The Healthy Heart
Chambers of the Heart
Left Atrium Right Atrium
Receives oxygenated Receives blood
blood from the lungs. through the
inferior vena cava.
Pumps blood rich in Right Ventricle
oxygen through the aorta Pumps blood in need of
to the arteries to nourish oxygen to the lungs.
the body systems.
Development of Atherosclerosis
Fatty Streaks Develop on the Arterial Walls at Injury Spots
Growth and Hardening of Fatty Streaks
Plaque Formation (well developed by age 30)
Narrowing and Loss of Elasticity of the Arteries
Restriction of Blood Flow to the Heart or Brain
Limited Oxygen Delivery to the Heart or Brain
Blood Pressure Elevation
Blood Clot Formation and Thrombosis
Angina, Heart Attack and/or Stroke
Definition: A measure of the force exerted against the walls of
the vessels by the blood flowing through them.
Systolic Blood Pressure
Pressure exerted by blood
against walls of the
during forceful contraction
of the heart.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
Pressure exerted by blood Sphygmomanometer &
against the walls of the Stethoscope
relaxation of the heart.
What Is a Healthy Blood Pressure?
115/75 mm Hg
120-139/80-90 mm Hg
140-159/90-99 mm Hg 160+/100+ mm Hg
Dietary Approaches To Stop
Hypertension (DASH Diet).
Restriction of daily sodium intake.
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease
Factors You Can Factors You Can’t
Physical Inactivity Heredity
Tobacco Race and Ethnicity
Blood Fats Gender
Metabolic Syndrome Bacterial Infection
Tobacco and Heart Disease
Smoking is the single most significant risk factor
for CV disease and peripheral vascular disease.
Each year smoking causes 250,000+ deaths
from cardiovascular disease.
Active vs. passive smoking.
How Smoking Damages The Heart:
Nicotineoverstimulates the heart.
Carbon monoxide reduce the oxygen supply to the
Tars and other smoke residues increase the risk of
cholesterol build-up in the arteries.
Smoking increases blood clotting.
Smoking causes irreversible damage to the arteries.
Understanding Blood Lipids
Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) - Fatty substances
produced by the liver that carry cholesterol to arterial
walls: “bad” cholesterol
High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) – Fatty substance
that picks up cholesterol in the bloodstream and
returns it to the liver; “good cholesterol
Triglycerides – Fats that flow through the blood after
meals and have been linked to increased risk of
coronary artery disease
Serum Cholesterol Guidelines
Total <200 mg/dl Desirable
200-239 mg/dl Borderline High
>240 mg/dl High Risk
LDL Less than 100 Optimal
mg/dl Near Optimal
Cholesterol 100-129 mg/dl Borderline High
130-159 mg/dl High
160-189 mg/dl Very High
HDL >45 mg/dl Desirable
36-44 mg/dl Borderline High
<35 mg/dl High Risk
The Lifestyle Syndrome
Definition: A cluster of conditions and
diseases that result from:
Consuming too many calories.
Ingesting too much saturated fat, sodium, and
Not burning up enough calories.
Smoking or being exposed to tobacco smoke.
Hypertension, metabolic syndrome, obesity, high
cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, cancer,
osteoarthritis, depression, sexual dysfunction,
and diabetes mellitus.
Unclogging The Arteries
Dean Ornish Diet (without
Very low-fat diet (8% of total
Moderate exercise for 1 hour
three times per week.
One hour of yoga, meditation,
breathing, and progressive
relaxation per day.
Heart-Smart Strategies For Life
Watch your weight
Cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol
Lower your stress levels
Know your family history
Get your blood pressure checked regularly
Tame your temper
Get a lipoprotein profile
Take appropriate medications