareness, as part of communication, education and public awareness -
raising activities (see Sub-programme 2.4) of the possible problems and costs
associated with the deliberate or accidental introduction of alien species, including
exotic stocks and alien genotypes and genetically modified organisms that potentially
threaten biological diversity, taking into consideration the Cartagena Protocol on
Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity.

(vi) Within the context of transboundary catchments, watershed and river-basin
management, and especially in relation to inter-basin water transfers, provide
appropriate mechanisms to prevent the spread of invasive alien species (see Sub-
programme 2.6).

(vii) Develop close collaboration between national agencies responsible for
development of controls on pathways for entry of alien species and national input
into the work of the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC), the
Organization internationale des epizooties (OIE), IMO and other relevant
international agreements.

(viii) Identify means to support capacity-building in developing countries to
strengthen their ability to conduct work related to alien species.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Marine and coastal
(ix) Prevent the introduction of invasive alien species and restore, where


                                           23
appropriate, indigenous wild-capture fisheries stocks in preference to other
aquaculture developments [could also apply to inland waters].

(x) Implement measures to address invasive alien species in ballast water, including
through the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships'
Ballast Water and Sediments.

Cross-cutting programmes
Global taxonomy initiative
5.2 Invasive alien species (Planned activity 15)
Development of this activity will be undertaken based on priorities identified through
GISP phase I, the review of the status of invasive alien species and of ongoing
measures addressing invasive alien species under way within the Convention on
Biological Diversity, and the contents of the decisions taken by the sixth meeting of
the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity regarding
invasive alien species.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 10: Management plans in place for at least 100 major alien species that
threaten plants, plant communities and associated habitats and ecosystems.

Invasive alien species programme
Guiding princ iples from Decision VI/23: (note – several of these guiding
principles relate to other sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea plan and have
been presented there)

Guiding princ iple 1: Precautiona ry approac h
Given the unpredictability of the pathways and impacts on biological diversity of
invasive alien species, efforts to identify and prevent unintentional introductions as
well as decisions concerning intentional introductions should be based on the
precautionary approach, in particular with reference to risk analysis, in accordance
with the guiding principles below. The precautionary approach is that set forth in
principle 15 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development and in the
preamble of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

The precautionary approach should also be applied when considering eradication,
containment and control measures in relation to alien species that have become
established. Lack of scientific certainty about the various implications of an invasion
should not be used as a reason for postponing or failing to take appropriate
eradication, containment and control measures.

Guiding princ iple 2: Three-stage hie rarc hica l approach
   1. Prevention is generally far more cost-effective and environmentally desirable
      than measures taken following introduction and establishment of an invasive
      alien species.
   2. Priority should be given to preventing the introduction of invasive alien
      species, between and within States. If an invasive alien species has been
      introduced, early detection and rapid action are crucial to prevent its
      establishment. The preferred response is often to eradicate the organisms as
      soon as possible (principle 13). In the event that eradication is not feasible or
      resources are not available for its eradication, cont ainment (principle 14) and
      long-term control measures (principle 15) should be implemented. Any
      examination of benef its and costs (environmental, economic and social)


                                           24
       should be done on a long-term basis.

Guiding   princ iple   3:   Ecosystem approach (see Overarching programme element)
Guiding   princ iple   4:   The role of States (see sub-programme 2.6)
Guiding   princ iple   5:   Research and monitoring (see sub-programme 3.1)
Guiding   princ iple   6:   Education and public awareness (see sub-programme 2.4)

B. Prevention
Guiding princ iple 7: Border control and quarantine measures (see sub-programme
2.1)
Guiding princ iple 8: Exchange of information (see sub-programme 2.1)
Guiding princ iple 9: Cooperation, including capacity-building (see sub-programme
2.6)

C. Introduction of species
Guiding princ iple 10: Intentional introduction
    1. No first-time intentional introduction or subsequent introductions of an alien
       species already invasive or potentially invasive within a country should take
       place without prior authorization from a co mpetent authority of the recipient
       State(s). An appropriate risk analysis, which may include an environmental
       impact assessment, should be carried out as part of the evaluation process
       before coming to a decision on w hether or not to authorize a proposed
       introduction to the country or to new ecological regions within a country.
       States should make all efforts to permit only those species that are unlikely to
       threaten biological diversity. The burden of proof that a proposed introduction
       is unlikely to threaten biological diversity should be w ith the proposer of the
       introduction or be assigned as appropriate by the recipient State.
       Authorization of an introduction may, where appropriate, be accompanied by
       conditions (e.g., preparation of a mitigation plan, mon itoring procedures,
       payment for assessment and management, or containment requirements).
    2. Decisions concerning intentional introductions should be based on the
       precautionary approach, including w ithin a risk analysis framework, set forth
       in principle 15 of the 1992 Rio Declaration on Environment and Development,
       and the preamble of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Where there is a
       threat of reduction or loss of biological diversity, lack of sufficient scientific
       certainty and knowledge regarding an alien species should not prevent a
       competent authority from taking a decision w ith regard to the intentional
       introduction of such alien species to prevent the spread and adverse impact of
       invasive alien species.

Guiding princ iple 11: Unintentional introductions
   1. All States should have in place provisions to address unintentional
      introductions (or intentional introductions that have become established and
      invasive). These could include statutory and regulatory measures and
      establishment or strengthening of institutions and agencies with appropriate
      responsibilities. Operational resources should be sufficient to allow for rapid
      and effective action.
   2. Common pathways leading to unintentional introductions need to be identified
      and appropriate provisions to min imize such introductions should be in place.
      Sectoral activities, such as fisheries, agriculture, forestry, horticulture,
      shipping (including the discharge of ballast waters), ground and air
      transportation, construction projects, landscaping, aquaculture i ncluding
      ornamental aquaculture, tourism, the pet industry and game-farming, are


                                             25
       often pathways for unintentional introductions. Environmental impact
       assessment of such activities should address the risk of unintentional
       introduction of invasive alien spec ies. Wherever appropriate, a risk analysis of
       the unintentional introduction of invasive alien species should be conducted
       for these pathways.

D. Mitigation of impacts
Guiding princ iple 12: Mitigation of impacts
Once the establishment of an invasive alien species has been detected, States,
individually and cooperatively, should take appropriate steps such as eradication,
containment and control, to mitigate adverse effects. Techniques used for
eradication, containment or control should be safe to humans , the environment and
agriculture as well as ethically acceptable to stakeholders in the areas affected by the
invasive alien species. Mitigation measures should take place in the earliest possible
stage of invasion, on the basis of the precautionary approach. Consistent with
national policy or legislation, an individual or entity responsible for the introduction of
invasive alien species should bear the costs of control measures and biological
diversity restoration where it is established that they failed to comply with the
national laws and regulations. Hence, early detection of new introductions of
potentially or known invasive alien species is important, and needs to be combined
with the capacity to take rapid follow-up action.

Guiding princ iple 13: Eradication
Where it is feasible, eradication is often the best course of action to deal with the
introduction and establishment of invasive alien species. The best opportunity for
eradicating invasive alien species is in the early stages of invasion, when populations
are small and localized; hence, early detection systems focused on high-risk entry
points can be critically useful while post -eradication monitoring may be necessary.
Community support is often essential to achieve success in eradication work, and is
particularly effective when developed through consultation. Consideration should also
be given to secondary effects on biological diversity.

Guiding princ iple 14: Containment
When eradication is not appropriate, limit ing the spread (containment) of invasive
alien species is often an appropriate strategy in cases where the range of the
organisms or of a population is small enough to make such efforts feasible. Regular
monitoring is essential and needs to be linked with quick action to eradicate any new
outbreaks.

Guiding princ iple 15: Control
Control measures should focus on reducing the damage caused as well as reducing
the number of the invasive alien species. Effective control will often rely on a range
of integrated management techniques, inc luding mechanical control, chemical
control, biological control and habitat management, implemented according to
existing national regulations and international codes.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry :
(xi) Maintain an incident list on introductions of alien species and continue making
updated information on introductions of alien species available through the clearing -
house mechanism or other appropriate mechanisms.

Inland waters
(xii) In collaboration with the Global Invasive Species programme (GISP), implement


                                            26
the project on assessment of impacts of invasive alien species in inland waters and
make proposals on future assessments for consideration by SBSTTA.

(xiii) CITES, the Ramsar STRP, TRAFFIC and other appropriate collaborato rs should
be invited to advise Parties on the impact of the aquarium trade and the use of
exotic pasture grasses on the conservation of biodiversity in inland water ecosystems
and make the results of this study available to Parties.

Marine and coastal
(xiv) Invite relevant organizations such the International Maritime Organization
(IMO), the Global Invasive Species Programme (GISP), the Food and Agriculture
Organization of the United Nations (FAO), and the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
to work together to develop an international cooperative initiative to address
impediments to the management of marine alien species, particularly to address
technical problems related to the identification and control of marine invasions.
Partners:
GISP, ICSU-SCOPE.
Other collaborators:
Secretariat and STRP of the Ramsar Convention and its STRP, CITES, TRAFFIC,
Commonwealth Secretariat, FAO, IUCN, UNEP-WCMC, IWMI, WorldFish, Global
Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based
Activities, International Coral Reef Initiative and its partners, the regional seas
programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, the InterGovernmental
Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural
Organization, and other relevant organizations.

1.2.2 Climate change
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on        5, 7(c), 8(l), 10 (b)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):           1.2, 1.3, 1.5, 1.6, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals   Goal 7, Target 7.1
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic          Mountains: Goal 1.1
programmes:                            Forests: Goal 2, Objective 3
                                       Inland waters: Goal 3.2
                                       Agricultural: Programme element 2
                                       Coasts and marine: Operational objective
                                       2.3 & Appendix 1. Specific work programme
                                       on coral bleaching
Source elements from cross-cutting     There is no written programme as such.
issue guidance and programmes          Decision VII/15 on Biodiversity and Climate
                                       Change noted the report of the Ad Hoc
                                       Technical Expert Group on Biological Diversity
                                       and Climate Change
                                       (UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/11 and
                                       UNEP/CBD/SBSTTA/9/INF/12) and urged
                                       Parties (and others) to make appropriate use
                                       of it in the planning and activities.
Operational objective:



                                         27
Mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on biodiversity.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(i) Monitor and exchange information on the impacts of global climate change on
biological diversity across all biomes, and identify and implement way s and means to
reduce the negative impacts.

(ii) Taking into account the work of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Climate
Change and Biodiversity:
     a. Promote monitoring and research on the impacts of climate change on
        biological diversity;
     b. Develop coordinated response strategies and action plans at global, regional
        and national levels;
     c. Promote the maintenance and restoration of biodiversity across all biomes in
        order to enhance their capacity to resist to, and recover from and adapt to
        climate change;
     d. Promote biodiversity conservation and restoration in climate change
        mit igation and adaptation measures;
     e. Assess how the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity can
        contribute to the international work relating to climate change.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Marine and coastal
See Appendix 1 – specific work plan on coral bleaching under the Marine and Coastal
programme of work.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry : advice needed
Partners: advice needed
Other collaborators: advice needed

1.2.3 Land use practices
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on         6 (a) & (b), 7(c), 8(l), 10 (a) & (b)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):            1.5, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals    Goal 4, Targets 4.1 & 4.2; Goal 5, Target 5.1
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic           Mountains: Goals 1.1 & 1.3
programmes:                             Forests: Goal 6, Objective 1
                                        Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 2 &7(d)
                                        Agricultural: Programme element 2

Source elements from cross-cutting       None
issue guidance and programmes:
Operational objective:
Prevent and mitigate biodiversity losses due to fragmentation and conversion to
other land uses.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(i) Implement measures to reduce and prevent key pressures such as deforestation,
fragmentation, unsustainable harvesting, inappropriate reforestation or afforestation,



                                          28
human-induced forest fires, overgrazing, inappropriate mining practices and urban
expansion resulting in land degradation, degradation of inland water ecosystems,
disruption of water flow, and consequent losses of biological diversity.

(ii) Prevent or mitigate the negative impacts of economic development,
infrastructure projects and other human-induced disturbances on biological diversity
at all levels, where applicable, taking into consideration the results of environmental
and social impact assessment, paying particular attention to cumulative impacts.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Mountains
(iii) Develop mechanisms and implement measures to reduce human-induced slope
instability, adverse effects of natural geological hazards, and to maintain and/or
enhance soil stability and ecosystem integrity by way of a diverse and natural
vegetation cover that will also promote soil `biodiversity function.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry :
Mountains
(vi) Compile, in collaboration w ith relevant bodies and organizatio ns, and
disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other means:
        (a) Information on degraded mountain ecosystems as well as key threats to
        mountain biodiversity and their ecological and socio-economic impacts;
        (b) Case-studies, lessons learned and best-practice guidance on ways to
        prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to mountain
        biodiversity.

Partners: advice needed
Other collaborators: advice needed

1.2.4 Pollution
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on          5, 7(c), 8(l), 14(a), (b), (c), (d) & (e)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):             1.5, 1.6, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals     Goal 1, Target 1.2; Goal 7, Target 7.2
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goal 1.1
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 2, Objective 2
                                         Inland waters: Goals 1.1, 3.2 & 3.3
                                         Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 2
                                         Coasts and marine: Programme element 1,
                                         Operational objectives 1.2(b) & (c)
Source elements from cross-cutting       None.
issue guidance and programmes:
Operational objectives:
Prevent and mitigate the impacts of pollution in its many forms on biodiversity across
all biomes.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(i) Identify local and long-range pollution (air, water and soil), which threaten
biodiversity at all levels and across all biomes take appropriate measures to prevent



                                           29
and mitigate the impacts.

(ii) Support monitoring programmes that help evaluate the impact s of air, soil and
water pollution on ecosystems, and address the impacts of changing environmental
conditions on ecosystems.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Marine and coastal
(iii) Promote action to reduce and control sea-based sources of pollution, seek to
protect the marine environment from land-based activities through effective
application of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine
Environment from Land-based Activities and other appropriate instruments, including
proper coastal land use, watershed planning, and integration of integrated marine
and coastal area management into key sectors.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry : advice needed
Partners: advice needed
Other collaborators: advic e needed

1.2.5 Fires
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on          5, 7(c), 8(l), 14(d) & (e)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):             1.5, 1.6, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals     Goal 1, Target 1.2; Goal 8, Targets 8.1 & 8.2
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goal 1.1
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 2, Objectives 4 & 5

Source elements from cross-cutting        None
issue guidance and programmes:
Operational objectives:
Prevent and mitigate the adverse effects of fires and fire suppression.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(i) Identify policies, practices and measures aimed at addressing the causes and
reducing impacts on biolo gical diversity resulting from human-induced
uncontrolled/unwanted fires, often associated with land clearing and other land use
activities.

(ii) Promote understanding of the role of human-induced fires on ecosystems and on
species, and develop prevention plans against devastating fires and integrate them
into national plans targeting biological diversity conservation and sustainable use.

(iii) Develop and promote the use of fire management tools for maintaining and
enhancing biological diversity, especially when there has been a shift in fire regimes.

(iv) Promote development of systems for risk assessment and early warning,
monitoring and control, and enhance capacity for prevention and post -fire
biodiversity restoration at the community, national and regional levels.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry : advice needed



                                           30
Partners: advice needed
Other collaborators: advice needed

1.2.6 Threats specific to a particular biome thematic programme
Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on           7(c), 8(h), (l), 10 (b)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):              1.5, 1.6, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals      Goal 6, both targets
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source ele ments from thematic            Mountains: Goal 1.1
programmes:                               Forests: Goal 2, Objective 5
                                          Inland waters: Goal 1.1
                                          Coasts and marine: Programme element 5 -
                                          Operational objectives 5.1, 5.2 & 5.3
Source elements from cross-cutting        None
issue guidance and programmes:
Activities of the Parties:
Mountains
(i) “Identify factors responsible for and possible measures to prevent the retreat of
glaciers in some mountain systems and implement measures to minimize the impact
of this process on biodiversity.” (Action 1.1.7 from programme of work).

Forests
(ii) “Develop and promote management methods that restore or mimic natural
disturbances such as fire, wind-throw and floods.” (Action a. under Objective 5 from
programme of work).

Inland waters
(iii) “ Develop effective management strategies to maintain or improve the
sustainability of water-dependent ecosystems, including those identified as most
stressed and facilitate a minimu m water allocations to the environment to maintain
ecosystem functioning and integrity. In so doing, consideration should also be given
to the likely impacts of climate change and desertif ication, and factor in suitable
mit igation and adaptive management approaches.” (Action 1.1.2 from the
programme of work);

(iv) “Use, where appropriate, all available information on dams in order to ensure
that biodiversity considerations are fully taken into account in decision- making on
large dams.” (Action 1.1.8 from the programme of work);

Marine and coastal
Mariculture
(v) Adopt the use of relevant methods, techniques and practices for avoiding the
adverse effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity, and to
incorporate them into national biodiversity strategies and action plans as
appropriate, including:

              (a) The application of environmental impact assessments, or similar
              assessment and monitoring procedures, for mariculture developments,



                                          31
with due consideration paid to the scale and nature of the operation,
as well as carrying capacities of the ecosystem, taking into account the
guidelines on the integration of biodiversity considerations in
environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in
strategic impact assessment, endorsed by the Conference of the
Parties in its decision VI/7 A, as well as the recommendations
endorsed in decision VI/10, annex II, on the conduct of cultural,
environmental and social impact assessments regarding developments
proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred
sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by
indigenous and local communities. There is a need to address the
likely immediate, intermediate and long-term impacts on all levels of
biodiversity;

(b) Development of effective site-selection methods, in the framework
of integrated marine and c oastal area management, taking into
account the special needs and difficulties encountered by stakeholders
in developing countries;

(c) Development of effective methods for effluent and waste control;

(d) Development of appropriate genetic resource management plans at
the hatchery level and in the breeding areas, including cryo-
preservation techniques, aimed at biodiversity conservation;

(e) Development of controlled low-cost hatchery and genetically sound
reproduction methods, made available for w idespread use, in order to
avoid seed collection from nature, where appropriate. In cases where
seed collection from nature cannot be avoided, environmentally sound
practices for spat collecting operations should be employed;

(f) Use of selective fishing gear in order to avoid or minimize by-catch
in cases where seed are collected from nature;

(g) Use of native species and subspecies in mariculture;

(h)Implementation of effective measures to prevent the inadvertent
release of mariculture species and fert ile polyploids, including, in the
framework of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, living modif ied
organisms (LMOs);

(i) Use of proper methods of breeding and proper places of releasing in
order to protect genetic diversity;

(j) Minimizing the use of antibiotics through better husbandry
techniques;

(k) Ensure that fish stocks used for fish meal and fish oil are managed
in such a way as to be sustainable and to maintain the trophic web;

(l) Use selective methods in industrial fisheries to avoid or minimize
by-catch;




                             32
              (m) Considering traditional know ledge, where applicable as a source to
              develop sustainable mariculture techniques.

(vi) Adopt best-management practices and legal and institutional arrangements for
sustainable mariculture, taking into account the special needs and difficulties
encountered by stakeholders in developing countries, in particular through
implementing Article 9 of Code of Conduct on Responsible Fisheries, as well as other
provisions in the Code dealing w ith aquaculture, rec ognizing that it provides
necessary guidance to develop legislative and policy frameworks at the national,
regional and international levels.

(vii) Undertake a comprehensive review of relevant documents on best practices
relevant to mariculture, and to disseminate the results, as well as relevant case-
studies, through the clearing-house mechanism prior to the tenth meeting of
SBSTTA.

(viii) Facilitate the implementation of the research and monitoring priorities outlined
in appendix 5 (of the Marine and coasts thematic programme – see Appendix 1 of
that programme) in collaboration with FAO and other relevant organizations.

(ix) Undertake regional and international collaboration to address transboundary
impacts of mariculture on biodiversity, such as the spread of disease and invasive
alien species. (see Sub-programme 2.6 also)
(From programme element 4 of the programme of work).

(x) Promote adequate protection of areas important for reproduction such as
spawning and nursery areas and restoration of such areas and other important
habitats for marine and freshwater living resources.

(xi) Promote urgent and special attention and measures in respect to closed and
semi-closed seas.

(xii) Take measures to reduce by-catch in fisheries.

(xiii) Ide ntify activities and processes under national jurisdiction or control which
may have significant adverse impact on deep seabed ecosystems and species beyond
the limits of national jurisdiction, in order to address Article 3 of the Convention on
Biological Diversity.

(xiv) Pursue the activities relating to coral bleaching and physical degradation and
destruction of coral reefs as adopted in decision VI/3 and as amended in decision
VII/5 are contained in appendices 1 and 2 of the Coasts and Marine thematic
programme.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry : (vii), (viii) & (ix) above were
intended to have a role played by the Executive Secretary – see programme of work.
Partners: advice needed
Other collaborators: advice needed


1.3 Protected area systems

Overarching goal (see below for subsidiary goa ls from the protected areas



                                           33
programme of work):
To establish and maintain effectively managed systems of protected areas within the
framework of landscape*/seascape management at both the na tional and, where
appropriate, regional levels.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on           8 (a), (b), (c), (d) and (e)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):              3.1, 3.3, 3.4
Directly related (provisional) goals      Goal 1, Targets 1.1 & 1.2
and targets from Decision VII/30 –
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic             Mountains: Goal 1.2
programmes:                               Forests: Goal 3, Objective 3
                                          Inland waters: Goal 1.2
                                          Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (a)
                                          Coasts and marine: Programme element 3,
                                          Operational objectives 3.1, 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5
Source elements from cross-cutting        Protected areas programme of work as
issue guidance and programmes:            adopted by Decision VII/28. Note, some
                                          elements of this cross-cutting programme
                                          relate to other sub-programmes of the
                                          Mountains to the Sea program and have
                                          been presented there.

                                          Global Strategy for Plant Conservation,
                                          Targets 4 and 7 (see below and sub-
                                          programme 1.1 above also)
Operational objectives:
(a) Comprehensive, adeq uate and representative systems of protected areas across
all biomes (including all IUCN protected area categories, as appropriate) are
developed and maintained w ithin the framework of landscape*/seascape
management.

(b) Where appropriate, transboundary and regional collaborative approaches to
identifying, recognizing and managing protected areas are undertaken between
neighbouring Parties (see sub-programme 2.6 also).

(c) Effective management of existing and future protected areas occurs through
good governance, clear legal or customary frameworks to prevent damaging
activities, effective compliance and enforcement, ability to control external activities
that affect the protected area, strategic planning, capacity building and sustainable
financing.

