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					School of Civil Engineering
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING




Earth, Wind and Fire

Barry Clarke
Introduction

• The Ground
• The Underlying Science
• Transformational Agenda
• Resilient Infrastructure
The Ground
The Ground

• Source of primary materials
• Stable platform for construction
• Protection of the environment, people and goods
• Geotechnical structures for storage and communications
Primary Source of Materials
Primary materials

• The majority of our construction materials, fuel, minerals
  come from the ground.
                          1999
 Aluminium                  77
 Cement                    895
 Clay                      304
 Coal                     7662
 Copper                     25
 Glass                     150
 Iron ore                  553
 Lead                       14
 Phosphate                 340
 Potash                     44
 Salt                      395
 Sand, gravel and stone   21640
 Sulphur                   111
 Zinc                       13


 Oil                      7782
 Gas                      7803
 Uranium                   0.25   Average American annual mineral consumption (lbs)
Primary materials
Construction materials



                                           • UK use of sand, gravel and
                                             cement and concrete products




• Would cover13000 football pitches
  a year with concrete products a
  year
• Sand and gravel equivalent to 75
  thousand elephants or 54 thousand
  buses would create a 500m high hill
  with side slopes of 1 in 3 or fill 200
  Wembley stadia
Stable Ground
Stable platform

The province of the Engineer is to control the forces of nature
and apply them to useful purposes, an object which is effected
    by means of pieces of material suitably connected and
arranged. The protection of life and property from destructive
 forces is accomplished by pieces rigidly connected with one
another which transmit the their action to bodies which are not
                  injurious. (Cotterill, 1906)


.................it is assumed that the ground is that body.
Stable ground

                •   Instability caused by overloading
                    of soil, and earthquakes
    Stable ground




•    Instability due to mass movement triggered
     by erosion, earthquakes, rainfall
Stable ground

                •   Instability caused by overloading
                    of soil, collapse of underground
                    caverns and degradation of
                    foundations
Instability due to water pressure




                       •   Instability due to water pressure
Stable ground?

 •   A week in the life of the earth
Human and property loss

                      •   Ground movements result in delays
                          to construction, damage to property
                          and loss of human life
                      •   90% of total losses due to storms and
                          flooding
Construction workload

•   Current and predicted projects used to quantify skills
    requirements and indicate workload over next five years
Protection
Flood and coastal protection
                          •    Embankments for flood protection,
                               coastal erosion, wetlands, and river
                               diversion
Defence

          •   Earth has and is still being used for
              defence of sensitive installations
Storage
Storage

          •   Storage of waste, water,
              energy, carbon and data
The Underlying Science
The ‘myths’

• The ground is made of either
  rock, sand or clay




• The majority of new build is
  based on sophisticated testing
  techniques
 Soil particles




sand                 clay

 10-6 m/sec       10-11 m/sec
   2mm              10μm
Characterisation of Tills
Distribution of non text book soils
• Over 60% of the UK is covered
  by non text book materials
Glacial till
                                       •   transported, partially weathered homogenized
                                           sub glacial till subsequently weathered
                                       •   weathered sub glacial till

      sand                             •   deformation till


                                       •   transported partially homogenized sub glacial
   laminated clay                          till incorporating elements of previous melt out
                                           till or periglacial features
                    sand and gravel
                                       •   deformation till


laminated clay       sand and gravel   •   fluvioglacial deposits
                                       •   shear zones


                                       •   transported partially homogenized sub glacial
                                           till containing elements of bed rock
                                       •   deformation till or lodgment till


                                       •   rock
                                                                             undrained shear strength (kPa)

            Characterisation of glacial tills
                                      undrained shear strength (kPa)                                                               60
                 0   50   100   150       200      250     300         350    400      450      500
             0
                                                                                                                                   50
             2




                                                                                                            plasticity index (%)
             4                                                                upper red till                                       40
                                                                              lower red till
             6
                                                                              lower grey till
                                                                                                                                   30
             8
depth (m)




