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Fluid Mechanics • Liquids and gases have the ability to flow • They are called fluids • There are a variety of “LAWS” that fluids obey • Need some definitions Density • Regardless of form (solid, liquid, gas) we can define how much mass is squeezed into a particular space mass density volume Pressure • A measure of the amount of force exerted on a surface area force pressure area Pressure in a Fluid • The pressure is just the weight of all the fluid above you • Atmospheric pressure is just the weight of all the air above on area on the surface of the earth • In a swimming pool the pressure on your body surface is just the weight of the water above you (plus the air pressure above the water) Pressure in a Fluid • So, the only thing that counts in fluid pressure is the gravitational force acting on the mass ABOVE you • The deeper you go, the more weight above you and the more pressure • Go to a mountaintop and the air pressure is lower Pressure in a Fluid Pressure acts perpendicular to the surface and increases at greater depth. Pressure in a Fluid Buoyancy Net upward force is called the buoyant force!!! Easier to lift a rock in water!! Displacement of Water The amount of water displaced is equal to the volume of the rock. Archimedes’ Principle • An immersed body is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. • If the buoyant force on an object is greater than the force of gravity acting on the object, the object will float • The apparent weight of an object in a liquid is gravitational force (weight) minus the buoyant force Flotation • A floating object displaces a weight of fluid equal to its own weight. Flotation Gases • The primary difference between a liquid and a gas is the distance between the molecules • In a gas, the molecules are so widely separated, that there is little interaction between the individual moledules • IDEAL GAS • Independent of what the molecules are Boyle’s Law Boyle’s Law • Pressure depends on density of the gas • Pressure is just the force per unit area exerted by the molecules as they collide with the walls of the container • Double the density, double the number of collisions with the wall and this doubles the pressure Boyle’s Law Density is mass divided by volume. Halve the volume and you double the density and thus the pressure. Boyle’s Law • At a given temperature for a given quantity of gas, the product of the pressure and the volume is a constant P V1 P2 V2 1 Atmospheric Pressure • Just the weight of the air above you • Unlike water, the density of the air decreases with altitude since air is compressible and liquids are only very slightly compressible • Air pressure at sea level is about 105 newtons/meter2 Barometers Buoyancy in a Gas • An object surrounded by air is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the air displace. • Exactly the same concept as buoyancy in water. Just substitute air for water in the statement • If the buoyant force is greater than the weight of the object, it will rise in the air Buoyancy in a Gas Since air gets less dense with altitude, the buoyant force decreases with altitude. So helium balloons don’t rise forever!!! Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle • Flow is faster when the pipe is narrower • Put your thumb over the end of a garden hose • Energy conservation requires that the pressure be lower in a gas that is moving faster • Has to do with the work necessary to compress a gas (PV is energy, more later) Bernoulli’s Principle • When the speed of a fluid increases, internal pressure in the fluid decreases. Bernoulli’s Principle Bernoulli’s Principle Why the streamlines are compressed is quite complicated and relates to the air boundary layer, friction and turbulence. Bernoulli’s Principle