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THE CLAUSE

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									                                                    THE CLAUSE


Clause - A group of words that contains a ________________ and its ______________ and is used as part of a

        ____________________.


        A clause has a ________________ and _________________. Not every clause expresses a complete

        _____________________.

                                                                     Clause – I love to run outside
        Sentence – I love to run outside when the weather is nice.
                                                                     Clause – when the weather is nice




        A. Independent Clause: Expresses a complete __________________ and can stand by itself as a

               _____________________.


        B. Subordinate Clause: Does not express a ___________________ thought and cannot stand alone as a

               _____________________. Also known as a ______________________ clause.


      **The thought expressed by a ______________________ clause becomes complete when the clause is

                               combined with a _________________________ clause.**



                                Mrs. Arters nodded her head when Jackie answered the question.

                   When you reach Smith Street turn left.                 Meg wrote a book that was a best seller.




English 11-3                                                                                                         1
Types of Subordinate Clauses

        A. Adjective Clause: A ___________________ clause that modifies a ______________ or

               ________________.

                      The adjective clause always _________________ the word or words that it

                       ___________________.

                      Adjective clauses begin with the following words



                who                   whom                   whose                which                  that

                                      when                                        where




        He invented a vaccine that cured many people.            The team, which finished undefeated, won in the playoffs.


    We went to the restaurant where I ate five hamburgers.           He told me about the time when you went to Europe.




        B. Noun Clause: A _____________________ clause used as a _________________.

                      May be used as a ________________, _______________________, ____________________,

                       ______________________________, or _________________________.


                      Usually introduced by:

                what                 whatever           whichever                whoever              whomever
                who                   whom               whose                    which                 that
                how                  whether              when                    where                 why


                          1. Subject  Whatever you decide will be best.
                          2. P. N.       The hotel was where the family slept.
                          3. D. O.       Coach knew that the girls had done their best.
                          4. I. O.       Give whoever wants one an ice cream cone.
                          5. O. P.       The prize will be give to whoever deserves it most.




English 11-3                                                                                                              2
                      Differentiating Between Noun and Adjective Clauses:


                           If you remove a clause and still have a sentence  Adjective Clause
                           If you remove a clause and DON’T have a sentence  Noun Clause

                                                               OR

                              If a noun or pronoun precedes the clause  Adjective Clause
                               If a preposition or verb precedes the clause  Noun Clause




        C. Adverb Clause: A subordinate clause that modifies a ____________, ___________, or

                                __________.


                      Adverb clauses are usually introduced by one of the conjunctions below:

          after              as long as          because            provided that          through            whenever
        although             as soon as           before                since               unless             where
            as               as though               if                so that               until            wherever
           as if             as well as        in order that            than                when               while




                      If the adverb clause is at the beginning of the sentence                     offset with a comma
                       If the adverb clause is at the end of the sentence                           not offset with a comma



      While driving to the museum, Laura ate her lunch.                    We will avoid the traffic if we leave now.




English 11-3                                                                                                              3
Exercise 1 – Independent and Subordinate Clauses
Label each word group below as an Independent Clause (IC) or Subordinate Clause (SC)

1. Cuba is the largest island in the Greater Antilles.

2. Where more than eight thousand different species of plants grow.

3. That the national flower is the mariposa.

4. This flower is also called the butterfly jasmine.

5. Since Cuban women once wore flowers to show support for soldiers.

6. Many kind of cactus grow in Cuba.

7. Since it has the smallest hummingbird in the world.

8. Because buses are the chief form of transportation.

9. Christopher Columbus arrived in Cuba in 1492.

10. Which the Taino generously provided for them.



Exercise 2 – Independent and Subordinate Clauses
Identify each italicized word group as an independent or a subordinate clause.

(1) Large plants like the one in the photographs are where most eggs are processed today. (2) After an

egg is laid, it gently rolls along the slanted floor of the cage to a narrow conveyor belt. (3)These narrow

conveyer belts converge into one wide belt that runs directly into the processing plant. (4)As soon as

the eggs reach the processing plant, they are automatically sprayed with detergent and water. (5)The

eggs then pass through a specially lit inspection area, where defective eggs can be detected and removed.

(6)After the eggs are weighed, they are separated by weight into groups. (7)Each group of eggs goes

onto a separate conveyor belt, which leads to a forklike lifting device. (8)This device lifts six eggs at a

time while the empty egg cartons wait two feet below it. (9)The eggs are gently lowered into the

cartons, which are then shipped to grocery stores and supermarkets. (10)What is truly amazing is that no

human hands ever touch the eggs during the entire process.