            10                                                                                                                                                                                                              Trenter, 1997
                                                                                                                                   20                                                                                       Bell, 2000
            12                                                                                                                                                                                                              upper red till
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lower red till
            14                                                                                                                     10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            lower grey till
            16
                                                                                                                                        0
            18
                                                                                                                                            0           10          20            30        40         50      60      70          80         90
            20                                                                                                                                                                             liquid limit (%)
                                                                                                                       0.5
                                                                                                                                                               ISuL                                                   SCL
                                                                                                                                                                                            ICL

                                                                                                                                   0




             • Creating a framework to                                                                          -0.5
                                                                                                      void index



                                                                                                                                                upper red till strength

               characterise tills and develop a                                                                                    -1
                                                                                                                                                lower red till strength
                                                                                                                                                lower grey till strength

               consistent approach to selection                                                                                                 reconstituted grey till strength
                                                                                                                                                reconstituted red till strength
                                                                                                                -1.5                            upper red till in situ stress
               of design parameters                                                                                                             lower red till in situ stress
                                                                                                                                                lower grey till in situ stress
                                                                                                                                   -2
                                                                                                                                        10                                                        100                                          1000
                                                                                                                                                                                    effective vertical stress (kPa)
                                                                                                                                                                                   undrained shear strength (kPa)
Stiffness
Local strain stiffness




                                                                                                                 Gur
                                                                                                 resonant column Go
                                                                      Seed et al (1986)
                                 0.8                                                       0.8
 machine foundations
                                            Gur from SBP tests




                            Go
                            G
                                 0.4        in calibration                                 0.4




                                                                                                 corrected
                                            chambers
 earthquakes
                                  0                                                        0




                                                                                                 corrected Gur
                                                                                                 cross hole Go
                                 0.8                                                       0.8
 well designed foundations
                                               CSBP
                            Go
                            G




                                 0.4           PAF                                         0.4

 soft ground construction
                                  0                                                        0
                                        -4          -3           -2          -1           0
                                       10         10          10        10            10
                                                         shear strain %

                                             standard tests
Self boring pressuremeter
                                                   5000       unload reload cycle for shear modulus




                            applied pressure kPa
                                                   4000


                                                   3000


                                                   2000

                                                            expansion curve for strength
                                                   1000
                                                          lift off for in situ stress
                                                      0        2         4          6      8        10
                                                                                        cavity strain %

                                            • In situ tests allow stiffness profiles
                                              to be directly assessed
                                Reconstituted glacial till
                          700


                          600


                          500
                                                                                                                      • Tests on reconstituted tills
deviatoric stress (kPa)




                          400
                                                                                                                        compare favourably with tests on
                          300
                                                                                                                        natural soils
                          200
                                                                                                                      • Sampling is less of an issue
                          100                                              Sample 1
                                                                           Sample 2
                                                                           Sample 3 (Drained)
                           0
                                0   100   200         300            400      500               600

                                                mean stresss (kPa)                                              200
                                                                                                                          Monotonic loading - 25kPa
                                                                                                                          Monotonic loading - 50kPa
                                                                                                                180       Monotonic loading - 100kPa
                                                                                                                          Best fit to peak stress for monotonic loading
                                                                                                                          Best fit to post peak strength for monotonic loading
                                                                                                                160       peak stress natural samples - Stage 1
                                                                                                                          peak stress natural samples - Stage 2


       • Tests on reconstituted soils can be
                                                                                                                          peak stress natural samples - Stage 3
                                                                                                                140       Best fit to Stage 1 loading of natural soils
                                                                                                                          Best fit to Stage 2 loading of natural soils
                                                                                                                          Best fit to Stage 3 loading of natural soils
                                                                                                                120
         used to produce consistent design
                                                                                                      t (kPa)




                                                                                                                100

         values                                                                                                  80


       • Reconstituted soil is created from a                                                                    60



         slurry of till consolidated to very high                                                                40


                                                                                                                 20

         pressures to create a heavily                                                                            0
                                                                                                                      0          50                 100                  150       200     250     300

         overconsolidated material                                                                                                                                     s' (kPa)
                                                                                                                                                                                  Richmond, 2007
                                    Reconstituted glacial till
                              700                                                                                                                     400


                              600                                                                                                                     350
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sample 1




