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					University of Georgia Cooperative
            Extension
Why Change Eating Habits?
• To prevent complications of diabetes
  – by keeping control of:
     • Blood glucose
     • Cholesterol
     • Blood pressure
Why Change Eating Habits?
• To improve your health
  – by making healthy food choices
  – and being physically active
 Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Include foods containing carbohydrate
  from whole grains, fruits, vegetables and
  low-fat milk in your diet
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• The amount of carbohydrate at a meal
  affects your blood glucose more
  than the type
  – Sugar and starch have similar effects on
    blood glucose



                            =
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Consistency in carbohydrate intake is
  important from day to day
  – For people not taking diabetes medication
  – For people taking a fixed dose of insulin
• Insulin should be adjusted based on
  amount of carbohydrate at meals
  – For people on varying doses at meal
    times
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Several things affect how much your
  blood glucose increases after you eat:
  – amount of carbohydrate
  – type of sugar or starch
  – cooking and food processing
  – food form
  – other foods in the meal that slow digestion
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
• Limited amounts of sugar or foods
  containing sugar can be used without
  affecting blood glucose
  – when substituted for other carbohydrates
    at the meal
• Large amounts of sugar-containing
  foods are not recommended
Substituting Sweets
Usual diet: 45 grams    Substitute ice-cream
  carbohydrate            for 15 grams of
  (or 3 Carbohydrates     carbohydrate (or 1
  Choices)                Carbohydrate Choice)
1 slice bread           1/2 cup ice-cream
1/3 cup rice            1/3 cup rice
1/2 cup fruit           1/2 cup fruit
3 ounces chicken        3 ounces chicken
Vegetable salad         Vegetable salad
 Carbohydrate and Diabetes
To observe effect of new food on blood
 glucose:
• check blood glucose 2 hours after meal for
  several days
• substitute food containing sugar for other
  carbohydrate in meal
• check blood glucose 2 hours
  after meal and compare
Sweeteners and Diabetes
Sugar alcohols (polyols):
sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol
• Used as sweeteners and bulking agents
• Safe to use
• May cause diarrhea, especially in
  children
Fructose:
• Not recommended as a sweetener
Sweeteners and Diabetes
Low calorie sweeteners:
are safe for people with diabetes when
consumed within recommended levels
                Cans of soda     Packets
                (maximum/day) (maximum/day)
Acesulfame K        25             18
Aspartame           15             86
Saccharin            2             7.5
Sucralose           4.5            60
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
Fiber:
• Fiber is encouraged for everyone:
  20-35 grams/day
• Good sources of fiber:
  – Whole grain cereals
  – Fruits
  – Vegetables
  – Beans and peas
Carbohydrate and Diabetes
Fiber:
• Only large amounts (50 grams/day)
  have shown improvement in blood
  glucose and cholesterol
  – Primarily soluble fiber (barley, oatmeal,
    beans, apples, broccoli)
  – Side effects make this difficult for many
    people
Protein and Diabetes
• Protein has very little effect on blood
  glucose
• Avoid large amounts of protein
  – may promote kidney disease
• Restrict protein only if you have
  early kidney disease
Protein and Diabetes
• Protein does not slow the absorption of
  carbohydrate
  – Adding protein to snacks does not help
    prevent hypoglycemia
  – Fruit or crackers are good snack foods
Protein and Diabetes
• Safety of high protein, low carbohydrate
  weight loss diets are unknown
  – do not promote long-term weight loss
  – may increase LDL cholesterol
 Dietary Fat and Diabetes

• Primary goal - Lower LDL cholesterol
  by:
  –Eating less saturated fat and
    cholesterol
  –Eating less trans fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Saturated Fats:
• Meat and meat fats (bacon, lard)
• Dairy products (whole milk,
  butter, cheese, cream, ice-cream)
• Palm and coconut oil
• Baked goods made from
            these fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Trans Fats:
• Formed when a liquid oil is made more
  solid
• Found in many types of stick margarine,
  fast foods, and baked goods like
  cookies, crackers, snack foods, pastries
  and croissants
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
Foods That Contain Cholesterol:
• All animal foods
• Organ meats like liver
• Egg yolks
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Choose monounsaturated fat in place of
  saturated:
  – olive oil, canola oil, peanut oil,
    olives, avocados, nuts
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Eat less total fat
• Low-fat diets can help:
  – with weight loss
  – improve cholesterol and other fats
Dietary Fat and Diabetes
• Eat 2-3 servings fish per week
  – contain a type of fat protective against
    heart disease
  – fatty fish especially beneficial
Weight Loss and Diabetes
A small amount of weight loss can:
• improve insulin resistance
• lower blood glucose
• improve blood cholesterol
• reduce blood pressure
Weight Loss and Diabetes
Successful weight loss usually requires:
• a structured weight loss program
• education
• reduced fat and calories
• regular physical activity
• frequent follow-up
Vitamins and Minerals and
Diabetes
• Vitamins and minerals from foods
  important
• High doses of vitamin and mineral
  supplements can be toxic
Vitamins and Minerals and
Diabetes
People who may benefit from a
  multivitamin supplement:
• persons deficient in a vitamin or mineral
• elderly
• pregnant or nursing mothers
• strict vegetarians
• persons on calorie-restricted diet
Vitamins and Minerals and
Diabetes
• No clear benefit from vitamin and
  mineral supplements except
  – calcium for prevention of bone disease
  – folate for prevention of birth defects
• Use of antioxidants is not advised
  – vitamin C, E, selenium, beta carotene
  – long-term safety and effectiveness
    unknown
Alcohol and Diabetes
• If you choose to drink, limit to:
  – 1 drink/day for women
  – 2 drinks/day for men
• To reduce risk of hypoglycemia,
  consume alcohol with food
High Blood Pressure and Diabetes
You can lower blood pressure by:
• Eating less salt
• Losing a modest amount of weight
Preventing Diabetes
Family members of people with Type 2
  diabetes can prevent diabetes by:
• Weight loss if overweight
  – using a structured weight loss
  program
• Regular physical
  activity
The Bottom Line
Your lifestyle affects your health


                Eat healthy foods
                Daily Physical
                  Activity