(d) Relevant stakeholder and indigenous and local community participation is
recognized as an essential component of establishing and managing protected areas
(see sub-programme 1.6 also).
Purpose (from protected areas programme of work):
The overall purpose of the programme of work on protected areas is to support the
establishment and maintenance by 2010 for terrestrial and by 2012 for marine areas
of comprehensive, effectively managed, and ecologically representative national and



                                           34
regional systems of p rotected areas that collectively, inter alia through a global
network1/ contribute to achieving the three objectives of the Convention and the
2010 target to significantly reduce the current rate of biodiversity loss at the global,
regional, national and sub-national levels and contribute to poverty reduction and the
pursuit of sustainable development, thereby supporting the objectives of the
Strategic Plan of the Convention, the World Summit on Sustainable Development
Plan of Implementation and the Millenn ium Development Goals.

Goals and their assoc iated targets conta ine d in the protected a reas
programme of work. A number of these relate directly to other sub-programmes
i(as shown below) in the Mountains to the Sea programme and so have been
considered there.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Direct actions for planning, selecting, establishing,
strengthening, and managing, protected area systems and sites

Goal 1.1 – To establish and strengthen national and regional systems of protected
areas integrated into a globa l network as a contribution to globally agreed goals

Target: By 2010, terrestrially 2/ and 2012 in the marine area, a global network of
comprehensive, representative and effectively managed national and regional
protected area system is established as a c ontribution to (i) the goal of the Strategic
Plan of the Convention and the World Summit on Sustainable Development of
achieving a significant reduction in the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010; (ii) the
Millennium Development Goals – particularly goal 7 o n ensuring environmental
sustainability; and (iii) the Global Strategy for Plant Conservation.

Goal 1.2 – To integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and
sectors so as to maintain ecological structure and function (see Overarching
programme on the Ecosystem Approach)

Target: By 2015, all protected areas and protected area systems are integrated into
the wider land- and seascape, and relevant sectors, by applying the ecosystem
approach and taking into account ecological connectivity 3/ and the concept, where
appropriate, of ecological networks.

Goal 1.3 – To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected
areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across
national boundaries (see sub-programme 2.6)

Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010/2012 4/ transboundary protected areas,
other forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national
boundaries and regional networks, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use
of biological diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving
international cooperation.


1 / A global network provides for the connections between Parties , with the c ollaboration of others , for the exc hange of
ideas and experiences , scientific and tec hnic al c ooperation, c apac ity building and c ooperative action that mutually s upport
national and regional s ystems of protec ted areas whic h c ollectively c ontribute to the achievement of the programme of
work. T his network has no authority or mandate over national or regional sys tems .
2 / T erres trial inc ludes inland water ec osys tems .
3 / T he c onc ept of connectivity may not be applicable to all Pa rties
4 / References to marine protected area networks to be c onsis tent with the target in the WSSD plan of implementation.




                                                                 35
Goal 1.4 – To substantially improve site-based protected area planning and
management

Target: All protected areas to have effective management in existence by 2012,
using participatory and science-based site planning processes that incorporate clear
biodiversity objectives, targets, management strategies and monitoring programmes,
draw ing upon existing methodologies and a long-term management plan with active
stakeholder involvement.

Goal 1.5 – To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to protected
areas
Target: By 2008, effective mechanisms for identifying and preventing, and/or
mit igating the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas are in place.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: GOVERNANCE, PARTICIPATION, EQUITY AND BENEFIT
SHARING
Goal 2.1 – To promote equity and benefit -sharing

Target: Establish by 2008 mechanisms for the equitable sharing of both costs and
benefits arising from the establishment and management of protected areas.

Goal 2.2 – To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities
       and relevant stakeholders (see sub-programme 1.6)

Target: Full and effective participation by 2008, of indigenous and local
communities, in full respect of their rights and recognition of their responsibilities,
consistent with national law and applicable international obligations, and the
participation of relevant stakeholders, in the management of existing, and the
establishment and management of new, protected areas

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: ENABLING AC TIVITIES
Goal 3.1 – To provide an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic
environment for protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)

Target: By 2008 review and revise policies as appropriate, including use of social
and economic valuation and incentives, to provide a supportive enabling environment
for more effective establishment and management of protected areas and protected
areas systems.

Goal 3.2 – To build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of
protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)

Target: By 2010, comprehensive capacity building programmes and initiatives are
implemented to develop know ledge and skills at individual, community and
institutiona l levels, and raise professional standards.

Goal 3.3 - To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected
areas (see sub-programme 2.5)

Target: By 2010 the development, validation, and transfer of appropriate
technologies and innovative approaches for the effective management of protected
areas is substantially improved, taking into account decisions of the Conference of
the Parties on technology transfer and cooperation.


                                            36
Goal 3.4 – To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and
regional systems of protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)

Target: By 2008, sufficient financial, technical and other resources to meet the costs
to effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected
areas are secured, including both from national and international sources,
particularly to support the needs of developing countries and countries with
economies in transition and small island developing States.

Goal 3.5 – To strengthen communication, education and public awareness (see sub-
programme 2.4)
Target: By 2008 public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the
importance and benefits of protected areas is significantly increased.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 4: Standards, assessment, and monitoring
Goal 4.1 – To develop and adopt minimu m standards and best practices for national
and regional protected area systems (see sub-programme 3.1)

Target: By 2008, standards, criteria, and best practices for planning, selecting,
establishing, managing and governance of national and regional systems of protected
areas are developed and adopted.

Goal 4.2 – To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of protected areas
management (see sub-programme 3.1)

Target: By 2010, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting p rotected
areas management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and
transboundary protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.

Goal 4.3 – To assess and monitor protected area status and trends (see sub-
programme 3.1)

Target: By 2010, national and regional systems are established to enable effective
monitoring of protected-area coverage, status and trends at national, regional and
global scales, and to assist in evaluating progress in meeting global biodiversity
targets.

Goal 4.4 – To ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and
effectiveness of protected areas and protected area systems (see sub-programme
3.2)

Target: Scientific know ledge relevant to protected areas is further developed as a
contribution to their establishment, effectiveness, and management.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
(a) Apply across all biomes, and through an integrated cross-biome approach, the
programme of work on Protected Areas as endorsed by the Conference of the Parties
in decision VII/28 (see below).

(b) Identify, and seek to protect sites important for migratory species, working
collaboratively with neighbouring or species‟ range states and, where appropriate,
work collaboratively with neighbouring Parties to identify, have formally recognized


                                          37
and managed, transboundary protected areas (see Sub-programme 2.6 also).

(c) Use the clearing-house mechanism to assist the exchange of information on
research, management issues and problems (including incentive measures) between
protected area managers, to facilitate continuous improvement in management
effectiveness across the global network of protected areas.

(d) Provide, as appropriate, to the Executive Secretary, examples of protected-area
establishment and mana gement strategies that are supporting the conservation and
sustainable use of biodiversity.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters:
(e) Undertake the necessary assessments to identify priority sites for inclusion into a
system of protected areas, in particular for inland water ecosystems, apply the
guidance on operationalizing annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity and its
harmonized application with the criteria for identifying Wetlands of International
Importance under the Ramsar Convention.

(f) In undertaking activity 1.1.5 above, those Parties to the Convention on Biological
Diversity that are also Parties to the Ramsar Convention should harmonize this work
with the development of national networks of wetlands of international importance,
which are comprehensive and coherent in line with the Ramsar strategic framework
for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance and
taking into account ecological connectivity/ and the concept, where appropriate, of
ecological networks, in line w ith the programme of work on protected areas
(DecisionVII/28).

Cross-cutting issues
Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 4: At least 10% of each of the world‟s ecological regions effectively
conserved.
Target 7: 60% of the world‟s threatened species conserved in situ

Protected areas programme of work
(numbering used below follows that of the protected areas programme of work)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Direct actions for planning, selecting, establishing,
strengthening, and managing, protected area systems a nd sites

1.1.1. By 2006, establish suitable time-bound and measurable national and regional
       level protected area targets and indicators.

1.1.2. As a matter of urgency, by 2006, take action to establish or expand protected
       areas in any large, intact or relatively unf ragmented or highly irreplaceable
       natural areas, or areas under high threat, as well as areas securing the most
       threatened species in the context of national priorities, 5/ and taking into
       consideration the conservation needs of migratory species.

1.1.3. As a matter of urgency, by 2006 terrestrially and by 2008 in the marine
       environment, take action to address the under-representation of marine and

5 / P arties may wis h to use IUCN Red Lis t of T hreatened Species c riteria, vers ion 3 .1 .




                                                                  38
       inland water ecosystems in existing national and regional systems of
       protected areas, taking into account marine ecosystems beyond areas of
       national jurisdiction in accordance with applicable international law, and
       transboundary inland water ecosystems.

1.1.4. By 2006, conduct, with the full and effective participation of indigenous and
       local communities and relevant stakeholders, national-level reviews of
       existing and potential forms of conservation, and their suitability for achieving
       biodiversity conservation goals, including innovative types of governance for
       protected areas that need to be recognized and promoted through legal,
       policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as prote cted
       areas run by government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected
       areas, private protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved
       areas.

1.1.5. By 2006 complete protected area system gap analyses at national and
       regional levels based on the requirements for representative systems of
       protected areas that adequately conserve terrestrial, marine and inland water
       biodiversity and ecosystems. National plans should also be developed to
       provide interim measures to protect highly threatened or highly valued areas
       wherever this is necessary. Gap analyses should take into account Annex I of
       the Convention on Biological Diversity and other relevant criteria such as
       irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimu m effective size and
       viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological
       processes and ecosystem services.

1.1.6. By 2009, designate the protected areas as identified through the national or
       regional gap analysis (including precise maps) and complete by 2010
       terrestrially and 2012 in the marine environments the establishment of
       comprehensive and ecologically representative national and regional systems
       of protected areas.

1.1.7. Encourage the establishment of protected areas that benefit indigenous and
       local communities, including by respecting, preserving, and maintaining their
       traditional know ledge in accordance with article 8(j) and related provisions.


Goal 1.2 – To integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and
sectors so as to maint ain ecological structure and function (see Overarching
programme on the Ecosystem Approach)

Goal 1.3 – To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected
areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across
national boundaries (see sub-programme 2.6)

Goal 1.4 – To substantially improve site-based protected area planning and
management

1.4.1. Create a highly participatory process, involving indigenous and local
       communities and relevant stakeholders, as part of site-based planning in
       accordance with the ecosystem approach, and use relevant ecological and
       socio-economic data required to develop effective planning processes.




                                           39
1.4.2. Identify appropriate measurable biodiversity conservation targets for sites,
       draw ing on criteria laid out in Annex I to the Convention on Biological
       Diversity and other relevant criteria.

1.4.3. Include in the site-planning process an analysis of opportunities for the
       protected area to contribute to conservation and sustainable use of
       biodiversity at local and regional scales as well as an analysis of threats and
       means of addressing them.

1.4.4. As appropriate, but no later than 2010, develop or update management plans
       for protected areas, built on the above process, to better achieve the three
       objectives of the Convention.

1.4.5.   Integrate climate change adaptation measures in protected area planning,
         management strategies, and in the design of protected area systems.

1.4.6. Ensure that protected areas are effectively managed or supervise d through
       staffs that are well-trained and skilled, properly and appropriately equipped,
       and supported, to carry out their fundamental role in the management and
       conservation of protected areas.

Goal 1.5 – To prevent and mitigate the negative impacts of key threats to protected
areas (while this component relates directly to sub-programme 1.2 on preventing,
reducing or mitigating threats, it has been retained here since it deals with the issue
specifically from a protected areas perspective)

1.5.1. Apply, as appropriate, timely environmental impact assessments to any plan
       or project with the potential to have effects on protected areas, and ensure
       timely information flow among all concerned parties to that end, taking into
       account decision VI/7 A of the Conference of the Parties on guidelines for
       incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact
       assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic environmental
       assessments.

1.5.2. Develop by 2010 national approaches to liability and redress measures,
       incorporating the polluter pays principle or other appropriate mechanisms in
       relation to damages to protected areas.

1.5.3. Establish and implement measures for the rehabilitation and restoration of the
       ecological integrity of protect ed areas.

1.5.4. Take measures to control risks associated with invasive alien species in
protected areas.

1.5.5. Assess key threats to protected areas and develop and implement strategies
       to prevent and/or mitigate such threats.

1.5.6. Develop policies, improve governance, and ensure enforcement of urgent
       measures that can halt the illegal exploitation of resources from protected
       areas, and strengthen international and regional cooperation to eliminate
       illegal trade in such resources taking into account sustainable customary
       resource use of indigenous and local communities in accordance with article
       10(c) of the Convention.


                                           40
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: GOVERNANC E, PARTIC IPATION, EQUITY AND
BENEF IT SHARING
Goal 2.1 – To promote equity and benefit -sharing

2.1.1. Assess the economic and socio-cultural costs, benefits and impacts arising
       from the establishment and maintenance of protected areas, particularly for
       indigenous and local communities, and adjust policies to avoid and mitigate
       negative impacts, and where appropriate compensate costs and equitably
       share benef its in accordance with the national legislation.

2.1.2. Recognize and promote a broad set of protected area governance types
       related to their potential for achieving biodiversity conservation goals in
       accordance with the Convention, which may include areas conserved by
       indigenous and local communities and private nature reserves. The promotion
       of these areas should be by legal and/or policy, financial and community
       mechanisms.

2.1.3. Establish policies and institutiona l mechanisms with full participation of
       indigenous and local communities, to facilitate the legal recognition and
       effective management of indigenous and local community conserved areas in
       a manner consistent with the goals of conserving both biodiversity a nd the
       know ledge, innovations and practices of indigenous and local communities.

2.1.4. Use social and economic benefits generated by protected areas for poverty
       reduction, consistent with protected-area management objectives.

2.1.5. Engage indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders in
       participatory planning and governance, recalling the principles of the
       ecosystem approach.

2.1.6. Establish or strengthen national policies to deal with access to genetic
       resources within protected areas and fair and equitable sharing of benefits
       arising from their utilization, draw ing upon the Bonn Guidelines on Access to
       Genetic Resources and Fair and Equitable Sharing of the Benef its Arising out
       of their Utilization as appropriate,.

Goal 2.2 – To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities
       and relevant stakeholders (see sub-programme 1.6)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: ENABLING AC TIVITIES
Goal 3.1 – To provide an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic
environment for protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)
Goal 3.2 – To build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of
protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)
Goal 3.3 - To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected
areas (see sub-programme 2.5)
Goal 3.4 – To ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and
regional systems of protected areas (see sub-programme 2.1)
Goal 3.5 – To strengthen communication, education and public awareness (see sub-
programme 2.4)

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 4: Standa rds, assessment, and monitoring


                                          41
Goal 4.1 – To develop and adopt minimu m standards and best practices for national
and regional protected area systems (see sub-programme 3.1)
Goal 4.2 – To evaluate and improve the effectiveness of protected areas
management (see sub-programme 3.1)
Goal 4.3 – To assess and monitor protected area status and trends (see sub-
programme 3.1)
Goal 4.4 – To ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and
effectiveness of protected areas and protected area systems (s ee sub-programme
3.2)
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
(g) Review and disseminate relevant information and guidance, including through
the clearing-house mechanism, on national and transboundary experiences and case-
studies to assist efforts in establishing and maintaining protected areas considering,
inter alia:
  (i) The range of resource materials and guidance available through the IUCN
Commission on Protected Areas;
  (ii) The Ramsar Convention strategic framework for the future dev elopment of the
List of Wetlands of International Importance, and its specific guidance in relation to
the identification and designation of certain inland water ecosystem types such as
karsts and subterranean hydrological systems, peatland, wet grasslands , etc;
  (iii) The new Ramsar guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and
other wetlands, adopted by the Conference of the Contracting Parties to the Ramsar
Convention at its eighth meeting; and
  (iv) Advice and guidance available from the UNESCO Man and the Biosphere
programme, International Hydrological Programme (IHP) and World Heritage Centre.

(h) In collaboration with the secretariats of the Convention on Migratory Species and
the Ramsar Convention identify opportunities for collaborat ive work on protected
area networks for migratory species dependent on inland water ecosystems, through
the respective bilateral joint work plans.

From the protected areas programme of work – numbering follows that
programme
1.1.8. Identify options for quantitat ive and qualitative protected areas targets and
       indicators that should be used at the global level that could contribute to the
       2010 target and the Millennium Development Goals.

1.1.9. Invite relevant international and regional organizations to offer their
       assistance to the Parties in conducting national-level gap analyses.

1.1.10.          Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and
          other relevant media relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for system
          planning and promote and facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons
          learned in applying and adapting them to different ecological and social
          settings.

1.4.7. Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism current
       relevant approaches, frameworks and tools for site planning and promote and
       facilitate the exchange of experiences and lessons learned in applying and
       adapting them in different ecological and social settings.

1.4.8. Disseminate information on successful management models of protected
       areas which serve to further the three objective of the Convention and may


                                           42
       also contribute to poverty reduction and the pursuit of sustainable
       development.

1.5.7. Address issues specific to protected areas, in the guidelines for incorporating
       biodiversity considerations in environmental impac t assessment and strategic
       environmental assessment, procedures and regulations.

1.5.8. Collaborate with the International Association for Impact Assessment and
       other relevant organizations on further development and refinement of the
       impact assessment guidelines particularly to incorporate all stages of
       environmental impact assessment processes in protected areas taking into
       account the ecosystem approach.

1.5.9. Compile and disseminate through the clearing-house mechanism and other
       means case studies, best practices and lessons learned in mitigating the
       negative impacts of key threats and facilitate the exchange of experiences.

Main partners
Convention on Conservation of Migratory Species, Food and Agriculture Organization,
Global Environment Facility, Intergovernmental Oceanic Commission of the United
Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, International Coral Reef
Initiative, International Maritime Organization , International Association for Impact
Assessment, IUCN – The World Conservation Union and its World Commission on
Protected Areas, Commission on Ecosystem Management, and Species Survival
Commission, International Whaling Commission, Man and Biosphere Programme of
the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Ramsar
Convention, United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, United
Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, United Nations Convention to Combat
Desertification, United Nations Development Programme, UNEP - World Conservation
Monitoring Centre, United Nations Forum on Forests, World Heritage Centre of the
United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization ,World Bank
Other collaborators
BirdLife International, Conservation International, Fauna and Flora International, The
Nature Conservancy, Wildlife Conservation Society, World Resources Institute, WWF,
Indigenous and local communities, Private sector, other relevant national, regional
and international non-governmental organizations and other organizations
Footnotes:
* = for many Parties river basins may provide a useful scale in order to achieve
integrated, „mountains to the sea‟ planning and management.


1.4 Sustainable use

Goal:
To promote sustainable use of biological diversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on          8 (c), (e), (i), 10 (a), (b) & (e)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):             1.1, 1.5, , 2.1, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4, 4.1, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals     Goal 4, Targets 4.1 and 4.2; Goal 8, Targets
and targets from Decision VII/30 –       8.1 and 8.2



                                          43
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goals 1.3 and 1.5
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 1, Objective 4, Goal 4,
                                         Objectives 1, 2, 3 & 4
                                         Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (d, e &
                                         h), Activity 9 (b & c)
                                         Agricultural: Programme element 2
                                         Coasts and marine: Operational objectives
                                         2.1, 2.4 & 3.2
Source elements from cross-cutting       Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
issue guidance and programmes:           Sustainable use of Biodiversity: Practical
                                         principles 4, 5, 7,and 11 (other principles are
                                         presented under the relevant sub-
                                         programmes)

                                         Global Strategy for Plant Conservation:
                                         Targets 6, 11 and 12

                                         Biodiversity and tourism: Guidelines adopted
                                         by Decision VII/14
Operational objectives:
(a) Promote sustainable land-use and water resource management practices in
relation to human livelihood needs (agriculture, pastoralism, animal husbandry,
forestry, aquaculture, inland water fisheries, etc.), taking into account the
Convention principles for sustainable use and the ecosystem approach.

(b) Prevent the loss of biodiversity caused by unsustainable harvesting of biological
diversity.

(c) Enable indigenous and local communities to develop and implement adaptive
community-management systems to conserve and sustainably use biological
diversity (see sub-programme 1.6 also)

(d) Promote sustainable tourism.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
1.4.1 Develop, validate and implement sustainable use practices for plants, animals
and microorganisms at the genetic, species, population, community and ecosystem
levels.

1.4.2 Support the development of sustainable livelihoods through, inter alia:
  (a) Promoting sustainable harvesting including of wildlife, as well as ranching,
including game-ranching;
  (b) Exploring innovative sustainable uses of the biological diversity for local income
generation, and promoting their w ider application
  (c) Promoting the sustainable use of economically valuable wild plants and animals,
as an income-generating activity for the local inhabitants.

1.4.3 Support activities of indigenous and local communities involved in the use of
traditional know ledge, in particular concerning sustainable management of
biodiversity, soil, water resources etc (see sub-programme 1.6 also).



                                           44
1.4.4 Apply the Convention Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development
and strengthen local capacity for sustainable tourism management, in order to
ensure that benefits derived from tourism activities are shared by indigenous and
local communities, while preserving natural and cultural heritage values.

1.4.5 Encourage implementation of voluntary third-party credible certification
schemes that take into consideration relevant biodiversity criteria and that would be
audited, taking into consideration indigenous and local community rights and
interests.

1.4.6 Set up demonstration sites that illustrate biodiversity conservation and on-
ground delivery of goods and services through sustainable management, which are
also representative of various types of biomes, themes and regional needs.

1.4.7 Facilitate and support a responsible private sector committed to sustainable
harvesting practices and compliance with domestic laws through effective
development and enforcement of laws on sustainable harvesting of biodiversity-
derived resources (see sub-programme 2.1 also).

1.4.8 Invite Governments and relevant organizations to develop and forward to the
Secretariat case-studies and research on the impacts of unsustainable harvesting
and related trade.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Forests
1.4.9 Establish a liaison group with an associated workshop to facilitate
development of a joint work plan with relevant members of the Collaborative
Partnership on Forests to bring harvesting of non-timber forest products (NTFP)s,
with a particular focus on bush meat, to sustainable levels. This group should have a
proportionate regional representation, giving special consideration to subregions
where bush meat is a major issue and representation of relevant organizations such
as the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and
Flora. The mandate of this group is to:
           i.  Consult in a participatory manner w ith key stakeholders to identify and
               prioritize major issues pertaining the unsustainable harvesting of non-
               timber forest products, particularly of bushmeat and related products;
          ii.  Provide advice on the development of policies, enabling legislation and
               strategies that promote sustainable use of, and trade in, non-timber
               forest products, particularly bushmeat and related products;
         iii.  Provide advice on appropriate alternative sustainable livelihood
               technologies and practices for the affected communities;
         iv.   Provide advice on appropriate monitoring tools.