                                                                                                                         secant shear modulus (MPa)
                                                                                                                                                      300                                         Sample 2
                              500                                                                                                                                                                 Sample 3 (Drained)
    deviatoric stress (kPa)




                                                                                                                                                      250
                              400
                                                                                                                                                      200

                              300
                                                                                                                                                      150

                              200                                                                                                                     100

                                                                                                                                                      50
                              100                                                           Sample 1
                                                                                            Sample 2
                                                                                            Sample 3 (Drained)                                         0
                                0                                                                                                                      0.0001   0.001   0.01                0.1             1          10
                                    0   100      200            300               400           500              600
                                                                                                                                                                               shear strain (%)
                                                         mean stresss (kPa)




                              900
                                                                                                                        • It is possible to measure the local
                              800
                                                                            Sample 3 (Drained Shearing)
                                                                                                                          strain stiffness and obtain the design
                              700
                                                                                                                          curve from tests on reconstituted till
normalised shear modulus




                                                                            Sample 1 (Undrained Shearing)
                                                                            Sample 2 (Undrained Shearing)
                              600

                              500                                                                                       • The stiffness design curve is
                              400

                              300
                                                                                                                          obtained from the normalised shear
                              200                                                                                         modulus
                              100
                                                                                                                        • The shear modulus is normalised by
                               0
                               0.0001    0.001         0.01                 0.1
                                                              shear strain (%)
                                                                                               1                   10
                                                                                                                          the mean stress to provide a unique
                                                                                                                          curve
  Reconstituted glacial till

• This allows cyclic load test to be carried out to
  observe the degradation of stiffness with cycles


                                                                       350
                                                                                                        CTX1 20kPa; 0 - 33%; undrained; local strain
                                                                                                        CTX2 50kPa; 0 - 33%; undrained; average strain
                                                                                                        CTX3 100kPa; 0 - 33%; undrained; local strain
                                                                       300                              CTX4 20kPa; 0 - 66%; undrained; local strain
                                                                                                        CTX5 50kPa; 0 - 66%; undrained; average strain
                                 shear modulus/mean effective stress
                                                                                 CTX1                   CTX6 100kPa; 0 - 66%; undrained; local strain
                                                                       250


                                                                       200


                                                                       150       CTX2
                                                                                               CTX4


                                                                       100         CTX3
                                                                                                                                                 CTX5
                                                                                                 CTX6
                                                                       50


                                                                        0
                                                                             1            10             100                   1000                  10000
                                                                                                        cycles
Conductivity
              Hydraulic conductivity

                                                                                pressure
              water flow




                                                                                pressure jacket
                                                                                                             1400                                                     2.5
                                                                                specimen
                                                                                                             1200
                                                                                                                                 head                                 2
                                                                                pressure                     1000




                                                                                                                                                                            potential (m)
                                                                                                                                                                      1.5




                                                                                                 flow (ul)
                                                                                                             800

                                                                                                             600
                                                                                                                                                                      1
                                                                                                                                   flow
             1.4                                                                                             400
                                         kaolin                                                                                                                       0.5
             1.2                                                                                             200

                                                                                                               0                                                      0
             1.0
                                                                                                                    0       10      20                 30   40   50
void ratio




                                                                                                                                          time (hrs)
             0.8

                           upper brown till                      upper mottled till
             0.6
                                                                                                               •        Governs stability of geotechnical
             0.4                                                                                                        structures
                                              lower till
             0.2                                                                                               •        Increasing concern because of
                   10                                  100                            1000   10000
                                                       effective vertical pressure kPa
                                                                                                                        climate change
  Thermal conductivity
                              heat sink
heat flow




                              insulation jacket
                              specimen
                              thermistor
                              heat source


                                                               60
                                                                                         constant potential
                                                               50       heat source
                                                                                                                falling potential
•           Applications in geothermal
                                            temperature (oC)




                                                               40

            energy, melting of permafrost                      30
                                                                             heat sink

            due to climate change,
                                                               20
            design of future landfills                                    room temperature
                                                               10


                                                               0
                                                                    0         5          10        15          20           25      30   35   40
                                                                                                        elapsed time (hr)
                                     Electrical conductivity
                                                                        cathode
                                 electric flow




