Discourse Analysis and Vocabular

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					Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary




黃宏祿
hakka@pie.com.tw
0921-776607
Discourse Analysis and Vocabulary

                     Vocabulary and the
                      Organizing of Text
                     Signaling Larger
                      Textual Patterns
                     Register and Signaling
                      Vocabulary
                     Modality
                     Conclusion
3.5
Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text
Vocabulary and the Organizing of Text:
The Systems of Vocabulary


                        Vocabulary



    Closed Systems   Discourse Systems     Open Systems



   Grammar Words                         Lexical Words
   Function Words                        Content Words
    Empty Words                           Full Words
Closed and Open Systems of
Vocabulary

    Closed Systems       Open Systems
                           (open-ended,
1.   Grammar               creative)
     Words            1.   Lexical Words
2.   Function Words   2.   Content Words
3.   Empty Words      3.   Full Words
Example (3.9)

   Here I want to spend time examining this issue. First,
    I propose to look briefly at the history of interest in
    the problem, then spend some time on its origins
    and magnitude before turning to an assessment of
    the present situation and approaches to its solution.
    Finally, I want to have a short peek at possible future
    prospects.
   DISCOURSE-ORGANIZING WORDS
    issue—problem—assessment—solution
The Characteristics of Some
Discourse-organizing Words in the
Above Passage

1.   this  preceding text check-up
2.   issue  anticipating problem-solving
     processes
3.   problem  seeking for solutions
4.   assessment  performing evaluation of the
     problem and providing solutions
5.   solution  fulfillment of task
What Has the Passage Revealed So
Far?

            status                    phenomenon    lacking items


topic       unknown                   obscure       subject matter, lexicalization


field       unknown                   obscure       vocabulary content,
                                                    lexicalization
structure   problem-solution text     transparent


tenor       formal text               transparent


tense       traditional application   transparent
The Importance of Lexicalization and
Signaling Device

   Here I want to spend
    time examining this issue.
    First, I propose to look
    briefly at the history of
    interest in the problem,                                   The text
    then spend some time                                       remains an
    on its origins and                                          unintelligible
    magnitude before turning                                    one.
    to an assessment of the
    present situation and
    approaches to its
    solution. Finally, I want to
    have a short peek at
                                   1. If there is no
                                       lexicalization
                                                                ??
    possible future prospects.     2. If no signaling device
                                       is constructed
The Function of Discourse-
organizing Words


          instructor                            instructor




                    Discourse-organizing Words
                  (sharing the qualities of words of
 writer                                                         reader
                   both closed and open systems)




           argument                            lexicalization
The Size of Vocabulary
                                                   VOC



                                   voc
                  voc
      voc



HOW BIG IS BIG ENOUGH?
 The training and practice of setting up a WEB is a good
   way to decide an appropriate size of vocabulary for
   further and future passage development.
What Is An Unintelligible Passage?

1.   One in which the author does not successfully
     deploy signaling device.
2.   One in which detect or comprehend what the
     author’s signaling device is.

     If the discourse-organizing words are seen as
      SIGNALS of the author’s intent, then the INABILITY
      to understand them or misinterpretation of them
      could cause problems—invalid communication.
Tasks for Teachers and Learners

1.   Is it possible to delimit procedural
     vocabulary?
2.   What happens if the most common
     signaling words are not known by learners?
3.   If all languages have text-organizing
     vocabulary, can the teaching/learning
     process capitalize on transfer in some ways?
Nurture, Not Torture—Training

.                                  Vocabulary
       Writing Ability
                                    Building

                      Reading
                    Comprehensio
                         n
The Role of
Discourse-organizing Words

(1)   Represent segments of text
(2)   Parcel up phrases and whole sentences

       Text    Discourse-organizing Words   Comprehension




               Prediction        Vocabulary Study
3.6
Signaling Larger Textual Patterns
The Role of Discourse Organizers in
Larger or Longer Text

1.   Representing
     segments of text
2.   Parceling up phrases
     and whole sentences
3.   Signaling to the
     reader what larger
     textual patterns are
     being realized
The Illustration of the Function of
Discourse Organizers in Larger or
Longer Text

.