1.4.10 Promote projects and activities that encourage the use and supply of
alternative sources of energy to prevent forest degradation due to the use of
firewood by local communities.

1.4.11 Develop any necessary legislation for the sustainable mana gement and
harvesting of non-timber forest resources.

1.4.12 Solicit input from Parties, other countries and relevant organizations on ways
and means to encourage and assist importing countries to prevent the entry of
unsustainably harvested forest resources, which are not covered by the Convention


                                          45
on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, and consider
this information as a basis for further steps on this issue.

1.4.13 Develop codes of conduct for sustainable forest practic es in logging
companies and the wood-processing sector to improve biodiversity conservation.

1.4.14 Encourage and support the development and implementation of tracking and
chain-of-custody systems for forest products to seek to ensure that these produc ts
are legally harvested.

Marine and coastal
1.4.15 Implement the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries taking note of
the relevant FAO international plans of action and technical guidelines.

1.4.16 Eliminate destructive fishing practices, and restore and maintain fisheries
stocks to sustainable levels by the year 2015, including through financial assistance
to developing countries, in particular small island developing States, for improved
enforcement, surveillance and patrolling and recognizing the importance of use of
sustainable fishing practices, including traditional fishing practices.

1.4.17 Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable areas,
including areas within and beyond national jurisdiction.

1.4.18 Identify threats to the biological diversity in areas beyond the limits of
national jurisdiction, in particular areas w ith seamounts, hydrothermal vents, and
cold-water corals, and certain other underwater features.

1.4.19 Urgently take the necessary short-term, medium-term and long-term
measures to eliminate/avoid destructive practices, consistent with international law,
on scientific basis, including the application of precaution, for example,
consideration, on a case by case basis, of interim pro hibition of destructive practices
adversely impacting the marine biological diversity associated with marine areas
beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in particular areas with seamounts,
hydrothermal vents, and cold-water corals, other vulnerable ecosystems and certain
other underwater features.

Cross-cutting programmes
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines: Practical principles 4, 5, 7,and 11

Practical principle 4: Adaptive management should be practiced, based on:
   a. Science and traditional and local knowledge;
   b. Iterative, timely and transparent feedback derived from monitoring the use,
       environmental, socio-economic impacts, and the status of the resource being
       used; and
   c. Adjusting management based on timely feedback from the monitoring
       procedures. (5 )

Operational guide lines
      Ensure that for particular uses adaptive management schemes are in place;
      Require adaptive management plans to incorporate systems to generate
      sustainable revenue, where the benefits go to indigenous and local
      communities and local stakeholders to support successful implementation;
      Provide extension assistance in setting up and maintaining monitoring and


                                           46
       feedback systems;
       Include clear descriptions of their adaptive management system, which
       includes means to assess uncertainties;
       Respond quickly to unsustainable practices;
       Design monitoring system on a temporal scale sufficient to ensure that
       information about the status of the resource and ecosystem is available to
       inform management decisions to ensure that the resource is conserved;
       When using traditional and local knowledge, ensure that approval of the
       holder of that knowledge has been obtained.

Practical principle 5: Sustainable use management goals and practices should
avoid or minimize adverse impacts on ecosystem services, structure and functions as
well as other components of ecosystems. (6 )

Operational guide lines
      Ensure management practices do not impair the capacity of ecosystems to
      deliver goods and services that may be needed some distance from the site of
      use. For example, selective cutting of timber in a watershed would help
      maintain the ecosystem‟s capacity to prevent soil erosion and provide clean
      water;
      Ensure that consumptive and non-consumptive use does not impair the long-
      term sustainability of that use by negatively impacting the ecosystem and
      species on which the use depends, paying special attention to the needs of
      threatened components of biological diversity;
      Apply a precautionary approach in management decisions in accordance with
      principle 15 of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development;
      Identify successful experiences of management of biodiversity components in
      other countries in order to adapt and incorporate this knowledge in their
      efforts to resolve their own difficulties;
      Where possible consider the aggregate and cumulative impact of activit ies on
      the target species or ecosystem in management decisions related to that
      species or ecosystem;
      Where previous impacts have degraded and reduced biodiversity, support
      formulation and implementation of remedial action plans (Article 10(d)).

Practical principle 7: The spatial and temporal scale of management should be
compatible with the ecological and socio-economic scales of the use and its impact.
(7 )



Operational guide lines
      Link responsibility and accountability to the spatial and temporal scale of use;
      Def ine the management objectives for the resource being used;
      Enable full public participation in preparation of management plans to best
      ensure ecological and socio-economic sustainability.
      In case of transboundary resources, it is advisable that appropriate
      representation from those states participate in the management and decisions
      about the resources.

Practical principle 11: Users of biodiversity components should seek to minimize
waste and adverse environmental impact and optimize benef its from uses.

Operational guide lines:
      Eliminate perverse incentives and provide economic incentives for resource


                                          47
       managers to invest in development and/or use of more environmentally
       friendly techniques, e.g., tax exemptions, funds available for productive
       practices, lower loan interest rates, certification for accessing new markets;
       Establish technical cooperation mechanisms in order to guarantee the transfer
       of improved technologies to communities;
       Endeavour to have an independent review of harvests to ensure that greater
       efficiencies in harvest or other extractive uses do not have a deleterious
       impact on the status of the resource being used or its ecosystem;
       Identify inefficiencies and costs in current methods;
       Conduct research and development into improved methods;
       Promote or encourage establishment of agreed industry and third party
       quality standards of biodiversity component processing and management at
       the international and national levels;
       Promote more efficient, ethical and humane use of components of
       biodiversity, within local and national contexts, and reduce collateral damage
       to biodiversity.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 6: At least 30% of production lands managed consistent with the conservation
of plant biodiversity
Target 11: No species of wild flora endangered by international trade
Target 12: 30% of plant-based products derived from sources that are sustainably
managed.

Biodiversity and tourism: Guide lines adopted by Decision VII/14
These comprehensive guidelines cut across several sub-programmes of the
Mountains to the Sea programme (see 2.1, 2.3, 2.4 and 3.1 in particular). They
have not been reproduced here because of their very specialized nature, although at
some future time it should be possible to integrate them fully.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
Specifically for the marine and coastal biome
1.4.20 Support any work of the United Nations Gene ral Assembly in identifying
appropriate mechanisms for the future establishment and effective management of
marine protected areas beyond national jurisdiction.

1.4.21 Carry out a study on the effects of fish and invertebrate stock enhancement
on marine and coastal biological diversity at the species and genetic levels.
Main partners:
Collaborative Partnership on Forests advice needed
Other collaborators: advice needed


1.5 Access to ge netic resources a nd bene fit sharing

Goal: To promote access to, and sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of
genetic resources related to biological diversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on         8(j) & 15
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):            2.2, 3.1, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals    Goal 3, Target 3.1; Goal 10, Targets 10.1



                                          48
and targets from Decision VII/30 –       and 10.2.
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic            Mountains: Goals 1.4 and 1.5
programmes:                              Forests: Goal 5, Objective 1
                                         Dry and sub-humid lands, Activities 9 (e)
                                         Agricultural: Programme 15
Source elements from cross-cutting       Access to genetic resources and benefit
issue guidance and programmes:           sharing

                                         Global Taxonomy Initiative
Operational objectives:
(a) Promote the fair and equitable sharing of benefits resulting from the utilization of
genetic resources.

(b) Maintain genetic diversity in particular through the preservation and maintenance
of traditional knowledge and practices (see Sub-programme 1.6 also).
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
1.5.1 Based on the Bonn Guidelines on Access to Genetic Resources and Fair and
Equitable Sharing of the Benef its Arising out of their Utilization, as adopted by the
Conference of the Parties at its sixth meeting:
    a. Establis h mechanisms to facilitate the sharing of benefits at local, national,
        regional and global levels.
    b. Strengthen capacity of indigenous and local communities to negotiate benefit-
        sharing arrangements.
    c. Promote dissemination of information about benefit -sharing experiences
        through the clearing-house mechanism and appropriate means at the local
        level.

1.5.2 Develop methods to assess and conserve genetic resources of high economic
value for promoting fair and equitable sharing of benefits, respecting national
legislation on access to genetic resources.

Spe cific to a particular biome programme of work
Agricultural biodiversity
1.5.3 Assess and develop strategies aimed at minimizing the threat of genetic
erosion on domesticated biodiversity (crops, animals) and wild relatives, paying
particular attention to the centres of origin of the genetic resources.

Marine and coastal
1.5.4 See sub-programme 3.3, activity 3.3.5

Forests
1.5.5 Develop, harmonize and assess the diversity of forest genetic resources,
taking into consideration the identif ication of key functional/keystone species
populations, model species and genetic variability at the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
level.

1.5.6 Select, at a national level, the most threatened forest ecosystems based on
the genetic diversity of their priority species and populations and develop an
appropriate action plan in order to protect the genetic resources of the most
threatened forest ecosystems.


                                           49
1.5.7 Improve understanding of patterns of genetic diversity and its conservation in
situ, in relation to forest management, landscape-scale forest change and climate
variations.

1.5.8 Develop national legislative, administrative policy measures on access and
benefit-sharing on forest genetic resources, taking into account the provisions under
Articles 8(j), 10(c), 15, 16 and 19 of the Convention on Biological Diversity and in
conformity with future decisions of the Conference of the Parties, as appropriate.

1.5.9 Monitor developments in new biotechnologies and ensure their applications are
compatible with the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity with respect
to forest biological diversity, and develop and enforce regulations for controlling the
use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) when appropriate.

1.5.10 Develop a holistic framework for the conservation and management of forest
genetic resources at national, subregional and global levels.

1.5.11 Implement activities to ensure adequate and representative in situ
conservation of the genetic diversity of endangered, overexploited and narrow
endemic forest species and complement the in situ conservation with adequate ex
situ conservation of the genetic diversity of endangered, overexploited and narrow
endemic species and species of economic potential.

From cross-cutting programmes
Global taxonomy initiative (5.1 Access and benefit sharing (Planned activity 14))

1.5.12 Interactive catalogues of material available, linked to taxonomic collections in
herbaria and museums. Taxonomic support, including at the molecular level, to
provide clear identification of specimens in the ex situ collections, especially in
developing countries, is needed.

1.5.13 A series of country-driven projects could be carried out, combining the
development of basic taxonomic capacity and an improved information base on
biological resources. These would assist in developing better linkages between
existing initiatives that provide information electronically on genetic resources, as
well as new projects to improve the access to, and range of, publicly available
taxonomic information. In turn, a basis for the commercialization of components of
that biological diversity would be provided.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry
1.5.14 Compile, with the assistance of SBSTTA and the Expert Panel, and
disseminate, studies on sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic
resources.
Main partners: Advice needed
Other collaborators:
Relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties.


1.6 Participation by local and indigenous communities a nd application of
traditional knowledge

Goal: To respect, understand and support the traditions and sustainable practices of



                                          50
the indigenous and local communities in ways which accommodate their needs,
participation, know ledge and practices for conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on                        8(j), 10 (c) and (d)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):                           4.1, 4.4
Directly related (provisional) goals                   Goal 9, Targets 9.1 and 9.2, Goal 10,
and targets from Decision VII/30 –                     Targets 10.1 and 10.2
pursuit of the 2010 Biodiversity
targets
Source elements from thematic                          Mountains: Goals 1.5 and 2.2
programmes:                                            Inland waters: Goal 2.5
                                                       Agricultural: Programme element 3
Source elements from cross-cutting                     Akwé: Kon guidelines (Decision VII/16 F)
issue guidance and programmes:
                                                       Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on
                                                       Sustainable Use of Biodiversity: Practical
                                                       principles 2 and 12

                                                       Global Strategy for Plant Conservation:
                                                       Targets 9 and 13

                                                       Global Taxonomy Initiative: 5.3. Support in
                                                       implementation of Article 8(j)

                                          Protected areas programme of work
Operational objectives:
(a) Taking into account Article 8(j) of the Convention and related decisions from the
Conference of the Parties and programmes of work, respect, preserve and maintain
indigenous know ledge, practices, processes and technologies to ensure conservation,
sustainable use of biodiversity and sharing of benefit s.

(b) Encourage participation by relevant stakeholders, including representatives of
indigenous and local communities, in the policy-making and in the planning,
implementation and monitoring of the implementation of this cross-biome
programme of work, and related thematic and cross-cutting programmes.

(c) Strengthen the capacities of stakeholder, communities and civil society
organizations to manage biodiversity so as to increase the benefits they derive from
its conservation and sustainable use, and to promote increased awareness and
responsible action.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
1.6.1 Implement provisions contained in Article 8(j) on traditional knowledge and
related provisions and guidance of the Convention on Biological Diversity, t aking into
consideration the needs of developing countries. In particular give consideration to
applying the Akwé: Kon 6/ Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural,
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to

6 / P ronounc ed {agway- goo}. A holistic M ohawk term meaning “everything in c reation” provided by the Kahnawake
c ommunity located near Montreal, where the guidelines were negotiated.




                                                          51
Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and
Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities , as
endorsed by COP7 through Decision VII/16 F.

1.6.2 Promote networking, collaborative action and participation of indigenous and
local communities in decision- making processes, paying particular attention to the
empowerment of women, in order to maintain biodiversity and its sustainable use.

1.6.3 Implement capacity-building measures to facilitate the participation of
indigenous and local communities and the application of traditional know ledge
favourable to the conservation of biodiversity, with their prior informed consent in
accordance with national laws, in the management, conservation and sustainable use
of biological diversity.

1.6.4 Encourage decentralization and enhance access to information for the full
participation and involvement of indigenous and local communities in decisions that
affect them in relation to biodiversity conservation and sustainable use across all
biomes.

1.6.5 Promote the implementation of activities aimed at the improvement of
livelihoods, poverty reduction and the maintenance of cultural identity, in order to
achieve sustainable use of biological diversity.

1.6.6 – see activity 3.1.5(a), sub-programme 3.1 – Status and trends

Cross-cutting programmes
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on Susta inable Use of Biodiversity

Practical principle 2: Recognizing the need for a governing framework consistent
with internatio nal/national(2 ) laws, local users of biodiversity components should be
sufficiently empowered and supported by rights to be responsible and accountable
for use of the resources concerned. (3 )

Operational guide lines
      Where possible adopt means that aim toward delegating rights, responsibility,
      and accountability to those who use and/or manage biological resources;
      Review existing regulations to see if they can be used for delegating rights;
      amend regulations where needed and possible; and/or draft new regulations
      where needed. Throughout local customs and traditions (including customary
      law where recognized) should be considered;
      Refer to the programme of work related to the implementation of Article 8(j)
      with regard to indigenous and local community issues (decision V/16),
      implement and integrate tasks relevant for the sustainable use of biodiversity
      components, in particular element 3, tasks 6, 13 and 14;
      Provide training and extension services to enhance the capacity of people to
      enter into effective decision- making arrangements as well as in
      implementation of sustainable use methods;
      Protect and encourage customary use of biological resources that is
      sustainable, in accordance with traditional and cultural practices (Article
      10(c)).

Practical principle 12: The needs of indigenous and local communities who live
with and are affected by the use and conservation of biological diversity, along with


                                           52
their contributions to its conservation and sustainable use, should be ref lected in the
equitable distribution of the benefits from the use of those resources.

Operational guide lines:
      Promote economic incentives that will guarantee additional benef its to
      indigenous and local communities and stakeholders who are involved in the
      management of any biodiversity components, e.g., job opportunities for local
      peoples, equal distribution of returns amongst locals and outside investors/co-
      management;
      Adopt policies and regulations that ensure that indigenous and local
      communities and local stakeholders who are engaged in the management of a
      resource for sustainable use receive an equitable share of any benefits
      derived from that use;
      Ensure that national policies and regulation for sustainable use recognize and
      account for non-monetary values of natural resources;
      Consider ways to bring uncontrolled use of biological resources int o a legal
      and sustainable use framework, including promoting alternative non-
      consumptive uses of these resources;
      Ensure that an equitable share of the benefits remain with the local people in
      those cases where foreign invest ment is involved;
      Involve loc al stakeholders, including indigenous and local communities, in the
      management of any natural resource and provide those involved w ith
      equitable compensation for their efforts, taking into account monetary and
      non- monetary benefits;
      In the event that mana gement dictates a reduction in harvest levels, to the
      extent practicable assistance should be provided for local stakeholders,
      including indigenous and local communities, who are directly dependent on
      the resource to have access to alternatives.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 9: 70% of the genetic diversity of crops and other major socio-economically
valuable plant species conserved, and associated indigenous knowledge maintained.

Target 13: The decline of plant resources, and associated indigenous and local
know ledge innovations and practices, that support livelihoods, local food security and
health care, halted

Global Taxonomy Initiative
Support in impleme ntation of Artic le 8(j) (Planned activity 16)
Regional and subregional guides base d on ethical research practices and developed
with full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities. These
guides could highlight the similarities and differences between the two taxonomies
and may be in the form of catalogues and species lists, or be more targeted resource
material that provides interpretation information for a wide variety of environmental
managers, in particular protected area and conservation managers.

Protected areas programme of work
Goal 2.2 – To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities
and relevant stakeholders (see sub-programme 1.3)

Target: Full and effective participation by 2008, of indigenous and local
communities, in full respect of their rights and recognition of their responsibilities,
consistent with national law and applicable international obligations, and the


                                            53
participation of relevant stakeholders, in the management of existing, and the
establishment and management of new, protected areas

1.6.7 Carry out participatory natio nal reviews of the status, needs and context -
specific mechanisms for involving stakeholders, ensuring gender and social equity, in
protected areas policy and management, at the level of national policy, protected
area systems and individual sites.

1.6.8 Implement specific plans and initiatives to effectively involve indigenous and
local communities, with respect for their rights consistent with national legislation
and applicable international obligations, and stakeholders at all levels of protected
areas planning, establishment, governance and management, with particular
emphasis on identifying and removing barriers preventing adequate participation.

1.6.9 Support participatory assessment exercises among stakeholders to identify
and harness the wealth of knowledge, skills, resources and institutions of importance
for conservation that are available in society.

1.6.10 Promote an enabling environment (legislation, policies, capacities, and
resources) for the involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant
stakeholders 7/ in decision making, and the development of their capacities and
opportunities to establish and manage protected areas, including community -
conserved and private protected areas.

1.6.11 Ensure that any resettlement of indigenous communities as a consequence of
the establishment or management of protected areas will only take place with their
prior informed consent that may be given according to national legislation and
applicable international obligations.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
1.6.12 Promote the implementation of the cross-biome programme of work and
decisions of the Conference of the Parties on Article 8 (j) and related provisions.

Protected areas programme of work
1.6.13 Make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best practices and other
sources of information on stakeholder participation in protected areas .

1.6.14 Promote, through the CHM, technical publications and other means, the
international sharing of experience on effective mechanisms for stakeholder
involvement and governance types in conservation in particular w ith regard to co-
managed protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas and
private protected areas.
Main partners:
FAO and other relevant organizations. [It is acknowledged that this is an incomplete
list]
Other collaborators: Advice needed


Programme e lement 2.                      Institutiona l a nd socio-economic e nabling
environment

2.1 Institutions, plans, policies, programmes and la ws

7 / I n this c ontext nomadic c ommunities and pas toralis ts are given s pec ial reference




                                                                54
Goal:
To enhance the institutional enabling environment through promoting the integration of
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity into relevant sectoral and cross -
sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            6(a) & (b), 14.1 (b)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               1.5, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4
Directly related (provisional) goals and   Goal 11, Target 11.1
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 2.1
programmes:                                Forests: Goal 1, Objectives 2, 3 & 4
                                           Inland waters: Goal 2.1
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (m),
                                           Activity 8 (a, b, c & e)
                                           Agricultural: Programme element 4
                                           Coasts and marine: Operational objectives 6.2
Source elements from cross-cutting         Alien invasive species programme
issue guidance and programmes:
                                           Protected areas programme

                                           Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
                                           Sustainable Use of Biodiversity:: Practical principle
                                           1 and 9

                                           Biodiversity and tourism: Guidelines adopted by
                                           Decision VII/14. These guidelines include
                                           under Part B, Sections 2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10
                                           activities relevant under this sub-programme.

                                           Incentive measures: Decisions V/15, VI/15 and
                                           VII/18 – See sub-programme 2.2 follow ing.

                                           Impact assessment programme of work: Note
                                           also that much of what of the guidelines
                                           endorsed through Decision VII/7 (see below)
                                           recommend have elements that need to be
                                           considered under sub-programme 2.1 relating
                                           to institutions, policies, programmes and laws.

                                           Communication, education and public
                                           awareness programme: As adopted by
                                           Decision VI/19. Note this programme also
                                           includes elements of direct relevance to sub-
                                           programmes 2.4 and 2.6 of the Mountains to
                                           the Sea programme.

                                           Technology transfer and scientific cooperation
                                           programme



                                           55
                                           Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: Target
                                           15
Operational objectives:
(a) All relevant sectoral plans, programmes, policies and legislation are compatible with,
and where appropriate, supportive of, plans, policies, programmes and laws for the
conservation and sustainable use of the biological diversity.

(b) Strategic environmental assessments are operating to ensure national institutional
arrangements (plans, programmes, policies and legislations) are supporting the
implementation of the Convention on Biological Diversity (see sub-programme 2.3 also).

(c) National implementation of relevant global and regional multilateral environment
agreements related to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity ec osystems is
taking place in an integrated, efficient and effective way.

(d) Capacity building is taking place aimed at seeing implementation of the Convention
on Biological Diversity mainstreamed across the government and business sectors and
within civil society.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
2.1.1 Undertake reviews and introduce reforms to policies, legal and administrative
frameworks as necessary, in order to integrate the conservation and sustainable use of
biodiversity across all biomes into the mainstream of Government, business, and societal
decision- making.

2.1.2 Evaluate and reform, as required, legislation to include clear definition of illegal
harvesting activities, establish effective deterrents and build capacity for effective law
enforcement.

2.1.3 Apply (as urged by decision VI/7) the guidelines for incorporating biodiversity
related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in
strategic environmental assessment (see sub-programme 2.3 also).