                                                                        insulation jacket                               0.01       0.1   1
                                                                                                                                             time (mins)
                                                                                                                                                  10       100   1000          10000
                                                                                                                       5
                                                                        specimen                                      -15
                                                                                                                                                                          5V
                                                                                                                      -35




                                                                                      negative pore water pressure
                                                                                                                                                                         10V
                                                                        anode                                         -55
                                                                                                                                                                        15V
                                                                                                                      -75
                                                                                                                                                                      20V




                                                                                                 (kPa)
                                                                                                                      -95
                                                                                                                                                                    25V
                                                                                                                     -115
                                                                                                                                                                        30V
                                                                                                                     -135

                                   30                                                                                -155
                                                                                                                     -175
                                   25
undrained shear strength (kPa)




                                                                                                                     -195

                                   20


                                   15


                                   10                                                                                 •        Applications in ground
                                      5                                                                                        improvement, dewatering of
                                      0
                                                                                                                               slurries and stabilising of slopes
                                            0    50   100                150    200   250
                                                      effective stress (kPa)
The Transformational Agenda
The Transformational Agenda

• Sustainable Built Environment
• Energy generation, dissipation and storage
• Carbon Critical Design
• Climate Change Mitigation and Adaption
• Regulation/Innovation
Sustainable Built Environment
Sustainable construction

• Sustainable construction is an aim that can be achieved
  through an incremental approach
• But there is much evidence that even that approach is too
  slow
 • Of 123 contracts reported, only 54% had a sustainability clause
 • Of the top ten contracts (by value) only 6 had a sustainability clause
 • Only 3.1% of total spend on catering contracts had a sustainability
   clause
 • 9 of the 21 Depts still do not include clauses regarding ‘Quick Win’
   product standards in all contracts
                                                       BERR Mar 2008
                 undrained shear strength (kPa)

Zero carbon by 2016
Sustainable ground engineering

• Baseline reporting to assess risk and increase client
  commitment to whole life costing and optimum designs
• Application of Eurocode to improve ground investigations to
  produce reliable, optimum designs
• Better application of ground characteristics
• Balanced approach to ground energy
• Reuse of excavated materials
• Use of waste as a resource
• Reuse of foundations
Energy
Geotechnical engineering for energy

• Foundations for energy structures including wind turbines,
  nuclear power stations, sea bed structures
• Storage of energy related resources including nuclear
  waste, carbon, heat
• Ground energy systems
• Barrages
    Geothermal energy



                                         •   Carbon reduction, sustainable
                                             development and energy
                                             efficiency are drivers for change




•    Development in technology has
     enabled ground energy to be
     used in UK
•    Regulation is required to control
     expansion
 Ground energy
     low to high enthalpy                 ground source
         geothermal                      energy systems


     open loop surface                stored/recharge solar
                                                                      closed loop ground
          water and                        energy and
                                                                    loop heat exchangers
        groundwater                   geothermal flux from
    abstraction/discharge                  earth core




 surface water                  surface water
(sea/lake/river)               (sea/lake/river)
                                              geotechnical
              aquifer bidirectional             structures
                aquifer thermal                          horizontal trenching
                energy storage                                          vertical borehole
Energy systems
  Carbon storage

                                        • Carbon storage serious
                                          short term solution
                                        • Yorkshire is UK’s leading
                                          region in this development




IPCC Special Report on Carbon dioxide
Capture and Storage
Carbon Critical Design
Design criteria for performance

                                   Performance Level

                        Fully     Operational Life Safe    Near
                      Operational                         Collapse

Design
 Level   Frequent
                                                 unacceptable
                                                performance for
                                                                     New Orleans
                                               new construction         1:200
         Occasional
                                                                      London
           Rare
                                                                      1:1000       Climate
                                                                                   Change
                                                                     Amsterdam
         Very Rare                                                    1:10000

                                                    Climate
                            SLS         ULS         Change
Design criteria

UK Government view of sustainable development in 2000
  • Social progress which recognises the needs of everyone
  • Effective protection of the environment
  • Prudent use of natural resources
  • Maintenance of high and stable levels of economic growth and
    employment

