Solar Photovoltaic in India

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					Solar Photovoltaic Electricity
     Indian Perspective-2010
• The Jawaharlal Nehru National Solar Mission,
  is a major initiative of the Government of India
  and State Governments to promote ecologically
  sustainable growth while addressing India’s
  energy security challenge.
• It will also constitute a major contribution by
  India to the global effort to meet the challenges
  of climate change.
• This is one of the several initiatives that are
  part of National Action Plan on Climate Change.
  The program was officially inaugurated in 2010
  by Prime Minister of India, Manmohan Singh.
PV systems
• are easily transportable and Installable.
• can be used to generate electricity
   where it will be used,
• even at locations the electric grid
   doesn’t reach.
• PV is also modular, so installations can
   be scaled to the appropriate size for a
   given use
   Small as well as medium scale
• PV’s scalability allows it to be used for both
  large-scale power plants and to
• power handheld calculators, and it
  distinguishes PV from fossil fuel based power.
• PV can be installed on buildings, parking lots
  and other developed areas without interfering
   with human activities.
Solar energy can be integrated into virtually
every part of Indian life—
• the homes we live in,
• the offices where we work,
• the farms and factories that produce the
   products we buy, and
• the schools where our children learn.
• With creativity and sound public policy,
   solar energy can make a major contribution
   to India’s energy future.
 In solar photovoltaics, sunlight is converted into
 electricity using a device called solar cell

• A solar cell is a
  semiconducting device
  made up of silicon or
  other materials, which
  when exposed to
  sunlight, generates
Magnitude of the current generated
           depends on
The Thar
Desert in India
is also a
location for a
solar energy.
An example of a complete set of beam normal
insolation data for a given location is shown in Figure
 Capacities of SPV
• SPV modules of various capacities are
  available, and are being used for a variety of
  applications. Theoretically, a PV module of
  any capacity (voltage and current) rating can
  be fabricated. However, the standard
  capacities available in the country range from
  5 Wp to 120 Wp. The voltage output of a PV
  module depends on the number of solar cells
  connected in series inside the module.
Science & technology of solar
      Cells & Modules
      Types of silicon solar cells
(Mono- crystalline, multi- crystalline, and
        Amorphous, Thin film)
           Energy efficiency
              Energy efficiency
• A solar cell's energy conversion efficiency (η,
  "eta"), is the percentage of power converted
  (from absorbed light to electrical energy) and
  collected, when a solar cell is connected to an
  electrical circuit. This term is calculated using the
   ratio of Pm, divided by the input light
   irradiance under "standard" test conditions (E, in
   W/m2) and the surface area of the solar
   cell (Ac in m²).
      Standard Current-Voltage (I-V) Curve

• The I-V Curve is an important technical aspect
  of a solar module, the basis for understanding
  all PV array design. It represents the possible
  values of output current (I) and voltage (V)
  that a solar module can deliver under specific

  environmental conditions.
Standard Current-Voltage (I-V) Curve
             Reading the I-V Curve
• If the module is outputting to a 12-volt
  battery, you can determine the watts output
  to the battery from the graph. Read up from
  12 volts to the IV curve and then over to the
  Amperes scale to find that the current output
  would be about 5.9 amps. Since power (in
  watts) equals voltage times current, this
  means that the module would be outputting
  into the battery at a rate of about 71 watts.
              Inverter fundamentals
• The inverters transform the DC power from
  solar modules into AC power to match the grid
  and be useful for most house loads.