2.1.4 Promote responsible resource management through an enabling policy
environment, including, inter alia:

  (a) Strengthening of appropriate national and local institutional structures for resource
management, supporting indigenous and local techniques of resource use that enable
conservation and sustainable use in the long term, and/or combining appropriate existing
institutions and techniques with innovative approaches to enable synergies;

  (b) Decentralization of management to the lowest level, as appropriate, keeping in mind
the need for common resource management and with due consideration to, inter alia,
involving indigenous and local communities in planning and managing projects;

  (c) Creating or strengthening appropriate institutions for land tenure and conflict
resolution.

  d) Proactive planning and adaptive measures to reduce the vulnerability to both natural
and human-induced hazards adversely impacting on biological diversity, cultural
landscapes and local communities.



                                           56
  (e) Resolving land tenure and resource rights and responsibility, in consultation with all
relevant stakeholders including for indigenous and local communities, in order to
promote the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

2.1.5 Develop performanc e indicators and report on the integration of conservation and
sustainable use of biological diversity into institutional programmes, including sectoral
policies, legal and economic frameworks.

2.1.6 Review institutional arrangements (policies, strategies, focal points and national
reporting approaches) for national implementation of relevant global and regional
multilateral environment agreements and introduce reforms to streamline and, where
appropriate, integrate implementation.

2.1.7 Provide the Executive Secretary with case-studies and information on lessons
learned from policy, legal and institutional review and reform processes relating to inland
water biodiversity and ecosystems, including measures taken to harmonize national
implementation of the relevant multilateral environment agreements.

Cross-cutting programmes
Alie n invasive species programme
Guiding princ iples from Decision VI/23: [note – several of these guiding principles
relate to other sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea progra mme and have been
presented there]

Guiding princ iple 7: Border control a nd qua rantine measures (see sub-
programme 2.1)
   1. States should implement border controls and quarantine measures for alien
      species that are or could become invasive to ensure that:
          a. Intentional introductions of alien species are subject to appropriate
              authorization (principle 10);
          b. Unintentional or unauthorized introductions of alien species are minimized.
   2. States should consider putting in place appropriate measures to control
      introductions of invasive alien species within the State according to national
      legislation and policies where they exist.
   3. These measures should be based on a risk analysis of the threats posed by alien
      species and their potential pathways of entry. Existing appropriate governmental
      agencies or authorities should be strengthened and broadened as necessary, and
      staff should be properly trained to implement these measures. Early detection
      systems and regional and international coordination are essential to prevention.

Protected areas programme
Goal 3.1 – To prov ide an e nabling policy, institutiona l a nd socio-economic
environment for protected areas (see sub-programme 1.3)

Target: By 2008 review and revise policies as appropriate, including use of social and
economic valuation and incentives, to provide a supportive enabling environment for
more effective establishment and management of protected areas and protected areas
systems.

3.1.1. By 2006, identify legislative and institutional gaps and barriers that impede the
       effective establishment and management of protected areas, and by 2009,
       effectively address these gaps and barriers.
3.1.2. Conduct national-level assessments of the contributions of protected areas¸


                                           57
        considering as appropriate environmental services, to the country‟s economy and
        culture, and to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals at the
        national level; and integrate the use of economic valuation and natural resource
        accounting tools into national planning processes in order to identify the hidden
        and non-hidden economic benefits provided by protected areas and who
        appropriates these benefits.
3.1.3. Harmonize sectoral policies and laws to ensure that they support the conservation
        and effective management of the protected area system.
3.1.4. Consider governance principles, such as the rule of law, decentralization,
        participatory decision- making mechanisms for accountability and equitable
        dispute resolution institutions and procedures.
3.1.5. Identify and remove perverse incentives and inconsistencies in sectoral policies
        that increase pressure on protected areas, or take action to mitigate their
        perverse effects. Whenever feasible, redirect these to positive incentives for
        conservation.
3.1.6. Identify and establish positive incentives that support the integrity and
        maintenance of protected areas and the involvement of indigenous and local
        communities and stakeholders in conservation.
3.1.7. Adopt legal frameworks to national, regional and sub-national protected areas
        systems of countries where appropriate.
3.1.8. Develop national inc entive mechanisms and institutions and legislative
        frameworks to support the establishment of the full range of protected areas that
        achieve biodiversity conservation objectives including on private lands and private
        reserves where appropriate.
3.1.9. Identify and foster economic opportunities and markets at local, national and
        international levels for goods and services produced by protected areas and/or
        reliant on the ecosystem services that protected areas provide, consistent with
        protected area objectives and promote the equitable sharing of the benefits.
3.1.10.         Develop necessary mechanisms for institutions with responsibilities for
        conservation of biological diversity at the regional, national and local level to
        achieve institutional and financial sustainability.
3.1.11. Cooperate with neighbouring countries to establish an enabling environment for
         transboundary protected areas and for neighbouring protected areas across
         national boundaries and other similar approaches including regional networks.

Goal 3.2 – To build capacity for the planning, establishment and ma nagement of
protected areas (see sub-programme 1. 3)

Target: By 2010, comprehensive capacity building programmes and initiatives are
implemented to develop know ledge and skills at individual, community and institutional
levels, and raise professional standards.

3.2.1. By 2006 complete national protected-area capacity needs assessments, and
        establish capacity-building programmes on the basis of these assessments
        including the creation of curricula, resources and programs for the sustained
        delivery of protected areas management training.
       3.2.2. Establish effective mechanisms to document existing know ledge and
       experiences on protected area management, including traditional know ledge in
       accordanc e with Article 8(j) and Related Provisions, and identify knowledge and
       skills gaps.
3.2.3. Exchange lessons learnt, information and capacity-building experiences among
        countries and relevant organizations, through the Clearing-house Mechanisms
        and other me ans.


                                          58
3.2.4. Strengthen the capacities of institutions to establish cross-sectoral collaboration
       for protected area management at the regional, national and local levels.
3.2.5. Improve the capacity of protected areas institutions to develop sustainable
       financing through fiscal incentives, environmental services, and other
       instruments.

Goal 3.4 – To e nsure financ ial sustainability of protected a reas and nationa l a nd
regional systems of protected a reas (see sub-programme 1.3)

Target: By 2008, sufficient financial, technical and other resources to meet the costs to
effectively implement and manage national and regional systems of protected areas are
secured, including both from national and international sources, particularly to support
the needs of developing countries and countries w ith economies in transition and small
island developing States.

3.4.1. Conduct a national-level study by 2005 of the effectiveness in using existing
       financial resources and of financial needs related to the national system of
       protected areas and identify options for meeting these needs through a mixture
       of national and international resources and taking into account the whole range of
       possible funding instruments, such as public funding, debt for nature swaps,
       elimination of perverse incentives and subsidies, private funding, taxes and fees
       for ecological services .
3.4.2. By 2008, establish and begin to implement country-level sustainable financing
       plans that support national systems of protected areas, including necessary
       regulatory, legislative, policy, institutional and other measures.
3.4.3. Support and further develop international funding programmes to support
       implementation of national and regional systems of protected areas in developing
       countries and countries with economies in transition and small island developing
       States.
3.4.4. Collaborate with other countries to develop and implement sustainable financing
       programmes for national and regional systems of protected areas.
3.4.5. Provide regular information on protected areas financing to relevant institutions
       and mechanisms, including through future national reports under the Convention
       on Biological Diversity, and to the World Database on Protected Areas.
3.4.6. Encourage integration of protected areas needs into national and, where
       applicable, regional development and financing strategies and development
       cooperation programmes.

Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for Sustainable Use of Biodiversity (see
sub-programme 1.4 also)
Practical principle 1: Supportive policies, laws, and institutions are in place at all levels
of governance and there are effective linkages between these levels.

Operational guide lines
      Consider local customs and traditions (and customary law where recognized)
      when drafting new legislation and regulations;
      Identify existing and develop new supportive incentives measures, policies, laws
      and institutions, as required, within the jurisdiction in which a use will take place,
      also taking into account Articles 8(j) and 10(c), as appropriate;
      Identify any overlaps, omissions and contradictions in existing laws and policies
      and initiate concrete actions to resolve them;
      Strengthen and/or create cooperative and supportive linkages between all levels
      of governance in order to avoid duplication of efforts or inconsistencies.


                                           59
Practical principle 9: An interdisciplinary, participatory approach should be applied at
the appropriate levels of management and governance related to the use.

Operational guide lines
      Consider providing mechanisms that encourage interdisciplinary cooperation in
      management of biodiversity components;
      Set standards for resource management activities that promote interdisciplinary
      consultations;
      Facilitate communication and exchange of information between all levels of
      decision- making;
      Identify all relevant stakeholders and seek their participation in planning and
      executing of management activities;
      Take account of socio-economic, political, biological, ecological, institutional,
      religious and cultural factors that could influence the sustainability of the
      management;
      Seek guidance from local, traditional and technical specialists in designing the
      management plan;
      Provide adequate channels of negotiations so that potential conflicts arising from
      the participatory involvement of all people can be quickly and satisfactorily
      resolved.

Biodiversity and tourism
Guidelines adopted by Decision VII/14. These guidelines include under Part B, Sections
2, 3, 4, 7, 8 and 10 activities relevant under this sub-programme.

Incentive measures: Decisions V/15, VI/15 and VII/18 – See sub-programme 2.2
follow ing.

Impact assessment programme of work (see sub-programme 2.3)
Note that much of what the guidelines endorsed through Decision VII/7 (see sub-
programme 2.3) recommend have elements that need to be considered under this sub-
programme relating to institutions, policies, programmes and laws.

Communication, education and public a wa reness programme (see sub-programme
2.4)
As adopted by Decision VI/19. Note this programme includes elements of direct
relevance to this sub-programme also.

Technology transfer and sc ientific cooperation programme
PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: C REATING ENABLING ENVIRONMENTS

Objective:      To identify and put in place institutional, administrative, legislative and
policy frameworks conducive to private and public sector technology transfer and
cooperation, taking also into account existing work of relevant international organizations
and initiatives.

Operational target 3.1: Development of guidance and advice for the applic ation of
options on measures and mechanisms to facilitate access to and transfer of technologies
in the public domain and to proprietary technologies of relevance for the Convention on
Biological Diversity, and to foster technology cooperation.

3.1.1. Preparation of technical studies that further explore and analyse the role of


                                          60
       intellectual property rights in technology transfer in the context of the Convention
       on Biological Diversity and identify potential options to increase synergy and
       overcome barriers to technology transfer and cooperation, consistent with
       paragraph 44 of the Johannesburg Plan of Implementation. The benefits as well as
       the costs of intellectual property rights should be fully taken into account.

3.1.2. Compilation and synthesis of information, including case studies, and preparation
       of guidance on institutional, administrative, legislative and policy frameworks that
       facilitate access to, adaptation and adaptation of technologies in the public
       domain and to proprietary technologies, especially by developing countries and
       countries with economies in transition, and, in particular, on measures and
       mechanisms that:
       (a)      Foster an enabling environment in developing and developed countries for
                cooperation as well as the transfer, adaptation and diffusion of relevant
                technologies in accordance with the needs and priorities identif ied by
                countries;
       (b)      present obstacles that impede transfers of relevant technologies from
                developed countries;
       (c)      Provide, in accordance with existing international obligations, incentives to
                private-sector actors as well as public research institutions in developed
                country Parties, to encourage cooperation and transfer of technologies to
                developing countries, through, e.g., technology transfer programmes or
                joint-ventures;
       (d)      Promote and advance priority access for Parties to the results and benefits
                arising from technologies based upon genetic resources provided by those
                Parties, in accordance with Article 19, paragraph 2 of the Convention, and
                to promote the effective participation in related technological research by
                those Parties;
       (e)      Promote innovative approaches and means of technology transfer and
                cooperation such as Type 2 partnerships, in accordance with the outcome
                of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, or transfers among
                actors, involving in particular the private sector and civil society
                organizations.

Operational target 3.2: Development and implementation of national institutional,
administrative, legislative and policy frameworks to facilitate c ooperation, as well as
access to and adaptation of technologies in the public domain and to proprietary
technologies of relevance for the Convention on Biological Diversity, and to foster
technical and scientific cooperation, consistent with national prior ities and existing
international obligations.

Phase I (preparatory phase):
3.2.1. Identif ication of relevant stakeholders and sources on information;

3.2.2. Design and implement mechanisms for effective involvement and participation of
       indigenous and loc al communities and all relevant stakeholders;

3.2.3. As appropriate, review, in collaboration with indigenous and local communities
       and all relevant stakeholders, existing policies and programmes and identify
       possible impediments to the transfer of technology of relevance for the
       Convention on Biological Diversity, capacity-building needs and priority areas for
       policy action. The study should also identify the necessary steps, if any, to
       improve accordingly national biodiversity strategy and action plans, national


                                           61
       research and technology strategies and other policy planning tools;

3.2.4. Identify and support community-based opportunities and initiatives for the
       development of sustainable livelihood technologies for local application and
       facilitate the pursuit of those opportunities at the local community level.

Phase II
Consistent with relevant international obligations and national priorities, and in synergy
with activities foreseen under the programme areas and cross -cutting issues of the
Convention:

3.2.5. Implementation of institutional, administrative, legislative and policy measures
       and mechanisms to foster an enabling environment in developing countries and
       countries with economies in transition that would facilitate access to and
       adaptation of relevant technologies, and that would provide cooperation among
       developed and developing countries and countries with economies in transition;

3.2.6. Adoption of legal and regulatory frameworks where appropriate and provision of
       incentives to private-sector actors as well as public research institutions in
       developed country Parties, with a view to encourage the transfer of technologies
       to developing countries and countries w ith economies in transition;

3.2.7. Encourage and facilitate community-to-community sharing and transferring of
       know ledge and technologies through such means as community personnel
       exchanges, workshops and publications;

3.2.8. Promotion and advancement of priority access for Parties to the results and
       benefits arising from technologies based upon genetic resources provided by those
       Parties, in accordance with Article 19, paragraph 2, of the Convention, and to
       promote the effective participation in related technological research by those
       Parties;

3.2.9. Encouragement of scientific and technical research, including joint research
       programmes with associated jointly held patents or other protection of intellectual
       property rights as well as other mechanisms to facilitate transfer of technologies
       that make use of genetic resources and do not cause signif icant damage to the
       environment;

3.2.10.        Promotion of cooperation and technology transfer through innovative
       approaches such as Type-2 partnerships or transfers among actors, involving in
       particular the private sector and civil-society organizations;

3.2.11.        Strengthening of national research institutions for the adaptation and
       further development of imported technologies, including through academic
       training, consistent with their transfer agreement and international law, as well as
       the development and use of environmentally sound technologies;

3.2.12.        Dissemination of related experiences at national and international levels.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 4: CAPAC ITY-BUILDING AND ENHANCEMENT

Objective:      Technical, scientific, institutional and administrat ive capacity is adequate
for the effective cooperation, transfer, diffusion and adaptation of technology as well as


                                            62
technical and scientific cooperation.

Operational target 4.1: Technical, scientific, institutional and administrative capacity is
adequate for the effective and timely conduct of national technology assessments
Activities

4.1.1. Financial and technical support and training is provided by relevant international,
       regional and national organizations and initiatives as appropriate for the buildi ng
       or enhancement of capacity for the effective and timely conduct of national
       technology assessments;

Operational target 4.2: Technical, scientific, institutional and administrative capacity is
adequate for the development or strengthening and effective operation of national,
regional and international information systems for technology transfer and technology
cooperation of relevance for the Convention on Biological Diversity.
Activities

4.2.1. Assessment of capacity-building needs and opportunities for the development or
       strengthening and effective operation of national information systems for
       technology transfer and technology cooperation, including risk analysis and impact
       assessment.

4.2.2. Financial and technical support as well as training is provided to improve the
       capacity of national systems of information gathering and dissemination with
       regard to needs and opportunities for technology transfer, in particular with
       regard to capacity for the effective application and use of electronic informati on
       technologies, in full synergy w ith existing initiatives and programmes.

Operational target 4.3: Technical, scientific, institutional and administrative capacity is
adequate for the review of national policies and programmes and the identification of
barriers for the transfer of technology of relevance for the Convention on Biological
Diversity, capacity-building needs and priority areas for policy action.
Activities

4.3.1. Financial and technical support and training is provided by relevant international,
       regional and national organizations and initiatives as appropriate for the building
       or enhancement of capacity for the review of existing policies and programmes
       and the identification of possible impediments to cooperation and the transfer of
       technology of relevance for the Convention on Biological Diversity, of capacity-
       building needs and priority areas for policy action.

Operational target 4.4:       Technical, scientific, institutional and administrative
capacity is adequate for the implementation of measures and mechanisms that create an
environment conducive to private and public sector technology transfer and cooperation,
and to the adaptation of transferred technology.

4.4.1. Based on needs and priorities identified by countries, financial and technical
       support and training is provided by relevant international, regional and national
       organizations and initiatives as appropriate to foster enabling environments for
       technology transfer and cooperation, and in particular with regard to:
      (a)     Building policy, legal, judicial and administrative capacity;
      (b)     Facilitating access to relevant proprietary technologies, consistent with
              Article 16.2;


                                           63
      (c)     Providing other financial and non-financial incentives for the diffusion of
              relevant technologies;
      (d)     Building capacities of, and empowering indigenous and local communities
              and all relevant stakeholders with respect to access to and use of relevant
              technologies, including strengthening of decision- making skills;
      (e)     Providing financial and technical support and t raining to improve the
              capacity of developing countries and countries with economies in transition
              national research institutions for the development of technologies as well
              as for adaptation, diffusion and the further development of imported
              technologies consistent with their transfer agreement and international law
              including through fellowships and international exchange programmes;
      (f)     Supporting the development and operation of regional or international
              initiatives to assist technology transfer and cooperation as well as scientific
              and technical cooperation, particularly those initiatives designed to
              facilitate South-South cooperation and South-South joint development of
              new technologies, as well as such cooperation among countries with
              economies in transition, and cooperation between the South and countries
              with economies in transition.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 15: The number of trained people working w ith appropriate facilities in plant
conservation increased, according to national needs, to achieve the targets of this
Strategy.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
2.1.8 Identify and make available to Parties, guidance, case-studies and lessons
learned, including those relating to the practical application of strategic environmental
assessment, to assist in review ing and fine-tuning institutional frameworks (plans,
programmes, policies and legislations) for the conservation and sustainable use of the
biological diversity of inland waters.

2.1.9 Continue to support and participate in the WCMC-led project on harmonizing
information management between the five biodiversity related Conventions (Convention
on Biological Diversity, Ramsar Convention, CITES, CMS and the World Heritage
Convention).

2.1.10 Strengthen collaboration and synergies between the work programmes of the
Convention on Biological Diversity and other global conventions and agreements on
climate change, desertification, transboundary pollution, invasive alien species, wetlands,
migratory and endangered species, including through joint programmes of work.

2.1.11 Together with other relevant multilateral environmental agreements and
interested Parties, seek the resources to establish working models (demonstration sites)
show-casing the collaborative implementation of activities to achieve the complementary
objectives of several multilateral environmental agreements.

Protected areas programme
3.1.12. In collaboration with key partners such as OECD, IUCN, WWF and the secretariats
        of other conventions c ompile information on relevant guidance, resource kits and
        other information on incentive measures including those relating to the
        development of incentive options.
3.1.13. Compile and disseminate, through the CHM and other media, case -studies on
        best practices on the use of incentive measures for the management of protected
        areas.


                                           64
3.1.14. Compile and disseminate through the CHM and other media best practices on
        ways and means to integrate the use of incentive measures into protected area
        management plans, programmes and policies including opportunities for the
        removal or mitigation of perverse incentives.

3.2.6. Cooperate with IUCN and other relevant organizations to compile and disseminate
       available information.
3.2.7. Cooperate with initiatives such as the Protected Areas Learning Network (PALNet -
       IUCN) and explore lessons learned from those experiences, in collaboration with
       relevant organizations.

3.4.7. Convene as soon as possible, but not later than 2005, a meeting of the donor
        agencies and other re levant organizations to discuss options for mobilizing new
        and additional funding to developing countries and countries with economies in
        transition and small island developing States for implementation of the
        programme of work.
3.4.8. Compile and disseminate case-studies and best practices concerning protected
       area financing through the clearing-house mechanism and other media.
Review and disseminate by 2006 studies on the value of ecosystem services provided by
protected areas.
Main partners:
International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA), Ramsar Secretariat and STRP,
UNFCCC, UNCCD, CITES, CMS, World Heritage, UNESCO MAB, WCMC. [It is
acknowledged that this is not a complete list]
Other collaborators:
International Water Management Institute (IWMI), other relevant international, regional
and national organizations, interested Parties and other stakeholders. [It is
acknowledged that this is not a complete list]


2.2 Incentives, economic instrume nts a nd issues

Goal:
To provide the appropriate incentives and valuation measures to support the
conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity across all biomes, and to remove,
or reform appropriately, any perverse incentives or socio-economic distortions and
failures opposing such conservation and sustainable use.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            11
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               1.5, 3.1, 3.3, 3.4
Directly related (provisional) goals and   Goal 4, Targets 4.1 and 4.2
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Forests: Goal 2, Objective 1
programmes:                                Inland waters: Goal 2.3
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 7 & 9
Source elements from cross-cutting         Incentive measures: Decisions V/15, VI/15 and
issue guidance and programmes:             VII/18. These issues have very strong overlap
                                           with sub-programme 2.1 relating to institutions,
                                           policies, programmes and laws.



                                           65
                                          Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
                                          Sustainable Use of Biodiversity: Practical
                                          principle 3, 10 and 13 (see sub-programme
                                          1.4)

                                          Note: in this framework, matters of trade would
                                          also be considered since they are so integrated
                                          with the issue of incentives. Given the
                                          complexity of these issues they have not been
                                          incorporated into this sub-programme in this
                                          draft.
Operational objectives:
(a) Apply the proposals for the design and implementation of incentive measures (as
endorsed through decision VI/15 of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on
Biological Diversity and contained in annex I of that decision).

(b) Encourage valuation of the full range of goods and services provided by biological
diversity across all biomes in development proposals and with respect to applying
incentive measures, and the identif ication and removal or modification of perverse
incentives.

(c) Across all biomes, mitigate the economic failures and distortions that lead to
decisions that result in loss of biological diversity.

(d) Establish alternative sustainable income generation programmes.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
2.2.1 Apply across all biomes the proposals for the design and implementation of
incentive measures, including identif ication and removal or mitigation of perverse
incentives, as endorsed by the Conference of the Parties in decision VI/15 and taking into
account land-tenure systems. In particular:
        (a) Review the range and effectiveness of national incentives, subsidies,
        regulations, and other relevant financial mechanisms, which can affect
        biodiversity, whether adversely or benef icially;
        (b) Redirect, as appropriate, financial support measures that run counter to the
        objectives of the Convention regarding the conservation and sustainable use of
        biological diversity;
        (c) Implement targeted incentive and regulatory measures that have positive
        impacts on biological diversity;
        (d) Develop the policy research capacity needed to inform the decision- making
        process in a multidisciplinary and sectorally integrated manner;
        (e) Encourage the identif ication of the interdependence between conservation and
        sustainable use of biological diversity and sustainable development;

2.2.2 In accordance with decision VI/15, submit case-studies, lessons learned and other
information on positive or perverse incentives, land-use practices and tenure relating to
biodiversity conservation and sustainable use to the Executive Secretary. Include within
this submission national experiences and guidance in relation to property and water
rights, markets and pricing policies.