Sustainable construction 2003
  • design for minimum waste
  • lean construction (& minimise waste)
  • minimise energy in construction & use
  • do not pollute
  • preserve and enhance biodiversity
  • conserve water resources
  • respect people and local environment
  • set targets (ie monitor & report, in order to benchmark performance)
Yorkshire low carbon economy

• Yorkshire & Humber contributes 13% of the UK’s greenhouse-gas
  emissions yet provides 7.5% of GVA
• Pumps approximately 90m T of CO2 into the atmosphere every year
• CO2 emissions showed a rise of 1.5% each year between 2000 and
  2004, compared to a nationwide fall because of dependence on coal-
  fired power generation compared to the national switch from coal to gas
• Companies can save an average of 1% of turnover, or £1,000 per
  employee, by implementing resource efficiency measures
• The regional recycling sector is currently worth £400m
• The sea level around the Humber Estuary is predicted to rise by 82cm
  by 2080
• An increase in annual flood damage of over £10m by 2080 along the
  Lancashire-Humber corridor if levels of atmospheric CO2 continue to
  rise, and GDP increases by between 2% to 3.5% per year
The carbon challenge

• Our sector (construction) is facing the most complex challenge it has
  ever dealt with. Changing the way we design the built environment is a
  phenomenal challenge, both technically, organisationally and culturally.
• Nobody knows enough today about how to solve or mitigate the carbon
  issues in the products that we design. We will not get there in a single
  step. We will no longer be able to design a building, and then do the
  energy calculation only to find it uses too much energy. The same is
  true how we design our public infrastructure, choose our materials and
  procure. It will radically change the design question to something that
  starts at the beginning.
                                                            (Clarke, 2009)
A carbon ‘free’ world

                             1999    1776

    Aluminium                  77      0
    Cement                    895     12
    Clay                      304    100
    Coal                     7662     40
    Copper                     25      1
    Glass                     150      1
    Iron ore                  553     20
    Lead                       14      2
    Phosphate                 340      0
    Potash                     44      1
    Salt                      395      4
    Sand, gravel and stone   21640   1000

    Sulphur                   111      1
    Zinc                       13     0.5


    Oil                      7782
    Gas                      7803
    Uranium                   0.25
Design criteria


                                1     construction costs
                                5     maintenance costs
                                    200 operating costs
                                                   RAEng




 whole life cost assessment
 and
 whole life carbon assessment
Climate Change
                                 undrained shear strength (kPa)

    Climate change impact




•   Exponential increase in floods and droughts
•   Increased frequency of extreme events
•   Cubical increase in storm damage
•   Quadratic increase in coastal damage
•   200 m people, 2m km2 and $1trilion assets within 1m of sea level
•   22 of top 50 cities under threat
•   200m people will migrate because of increase in temperature and loss of land
•   Changes in soil conditions threaten stability of infrastructure (drought, rising
    groundwater, melting permafrost)
                                                                              (Stern, 2005)
  BIONICS
                                                  JOB TITLE :   Flac\Shetran comparison (no overland flow)                                        (*10^1)


                                                FLAC (Version 4.00)

                                                                                                                                                   1.000
                                                            LEGEND

                                                 10-Aug-06 13:03
                                                step 24878487
                                               Cons. Time 2.8382E+08
                                               -1.333E+00 <x< 2.533E+01                                                                            0.500
                                               -1.333E+01 <y< 1.334E+01

                                               Max. shear strain increment
                                                   1.00E-02
                                                   2.00E-02
                                                   3.00E-02                                                                                        0.000
                                                   4.00E-02

                                               Contour interval= 1.00E-02
                                               Grid plot

                                                 0              5E 0                                                                              -0.500




                                                                                                                                                  -1.000




                                               Newcastle University
                                               U.K.
                                                                                                0.250        0.750        1.250   1.750   2.250
                                                                                                                     (*10^1)




• Climate change will lead to instability
  of infrastructure due to pore
  pressure changes and changes in
  vegetation
• BIONICS is an EPSRC funded
  project to study this effect
             (Glendinning, Davies and Hughes, 2008)
Climate Change Act 2008