English 11-3                                                                                              4
Exercise 3 – Independent and Subordinate Clauses
Identify each italicized word group as an independent or a subordinate clause.

1. Customers demand thousands of products, and every grocery tries to please.

2. Because people have different tastes, stores order many brands.

3. When a product is popular, a store stocks many sizes of one product.

4. In the past, a cashier made mistakes as she rang up a sale.

5. While the store was closed, workers took inventory.

6. Managers notice products low in stock, and purchasing agents reorder.

7. If stock ran out too soon, customers complained.

8. When a student heard about the problem, he set out to solve it.

9. Many years passed before their solution became practical.

10. The student created a process that saved a substantial amount of money.

11. When you walk on the beach, be careful not to step on a jagged shell.

12. I love to exercise when the summer actually starts.

13. My friend owns a beach house that is totally awesome.

14. That you go to the shore each summer makes me very jealous.

15. Ronnie bought a beach hat which he placed in his back pocket.

16. Sean borrowed a boat from Nic, whom he thanked by buying him dinner.

17. How Brittany plans to spend her beach day is entirely up to her.

18. A nice day on the beach was what Ms. Nerelli’s class really needed.

19. Ms. Nerelli knew that Mrs. Oliver did not want to go, but she insisted just the same.

20. The beach, where the waves were big, was where we went.




English 11-3                                                                                5
Exercise 4 - Adjective Clauses
Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and the noun or pronoun it modifies.

1. Some of us have read Native Son, which was written by Richard Wright.

2. The book to which he referred was ordered yesterday.

3. In March many countries have festivals that can be traced back to ancient celebrations of spring.

4. The fish that I caught yesterday weighed three pounds.

5. The nominee was a statesman whom everyone admired.

6. It’s not easy to understand someone who mumbles.

7. They finally found my briefcase, which had been missing for weeks.

8. Please indicate the people to whom we should go for help.

9. The guide advised those who enjoy Native American art to visit the new exhibit of Hopi weaving and
pottery.

10. Everyone cheered for the player that had the best serve.


Exercise 5 - Adjective Clauses
Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and the noun or pronoun it modifies.

1. The Pulitzer Prize, which was founded by a newspaper publisher, recognizes excellent writing in
journalism.

2. Joseph Pulitzer, who spent his life as a journalist, left funds at his death for prizes in journalism.

3. The year 1904, when two writers won the Nobel Prize, was unusual.

4. The Pulitzer Prize is the award that everyone considers the greatest honor.

5. Toni Morrison, whose novel Beloved won the Pulitzer Prize, was awarded the Nobel Prize in literature.

6. Alice McDermott, who won the National Book Award, has written four novels.

7. Upton Sinclair, who wrote The Jungle, was an active reformer.

8. Tasmania, which is an island, belongs to Australia.

9. The book that Ray is writing may be purchased next year.

10. Benny likes the girl who sits behind him in English class.


English 11-3                                                                                                6
Exercise 6 - Adjective Clauses
Identify the adjective clause in each of the following sentences and the noun or pronoun it modifies.

1. I looked for the book that Asad recommended.

2. Red is a color that often signals danger.

3. The passengers suffered delays that they thought were intolerable.

4. The lake where we spent last weekend is called Morgan Lake.

5. Joe is the only one of you who is always polite.

6. Cecilia went to the library, where she hoped to find the answer.

7. The plants that we put outside last summer really thrived

8. Robbie entered the library where they had first met.

9. South Carolina, which is one of the original thirteen states, has a rich history.

10.      Young men who want to wear wigs sometimes have to shave their heads.

11.     Jen saw several pictures of the house that she loved.

12.     The wave that swept the island destroyed two buildings.

13.     The place where Kelly works is a mile from town.

14.     The sight that Chloe enjoyed most was the sunset.


Exercise 7 – Combining Sentences with Adjective Clauses
Combine each pair of sentences to form one sentence containing an adjective clause that modifies
the boldfaced word.


1. Nobel Prizes are awarded to individuals. The winners have made valuable contributions to mankind.


____________________________________________________________________________________


2. The first Caldecott Medal was awarded to Dorothy Lathrop. The medal was designed by Rene
Chambellan.


____________________________________________________________________________________


English 11-3                                                                                       7
3. A Pulitzer Prize is also awarded to the best American play. The play deals with American life.