2.2.3 Develop mechanisms to ensure that monetary and non- monetary costs and
benefits of biodiversity management are equitably shared between stakeholders at all


                                          66
levels.

2.2.4 Undertake comprehensive valuations of the goods and services of biodiversity and
ecosystems across all biomes, including their intrinsic, aesthetic, cultural, socio-economic
and other values, in all relevant decision- making across the appropriate sectors. T est
and disseminate these methods with the assistance of the Executive Secretary.

2.2.5 Develop methodologies for assigning value to the ecological services provided by
land management systems in order to develop economic -incentive mechanisms for
compensating poor and vulnerable communities.

2.2.6 Incorporate biological diversity and other ecosystem values into national
accounting systems and seek to estimate such figures for subsistence economies.

2.2.7 Develop alternative sustainable income generation programmes and facilitate self -
sufficiency programmes of indigenous and local communities.

Cross-cutting programmes
Incentive measures
(These issues have very strong overlap with sub-programme 2.1 relating to institutions,
policies, programmes and laws).

Decision V/15 on Incentive measures
2. Decides that the activities of the programme of work should result in the following:
  (a) The assessment of representative existing incentive measures, review of case-
studies, identif ication of new opportunities for incentive measures, and dissemination of
information, through the clearing-house mechanism and other means, as appropriate;
  (b) The development of methods to promote information on biodiversity in consumer
decisions, for example through ecolabelling, if appropriate;
  (c) The assessment, as appropriate and applicable to the circumstances of Parties, of
the values of biodiversity, in order to internalize better these values in public policy
initiatives and private-sector decisions;
  (d) A consideration of biodiversity concerns in liability schemes;
  (e) The creation of incentives for integration of biodiversity concerns in all sectors;

Decision VI/15 Annex I:
Proposals for the design and implementation of incentive measures

Decision VII/18
Annex: Proposals for the application of ways and means to remove or mitigate perverse
incentives

Proposals for the application of methodologies for valuation of biodive rsity a nd
biodiversity resources and functions as well as othe r tools for prioritization in
decision-making
In Decision VII/18, the Conference of the Parties also requested the Executive Secretary
to explore, in cooperation w ith the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the Organisation
for Economic Co-operation and Development and relevant international organizations,
existing methodologies for valuation of biodiversity and biodiversity resources and
functions, as well as other tools for prioritization in decision- making, by preparing a
compilation of existing valuation tools that provides an overview of the discussion on
their methodological status, if appropriate, as well as an assessment of their applicability
in terms of effectiveness and capacity preconditions, and to prepare proposals for the


                                           67
application of such tools.

Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines
Practical principles 3, 10 and 13

Practical principle 3: International, national policies, laws and regulations that distort
markets which contribute to habitat degradation or otherwise generate perverse
incentives that undermine conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, should be
identif ied and removed or mit igated. (4 )

Operational guide lines
      Identify economic mechanisms, including incentive systems and s ubsidies at
      international, national levels that are having a negative impact on the potential
      sustainability of uses of biological diversity;
      Remove those systems leading to market distortions that result in unsustainable
      uses of biodiversity components;
      Avoid unnecessary and inadequate regulations of uses of biological diversity
      because they can increase costs, foreclose opportunities, and encourage
      unregulated uses thus decreasing the sustainability of the use.

Practical principle 10: International, national policies should take into account:
   a. Current and potential values derived from the use of biological diversity;
   b. Intrinsic and other non-economic values of biological diversity and
   c. Market forc es affecting values and use.

Operational guide lines
      Promote economic valuation studies of the environmental services of natural
      ecosystems;
      Incorporate this information in policy and decision making processes, as well as
      educational applications;
      Consider this principle in relation to land use/habitat conversion tradeoffs.
      Recognize that market forces are not always sufficient to improve living conditions
      or increase sustainability in the use of components of biological diversity;
      Encourage governments to take into account biodiversity values in their national
      accounts;
      Encourage and facilitate capacity building for decision makers about concepts
      related to economic valuation of biodiversity.

Practical principle 13: The costs of management and conservation of biological
diversity should be internalized within the area of management and reflected in the
distribution of the benefits from the use. (8 )

Operational guide lines
      Ensure that national policies do not provide subsidies that mask true costs of
      management;
      Ensure that harvest levels and quotas are set according to information provided
      by the monitoring system, not the economic needs of the management system;
      Provide guidelines for resource managers to calculate and report the real cost of
      management in their business plans;
      Create other alternative mechanisms to invest revenues from biodiversity
      management;
      Provide economic incentives for managers who have already internalized
      environmental costs, e.g., certification to access new markets, waiver or deferral


                                           68
       of taxes in lieu of environmental invest ment, promotion of “green-labelling” for
       marketing.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
2.2.8 Compile and disseminate studies on valuation of ecosystem goods and services;
and identify ways and means to further integrate the use of economic valuation into
national plans, programmes and policies as a core component of policy reform.

2.2.9 In collaboration with key partners such as OECD, International Association for
Impact Assessment (IAIA), IUCN, WWF, the Ramsar STRP and Secretariat and relevant
stakeholders, the Executive Secretary should compile information on relevant guidance,
resource kits and other information on incentive measures, including that relating to the
development of incentives options through property and water rights, markets, pricing
policies and land use and tenure. More specifically, he may wish to:
        (a) Compile and disseminate case-studies and best practices on the use of
        incentive measures for the management of ecosystem goods and services across
        all biomes;

       (b) Further explore the respective advantages and disadvantages of tax/charge
       approaches as well as their interaction, including the identification of institutional
       requirements, possible shortcomings and limitations;

       (c) Identify ways and means to further integrate the use of incentive measures
       into landscape/seascape and rive r basin scale plans, programmes and policies,
       including opportunities for the removal or mitigation of perverse incentives;

       (d) Further monitor recent discussions on incentive measures with a view to
       identifying other measures of specific use for the sustainable management of
       ecosystems.

Main partners:
Secretariat and STRP of the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, IUCN, WWF, IWMI. [It is
acknowledged that this is an incomplete list .]
Other collaborators:
Relevant international, regional and national organizations and interested Parties. [it is
acknowledged that this is an incomplete list]


2.3 Impact assessment

Goal:
To ensure projects and actions with the potential to impact negatively on biological
diversity are subjected to suitably rigorous impact assessments, including consideration
of their potential impact on sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or
used by indigenous and local communities.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            14 (a), (b) and (e)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               1.1, 1.5, 3.1, 3.4
Directly related (provisional) goals and   Goal 4, Target 4.2; Goal 5, target 5.1
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit



                                           69
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic            Inland waters: Goal 3.3
programmes:
Source elements from cross-cutting       Impact assessment programme of work: Note
issue guidance and programmes:           also that much of what of the guidelines
                                         endorsed through Decision VII/7 (see below)
                                         recommend have elements that need to be
                                         considered under sub-programme 2.1 relating
                                         to institutions, policies, programmes and laws.
                                         See also sub-programme 3.1 on status and
                                         trends.

                                         Akwé: Kon guidelines (Decision VII/16 F) – see
                                         sub-programme 1.6

                                         Biodiversity and tourism: Guidelines adopted by
                                         Decision VII/14: These guidelines include under
                                         Part B, Section 6 activities relevant under this
                                         sub-programme.
Operational objectives:
(a) Undertake environmental impact assessments, in accordance with national legislation
and where appropriate, for all projects with the potential to impact on biological
diversity, ensuring that these take into account the "inter-related socio-economic,
cultural and human-health impacts, both beneficial and adverse" (see sub-programme
2.1 also)..

(b) Conduct cultural, environmental, and socio-economic impact assessments, in
accordance with national legislation and where appropriate, regarding developments
proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands
and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities, in
accordance with section VII/16 (Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of
Cultural, environmental and Social Impact Assessment Regarding Developments
Proposed to Take place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands
and Waters Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities).
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
2.3.1 Adopt, adapt to national circumstances as necessary and apply the guidelines for
incorporating biodiversity related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation
and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessment (decision VI/7). (see sub -
programme 2.3 also).

2.3.2 Apply, where appropriate, the Akwé: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of
Cultural, Environmental, and Social Impact Assessment Regarding Developments
Proposed to Take Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands
and Waters Traditionally Occupied or used by Indigenous and Local Communities

2.3.3 See relevant activities under sub-programme 2.6 - Transboundary and regional
cooperation

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters
2.3.4 Incorporate, where appropriate, environmental flow assessments into impact
assessment processes for any projects with the potential to have negative effect s, and


                                          70
also undertake baseline ecosystem assessments in the planning phase to ensure that the
necessary basic data will be available to support the environmental impact assessment
process and the development of effective mitigation measures if necessary.

Cross-cutting programmes
Impact assessments programme: Guidelines for inc orporating biodiversity-related
issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in
strategic environmental assessment (Decision VI/7, Annex)
Note: these are comprehensive guidelines and not reproduced here. Note also that much
of what of the guidelines recommend has elements that need to be considered under
sub-programme 2.1 relating to institutions, policies, programmes and laws.

Article 8(J) programme: Akwé: Kon guidelines (Decision VII/16 F) – see sub-
programme 1.6
1.6.1 Implement provisions contained in Article 8(j) on traditional knowledge and
related provisions and guidance of the Convention on Biological Diversity, taking into
consideration the needs of developing countries. In particular give consideration to
applying the Akwé: Kon 8/ Voluntary Guidelines for the Conduct of Cultural,
Environmental and Social Impact Assessment regarding Developments Proposed to Take
Place on, or which are Likely to Impact on, Sacred Sites and on Lands and Waters
Traditionally Occupied or Used by Indigenous and Local Communities , as endorsed by
COP7 through Decision VII/16 F.

Biodiversity and tourism: Guide lines adopted (Decision VII/14)
These comprehensive guidelines cut across several sub-programmes of the Mountains to
the Sea programme (see 1.4, 2.1, 2.4 and 3.1 in particular). They have not been
reproduced here because of their very specialized nature. These guidelines include under
Part B, Section 6 activities relevant under this sub-programme.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
2.3.5 Collaborate with the International Association for Impact Assessment (IAIA) and
other relevant organizations to contribute to the implementation of decision VI/ 7 A on
further development and ref inement of the guidelines, particularly to incorporate all
stages of the environmental impact assessment processes taking into account the
ecosystem approach.

2.3.6 Compile and make available information on impact asses sment and other
methodologies that address biological diversity (across all biomes) issues in an adaptive
management framework.
Main partners:
IAIA, Ramsar Convention Secretariat and STRP, IUCN, Conservation International. [it is
acknowledged that this is an incomplete list]
Other collaborators:
Other relevant international, regional and national organizations, interested Parties and
stakeholders [it is acknowledged that this is an incomplete list]


2.4 Communication, education a nd public a wa reness

Goal:
To increase public understanding and awareness of the importance of the conservation

8 / P ronounc ed {agway- goo}. A holistic M ohawk term meaning “everything in c reation” provided by the Kahnawake
c ommunity located near Montreal, where the guidelines were negotiated.




                                                          71
and sustainable use of biological diversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            13 (a) & (b)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               4.1
Directly related (provisional) goals and   -
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 3.5
programmes:                                Forests: Goal 3, Objective 1
                                           Inland waters: Goal 2.4
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 6 & 7
Source elements from cross-cutting         Communication, education and public
issue guidance and programmes:             awareness programme: As adopted by
                                           Decision VI/19. Note this programme also
                                           includes elements of direct relevance to sub-
                                           programmes 2.1 and 2.6 of the Mountains to
                                           the Sea programme.

                                           Alien invasive species guiding principle 6
                                           (Decision VI/23) – see sub-programme 1.2.1
                                           also.

                                           Global taxonomy initiative - Planned activity 4

                                           Protected areas programme of work –
                                           Programme element 4: Standards, assessment,
                                           and monitoring

                                           Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: Targets
                                           14 and 16

                                           Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines: Practical
                                           principle 14

                                           Biodiversity and tourism: Guidelines adopted by
                                           Decision VII/14. These guidelines include
                                           under Part D activities relevant under this sub-
                                           programme.
Operational objectives:
(a) Increase public support and understanding of the value of biological diversity and its
goods and services.

(b) Comprehensive and well-targeted national programmes for communication,
education and public awareness for the conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity are put in place and operate effectively.

(c) Key national landscape*/seascape scale and local-level decision makers and
stakeholders are identified and appropriate communication mechanisms are established
between them.




                                           72
From the CEPA programme
As adopted by Decision VI/19

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Towa rds a globa l communication, education and
public aware ness network
1. To establish and manage a global communication, education and public awareness
network composed of new information technologies and traditional communication
mechanisms;
2. To stimulate the creation of national, subregional and regional communication,
education and public awareness networks;
3. To create synergy between existing networks relevant to communication, education
and public awareness.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: Excha nge of knowledge and e xpe rtise
1. To enhance exchange of knowledge and expertise among professionals , enhancing
development and innovation on communication, education and public awareness;
2. To meet know ledge needs of Parties and other stakeholders for Article 13.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: Capa city-building for communication, education and
public aware ness
1. Develop capacity of the Parties to market biodiversity to other sectors, and
mainstream biodiversity into the work of other sectors;
2. Develop professional capacity of educators and communicators;
3. Enhance stakeholder participation and community development though
communication, education and public awareness.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
2.4.1 Implement, within an integrated landscape*/seascape management framework,
the Global Initiative on Communication, Education and Public Awareness (CEPA)
contained in decision VI/19.

2.4.2. Further to activity 2.4.1, increase the dissemination of knowledge on upland -
lowland interactions and on components of interdependence, and the importance of
ecological corridors, hydrological connectedness etc.

2.4.3 Consistent with the programme of work on Article 8(j) and related provisions,
undertake suitable initiatives to enhance awareness of the knowledge held by indigenous
and local communities and the appropriate procedures, such as prior informed conse nt,
for accessing such know ledge in accordance with national legislation on access to
traditional know ledge.

2.4.4 Further promote the education of women and their role in the conservation and
dissemination of traditional knowledge.

2.4.5 Review, and as necessary reform, formal educational curricula to ensure they are
operating to inform and educate about the conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity.

2.4.6 Encourage the implementation of sustainable tourism activities aimed at increasing
awareness, respect and know ledge for biological diversity, including knowledge of the
local, natural and cultural landscapes.

2.4.7 Enhance awareness among policy makers and planners on the importance and


                                          73
contribution of ecosystems in poverty eradication programmes;

2.4.8 Promote consumer awareness about sustainably produced biodiversity products.

2.4.9 In undertaking the above activities identify case-studies and best practices and
provide these to the Executive Secretary to be made availab le to other Parties.

2.4.10 Provide mechanisms for disseminating research findings to all relevant
stakeholders, in a form w hich will be most useful to them. Make this same information
available to the Executive Secretary for sharing with other Parties (see also sub-
programme 3.2).

2.4.11 – see activity 3.1.10, sub-programme 3.1 – Status and trends

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters
2.4.12 Ensure effective working linkages between the focal points for the Convention on
Biological Diversity, and the Ramsar (Government and non- Government) focal points for
wetlands communication, education and public awareness, including the amalgamation,
at a national level, of communication, education and public awareness (CEPA)
programmes under both conventions.

Cross-cutting programmes
CEPA programme
As adopted by Decision VI/19

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 1: Towa rds a globa l communication, education and
public aware ness network
1. Develop an electronic portal and an alternative information dissemi nation mechanism
towards the establishment of a global network on communication, education and public
awareness, building on, where possible, existing initiatives. 38/ The portal will be
composed of new communication tools and resources including Internet -based
technologies, CDROMs, DVDs, etc. The alternative information dissemination mechanism
will use traditional media such as brochures and pamphlets and other communication
modes such as theatre, music and dance. Using Internet -based and traditional
information resources, this global network will:
  (a) Make visible the expertise in biodiversity communication and education including
communication, education and public awareness training databases;

 (b) Stimulate moderated electronic discussions on issues of interest to communication,
education and public awareness professionals;

 (c) Link the portal to other networks and websites on communication and education, for
example, those of the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar, Iran, 1971), the United Nations
Framework Convention on Climate Change, etc.;
 (d) Provide access to relevant projects and publications;

 (e) Link with established learning institutions and centres of excellence to ensure the
quality of products and materials;

 (f) Stimulate and provide means for people to find those working on similar projects,
problems or issues;




                                          74
 (g) Create access to standards of best practices;

 (h) Ensure that the global network is service- and demand oriented;

 (i) Promote communication and public awareness at the community level.

2. Identify potential partners and stakeholders:

· Create a registry of education and communications experts, organizations and
networks (governmental; non-governmental; indigenous; religious; sectoral – business
and industry, agriculture, fisheries, forests, tourism; media).

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 2: Excha nge of knowledge and e xpe rtise
1. Document and analyse national reports from the Parties on communication, education
and public awareness to develop needs for communication, education and public
awareness support;

2. Identify links and provide searchable means to access biodiversity know ledge through
the clearing-house mechanism;

3. Research, collect and exchange communication, education and public awareness
projects and case-studies through the world Wide Web, workshops, CD- ROMs, and
publications;

4. Sharing knowledge about tools and criteria for best practices;

5. Provide copyright free graphics and materials, subject to available funding, for
adaptation;

6. Develop the global network in programme element 1 to facilitate actions in
programme element 2.

PROGRAMME ELEMENT 3: Capa city-building for communication, education and
public aware ness
1. Create and deliver training programmes including: courses help desks, coaching,
manuals, check lists, exchange on application of methods to work with stakeholders;
2. Establish system for professional exchanges;
3. Promote twinning programmes;
4. Establish a distance-learning programme on communication, education and public
awareness;
5. Improve synergies between communication, education and public awareness research
and practice;
6. Build capacity to evaluate and define principles for the evaluation of good
communication, education and public awareness practice;
7. Develop appropriate sets of tools for communicators on biodiversity;
8. Establish partnerships with journalists and broadcasters engaged in communicating
biodiversity related issues through the mass media;
9. Build capacity for fund-raising.

Alie n invasive species programme (see sub-programme 1.2.1 also)
Guiding principles from Decision VI/23: [note – several of these guiding principles relate
to other sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea programme and have been presented
there]


                                           75
Guiding princ iple 6: Education and public a ware ness
Raising the public's awareness of the invasive alien species is crucial to the successful
management of invasive alien species. Therefore, it is important that States should
promote education and public awareness of the causes of invasion and the ris ks
associated with the introduction of alien species. When mit igation measures are required,
education and public -awareness-oriented programmes should be set in motion so as to
engage local communities and appropriate sector groups in support of such measu res.

Global taxonomy initiative
2.4 Public awareness and education (Planned activity 4)
A package of materials and activities aimed at broadening public understanding of the
importance of taxonomy in achieving the objectives of the Convention. Examples could
include a brochure on the GTI, enhancement of Web pages, tutorials for education
managers, popular scientific films, etc. A special focus on using the public awareness
activity to acquire new levels of taxonomic information, through, inter alia, public
involvement in parataxonomic activity, should form part of these initiatives.

Protected areas programme (see sub-programme 1.3)

Goal 3.5 – To strengthen communication, education and public a wareness)
Target: By 2008 public awareness, understanding and appreciation of the importance
and benefits of protected areas is significantly increased.

3.5.1. Establish or strengthen strategies and programmes of education and public
       awareness on the importance of protected areas in terms of their role in
       biodiversity conservation and sustainable socio-economic development, in close
       collaboration with the Communication, Education and Public Awareness Initiative
       (CEPA) under the Convention on Biological Diversity and targeted towards all
       stakeholders.
3.5.2. Identify core themes for education, awareness and communication programmes
       relevant to protected areas, including inter alia their contribution to economy and
       culture to achieve specific end results such as compliance by resource users and
       other stakeholders o r an increased understanding of science-based know ledge by
       indigenous and local communities and policy makers and an increased
       understanding of the needs, priorities and value of indigenous and local
       communities‟ know ledge, innovations and practices by Gov ernments, non-
       governmental organizations and other relevant stakeholders.
3.5.3. Strengthen, and where necessary, establish information mechanisms directed at
       target groups such as the private sector, policy makers, development institutions,
       community-based organizations, the youth, the media, and the general public.
3.5.4. Develop mechanisms for constructive dialogue and exchange of information and
       experiences among protected-area managers, and between protected area
       managers and indigenous and local communities and their organizations and
       other environment educators and actors.
3.5.5. Incorporate the subject of protected areas as an integral component of the school
       curricula as well as in informal education.
3.5.6. Establish mechanism and evaluate the impacts of communication, education and
       public awareness programmes on biodiversity conservation to ensure that they
       improve public awareness, change behaviour and support the achievement of
       protected area objectives.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation


                                          76
Target 14: The importance of plant diversity and the need for its conservation
incorporated into communication, education and public awareness programmes.

Target 16: Networks for plant conservation activities established or strengthened at
national, regional and international levels.

Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on Susta inable use of Biodiversity:
Practical principle 14 (see sub-programme 1.4 also)
Practical principle 14: Education and public awareness programmes on conservation
and sustainable use should be implemented and more effective methods of
communications should be developed between and among stakeholders and managers.

Operational guide lines
      Plan education and public -awareness activities concerning: management, values
      of sustainable use, changing consumptive patterns and the value of biodiversity in
      the lives of people;
      Ensure that public -awareness programmes also inform and guide decision
      makers;
      Target all levels of the chain of production and consumption w ith such
      communications;
      Report lessons learned about sustainable use activities to the clearing-house
      mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity;
      Encourage and facilitate communication of lessons learned and best practices to
      other nations;
      Ensure that resource users report to government on their activities in a manner
      that facilitates broader communications;
      Increase awareness of the contributions of know ledge, practices and innovations
      of indigenous and local communities for the sustainable use of biological divers ity.

Biodiversity and tourism: Guide lines adopted by Decision VII/ 14 (see sub-
programme 1.4 also)
These comprehensive guidelines cut across several sub-programmes of the Mountains to
the Sea programme (see 1.4, 2.1, 2.3 and 3.1 in particular). They have not been
reproduced here because of their very specialized nature. These guidelines include under
Part D activities relevant under this sub-programme.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
2.4.12 In collaboration with key partners and collaborators, review the global initiative
on communication, education and public awareness and develop and make available
guidance for Parties on how best to promote its application for supporting this cross -
biome programme of work.