• The inverter is a power conditioner that creates
  pure sine wave power (AC.) This power is
  cleaner than the grid because it is conditioned
  right on site.
    Maximum Power Point Tracking
• Inverters also maximize the power output of the
  solar array in a function known as Maximum
  Power Point Tracking (MPPT). Solar modules
  produce the power at the voltage they are
  connected to.
• The maximum power point voltage changes as
  the sun moves throughout the day and the
  current (amps) gets higher and lower.
• This allows the inverter to produce the most
  amount of power at any given time without frying
  its circuitry.
                         Inverter failure
• Inverters are the one component that needs to be replaced
    periodically. Most systems installed today use a single inverter
    for the entire system, so when it fails, the whole system stops
    providing electricity to the home.
• Possibly with an inverter for each panel or small group of
    panels may be a solution. This has several advantages:
 • If an inverter fails, only one panel of the system will be affected,
    which will be reported in our daily monitoring.
 • This allows for better scalability, in that we do not need to have
    different inverter capacities for different system sizes.
 • The efficiency of the system is improved, since DC loses more
    energy than AC going through a wire.
              Available space
• A crucial factor is having enough space in the sun
  with the proper orientation.
• The average home needs about a 5 kW system to
  offset their annual usage.
• To calculate the physical size of this system, you
  can use this simple rule of thumb:
•           10 W / ft2 of space
• A 5 kW system covers about 500 ft2 of roof or
  ground area.
•          5000 W / 10 W/ft2 = 500 ft2
        Charge controllers/regulators -1
• Why do you need a controller?
• Main function is to fully charge a battery
  without permitting overcharge. If a solar array
  is connected to lead acid batteries with no
  overcharge protection, battery life will be
  compromised. Simple controllers contain a
  relay that opens a charging circuit terminating
  the charge at a pre-set high voltage and once
  a pre-set low voltage is reached, closes the
  circuit, allowing charging to continue.
        Charge controllers/regulators - 2

• More sophisticated controllers have several
  stages and charging sequences to assure the
  battery is being fully charged. The first 70% to
  80% of battery capacity is easily replaced. It is
  the last 20% to 30% that requires more
  attention and therefore more capacity.
        Charge controllers/regulators -3

• The circuitry in a controller reads the voltage
  of the battery to determine the state of
• Designs and circuits vary, but most controllers
  read voltage to reduce the amount of power
  flowing into the battery as the battery nears
  full charge.
SPV Power Plant
    solar electric generating plant
• The largest solar electric
  generating plant in the
  world produces a
  maximum of 354
  megawatts (MW) of
  electricity and is located
  at Kramer Junction,
  California. It produces
  electricity for the grid
  supplying the greater
  Los Angeles area.
Standards for balance of system
   Located at the 19th Milestone on the Gurgaon–
  Faridabad road just outside the boundary of Delhi.
• Solar cell testing
                                • Resource assessment
• Photovoltaic module
  testing                       • Technology
                                  demonstration &
• Testing of lighting systems     assessment
• SPV pump testing              • SPV power plant
• Battery testing for PV        • Research and
  applications                    Development
• Long-term performance
  evaluation of PV modules
PV power output management can be achieved with battery or other
electrochemical storage, pumped hydroelectric storage, or with diesel-
                          generator backup.
The top five in solar technology utilisation
for Solar PV Grid connected are:
Issues in managing solar electricity: References
• Denholm, P and R. M. Margolis, 2007, ‘Evaluating the
  limits of Solar Photovoltaics in Traditional Electric
  Power Systems’, Energy Policy, Vol 35, pp 2852 - 2861
• Denholm, P and R. M. Margolis, 2007, ‘Evaluating the
  limits of Solar Photovoltaics in Electric Power
  Systems Utilizing Energy Storage and other Enabling
  Technologies’, Energy Policy, Vol 35, pp 4424 – 4433
• Lamont, Alan, 2008, ‘Assessing the Long Term System
  Value of Intermittent Electric Generation
  Technologies’, Energy Economics, , Vol 39, pp 1208 –
 Comparison of PV and Diesel-generator power
• Kolhe, Mohanlal, Sunitha Kolhe and J.C. Joshi, 2002,
   “ Economic viability of stand alone photovoltaic
  system in comparison with diesel powered system for
  India”, Energy Economics, vol24, pp 155 – 165.
• Stand alone PV systems in remote areas of India are
  compared with the diesel-powered systems through
  sensitivity analysis. PV systems are found to be the
  lowest cost option for the daily energy demand of 15
  kWh/day under unfavourable economic conditions
  and upto 68 kWh / day under favourable conditions.
  An important reference book for PV
• Practical Handbook of Photovoltaics:
  Fundamentals and Applications
   Edited by: Tom Markvart and Luis Castaner

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Description: For Clean development India will adopt Solar Electrical Systems in next ten years.