____________________________________________________________________________________


4. Pearl S. Buck is an American novelist. She won the Nobel Prize in 1938.


____________________________________________________________________________________


5. John Berryman wrote the poem Seventy-Seven Dream Songs. It won the Pulitzer Prize for poetry in
1965.


____________________________________________________________________________________




Exercise 8 - Noun Clauses
Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a
subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.


1. Would you please tell me what the past tense of the verb swing is?

2. I will listen carefully to whatever you say.

3. Whatever you decide will be fine with me.

4. Give whoever wants one a free pass.

5. That Jill was worried seemed obvious to us all.

6. Do you know why Eduardo missed the Cinco de Mayo celebration?

7. The teacher said that we could leave now.

8. In biology class we learned how hornets build their nests.

9. You can appoint whomever you like.

10. A remote desert island was where the pirates buried their treasure.

11. That a secretive lynx lives in this area has long been suspected.


English 11-3                                                                                           8
12. The counselors offered whoever saw a mountain lion a ride home.

13. The researchers knew that emperor penguins were seldom seen in their in their natural habitat.

14. Whoever sees a dead leaf mantis must have a good eye for camouflage.

15. Risa showed whoever was interested slides of her vacation.

16. Gerunds and infinitives were what confused the student.

17. He heard that the solitary loon lived on this remote lake.

18. The people were shocked at how many bats hung hidden deep in the cave.

19. To see how the African lung fish builds its mud cocoon was fascinating.

20. The players knew that the game was going to be difficult.


Exercise 9 – Noun Clauses
Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a
subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.


1. The candidate gave whomever he met a firm handshake and a genuine smile.

2. Whether he wrote the poems or not is still unknown.

3. Everyone wants to know how the magician made her assistant disappear.

4. Some scientists believe that dinosaurs may have been warm-blooded.

5. I have no information about whose boots these are.

6. My only question is why he needs our sleeping bag.

7. Her poems focus on our best qualities, whatever is praiseworthy in humans.

8. Garret recognized that some people were prejudiced.

9. Gary was the man who invented the earliest traffic signal.

10. He told whoever would listen about his past adventures.




English 11-3                                                                                           9
Exercise 10 – Noun Clauses
Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. Tell whether the noun clause is a
subject, a direct object, an indirect object, a predicate nominative, or an object of a preposition.

1. Kevin recognized that some people were prejudiced.

2. Brianna told whoever would listen about her long vacation.

3. James noticed that Gabby wasn’t feeling very well.

4. Trish agreed that going to school at 6 a.m. wasn’t a good idea.

5. Whether there is life on Mars or not is another question entirely.

6. Krissy knew that Eric Clapton was an excellent guitarist.

7. How you plan your time will determine your success.

8. Tracy’s reason for being late was that she overslept.

9. I finally understood what his objections were.

10.     Autumn will hand whoever arrives the letter.

11.     The encouragement was what Victoria needed.

12.     The scholarship is awarded to whoever truly deserves it.

13.     Whoever wrote the poem should get an award.

14.     Conor drove whoever wanted a ride.


Exercise 11 - Making Sentences Using Noun Clauses
Use the following clauses as noun clauses in an original sentence.

1. whoever threw the baseball


____________________________________________________________________________________

2. how seldom she likes to cook dinner


____________________________________________________________________________________



English 11-3                                                                                           10
3. what animals live in the zoo


____________________________________________________________________________________

4. that little brown puppies sleep there


____________________________________________________________________________________

5. where the little boy hides


____________________________________________________________________________________


Exercise 12 – Adjective and Noun Clauses
Identify the subordinate clause in each of the following sentences and determine whether it is an
adjective or noun clause.

1. The bristlecone pine is a small, gnarled tree that few people have ever heard of.

2. Botanists estimate that some bristlecone pines are more than six thousand years old.

3. The oldest sequoias are only 2,200 years old according to those who know.

4. Whoever respects hardiness has to respect the bristlecone.

5. The high altitude of the Rocky Mountains, the bristlecone’s natural habitat, is what makes the tree
   grow.

6. Do you think that the bristlecone pine will win any beauty contests?

7. Judge by what you can see in this photograph.

8. The bristlecone’s needles last on the branches for up to fifteen years, a length of time that is
   extraordinary.

9. Botanists tell us that the bristlecone is a member of the foxtail family.

10. Like all members of this family, the bristlecone has needle clusters that resemble a fox’s tail.




English 11-3                                                                                             11


								
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