2.4.13 Pursuant to activity 2.4.9, make available to Parties case-studies, advice on best
practice approaches, plus other sources of information and expertise in the field of
communication, education and public awareness.

Protected areas programme
Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
3.5.7. Collaborate with IUCN and other relevant organizations to collect and disseminate
       educational tools and materials for adaptation and use in the promotion of
       protected areas as an important means of achieving the conserv ation and
       sustainable use of biodiversity.
3.5.8. Establish, in collaboration with the IUCN and other relevant partners, an initiative
       to engage the global news and entertainment industry (television, film, popular


                                          77
       music, internet, etc.) in a global campaign to raise awareness of the
       consequences of biological diversity loss and the important role of protected
       areas in biodiversity conservation.

Main partners:
Parties, UNESCO, UNEP, the IUCN Commission for Education and Communication, the
International Union of Biological Sciences (IUBS), the Convention on Wetlands (Ramsar,
Iran, 1971), the United Nations Institute for Training and Research (UNITAR).
Other collaborators:
Ramsar national focal points for communication, education and public awareness, other
multilateral environmental agreements, relevant international, regional and national
organizations and donor agencies. [It is acknowledged that this is an incomplete list .]


2.5 Innovative and appropriate tec hnologies

Goal:
To encourage the develop ment, validation, application and transfer of appropriate
technologies, including indigenous technologies in accordance with Article 8(j) of the
Convention on Biological Diversity and related provisions.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            5, 8(m), 14 (c), (d), 16, 17, 18 & 19
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               2.3, 2.5,
Directly related (provisional) goals and   Goal 11, Target 11.2
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 3.6
programmes:                                Forests: Goal 4
                                           Inland waters: Goal 2.2
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7
                                           Coasts and marine: Operational Objective 3.4
                                           Action (c)
Source elements from cross-cutting         Programme of work on technology transfer and
issue guidance and programmes:             technological and scientific cooperation,
                                           (Decision VII/29), Programme element 1

                                           Protected areas programme of work –
                                           Programme element 3.3
Operational objectives:
(a) Promote the development, validation, documentation and transfer of appropriate
technologies and approaches to the conservation and sustainable use of the biological
diversity across all biomes.

(b) Apply, as appropriate, the technologies and approaches identif ied and made available
in response to the above objective, and in relation to indigenous technologies ensure this
is done in accordance with Article 8(j) of the Convention on Biological Diversity and
related provisions.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
2.5.1 Implement the programme of work on technology transfer and cooperation (as



                                           78
established by Decision VII.29).

2.5.2 Encourage the development of preventative strategies such as cleaner production,
continual environmental improvement, corporate environmental reporting, product
stewardship and environmentally sound technologies to avoid degradation and promote
maintenance, and, where applicable, restoration of biological diversity and ecosystems.

2.5.3 Make available to the Executive Secretary information on appropriate technologie s
and effective approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity for
transfer to other Parties.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters
2.5.4 In relation to inland water ecosystem specifically, encourage the us e of low-cost
(appropriate) technology, non-structural and innovative approaches, and, where
appropriate and through prior informed consent in accordance with national laws
traditional or indigenous practices for inland water biodiversity assessment and to meet
watershed management goals, such as using wetlands to improve water quality, using
forests and wetlands to recharge groundwater and maintain the hydrological cycle, to
protect water supplies and using natural floodplains to prevent flood damage, and to use,
whenever possible, indigenous species for aquaculture.

Cross-cutting programmes
Programme of work on technology transfer and tec hnological and scie ntific
cooperation, (Decision VII/29), Programme element 1: Technology assessments

Objective: Technology needs, the potential benefits costs and risks of such
technologies, and the related capacity-building needs of Parties are identified in response
to national priorities and policies

Operational target 1.1: Technology needs assessments are conduct ed as appropriate,
with the participation of stakeholders, in accordance with the activities foreseen in the
thematic and cross-cutting work programmes under the Convention and in line w ith
national priorities as set out, inter alia, in the national biodiv ersity strategy and action
plan.

Activities
1.1.1. Preparation, in accordance with the activities foreseen in the thematic and cross -
       cutting work programmes under the Convention and in line with national
       priorities, of technology assessments addressing:
          (a)      Technology needs, opportunities and barriers in relevant sectors;
          (b)      Related needs in the building of capacity.

Operational target 1.2: Impact and risk assessments are conducted, as appropriate,
with the participation of stakeholders and, if needed and requested, with international
cooperation.

Activities
1.2.1. Preparation, as appropriate, of transparent impact assessments and risk analysis
       of the potential benefits, risks and associated costs with the introduction of
       technologies, including new technologies, whose risks and benefits are not yet
       determined.
1.2.2. Dissemination of assessments and related experiences at national and


                                            79
       international levels.

Operational target 1.3:    Information on methodologies for the assessment of
technology needs are widely available to Parties through the clearing house mechanism
and other means as appropriate.

Activities:
1.3.1. Collect information on technology needs assessment methodologies, analyse their
       applicability and adaptation needs for technologies that are relevant to the
       conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity or make use of genetic resources
       and do not cause significant damage to the environment, and disseminate this
       information through the clearing-house mechanism or other means, as
       appropriate.
Main actor: the Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity, in collaboration with
relevant organizations and with input by Parties and Governments.
Timeline for implementation: the eighth meeting of the Conference of the Parties.

Protected areas programme of work
Goal 3.3 To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected
areas (see sub-programme 1.3)

Target: By 2010 the development, validation, and transfer of appropriate technologies
and innovative approaches for the effective management of protected areas is
substantially improved, taking into account decisions of the Conference of the Parties on
technology transfer and cooperation.

3.3.1 Document and make available to the Executive Secretary appropriate technologies
for conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of protected areas and
management of protected areas.

3.3.2 Assess needs for relevant technologies for protected area management involving
indigenous and local communities and stakeholders such as the, research institutions,
non-governmental organizations and the private sector.

3.3.3 Encourage development and use of appropriate technology, including technologies
of indigenous and local communities w ith their participation, approval and involvement in
accordance with Article 8(j) and Related Provisions, for habitat rehabilitation and
restoration, resource mapping, biological inventory, and rapid assessment of biodiversity,
monitoring, in situ and ex situ conservation, sustainable use, etc.

3.3.4 Promote an enabling environment for the transfer of technology in accordance
with decision VII/29 of the Conference of Parties on technology transfer and cooperation
to improve protected area management.

3.3.5 Increase technology transfer and cooperation to improve protected area
management.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
2.5.5 Through the clearing-house mechanism, make available to Parties information on
appropriate technologies and approaches to the conservation and sustainable us e of the
biological diversity.

2.5.6 Through partnerships with relevant organizations, seek to provide Parties with
access to the latest technologies and innovative management approaches developed by


                                           80
the private sector and others, especially in relation to landscape/seascape and river basin
level planning and management approaches.

Protected areas programme of work
3.3.7 Compile and disseminate information provided by Parties and relevant
international organizations on appropriate technologies and app roaches for efficient
management of protected areas and conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity of protected areas.

Main partners: Advice needed
Other collaborators:
Relevant international, regional and national organizations, interested Parties and
stakeholders.
Footnotes:


2.6 Transboundary and re gional collaboration

Goal:
To establish regional and transboundary collaborative arrangements and agreements for
the conservation and sustainable use of shared biological diversity, biomes and
ecosystems.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            5, 12(a), (c), 14.1(c), (d), (e) & 14.2, 17, 18
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               1.2, 1.3, 1.6,, 2.5
Directly related (provisional) goals and   -
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 2.3
programmes:                                Inland waters: Activity 3.3.3
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 7(l & m),
                                           8(d)
                                           Coasts and marine: Operational Objectives 6.2
Source elements from cross-cutting         Alien invasive species guiding principles 4 and 9
issue guidance and programmes:             (Decision VI/23) – see sub-programme 1.2.1
                                           also.

                                           Protected areas programme

                                           Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for
                                           Sustainable use of Biodiversity: Practical
                                           principle 8

                                           Impact assessment programme of work: See
                                           sub-programme 2.3. The guidelines on impact
                                           assessment endorsed through Decision VII/7
                                           include consideration of transboundary impact
                                           and cooperation.

                                           Communication, education and public



                                           81
                                           awareness programme: As adopted by
                                           Decision VI/19. Note this programme also
                                           includes elements of direct relevance to sub-
                                           programmes 2.1 of the Mountains to the Sea
                                           programme.

                                           Liability and redress programme

                                           Global taxonomy initiative: Planned activities 2,
                                           3 and 6.
Operational objectives:
(a) Promote integrated, transboundary cooperation and strategies for conservation and
sustainable use activities on shared biological diversity, biomes and ecosystems through
mutually agreed-upon arrangements by the countries concerned.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
3.6.1 Pursue cooperative planning and management arrangements between Parties
which cover, appropriate and agreed priorities, such as in relation to the follow ing
thematic issues: landscape, soil, wetland, watershed, rangelands, mining, protected
areas and wildlife management, agriculture, pastoralism, forestry, transportation, energy
and tourism.

3.6.2 – see activity 1.1.2 in relation to protected areas.

3.6.3 – see activity 3.2.3, sub-programme 3.2 – Research efforts.

3.6.4 – see activity 3.1.2, sub-programme 3.1 – Status and trends

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters
3.6.5 Promote and strengthen regional and transboundary cooperation for research,
adaptive management, fair and appropriate allocation of shared water resources to
ecosystems, and exchange of expertise to improve the conservation and management of
biodiversity.

3.6.6 For transboundary inland water ecosystems, undertake, where feasible a nd
appropriate and by agreement between the Parties concerned, collaborative impact and
environmental flow assessments when applying the Convention's guidelines for
incorporating biodiversity related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation
and/or processes and in strategic environmental assessment.

Cross-cutting programmes
Invasive alien species programme
Guiding princ iples from Decision VI/23: [note – several of these guiding principles
relate to other sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea programme and have been
presented there]

Guiding princ iple 4: The role of States (see sub-programme 1.2. 1)
   1. In the context of invasive alien species, States should recognize the risk that
      activities within their jurisdiction or control may pose to other States as a
      potential source of invasive alien species, and should take appropriate individual
      and cooperative actions to minimize that risk, including the provision of any
      available information on invasive behaviour or invasive potential of a species.


                                           82
    2. Examples of such activities include:
            a. The intentional transfer of an invasive alien species to another State (even
                if it is harmless in the State of origin); and
            b. The intentional introduction of an alien species into their ow n State if there
                is a risk of that species subsequently spreading (w ith or without a human
                vector) into another State and becoming invasive;
            c. Activities that may lead to unintentional introductions, even where the
                introduced species is harmless in the state of origin.
To help States minimize the spread and impact of invasive alien species, States should
identify, as far as possible, species that could become invasive and make such
information available to other States.

Guiding princ iple 9: Cooperation, including capacity -building (see sub-
programme 1.2.1)
Depending on the situation, a State's response might be purely internal (within the
country), or may require a cooperative effort between two or more countries. Such
efforts may include:
    a. Programmes developed to share information on invasive alien species, their
        potential uneasiness and invasion pathways, with a particular emphasis on
        cooperation among neighbouring countries, between trading partners, and among
        countries with similar ecosystems and histories of invasion. Particular a ttention
        should be paid where trading partners have similar environments;
    b. Agreements between countries, on a bilateral or multilateral basis, should be
        developed and used to regulate trade in certain alien species, with a focus on
        particularly damaging invasive species;
    c. Support for capacity-building programmes for States that lack the expertise and
        resources, including financial, to assess and reduce the risks and to mitigate the
        effects when introduction and establishment of alien species has taken place .
        Such capacity-building may involve technology transfer and the development of
        training programmes;
    d. Cooperative research efforts and funding efforts toward the identification,
        prevention, early detection, monitoring and control of invasive alien species.

Protected areas programme
Goal 1.3 – To establish and strengthen regional networks, transboundary protected
areas (TBPAs) and collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national
boundaries (see sub-programme 1.3)

Target: Establish and strengthen by 2010/2012 9/ transboundary protected areas, other
forms of collaboration between neighbouring protected areas across national boundaries
and regional networks, to enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological
diversity, implementing the ecosystem approach, and improving international
cooperation.

1.3.1. Collaborate with other parties and relevant partners to establish effective regional
       networks of protected areas, particularly in areas identif ied as common
       conservation priorities (e.g. barrier reef systems, large scale river basins,
       mountain systems, large remaining forest areas and critical habitat for
       endangered species), and establish multi-country coordination mechanisms as
       appropriate to support the establishment and effective long term management of
       such networks.

9 / References to marine protected area networks to be c onsis tent with the target in the WSSD plan of impleme ntation.




                                                            83
1.3.2. Collaborate with other Parties and relevant partners through the United Nations
       Informal Consultative Process on the Law of the Sea (UNICPOLOS) to establish
       and manage protected areas in marine areas beyond the limits of national
       jurisdiction, in accordance with international law, including the UN Convention on
       the Law of the Sea, and based on scientific information.
1.3.3. Establish, where appropriate, new TBPAs with adjacent Parties and countries and
       strengthen effective collaborative management of existing TBPAs.
1.3.4. Promote collaboration between protected areas across national boundaries.

Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines for Sustainable use of Biodiversity (See
sub-programme 1.4)
Practical principle 8: There should be arrangements for international cooperation
where multinational decision- making and coordination are needed.

Operational guide lines
      Make arrangements for international cooperation when the distribution of
      populations or communities/habitats being used span two or more nations;
      Promote multinational technical committees to prepare recommendations for the
      sustainable use of transboundary resources;
      Have bilateral or multilateral agreements between or among the States for the
      sustainable use of transboundary resources;
      Establish mechanisms involving the collaborating states to ensure that sustainable
      use of transboundary resources does not negatively impact the ecosystem
      capacity and resilience.

Impact assessment programme (See sub-programme 2.3)
The guidelines on impact assessment endorsed through Decision VII/7 include
consideration of transboundary impact and cooperation.

Communication, education and public a wa reness programme (See sub-
programme 2.4)
As adopted by Decision VI/19. Note this programme also includes elements of direct
relevance to sub-programmes 2.1 of the Mountains to the Sea programme.

Liability and redress programme
Relatively little concrete progress has been made on this problematic issue to now. As
further is done, and agreements reached by the COP, these will need to be reflected
here.

Global taxonomy initiative
1.2 Re gional taxonomic needs assessment (Pla nned activ ity 2)
Combined with best available information on national taxonomic needs (if possi ble
national taxonomic needs assessments), regionally agreed plans of action that provide
identif ied priorities will provide a clear focus for activities under the GTI. To develop such
plans of action regional workshops will be held, under the general guidance of the
Executive Secretary and the GTI coordination mechanism. The challenge of the
workshops w ill be to blend academic advice and perspective with country needs to fulfill
its obligations under the Convention.

1.3 Global taxonomic needs assessment (Pla nned activ ity 3)
A concise global plan of action using the outputs from the regional workshops, with the
advice and support of international organizations and the GTI Coordination Mechanism.




                                            84
2.2 Strengthe ning of existing networks for regiona l cooperation in taxonomy
(planned activity 6)
A global network, ideally comprised of increasingly self -sufficient subregional networks,
that covers all taxa. While the actual capacity-building initiatives should have a finite
project-based life, ideally the networks themselves would remain in perpetuity once
established and underpinned by member country Governments.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:

Protected areas programme
1.3.5. Collaborate and consult with relevant organizations and bodies for developing
       guidelines for establishing transboundary protected areas and collaborative
       management approaches, as appropriate, for dissemination to Parties.
1.3.6. Compile and disseminate information on regional networks of protected areas and
       transboundary protected areas, including, as far as possible, their geographical
       distribution, their historical background, their role and the partners involved.
1.3.7. Review the potential for regional cooperation under the Convention on Migratory
       Species with a view to linking of protected area networks across international
       boundaries and potentially beyond national jurisdiction through the establishment
       of migratory corridors for key species.

Main partners: Advice needed
Other collaborators: Advice needed


Programme e lement 3.        Knowledge, assessment and monitoring

3.1 Status and tre nds – assessments, indicators and monitoring

Goal:
To develop an improved understanding of the status and trends of biological diversity
across all biomes, including the threats having a negative impact on the conservation
and sustainable use of biological diversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            7(a), (b), (c), 12, 17
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               2.5
Directly related (provisional) goals and   -
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Forests: Goal 2, Objective 1
programmes:                                Inland waters: Goal 2.3
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 7 & 9

Source elements from cross-cutting         Alien invasive species guiding principle 5
issue guidance and programmes:             (Decision VI/23) – see sub-programme 1.2.1
                                           also.

                                           Protected areas programme of work –
                                           Programme element 4: Standards, assessment,
                                           and monitoring




                                           85
                                          Global taxonomy initiative, 5.4 Support for
                                          ecosystem approach and work under the CBD
                                          on assessment including impact assessments,
                                          monitoring and indicators (Planned activity 17)

                                          Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: Targets
                                          1 and 2

                                          Biodiversity and tourism: Guidelines adopted by
                                          Decision VII/14: These guidelines include under
                                          Part B, Sections 1 and 9, and Part C, activities
                                          relevant under this sub-programme.

                                          Indicators and 2010 targets: Ongoing work
                                          under these two cross-cutting programmes w ill
                                          need to be informed by activities undertaken
                                          herein.
Operational objectives:
(a) An improved understanding of the status and trends of the biological diversity across
all biomes, its uses, taxonomy and threats, based on inventories, rapid and other
assessments, and monitoring, applied at the regional, national and local levels.

(b) To achieve a harmonized global to regional, biome by biome, classification system,
based on agreed and accepted definitions and addressing key biological diversity
elements.

(c) Rapid assessments using suitable indicators, being undertaken for biodiversity, in
particular in small island developing States and States where ecosystems suffer from
ecological disasters and urgent provision of support to develop and implement national
strategies for the prevention and mit igation of ecological disasters.

(d) Monitoring programmes established and maintained to detect changes in the status
and trends of biodiversity across all biomes, paying particular attention to those requiring
urgent conservation measures and those which offer the greatest potential for
sustainable use.

(e) National capacity building underway for undertaking the above -mentioned
assessments.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
3.1.1 Applying the priorities set down in national biodiversity strategies and action
plans, undertake comprehensive national inventories and assessments of biological
diversity, which may be regarded as important in accordance with the terms of Annex I
of the Convention. In

3.1.2 In conjunction with 3.1.1 above, undertake assessments of threatened habitats
and species. The transboundary nature of many biomes should be fully taken into
account in assessments, and it may be appropriate for relevant regional and international
bodies to contribute to such assessments. (see Sub-programme 2.6 also)

3.1.3 Identify the most cost-effective approaches and methods to describe the status,
trends and threats of all biomes and indicate their condition in functional as well as
species terms.


                                           86
3.1.4 Promote and develop specific assessments of additional components of biodiversity
that provide ecological services. This might include targeted assessments on priority
areas (for example, loss of pollinators, pest management and nutrient cycling).

3.1.5 Adopt an integrated approach in the assessment, management and, where
possible, remedial actions of linked biomes, notably, inland waters, associated terrestrial
and in-shore marine ecosystems. It should be noted that:

 (a) Assessments should involve all stakeholders, including indigenous and local
communities, should be cross-sectoral and should make full use of indigenous know ledge
based on prior informed consent (see Sub-programme 1.6 also);

 (b) Suitable organisms should be identif ied as being particularly important in the
assessment of biodiversity. Ideally, such groups (taxa) should meet the following
criteria:
          (i) The group should contain a reasonable number of species with varied
ecological requirements;
          (ii) The taxonomy of the group should be reasonably well understood;
          (iii) The species should be easy to identify;
          (iv) The group should be easy to sample or observe so that density - absolute or
as indices - can be
                assessed, used objectively and treated statistically;
          (v) The group should serve as indicators of overall ecosystem health or indicators
of the development
                of a key threat to ecosystem health;

  (c) In view of the great economic importance of some grou ps (e.g. inland water fish
species and aquatic macro-invertebrates), and of the large gaps in taxonomic knowledge
for many species, capacity-building in taxonomy should focus on biodiversity of economic
as well as ecological importance.

3.1.6 Apply the rapid assessment guidelines for national circumstances and adapt these
as necessary to suit current and emerging priorities. In accordance with SBSTTA
recommendation II/1, endorsed by the Conference of the Parties in decision III/10,
assessments should be simple, inexpensive, rapid and easy to use. Such rapid
assessment programmes will never replace thorough inventories.

3.1.7 Introduce appropriate monitoring regimes based on the Convention on Biological
Diversity and other guidance for priority taxa and ecosystems in the first instance, taking
into account the implementation of decisions VI/7 A-C on identification, monitoring,
indicators and assessments and possible adoption by the Conference of the Parties at its
seventh meeting of principles for developing and implementing national-level monitoring
and indicators.

3.1.8 Support efforts to achieve international consistency and interoperability of
taxonomic nomenclature, classification systems, databases and metadata standards, as
well as data-sharing policies (see Sub-programme 3.3 also)

3.1.9 Seek the resources, opportunities and mechanisms to build national capacity for
undertaking assessments and inventories.

3.1.10 As part of national communication, education and public awareness


                                           87
activities/programme (see Sub-programme 2.4), provide mechanisms for disseminating
status and trends research findings to all relevant stakeholders, in a form which will be
most useful to them. Make this same information available to the Executive Secretary
for sharing with other Parties.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Inland waters
3.1.11 For inland waters specifically, develop means of identifying and protecting
groundwater recharge areas, groundwater aquifers, and surface waters fed by
groundwater discharges.

Mountains
3.1.12 For the mountain biome support the work of the Global Mountain Biodiversity
Assessment.

Marine and coastal
3.1.13 Compile and synthesize information on the methods for the identif ication,
assessment and monitoring of genetic resources of the seabed and ocean floor and
subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, and information on their status
and trends including identification of threats to such genetic resources and the technical
options for their protection and report on the progress made to SBSTTA.

Cross-cutting programmes
Invasive alien species programme
Guiding princ iple 5: Research and monitoring (see sub-programme 1.2. 1)
3.1.14 In order to develop an adequate knowledge base to address the pro blem, it is
important that States undertake research on and monitoring of invasive alien species, as
appropriate. These efforts should attempt to include a baseline taxonomic study of
biodiversity. In addition to these data, monitoring is the key to early detection of new
invasive alien species. Monitoring should include both targeted and general surveys, and
benefit from the involvement of other sectors, including local communities. Research on
an invasive alien species should include a thorough identif ication of the invasive species
and should document: (a) the history and ecology of invasion (origin, pathways and
time-period); (b) the biological characteristics of the invasive alien species; and (c) the
associated impacts at the ecosystem, species and genetic level and also social and
economic impacts, and how they change over time.