An Act to set a target for the year 2050 for the reduction of targeted
greenhouse gas emissions; to provide for a system of carbon budgeting; to
establish a Committee on Climate Change; to confer powers to establish
trading schemes for the purpose of limiting greenhouse gas emissions or
encouraging activities that reduce such emissions or remove greenhouse
gas from the atmosphere; to make provision about adaptation to climate
change; to confer powers to make schemes for providing financial
incentives to produce less domestic waste and to recycle more of what is
produced; to make provision about the collection of household waste; to
confer powers to make provision about charging for single use carrier
bags; to amend the provisions of the Energy Act 2004 about renewable
transport fuel obligations; to make provision about carbon emissions
reduction targets; to make other provision about climate change; and for
connected purposes.
Climate change in Yorkshire, 2050

• Annual average temperatures between 1.8°C - 1.9°C
• Summer average temperatures up between 2.1°C - 2.5°C
• Extreme hot temperatures up between 2.8°C - 3.2°C
• Annual rainfall down by approximately 6%
• Winter rainfall up by 12 – 17%
• Summer rainfall down by 22 – 26%
• Winter snowfall down by 54 – 68%
• Annual average wind speeds down by approximately 1%
• Winter average wind speeds up by approximately 1%
• Soil moisture annual average down by around 5 – 11%
• Mean sea level increase of 0.35 metres, with more severe surges.
The Innovation Agenda
  The geotechnical cycle



                                          application    characterisation




                                    full scale testing      modelling

• The geotechnical cycle is incremental

• Change has been driven by improvements in
  instrumentation, scientific developments,
  numerical methods, monitoring, failure and
  products and processes
  Drivers for change
                   Carbon Emissions                  Water Reduction           Waste Reduction          Population

Driver             Energy White Paper                  Water shortage         Energy White Paper
                                                        and continuing
                                                    increase in population
Targets     Zero carbon by 2016 for new build        Reduction of 25% of     50% reduction in waste
          80% reduction in existing build by 2050   water consumption by         disposed from
                                                    2020 from the current         Construction
                                                      water usage of 150       Projects by 2012
                                                        litres per day.


Policy             Climate Change Act               Waterwise and Govt       Waste and Resources
              Code for sustainable homes             Water Reduction          Action Programme
            Code for Sustainable Communities             Targets                   (WRAP)
             Committee on Climate Change
             Building a low carbon economy                                                            +2.8m in UK
              New Build         Existing Stock
                                                                                                       1996-2016
             Zero carbon       80% reduction of
               housing         1990 CO2 levels
               by 2016              by 2050                                                              200m
             Zero carbon
               schools                                                                                 population
               by 2017                                                                                 migration
          Zero carbon Public
          Buildings by 2018                                                                             by 2050
  Innovation

                                              e.g. Characterisation and modelling
                             Product               of the ground

   e.g. Retrofit renewable
        energies
                                                  e.g. Offsite fabrication linked into
                                                       design process where vertical
                                                       and horizontal integration
                                                       takes place.
e.g. Remote excavation
     such as pipe jacking
                                                           e.g. Prefabricated
                                                                components within a
                                                                project such as tunnel
                                                                formers

              People                                   Process

                                 e.g. Ground improvement
                                      techniques
                                                               (ConstructionSkills, 2009)
  Construction continuum
                          Major international contractors and consultants                                               (ConstructionSkills, 2009)
Industry activity




                                                                 Regional contractors and consultants

                                                                National contractors and consultants

                                                                                            Large SMEs

                                                           Specialists contractors and consultants


                                Offsite            Modern Methods                    Traditional construction              Built heritage
 Fusion
                                activity              2000+                                1920 - 2000                      Pre 1919
 Training and Education




                                                                                           Graduates

                                                                    Professional development

                                                                                         Apprentices

                                           Manufacturers


                                                                             Existing qualifications to meet existing
                                 New credit system to meet changing needs
                                                                               needs and expanded to address                Heritage skills
                                            indentified by SSCs
                                                                                        carbon agenda
School of Civil Engineering
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING




Institute of Resilient Infrastructure
The hidden lifelines




  Skirrid Fawr, S Wales a green and pleasant land, (Venables 2008)
The lifelines




                73
Resilient infrastructure

• Those lifeline systems that will be able to survive and
  perform well in an increasingly uncertain future.
• Existing and new infrastructure becoming more adaptable;
  and, being created, designed, built, operated, and / or,
  disposed of in current, new and emergent futures.
• The environmental, economic and social impact associated
  with demolition, disposal and replacement of infrastructure
  is comparable to the impacts created during its operational
  lifetime.
• Preserving and extending the life of infrastructure - i.e.
  enhancing its resilience - is the best way to maximise its
  sustainability and help protect our climate, resources and
  way of life.
Institute of Resilient Infrastructure

• The remit of the Institute covers sectors
  • dealing with ‘civil-engineering structures’, for example, roads,
    railways, airports, flood defences, ports and harbours, water
    treatments plants, oil, gas and power plants and the utilities’
    distribution infrastructures, and
  • associated with ‘building-structures’ for example, schools, healthcare
    facilities, manufacturing plants, retail and industrial outlets,
    commercial offices, housing developments, and different types of
    government buildings.
• Short, medium and long term requirements
  Institute of Resilient Infrastructure




                                                                 Categorising Infrastructure
                                                                                                   New
                                  Investment Strategies                                        Technologies
             Drivers for Change

Developing
Countries                         Asset Management
                                                                                                 Existing
                                  Managerial & Supply
                                                                                               Technologies
                                      Structures

                                   New Infrastructure                                           Engineering
                                                                                                Solutions to
                                                                                               Infrastructure
                                  Existing Infrastructure                                        Provision

                                                                                                 ‘Heritage’
Developed                          Institutional Structures                                    Technologies
Countries
          Create                   Policy Implications        Typologies                           ‘Old’
          Grand                                                   of                           Technologies
        Challenges                                            Response
Conclusion
Opportunities
  •    Energy
        • Efficiency through improved geotechnical processes
        • New distribution networks and storage systems
        • Barriers and barrages
  •    Protection and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases
        • Underground caverns
        • Storage in strata
  •   Protection of environment
        • Flood control
        • Ground water protection
        • Stabilisation of infrastructure
        • Future proofing landfill
  •    Promotion of sustainable forest management practices, afforestation and reforestation;
        • Landslide management
  •    Promotion of sustainable forms of agriculture;
        • Sustainable groundwater water supply
        • Water storage systems
  •    Renewable forms of energy,
        • Ground as a source of energy
        • Innovative geotechnical structures
  •   Waste
        • Reuse
        • Management
 Future scenarios
Let it Rip: Economic growth and                  Technofix: Economic growth remains an
consumerism pursued at the expense of            important political objective, but state
environment. The effects of climate change       intervention promotes development of green and
are well advanced and there is intense           innovative technology, internalises external costs
competition for increasingly scarce natural      and redistributes of wealth. International
resources, the consumption of which has led      cooperation ensures this is not an economic
to alarming levels of waste and C02              disadvantage. Choice and innovation still
emissions. A heavy reliance on technology to     blossom. Following the global recession, London
combat climate change has increased the          is no longer an international financial centre
wealth gap between rich and poor nations.        (nowhere is), but the UK is now a world leader in
                                                 green technology
Fortress Mentality: A closed economy             Carbon Rationing: People's lifestyles are
without imports and exports or a transient       determined by a strict and enforced scheme of
migrant workforce forces re-localisation,        carbon consumption control, imposed by UK
generating a self-defence mentality. Cycling     central government and overseen by the Carbon
is the dominant modal share. Energy poverty      Commissar. Carbon is the new currency.
reflects economic poverty as people lose their   Horizons and mobility have shrunk to an extent
jobs and their homes. Exhaustion of crop and     that people live a more local and community-
animal supply as people fight over resources.    focused lifestyle.

                                                                                   (Arup, 2009)
Speed of change


                        • Development of
                          canal system over
                          sixty years




• Development of rail
  system over sixty
  years
Acknowledgements
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