                      Discourse-organizing
     Text                  Mechanism                  Comprehension




    Top-down          Teaching and Learning            Bottom-up



               Prediction             Reinforcement
Teaching and Learning Tips for
Textual Patterning

   TOP-DWON: Once learners are conscious of
    a larger text-pattern, they can be brought to
    an awareness of the rich vein of vocabulary
   BOTTOM-UP: Learners can bring together in
    their vocabulary records items that regularly
    occur in similar textual environments
An Example of
Bottom-up and Top-down Procedures

WEB DESIGN
CONTENT,                         STRUCTURE FORMAT
AUDIENCE,         TOPIC DISCUSSING
  STYLE

REGISTER                   DETAIL SEQUENCING
         STATING POINT CHOOSING
SELECTION                TEXT


 LEXICAL    VOCABULARY TOPIC-DEPTH DECIDING
SELECTION
       VOCABULARY     OUTCOME
      CATEGORIZATION IDENTIFYING
3.7 Register and Signaling Vocabulary
3.7 Register and Signaling Vocabulary

   Register:                          Vocabulary
    A set of features of                Lexical choice depends
    speech or writing                   on
    characteristic of a                 (1) CONTEXT
    particular type of                  (2) AUDIENCE
    linguistic activity or a
    particular group when               (3) STYLE
    engaging in it
    (Formal Eng., Technical Eng.,
     Religious Eng. Journalistic
     Eng. Academic Eng. Etc.)
The Employment of Idioms

1.   Restriction of idiom application:
       It is not always easy to find natural
         contexts in which to present idioms or
         idiomatic expressions.
2.   Characteristics of idiom application:
       Idioms or idiomatic phrases are applied
     to (1) organize discourse, and
        (2) signal evaluation.
3.8 Modality
3.8 Modality

   MODALITY:                     Epistemic Modality
    Category covering              認識情態
    indications either of a       Alethic Modality
    kind of speech act or of       真勢情態
    the degree of certainty
    with which something is       Root Modality
    said                           (Deontic Modality)
                                   義務情態
Means of Making Modality in English

1.   Modal Verbs
2.   Adjectivals
3.   Participials
4.   Nominal Modal Expressions (be able to, be going
     to… )
5.   Modal-like Adjectives (necessary, probable, certain,
     advisable… )
6.   Modal-like Adverbs (necessarily, probably, certainly,
     perhaps, maybe… )
7.   Parentheticals (I think, I believe, I’m sure… )
Examples of Modal Application

1.   He left at once. (declarative)
2.   Leave at once! (imperative)
3.   He can’t have left. (epistemic)
4.   You can’t h leave now. (deontic)
5.   You must leave. (obligation)
6.   You can leave if you like. (permission)
7.   He has apparently left. (alethic)
Comparison of Neutral and Modalized
Sentences

1.   I suppose it’s possible the cat just may have
     sat on the mat.
2.   The cat sat on the mat.
Difference between Modal Auxiliaries
and Modal Expressions

       The difference plays a part in the expression of
  politeness.
 Modal Auxiliaries:
  either inherently subjective or objective
    You must wear evening dress to the reception.
 Modal Expressions:
  predominantly inherently objective
    You have to wear evening dress to the reception.
Relative Politeness and the Number of
Modal Expressions
(Zhao Caixiang 2002:355)

1.   Stop Writing.                     INDIRECTNESS   LESS POLITE
2.   It is necessary for you to stop
     writing.
3.   It may be necessary for you to
     stop writing
4.   It may possibly be necessary
     for you to stop writing.
5.   I imagine it may possibly be
     necessary for you to stop
     writing.
6.   I would imagine it may
     possibly be necessary for you
     to stop writing.                                 MORE POLITE
APPENDIX: MODALITY AND
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (1)

 TIPS FOR THE TEACHING OF
  SUBJUNTIVE MOOD
(1)
(2)
(3) Were
APPENDIX: MODALITY AND
SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD IN ENGLISH (2)

 The interchange of Mandarin MODAL
 ADVERBS and English MODAL
 AUXILIARIES in SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD
 structure.
 MODAL ADVERBS             MODAL AUXILIARIES
 IN MANDARIN               IN ENGLISH

 早就 老早                     SHOULD
 應該                        WOULD
 也許已經 可能已經                 COULD
 就會 將會                     MIGHT
THE END


          Thank you for your
          attention.

          Your comment will be
          highly appreciated.
REFERENCES

Zhao Caixiang. “An Analysis of Modality and
  Politeness”. 第六屆全國功能語言學討論會論文集.
 上海: 外語教育 2002
施家煒(譯). Scollon, R. Intercultural Communication (A
  Discourse Approach) 北京: 社會科學文獻. 1995.
王福祥. 話語語言學概論. 北京:外語教學與研究. 1994.
索振羽. 語用學教程. 北京: 北大出版社. 2000.

				
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