Protected areas programme of work – Programme e lement 4: Standards,
assessment, and monitoring

Goal 4.1 – To develop and adopt minimum sta nda rds a nd best practices for
national and regional protected area systems (see sub-programme 3.1)
Target: By 2008, standards, criteria, and best practices for planning, selecting,
establishing, managing and governance of national and regional systems of protected
areas are developed and adopted.

Suggested activities of the Parties
4.1.1. Collaborate with other Parties and relevant organizations, particularly IUCN, on
       the development, testing, review and promotion of voluntary protected areas
       standards and best practices on planning and management, governance and
       participation.
4.1.2. Develop and implement an efficient, long-term monitoring system of the
       outcomes being achieved through protected area systems in relation to the goals


                                           88
       and targets of this work programme.
4.1.3. Draw upon monitoring results to adapt and improve protected area management
       based on the ecosystem approach.
Suggested supporting activities of the Executive Secretary
4.1.4 In collaboration with the key partners and based upon the best practices promote
       available guidance for parties minimum standards for planning, selecting,
       establishing, managing and governance of protected area sites and systems.
4.1.5 Compile information on best practices and case-studies on effective management
       of protected areas and disseminate it through clearing-house mechanism and
       facilitate exchange of information.

Goal 4.2 – To evaluate and improve the e ffectiveness of protected a reas
management
Target: By 2010, frameworks for monitoring, evaluating and reporting protected areas
management effectiveness at sites, national and regional systems, and transboundary
protected area levels adopted and implemented by Parties.

4.2.1. Develop and adopt, by 2006, appropriate methods, standards, criteria and
       indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management and
       governance, and set up a related database, taking into account the IUCN-WCPA
       framework for evaluating management effectiveness, and other relevant
       methodologies, which should be adapted to local conditions.
4.2.2. Implement management effectiveness evaluations of at least 30 percent of each
       Party‟s protected areas by 2010 and of national protected area systems and, as
       appropriate, ecological networks.
4.2.3. Include information resulting from evaluation of protected areas management
       effectiveness in national reports under the Convention on Biological Diversity.
4.2.4. Implement key recommendations arising from site- and system-level
       management effectiveness evaluations, as an integral part of adaptive
       management strategies.

Goal 4.3 – To assess and monitor protected a rea status and trends
Target: By 2010, national and regional systems are established to enable effective
monitoring of protected-area coverage, status and trends at national, regional and global
scales, and to assist in evaluating progress in meeting global biodiversity targets.

4.3.1. Implement national and regional programmes to monitor and assess the status
       and trends of biodiversity within protected area systems and sites.
4.3.2. Measure progress towards achieving protected area targets based on periodic
       monitoring and report on progress towards these targets in future national reports
       under the Convention on Biological Diversity as well as in a thematic report at
       COP-9.
4.3.3. Improve and update national and regional databases on protected areas and
        consolidate the World Database on Protected Areas as key support mechanisms
        in the assessment and monitoring of protected area status and trends.
4.3.4. Participate in the World Database on Protected Areas maintained by UNEP-WCMC,
       and the United Nations List of Protected Areas and the State of the World‟s
       Protected Areas assessment process.
4.3.5. Encourage the establishment and establishment use of new technologies
        including geographic information syst em and remote sensing tools for monitoring
        protected areas.

Global taxonomy initiative


                                         89
5.4 Support for ecosystem approach and work under the CBD on assessment including
impact assessments, monitoring and indicators (Planned activity 17)

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 1: A widely accessible working list of known plant species, a step towards a
complete world flora
Target 2: A preliminary assessment of the conservation status of all know n plant species,
at national, regional and international levels.

Biodiversity and tourism: Guide lines adopted by Decision VII/14
These comprehensive guidelines cut across several sub-programmes of the Mountains to
the Sea programme (see 1.4, 2.1, 2.3 and 2.4 in particular). They have not been
reproduced here because of their very specialized nature. These guidelines include under
Part B, Sections 1 and 9, and Part C, activities relevant under this sub-programme.

Indicators and 2010 targets
See above
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
3.1.14 Make available to Parties guidelines for rapid, simple, inexpensive, and easy -to-
use assessments of biological diversity, taking into account the different types
ecosystems and regional considerations, and giving special consideration to the priority
needs of small island developing States, and States in which are suffering from ecological
disasters.

3.1.15 Through continued collaboration with global and regional assessments including,
but not restricted to, the Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), the World
Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, the FAO
Fisheries Assessment, the Global Environmental Outlook (GEO), the Global Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF), the report on State of the World's Plant and Animal
Resources and the IUCN Freshwater Biodiversity Assessment and Red List of Threatened
Species, seek to advance the generation of information on status and trends that can
assist and support global, transboundary and national priority setting process es for the
conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity.

Specific to inland waters
3.1.16 In collaboration with the Ramsar Convention and other partners, make available
to Parties guidance for:
        (a) Undertaking national inventories and assessments of inland water and coastal
        biological diversity;
        (b) The identification of stressed inland water and coastal ecosystems;
        (c) The national elaboration of Annex I of the Convention on Biological Diversity
        in relation to biological diversity of inland wat ers and coastal ecosystems;
        (d) A list of indicators grouped as driver, state, impact, and response to
        pressures on biological diversity of inland water and coastal ecosystems (taking
        into account the implementation of decision VI/7 B of the Conference of the
        Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, on monitoring and indicators).

Protected areas programme of work – Programme e lement 4: Standards,
assessment, and monitoring

4.1.4   In collaboration with the key partners and based upon the best practices promote
        available guidance for parties minimum standards for planning, selecting,
        establishing, managing and governance of protected area sites and systems.


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4.1.5   Compile information on best practices and case-studies on effective management
        of protected areas and disseminate it through clearing-house mechanism and
        facilitate exchange of information.

4.2.5. Compile and disseminate information on management effectiveness through the
       clearing-house mechanism and develop a database of experts in evaluation of
       protected area management effectiveness and consider the possibility of
       organizing an international workshop on appropriate methods, criteria and
       indicators for evaluating the effectiveness of protected area management.
4.2.6. In cooperation w ith IUCN-WCPA and other relevant organizations, compile and
       disseminate information on best practices in protected area design, establishment
       and management.

4.3.6. Develop and consolidate working partnerships with appropriate organizations and
       institutions that have developed and maintained monitoring systems and
       databases on protected areas, in particular with the UNEP-WCMC and the IUCN
       World Commission on Protected Areas.
4.3.7. Explore establishment of a harmonized system and time schedule for reporting on
       sites designated under the Convention on Wetlands, the World Heritage
       Convention, and UNESCO MAB programme, and other regional systems, as
       appropriate, taking into account the ongoing work of UNEP-WCMC on
       harmonization of reporting and the IUCN protected area management category
       system for reporting purpose.
4.3.8. Prepare an updated format for the thematic report on protected areas covering,
       inter alia, integration of protected areas and national systems of protected areas
       into relevant sectors and spatial planning taking into account decision VII/25 on
       national reporting.

Global taxonomy initiative
1.1 Country-based taxonomic needs assessment (Planned activity 1)
3.3.8 Develop a coordinated global taxonomy information system (Planned activity 7)
Main partners
IUCN, UNEP, WCMC, WRI, FAO, World Fisheries Trust, Ramsar Secretariat and STRP of
the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, Conservation International, United Nations Forum
on Forests and the Collaborative Partnership on Forests, FAO, World Conservation
Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme
Other collaborators
UNESCO (SIDS programme), Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), World
Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, Global
Environmental Outlook, Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), WRI,
Conservation International, (Japan) BioNET International, and other relevant
international, regional and national organizations and stakeholders.




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3.2 Research e fforts

Goal: To develop an improved understanding of the biodiversity found in all biomes, how
these systems function, their ecosystem goods and services and the values they can
provide.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            7(a) & (c), 12
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               2.5, 3.3
Directly related (provisional) goals and   -
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 3.4
programmes:                                Forests: Goals 1 & 3, Objective 1 for both
                                           Inland waters: Goal 3.1
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activities 4,5 & 7(k)
                                           Agricultural: Programme element 2, Activities
                                           2.1 and 2.2 Coasts and marine: Operational
                                           objective 3.5
Source elements from cross-cutting         Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on
issue guidance and programmes:             Sustainable Use of Biodiversity: Practical
                                           principle 6

                                           Global Strategy for Plant Conservation: Target
                                           3:

                                           Global taxonomy initiative: Planned activities 5
                                           and 7

                                           Invasive alien species programme: Guiding
                                           principle 5: Research and monitoring (see sub-
                                           programme 1.2.1)

                                        Protected areas programme
Operational objectives:
(a) Improve understanding of the roles of biodiversity and ecosystem functioning w ithin
and between each biome.

(b) Improve the understanding of the causes and impacts of losing biological diversity in
each biome and at a landscape/seascape scale.

(c) Facilitate research and monitoring activities that reflect identified global know ledge
gaps and priority information needs for management.

(d) Improve research, tec hnical and scientific cooperation, and other forms of capacity-
building related to biological diversity.
Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
3.2.1 Conduct long-term research on species adaptability to changing environmental
conditions under climatic or human-induced global change, in relation to biological



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diversity.

3.2.2 Conduct key research:
 (a) on the roles and importance of biological diversity and ecosystem functioning,
considering ecosystem components, structure, function, processes and services.

  (b) to improve the understanding of the social, economic, political and cultural drivers
within civil society that are directly impacting on the conservation and sustainable use of
the biological diversity. A distinction should be made between broad socio-economic
causes such as demographic growth and more specific causes such as institutional
weaknesses and market or policy failures.

 (c) on the roles and importance of transitional zones linking upland-low land
ecosystems such as ecotones, hotspots, buffer areas and corridors.

3.2.3 In line with the Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI) encourage studies aimed at
improving the understanding of the taxonomy of the biological diversity, including efforts
to achieve international consistency and interoperability of taxonomic nomenclature,
databases and metadata standards, as well as data-sharing policies.

3.2.4 Initiate mechanisms and develop collaborative research/scientific programmes of
mutual interest among countries w ith shared biodiversity, biomes and ecosystems,
especially those having common problems and comparable socio-cultural conditions (see
also sub-programme 2.6).

3.2.5 Develop capacity and enhance opportunities for community -based research and
monitoring to conserve biodiversity and provide greater benef its to communities.

3.2.6 Develop scientific and technical coordination mechanisms at national level for
identif ication of research priorities and for optimising the efficient utilization of research
results (see activity 2.4.10 also).

3.2.7 Report through the clearing-house mechanism on successful experiences involving
control and mitigation of the underlying causes of biodiversity loss, which would make it
possible to understand lessons learned.

3.2.8 See sub-programme 2.4 (CEPA), activity 2.4.10.

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme of work
Mountains
3.2.9 Develop and support research to assess the role of soil biological diversity and the
diversity of protective vegetation cover for the stability and sa fety of mountain areas and
watershed protection, e.g., avoidance of human-induced erosion, landslides and
avalanches.

Forests
3.2.10 Seek to understand critical thresholds of forest biological diversity loss and
change, paying particular attention to endemic and threatened species and habitats
including forest canopies.

3.2.11 Increase the understanding of the impact of pollution, e.g., acidification and
eutrophication, and other pollutants (such as mercury and cyanide) on forest
biodiversity; at genetic, species, ecosystem and landscape levels.


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Agricultural biodiversity
3.2.12 Carry out a series of case-studies, in a range of environments and production
systems, and in each region:
  (a) To identify key goods and services provided by agricultural biodiversity, needs for
the conservation and sustainable use of components of this biological diversity in
agricultural ecosystems, and threats to such diversity;
  (b) To identify best management practices; and
  (c) To monitor and assess the actual and potential impacts of existing and new
agricultural technologies.

This activity would address the functions of agricultural biodiversity and the interaction
between the various components, as set out in the appendix hereto with a focus on
certain specific and cross-cutting issues, such as:
  (a) The role and potential of wild, under-utilized and neglected species and products;
  (b) The role of genetic diversity in providing resilience, reducing vulnerability, and
enhancing adaptability of production systems to changing environments and needs;
  (c) The synergies and interactions between different components of agricultural
biodiversity;
  (d) The role of pollinators, with particular reference to their economic benefits, and the
effects of introduced species on indigenous pollinators and other aspects of biological
diversity;
  (e) The role of soil and other below-ground biodiversity in supporting agricultural
production systems, especially in nutrient cycling;
  (f) Pest and disease control mechanisms, including the role of natural enemies and
other organisms at field and landscape levels, host plant resistance, and implications for
agro-ecosystem management;
  (g) The wider ecosystem services provided by agricultural biodiversity;
  (h) The role of different temporal and spatial patterns in mosaics of land use, including
complexes of different habitats;
  (i) Possibilities of integrated landscape management as a means for the conservation
and sustainable use of biodiversity.

3.2.13 Identify and promote the dissemination of information on cost-effective practices
and technologies, and related policy and incentive measures that enhance the positive
and mitigate the negative impacts of agriculture on biological diversity, productivity and
capacity to sustain livelihoods, through:
  (a) Comprehensive analyses in selected production systems of the costs and benefits of
alternative management practice as identified from activity 2.1, and the valuation of the
goods and services provided by agricultural biodiversity;
  (b) Comprehensive analyses of the impacts of agricultural production, including their
intensif ication and extensif ication, on the environment and identification of ways to
mit igate negative and promote positive impacts;
  (c) Identification, at international and national levels, in close collaboration w ith
relevant international organizations, of appropriate marketing and trade policies, legal
and economic measures which may support beneficial practices:
   (i) Promotion of neglected and under-utilized crops;
   (ii) Promotion of local and indigenous knowledge;
   (iii) Measures to add value to products of production systems that sustain biodiversity,
and to diversify market opportunities;
    (iv) Access and benefit-sharing measures and intellec tual property issues;
    (v) Economically and socially sound measures that act as incentives, in accordance
with Article 11 and consistent with Article 22; and


                                           94
   (vi) Training and capacity-building in support of the above.

Cross-cutting programmes
Addis Ababa Principles and Guidelines on Susta inable Use of Biodiversity

Practical principle 6: Interdisciplinary research into all aspects of the use and
conservation of biological diversity should be promoted and supported.

Operational guide lines
      Ensure that the results of research inform and guide international, national
      policies and decisions;
      Invest in research into techniques and technologies of management of biodiversity
      components that promote sustainability in both consumptive and non-
      consumptive uses of biodiversity;
      Encourage active collaboration between scientific researchers and people with
      local and traditional knowledge;
      Encourage international support and technology transfer, relating to both
      consumptive and non-consumptive uses of biodiversity;
      Develop cooperation between researchers and biodiversity users (private or local
      communities), in particular, involve indigenous and local communities as research
      partners and use their expertise to assess management methods and
      technologies;
      Investigate and develop effective ways to improve environmental education and
      awareness, to encourage public participation and to stimulate the involvement of
      stakeholders in biodiversity management and sustainable use of resources;
      Investigate and develop means of ensuring rights of access and methods for
      helping to ensure that the benefits derived from using components of biodiversity
      are equitably shared;
      Make research results available in a form w hich decision makers, users, and other
      stakeholders can apply;
      Promote exchange programmes in scientific and technical areas.

Global Strategy for Plant Conse rvation
Target 3: Development of models with protocols for plant conservation and sustainable
use, based on research and practical experience.

Global taxonomy initiative
3.3.7 Global and regional capacity-building to support access to and generation of
taxonomic information (Planned activity 5)

3.3.8 Develop a coordinated global taxonomy information system (Planned activity 7)

Invasive alien species programme
Guiding princ iple 5: Research and monitoring (see sub-programme 1.2.1)
In order to develop an adequate knowledge base to address the problem, it is important
that States undertake research on and monitoring of invasive alien species, as
appropriate. These efforts should attempt to include a baseline taxonomic study of
biodiversity. In addition to these data, monitoring is the key to early detection of new
invasive alien species. Monitoring should include both targeted and general surveys, and
benefit from the involvement of other sectors, including local communities. Research on
an invasive alien species should include a thorough identif ication of the invasive species
and should document:
  (a) the history and ecology of invasion (origin, pathways and time -period);


                                           95
 (b) the biological characteristics of the invasive alien species; and
 (c) the associated impacts at the ecosystem, species and genetic level and also social
and economic impacts, and how they change over time.

Protected areas programme
Goal 4.4 – To e nsure that scie ntific knowle dge contributes to the establishment
and e ffectiveness of protected a reas and protected area systems (see sub-
programme 1.3)

Target: Scientific know ledge relevant to protected areas is further developed as a
contribution to their establishment, effectiveness, and management.
4.4.1. Improve research, scientific and technical cooperation related to protected areas
        at national, regional and international levels.
4.4.2. Promote interdisciplinary research, to improve understanding of the ecological
        social and economic aspects of protected areas, including methods and
        techniques for valuation of goods and services from protected areas
4.4.3. Encourage studies to improve the know ledge of the distribution, status and trends
       of biological diversity.
4.4.4. Encourage collaborative research between scientists and indigenous and local
       communities in accordance with Article 8(j) in connection with the establishment
       and the effective management of protected areas
4.4.5. Promote the dissemination of scientific information from and on protected areas
       including through the clearing-house mechanism.
4.4.6. Promote the dissemination of, and facilitate access to, scientific and technical
       information, in particular publications on protect ed areas, with special attention to
       the needs of developing countries and countries w ith economies in transition, in
       particular least developed countries and small island developing States.
4.4.7. Develop and strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and
       institutions which undertake research studies leading to an improved
       understanding of biodiversity in protected areas.
Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
3.2.14 Strengthen working partnerships with appropriate organizations and institutions
which undertake, or can assist in mobilizing, research efforts leading to an improved
understanding of the biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and the practical
application of the ecosystem approach.

3.2.15 As part of the agreed programme of work for the GTI, support and assist, in
collaboration with suitable partners, the development of the series of regional guides to
the taxonomy of key taxa (such as freshwater fish and invertebrates).
Main partners
IUCN, UNEP, WCMC, WRI, FAO, World Fisheries Trust. [It is acknowledged that this is
an incomplete list]
Collaborators
Global International Waters Assessment (GIWA), World Water Assessment Programme
(WWAP), Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, FAO, Global Environmental Outlook, Global
Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF), WRI, Conservation International, (Japan) BioNET
International, and other relevant international, regional and national organizations and
stakeholders. [It is acknow ledged that this is an incomplete list]


3.3 Data manageme nt and infrastructure
Goal: To improve, at the international, regional and national levels, the infrastructure



                                           96
and capacity for data and information management for accurate assessment and
monitoring of biological diversity.

Context and linkages:
Article(s) of the Convention on            7(d)
Biological Diversity:
Strategic Plan objective(s):               -
Directly related (provisional) goals and   -
targets from Decision VII/30 – pursuit
of the 2010 Biodiversity targets
Source elements from thematic              Mountains: Goal 3.3
programmes:                                Forests: Goal 4
                                           Dry and sub-humid lands: Activity 7 (j)
                                           Coasts and marine: Operational objective 2.2
Source elements from cross-cutting         Global Taxonomy Initiative (GTI), Operational
issue guidance and programmes:             objective 2 - Planned activity 5 and Operational
                                           objective 3 – Planned activity 7.

                                           Programme of work on technology transfer and
                                           technological and scientific cooperation,
                                           (Decision VII/29), Programme element 2:
                                           Information Systems

                                           Alien invasive species guiding principles
                                           (Decision VI/23) – see sub-programme 1.2.1
                                           also.
Operational objectives:
(a) Promote improvements to the systems and infrastructure for data collection and
information management at the international, regional and national levels.

(b) Enhance the technical capacity at the national level to monitor biological diversity
(across all biomes), benefiting from the opportunities offered through the clearing -house
mechanism, and to develop associated databases as required on global, regional (where
appropriate) and local levels.

(c) Facilitate an improved and effective infrastructure/system for access to taxonomic
information; with priority on ensuring that countries of origin gain access to information
concerning elements of their biodiversity (From the GTI programme of work)

(d) Foster technology transfer and technology cooperation through national, regional and
international information systems (Based on Objective under Programme element 2 of
technology transfer programme of work – see sub-programme 2.5)

Activities of the Parties:
Cross-biome
3.3.1 Support and seek additional resources to see necessary improvements to the
infrastructure for data and information management at the national and, where
appropriate, regional levels.

3.3.2 Enhance the technical capacity at a national level to monitor biological diversity
across all biomes, benefiting from the opportunities offered by the clearing-house
mechanism of the Convention on Biological Diversity, including the development of
associated databases as required at the global scale to facilitate exchange.


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3.3.3 Promote open access, as Parties consider appropriate, to existing information on
biodiversity and related databases and sharing through the clearing-house mechanism of
the Convention on Biological Diversity and other appropriate means.

3.3.4 Encourage mapping and inventory of biodiversity and of land-use changes, using
analogue and digital databases (remote-sensing, geographic information system) for
scientific purposes and for supporting decision- making.

3.3.5 – see activity 3.1.8, sub-programme 3.1 – Status and trends

Spe cific to a particular biome thematic programme
Marine and coastal
3.3.6 For the marine biome specifically, make available to the Parties information on
genetic resources in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction and, as appropriate, on
coastal and marine genetic resources under national jurisdiction from publicly available
information sources.

Cross-cutting programmes
Global taxonomy initiative
3.3.7 Global and regional capacity-building to support access to and generation of
taxonomic information (Planned activity 5)

3.3.8 Develop a coordinated global taxonomy information system (Planned activity 7)

Invasive alien species - Guiding principles from Decision VI/23: [note – several of
these guiding principles relate to other sub-elements of the Mountains to the Sea
programme and have been presented elsewhere]

Guiding princ iple 8: Exc hange of information (see sub-progra mme 1.2.1 also)
3.3.9 States should assist in the development of an inventory and synthesis of relevant
databases, including taxonomic and specimen databases, and the development of
information systems and an interoperable distributed network of databases for
compilation and dissemination of information on alien species for use in the context of
any prevention, introduction, monitoring and mitigation activities. This information
should include incident lists, potential threats to neighbouring countries, information on
taxonomy, ecology and genetics of invasive alien species and on control methods,
whenever available. The wide dissemination of this information, as well as national,
regional and international guidelines, procedures and recommendations such as those
being compiled by the Global Invas ive Species Programme should also be facilitated
through, inter alia, the clearing-house mechanism of the Convention on Biological
Diversity.

