Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary 黃宏祿 email@example.com 0921-776607 Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text Signaling Larger Textual Patterns Register and Signaling Vocabulary Modality Conclusion 3.5 Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text: The Systems of Vocabulary Vocabulary Closed Systems Discourse Systems Open Systems Grammar Words Lexical Words Function Words Content Words Empty Words Full Words Closed and Open Systems of Vocabulary Closed Systems Open Systems (open-ended, 1. Grammar creative) Words 1. Lexical Words 2. Function Words 2. Content Words 3. Empty Words 3. Full Words Example (3.9) Here I want to spend time examining this issue. First, I propose to look briefly at the history of interest in the problem, then spend some time on its origins and magnitude before turning to an assessment of the present situation and approaches to its solution. Finally, I want to have a short peek at possible future prospects. DISCOURSE-ORGANIZING WORDS issue—problem—assessment—solution The Characteristics of Some Discourse-organizing Words in the Above Passage 1. this preceding text check-up 2. issue anticipating problem-solving processes 3. problem seeking for solutions 4. assessment performing evaluation of the problem and providing solutions 5. solution fulfillment of task What Has the Passage Revealed So Far? status phenomenon lacking items topic unknown obscure subject matter, lexicalization field unknown obscure vocabulary content, lexicalization structure problem-solution text transparent tenor formal text transparent tense traditional application transparent The Importance of Lexicalization and Signaling Device Here I want to spend time examining this issue. First, I propose to look briefly at the history of interest in the problem, The text then spend some time remains an on its origins and unintelligible magnitude before turning one. to an assessment of the present situation and approaches to its solution. Finally, I want to have a short peek at 1. If there is no lexicalization ?? possible future prospects. 2. If no signaling device is constructed The Function of Discourse- organizing Words instructor instructor Discourse-organizing Words (sharing the qualities of words of writer reader both closed and open systems) argument lexicalization The Size of Vocabulary VOC voc voc voc HOW BIG IS BIG ENOUGH? The training and practice of setting up a WEB is a good way to decide an appropriate size of vocabulary for further and future passage development. What Is An Unintelligible Passage? 1. One in which the author does not successfully deploy signaling device. 2. One in which detect or comprehend what the author’s signaling device is. If the discourse-organizing words are seen as SIGNALS of the author’s intent, then the INABILITY to understand them or misinterpretation of them could cause problems—invalid communication. Tasks for Teachers and Learners 1. Is it possible to delimit procedural vocabulary? 2. What happens if the most common signaling words are not known by learners? 3. If all languages have text-organizing vocabulary, can the teaching/learning process capitalize on transfer in some ways? Nurture, Not Torture—Training . Vocabulary Writing Ability Building Reading Comprehensio n The Role of Discourse-organizing Words (1) Represent segments of text (2) Parcel up phrases and whole sentences Text Discourse-organizing Words Comprehension Prediction Vocabulary Study 3.6 Signaling Larger Textual Patterns The Role of Discourse Organizers in Larger or Longer Text 1. Representing segments of text 2. Parceling up phrases and whole sentences 3. Signaling to the reader what larger textual patterns are being realized The Illustration of the Function of Discourse Organizers in Larger or Longer Text . Discourse-organizing Text Mechanism Comprehension Top-down Teaching and Learning Bottom-up Prediction Reinforcement Teaching and Learning Tips for Textual Patterning TOP-DWON: Once learners are conscious of a larger text-pattern, they can be brought to an awareness of the rich vein of vocabulary BOTTOM-UP: Learners can bring together in their vocabulary records items that regularly occur in similar textual environments An Example of Bottom-up and Top-down Procedures WEB DESIGN CONTENT, STRUCTURE FORMAT AUDIENCE, TOPIC DISCUSSING STYLE REGISTER DETAIL SEQUENCING STATING POINT CHOOSING SELECTION TEXT LEXICAL VOCABULARY TOPIC-DEPTH DECIDING SELECTION VOCABULARY OUTCOME CATEGORIZATION IDENTIFYING 3.7 Register and Signaling Vocabulary 3.7 Register and Signaling Vocabulary Register: Vocabulary A set of features of Lexical choice depends speech or writing on characteristic of a (1) CONTEXT particular type of (2) AUDIENCE linguistic activity or a particular group when (3) STYLE engaging in it (Formal Eng., Technical Eng., Religious Eng. Journalistic Eng. Academic Eng. Etc.) The Employment of Idioms 1. Restriction of idiom application: It is not always easy to find natural contexts in which to present idioms or idiomatic expressions. 2. Characteristics of idiom application: Idioms or idiomatic phrases are applied to (1) organize discourse, and (2) signal evaluation. 3.8 Modality 3.8 Modality MODALITY: Epistemic Modality Category covering 認識情態 indications either of a Alethic Modality kind of speech act or of 真勢情態 the degree of certainty with which something is Root Modality said (Deontic Modality) 義務情態 Means of Making Modality in English 1. Modal Verbs 2. Adjectivals 3. Participials 4. Nominal Modal Expressions (be able to, be going to… ) 5. Modal-like Adjectives (necessary, probable, certain, advisable… ) 6. Modal-like Adverbs (necessarily, probably, certainly, perhaps, maybe… ) 7. Parentheticals (I think, I believe, I’m sure… ) Examples of Modal Application 1. He left at once. (declarative) 2. Leave at once! (imperative) 3. He can’t have left. (epistemic) 4. You can’t h leave now. (deontic) 5. You must leave. (obligation) 6. You can leave if you like. (permission) 7. He has apparently left. (alethic) Comparison of Neutral and Modalized Sentences 1. I suppose it’s possible the cat just may have sat on the mat. 2. The cat sat on the mat. Difference between Modal Auxiliaries and Modal Expressions The difference plays a part in the expression of politeness. Modal Auxiliaries: either inherently subjective or objective You must wear evening dress to the reception. Modal Expressions: predominantly inherently objective You have to wear evening dress to the reception. Relative Politeness and the Number of Modal Expressions (Zhao Caixiang 2002:355) 1. Stop Writing. INDIRECTNESS LESS POLITE 2. It is necessary for you to stop writing. 3. It may be necessary for you to stop writing 4. It may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. 5. I imagine it may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. 6. I would imagine it may possibly be necessary for you to stop writing. MORE POLITE APPENDIX: MODALITY AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (1) TIPS FOR THE TEACHING OF SUBJUNTIVE MOOD (1) (2) (3) Were APPENDIX: MODALITY AND SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (2) The interchange of Mandarin MODAL ADVERBS and English MODAL AUXILIARIES in SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD structure. MODAL ADVERBS MODAL AUXILIARIES IN MANDARIN IN ENGLISH 早就 老早 SHOULD 應該 WOULD 也許已經 可能已經 COULD 就會 將會 MIGHT THE END Thank you for your attention. Your comment will be highly appreciated. REFERENCES Zhao Caixiang. “An Analysis of Modality and Politeness”. 第六屆全國功能語言學討論會論文集. 上海: 外語教育 2002 施家煒(譯). Scollon, R. Intercultural Communication (A Discourse Approach) 北京: 社會科學文獻. 1995. 王福祥. 話語語言學概論. 北京:外語教學與研究. 1994. 索振羽. 語用學教程. 北京: 北大出版社. 2000.
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