3.3.10 The States should provide all relevant information on their specific import
requirements for alien species, in particular those that have already been identified as
invasive, and make this information available to other States.

Technology transfer and tec hnological and scie ntific coope ration programme of
work
(numbering retained from cross-cutting programme for ease of cross-reference)

Programme e lement 2: Information systems
Operational target 2.1: The clearing-house mechanism is a central mechanism for the


                                          98
exchange of information on and facilitation of technology transfer and technical and
scientific cooperation relevant for the Convention on Biological Diversity, providing access
to information on national technology needs, available relevant proprietary technologies
and technologies in the public domain, including access to databases of existing
technologies, and information on best -practices to create enabling environments for
technology transfer and technology cooperation.

Activities:
2.1.1. Develop provisional web pages and print media that provide access to information
       on relevant initiatives and databases for the transfer of technology and for
       technology cooperation.

2.1.2. Development of proposals to enhance the clearing-house mechanism, including its
       national nodes, particularly those in developing countries, as a key mechanism for
       exchange of information on technologies and as a core element in its role to
       promote and facilitate scientific and technical cooperation, for facilitating and
       promoting technology transfer and cooperation and for the promotion of technical
       and scientific cooperation relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of
       biodiversity or make use of genetic resources and do not cause significant damage
       to the environment.

2.1.3. Development of advice and guidance on the use of new information exchange
       formats, protocols and standards to enable interoperability among relevant
       existing systems of national and international information exchange, including
       technology and patent databases.

2.1.4. Implementation of proposals for enhancing the clearing-house mechanism as a
       central mechanism for exchange of information on technologies, as a core element
       in its role to promote and facilitate scientific and technical cooperation, for
       facilitating and promoting technology transfer and for the promotion of technical
       and scientific cooperation as adopted by the Conference of the Parties, in full
       synergy with similar initiatives and mechanisms of other Conventions and
       international organizations.

Operational target 2.2: Opportunities to establish or strengthen national information
systems for technology transfer and technology cooperation are identified, with
consultation of and input from indigenous and local communities and all relevant
stakeholders.

Activities:
2.2.1. Compilation and synthesis of information on national and regional information
       systems for technology transfer and cooperation, including the identification of
       best-practices and of needs for further improvements, in particular in regard to
       the accessibility of such systems for indigenous and local communities and all
       relevant stakeholders as well as information on capacity and human resources
       available and needed.

2.2.2. Develop or strengthen national information systems of technology transfer and
       technology cooperation.

Operational target 2.3: National information systems for technology transfer and
technology cooperation, especially those functioning through national clearing-house
mechanisms, are established or strengthened, are effectively linked to international


                                          99
information systems and contribute effectively to technology transfer, diffusion and
adaptation and to the exchange of technologies, including south-south technology
transfer.
Activities:

2.3.1. Development or improvement of national systems of information exchange on
       technology transfer and technology cooperation, in consultation with indigenous
       and local communities and all relevant stakeholders, with a view to fostering
       dialogue between technology holders and prospective users through, inter alia,
       the application of ways and means to ensure:
       (a)    Effective linkages with existing national, regional and international
              information systems;
       (b)    Accessibility and adaptability of such systems by indigenous and local
              communities and all relevant stakeholders;
       (c)    Information on local needs for adaptation, and related capacity, to be
              effectively channelled into national systems.

Operational target 2.4: Promote the development of regional and international
information systems to facilitate technology transfer and technological cooperation.

Activities:
2.4.1. Initiate and conduct consultations among relevant organizations, indigenous and
       local communities and all relevant stakeholders w ith a view to identifying options
       to further regional and international cooperation in the development or
       improvement of information systems on technology transfer and technology
       cooperation.

2.4.2. Compilation and synthesis of information on regional and international information
       systems, including best -practices and opportunities for further development and
       make this information availa ble through the clearing-house mechanism and other
       means, as appropriate.

2.4.3. Identify and implement measures to develop or strengthen appropriate
       information systems of technology transfer and technology cooperation, including
       at the local level.

Supporting activities of the Executive Secreta ry:
3.3.11 Enhance the capacity of the clearing-house mechanism to facilitate the
implementation of the above goal.
Main partners:
In relation to activity 3.3.5 - International organizations, such as the United Nations
Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea, the United Nations Environment
Programme, and the InterGovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United
Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization, as appropriate with the sup port
of the Executive Secretary.
Other collaborators: Advice needed




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4.      Final remarks

This project set out to establish if it was possible to integrate and condense CBD‟s six
thematic programmes of work, and the guidance and programmes of work developed
under the 17 cross-cutting issues, so that they together could provide a more robust
and readily usable platform for the Parties of the CBD to implement the ecosystem
approach. While it is acknowledged that further work is required to address some
aspects, the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan presented here
suggests that this approach is worthy of further examination by the Parties of the
CBD.

The review of the thematic programmes and cross-cutting issues has revealed
striking differences in the way activities are presented for attention by the Parties,
yet remarkably high levels of similarity and overlap of content. The draft „mountains
to the sea‟ implementation plan has been able to more than halve, to this stage of its
development, the text that Parties have to consult in the development of their ow n
national approaches to implementing the CBD‟s thematic programmes .            A key
advantage, from an administrative perspective, is that Parties can now consult one
cross-biome implementation plan for landscape/seascape scale planning, and, if
required also consult the existing thematic programmes and cross-cutting issues,
using the „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan as a common entry point, or
one-stop-shop.

The integration of these thematic and cross-cutting programmes has also served to
standardise and draw together into one standard format, these currently quite
disparate programmes. The advantages of this should be immediately apparent as it
allows CBD‟s broader agendas to be presented in one comprehensive document,
rather than 23 programmes that are not readily harmonised.

More fundamental however is the message that this draft cross-biome
implementation plan sends out to governments and all other stakeholders involved
with the implementation of the CBD about the need for more integrated,
landscape/seascape level planning, decision making and actions. Principle s 3 and 7
of CBD‟s ecosystem approach (see Appendix A) are especially relevant, as follows:

      Principle 3: Ecosystem managers should consider the effects (actual or
       potential) of their activities on adjacent and other ecosystems.

      Principle 7: The ecosystem approach should be undertaken at the appropriate
       spatial and temporal scales.

It is hoped that through this worked example, the CBD w ill recognise that the time
has arrived to now take the next major step in its evolution, and move to develop
and adopt a cross-biome, „mountains to the sea‟ style implementation plan. Nature
designed ecosystems with connectivity to one another and the cross-biome plan is
designed to assist that as a fundamental implementation approach of the CBD.

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Appendix A: The ecosystem approach - principles a nd rationale

Princ iples                         Rationale
Principle 1: The objectives of      Different sectors of society view ecosystems in terms
management of land, water and       of their own economic, cultural and societal needs.
living resources are a matter of    Indigenous peoples and other local communities living
societal choice.                    on the land are important stakeholders and their
                                    rights and interests should be recognized. Both
                                    cultural and biological diversity are central
                                    components of the ecosystem approach, and
                                    management should take this into account. Societal
                                    choices should be expressed as clearly as possible.
                                    Ecosystems should be managed for their intrinsic
                                    values and for the tangible or intangible benef its for
                                    humans, in a fair and equitable way.
Principle 2: Management should      Decentralized systems may lead to greater efficiency,
be decentralized to the lowest      effectiveness and equity. Management should involve
appropriate level.                  all stakeholders and balance local interests with the
                                    wider public interest. The closer management is to the
                                    ecosystem, the greater the responsibility, ownership,
                                    accountability, participation, and use of local
                                    know ledge.
Principle 3: Ecosystem              Management interventions in ecosystems often have
managers should consider the        unknow n or unpredictable effects on other
effects (actual or potential) of    ecosystems; therefore, possible impacts need careful
their activities on adjacent and    consideration and analysis. This may require new
other ecosystems.                   arrangements or ways of organization for institutions
                                    involved in decision- making to make, if necessary,
                                    appropriate compromises.
Principle 4: Recognizing            The greatest threat to biological diversity lies in its
potential gains from                replacement by alternative systems of land use. This
management, there is usually a      often arises through market distortions, which
need to understand and manage       undervalue natural systems and populations and
the ecosystem in an economic        provide perverse incentives and subsidies to favour
context. Any such ecosystem-        the conversion of land to less diverse systems.
management programme
should:                             Often those who benefit from conservation do not pay
(a) Reduce those market             the costs associated with conservation and, similarly,
distortions that adversely affect   those who generate environmental costs (e.g.
biological diversity;               pollution) escape responsibility. Alignment of
(b) Align incentives to promote     incentives allows those who control the resource to
biodiversity conservation and       benefit and ensures that those who generate
sustainable use;                    environmental costs will pay
(c) Internalize costs and
benefits in the given ecosystem
to the extent feasible.
Principle 5: Conservation of        Ecosystem functioning and resilience depends on a
ecosystem structure and             dynamic relationship within species, among species
functioning, in order to maintain   and between species and their abiotic environment, as
ecosystem services, should be a     well as the physical and chemical interactions within
priority target of the ecosystem    the environment. The conservation and, where
approach.                           appropriate, restoration of these interactions and
                                    processes is of greater significance for the long-term


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                                   maintenance of biological diversity than simply
                                   protection of species.
Principle 6: Ecosystems must be    In considering the likelihood or ease of attaining the
managed within the limits of       management objectives, attention should be given to
their functioning.                 the environmental conditions that limit natural
                                   productivity, ecosystem structure, functioning and
                                   diversity. The limits to ecosystem functioning may be
                                   affected to different degrees by temporary,
                                   unpredictable or artificially maintained conditions and,
                                   accordingly, management should be appropriately
                                   cautious.
Principle 7: The ecosystem         The approach should be bounded by spatial and
approach should be undertaken      temporal scales that are appropriate to the objectives.
at the appropriate spatial and     Boundaries for management will be def ined
temporal scales.                   operationally by users, managers, scientists and
                                   indigenous and local peoples. Connectivity between
                                   areas should be promoted where necessary. The
                                   ecosystem approach is based upon the hierarchical
                                   nature of biological diversity characterized by the
                                   interaction and integration of genes, species and
                                   ecosystems.
Principle 8: Recognizing the       Ecosystem processes are characterized by varying
varying temporal scales and lag-   temporal scales and lag-effects. This inherently
effects that characterize          conflicts with the tendency of humans to favour short -
ecosystem processes, objectives    term gains and immediate benefits over future ones.
for ecosystem management
should be set for the long term.
Principle 9: Management must       Ecosystems change, including species composition and
recognize that change is           population abundance. Hence, management should
inevitable.                        adapt to the changes. Apart from their inherent
                                   dynamics of change, ecosystems are beset by a
                                   complex of uncertainties and potential "surprises" in
                                   the human, biological and environmental realms.
                                   Traditional disturbance regimes may be important for
                                   ecosystem structure and functioning, and may need to
                                   be maintained or restored. The ecosystem approach
                                   must utilize adaptive management in order to
                                   anticipate and cater for such changes and events and
                                   should be cautious in making any decision that may
                                   foreclose options, but, at the same time, consider
                                   mit igating actions to cope with long-term changes
                                   such as climate change
Principle 10: The ecosystem        Biological diversity is critical both for its intrinsic value
approach should seek the           and because of the key role it plays in providing the
appropriate balance between,       ecosystem and other services upon which we all
and integration of, conservation   ultimately depend. There has been a tendency in the
and use of biological diversity.   past to manage components of biological diversity
                                   either as protected or non-protected. There is a need
                                   for a shift to more flexible situations, where
                                   conservation and use are seen in context and the full
                                   range of measures is applied in a continuum f rom
                                   strictly protected to human- made ecosystems.



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Principle 11: The ecosystem         Information from all sources is critical to arriving at
approach should consider all        effective ecosystem management strategies. A much
forms of relevant information,      better knowledge of ecosystem functions and the
including scientific and            impact of human use is desirable. All relevant
indigenous and local knowledge,     information from any concerned area should be shared
innovations and practices.          with all stakeholders and actors, taking into account,
                                    inter alia, any decision to be taken under Article 8(j)
                                    of the Convention on Biological Diversity. Assumptions
                                    behind proposed management decisions should be
                                    made explicit and checked against available
                                    know ledge and views of stakeholders.
Principle 12: The ecosystem         Most problems of biological-diversity management are
approach should involve all         complex, with many interactions, side-effects and
relevant sectors of society and     implications, and therefore should involve the
scientific disciplines.             necessary expertise and stakeholders at the local,
                                    national, regional and international level, as
                                    appropriate.


                       ________________________________


Appendix B: Provisional frame work of goals and ta rgets (Decision VII/30)

Protect the components of biodiversity
Goal 1. Promote the conservation of the biological diversity of ecosystems,
habitats and biomes
Target 1.1: At least 10% of each of the world‟s ecological regions effectively
conserved.
Target 1.2: Areas of particular importance to biodiversity protected

Goal 2. Promote the conservation of species diversity
Target 2.1: Restore, maintain, or reduce the decline of populations of species of
selected taxonomic groups
Target 2.2: Status of threatened species improved.

Goal 3. Promote the conservation of ge netic dive rsity
Target 3.1: Genetic diversity of crops, livest ock, and of harvested species of trees,
fish and wildlife and
Other valuable species conserved, and associated indigenous and local knowledge
maintained.

Promote sustainable use
Goal 4. Promote sustainable use and consumption.
Target 4.1: Biodiversity-based products derived from sources that are sustainably
managed, and production areas managed consistent with the conservation of
biodiversity.
Target 4.2: Unsustainable consumption of biological resources, or that impacts upon
biodiversity, reduced.
Target 4.3: No species of wild flora or fauna endangered by international trade




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Address threats to biodiversity

Goal 5. Pressures from habitat loss, land use cha nge and degradation, and
unsustainable water use, reduced.
Target 5.1: Rate of loss and degradation of natural habitats decreased

Goal 6. Control threats from invasive alien species
Target 6.1: Pathways for major potential alien invasive species controlled.
Target 6. 2: Management plans in place for major alien species that threaten
ecosystems, habitats or species.

Goal 7. Address challe nges to biodiversity from climate c hange and pollution
Target 7.1: Maintain and enhance resilience of the components of biodiversity to
adapt to climate change
Target 7.2: Reduce pollution and its impacts on biodiversity

Maintain goods and serv ices from biodiversity to support huma n we ll-being
Goal 8. Maintain capac ity of ecosystems to de liver goods a nd services a nd
support livelihoods
Target 8.1: Capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services maintained.
Target 8.2: biological resources that support sustainable livelihoods, local food
security and health care, especially of poor people maintained

Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
Goal 9 Maintain soc io-cultural dive rsity of indigenous a nd loca l communities
Target 9s.1 Protect traditional knowledge, innovations and practices
Target 9.2: Protect the rights of indigenous and local communities over their
traditional know ledge, innovations and practices, including their rights to benefit
sharing

Ensure the fair and equitable sharing of bene fits arising out of the use of
genetic resources
Goal 10. Ensure the fair and equita ble sha ring of be nefits a rising out of the
use of genetic resources
Target 10.1: All transfers of genetic resources are in line with the Convention on
Biological Diversity, the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and
Agriculture and other applicable agreements.
Target 10.2: Benefits arising from the commercial and other utilization of genetic
resources shared with the countries providing such resources

Ensure provision of adequate resources
Goal 11: Parties have improved financia l, huma n, sc ientific, technica l a nd
technological capacity to implement the Convention 76/
Target 11.1: New and additional financial resources are transferred to developing
country Parties, to allow for the effective implementation of their commit ments under
the Convention, in accordance with Article 20.
Target 11.2: Technology is transferred to developing country Parties, to allow for the
effective implementation of their commit ments under the Convention, in accordance
with its Article 20, paragraph 4.

                            _______________________




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Appendix C: Issues and challenges to creating M2C

Section 2 outlined the process that was used to design the structure and „populate‟
the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan. Some of the notable issues
that were confronted during the process are as follows:

1.    As indicated in section 2.1.2, it is estimated that for each of six thematic
      programmes approximately 80-90% of their content was adjudged as not
      being unique. During the „cut and paste‟ phase of this project (see section
      2.1.1) „like‟ text from each thematic programme were grouped together under
      the appropriate section in the adopted struc ture. The process was then to
      either adopt one form of the language (from one of the thematic
      programmes) or to edit (as little as possible) the presented text relating to
      each issue so as to capture the essence of what was intended. Care was
      taken to try and retain as much of the original language and to also ensure
      that it had applicability across biomes. The author does not pretend that this
      exercise was w ithout flaws and so, the „mountains to the sea‟ plan is
      presented here very much as a draft requiring careful review and f urther
      refinement. To assist this (hoped for) f uture process by the CBD, under each
      goal the origin of the source material has been indicated so that it is possible
      to check back against the relevant thematic programme to ensure t he way
      the issue has been re-presented has remained faithful to the original intent.

      In relation to the „cutting and pasting‟ of relevant text from the guidance or
      programmes of work for cross-cutting issues, the process was more difficult,
      largely due to the highly variable nature of this information. Accordingly, in
      the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan in section 3, no attempt
      has been made (at this time) to condense this text for fear of losing
      significant points or information. There is no doubt that careful review of this
      material would allow further abbreviation and some harmonisation of this
      text.

2.    In preparing the draft „mountains to the sea‟ implementation plan, a section
      on „Context and linkages‟ was included. It indicates as follows:
          those articles of the CBD that relate to the specific theme;
          the related (provisional) goals and targets as adopted by the
             Convention through Decision VII/30;
          the source elements from the relevant thematic programme, and,
          the source elements from the relevant cross-cutting issue guidance or
             programme.

      In the draft implementation plan the section for „Activities of the Parties‟ is
      divided as follows:
          those that are considered “cross-biome”;
          those that are considered “specific to a particular biome thematic
             programme”; and,
          those that are derived from a “cross-cutting issue”, with the sources
             for each shown.

      The distinction should be obvious from these headings. In many, but not all
      sub-programmes, there are some activities that (for this exercise) were
      considered unique. Closer review by persons more familiar w ith these biomes
      may either confirm this or indicate that they are more generalized activities


                                         106
     applicable across several biomes. Consideration was given to placing these
     so-called biome-specific or unique activities into thematic programme
     annexes of the „mountains to the sea‟ plan, however, this was not done as it
     isolates them from the context (goal, operational objectives) within w hich
     they should sit.

3.   Examination of the draft „mountains to the sea‟ plan will also show some
     information gaps. The first of these is in relation to the “Supporting activities
     of the Executive Secretary”, “Main partners” and “Other collaborators”. Not
     all thematic programmes or cross-cutting issues have these headings and so
     it was not possible to provide a comprehensive list of activities, partners or
     collaborators. If the CBD were to pursue the further refinement of the draft
     „mountains to the sea‟ plan, these are areas that require attention.

4.   Tables 5 and 6 do not show the „2010 targets‟ cross-cutting issue. It was
     considered more appropriate for the draft „mountains to the sea‟
     implementation plan to integrate this issue into the actual structure and each
     sub-programme within it (see 2 above). It is hoped that this implementation
     plan may assist CBD with developing a comprehensive set of goals and
     targets, based around this integrated approach that draws together in one
     format the sic thematic programmes and 16 (other) cross-cutting issues.




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About WWF’s Global Freshwate r Programme:

Established in 1961, WWF operates in more than 100 countries. WWF‟s mission is to
stop the degradation of the planet's natural environment and to build a future in
which humans live in harmony w ith nature, by:

       - conserving the world's biological diversity;
       - ensuring that the use of renewable natural resources is sustainable;
       - promoting the reduction of pollution and wasteful consumption.

Freshwater is one of six priority issues for WWF ‟s work globally (s ee:
www.panda.org/freshwater). The WWF Global F reshwater Programme promotes
conservation and sustainable management of freshwater habitats around the world
to benefit people and nature.

WWF is championing the conservation and restoration of at least 50 river basins
(ecoregions) crucial to wildlife and people by 2010. To secure their conservation ,
WWF is working to influence the key drivers of unsustainable use of f reshwater
resources and habitats, including agriculture, hydroelectricity generation, flood
management and river transport, and water consumption – particularly for irrigation.
Further we are using economic and policy tools and protected areas as instruments
to accelerate the freshwater conservation outcomes that everyone depends upon.

For FY05-07 WWF‟s freshwater conservation work focuses on:

      Undertaking large-scale river basin - freshwater ecoregion conservation –
       programmes to conserve the most biologically signif icant freshwater habitats
       globally.
      Reducing two of the biggest threats to the freshwater biome world w ide,
       namely: changes in hydrology due to dams and other water infrastructure,
       and water consumption from agriculture.
      A series of government commit ments to national strategies for management
       of water and to reduce poverty and conserve freshwater habitats.
      Establishing and managing freshwater protected areas to accelerate
       conservation of freshwater habitats by securing key sites.


About the author:

Dr Bill Phillips worked for nearly 13 years in the Australian Federal Environment
Ministry involved with policy development and implementation issues for various
biodiversity and natural resource management programmes. He was head of the
Australian delegation to CBD 5th COP in Nairobi in 2000.

In 1997, Dr Phillips was appointed Deputy Secretary General of the Ramsar
Convention on Wetlands, a post he occupied until early 2000. During his time at the
Ramsar secretariat, Dr Phillips attended the 4 th CBD COP in Bratislava and a number
of SBSTTA meetings.        He was a prime architect (and chie f author) of the
Memorandum of Understanding and Joint Work Plans (1 and 2) between CBD and the
Ramsar Convention. He also has extensive f irst hand know ledge of the related
biodiversity conventions, plus the desertification and climate change conventions.




                                         108
In late 2000, Dr Phillips established his own consulting company, MainStream
Environmental Consulting Pty Ltd (www.mainstream.com.au). Since then he has
undertaken a range of projects that make him eminent ly qualified to prepare this
discussion paper, as follows:

    Revision of the global Programme of Wor k on the Conservation and
     Sustainable Use of the Biological Diversity of Inland Waters for the
     Convention on Biological Diversity (2002)

    Streamlined national reporting under biodiversity-related conventions,
     Indonesian pilot study of the modular approach, project facilitator and
     primary author (2002)

    Conserving Rivers, Lessons from WWF ’s work for integrated river basin
     management, Jones, T, Davis, T & and Phillips,B., 2003. Presented to the
     World Parks Congress, Durban, (2003)

    Working w ith several Pacific Island countries to introduce streamlining and
     more harmonized implementation of biodiversity conventions (2001-2004)

    Promoting Integrated River Basin Management and Restoring China’s Living
     Rivers IRBM Task Force of the China Council for International Cooperation on
     Environment and Development, primary writer, (2004)




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