An Invitation to Health Chapter by chenshu


									The Healthy Heart
 Chambers of the Heart

                    Left Atrium            Right Atrium
                Receives oxygenated       Receives blood
                blood from the lungs.       through the
                                           superior and
                                        inferior vena cava.

      Left Ventricle
  Pumps blood rich in                                 Right Ventricle
oxygen through the aorta                          Pumps blood in need of
to the arteries to nourish                          oxygen to the lungs.
    the body systems.
Development of Atherosclerosis
 Fatty Streaks Develop on the Arterial Walls at Injury Spots

          Growth and Hardening of Fatty Streaks

        Plaque Formation (well developed by age 30)

      Narrowing and Loss of Elasticity of the Arteries

      Restriction of Blood Flow to the Heart or Brain
      Limited Oxygen Delivery to the Heart or Brain

                 Blood Pressure Elevation
           Blood Clot Formation and Thrombosis

            Angina, Heart Attack and/or Stroke
Blood Pressure
Definition: A measure of the force exerted against the walls of
       the vessels by the blood flowing through them.

 Systolic Blood Pressure
Pressure exerted by blood
   against walls of the
during forceful contraction
       of the heart.

Diastolic Blood Pressure
Pressure exerted by blood             Sphygmomanometer &
   against the walls of the               Stethoscope
       arteries during
  relaxation of the heart.
What Is a Healthy Blood Pressure?

           115/75 mm Hg
             HEALTHY READING

        120-139/80-90 mm Hg

140-159/90-99 mm Hg    160+/100+ mm Hg
Preventing Hypertension
   Lifestyle Changes
    Losing weight.
    Regular exercise.
    Dietary Approaches To Stop
      Hypertension (DASH Diet).
    Restriction of daily sodium intake.
Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease

     Factors You Can    Factors You Can’t
          Control         Control
   Physical Inactivity  Heredity
   Tobacco              Race and Ethnicity
   Obesity              Age
   Blood Fats           Gender
   Metabolic Syndrome  Bacterial Infection
   Diabetes Mellitus
Tobacco and Heart Disease
   Smoking is the single most significant risk factor
    for CV disease and peripheral vascular disease.
   Each year smoking causes 250,000+ deaths
    from cardiovascular disease.
   Active vs. passive smoking.
   How Smoking Damages The Heart:
     Nicotineoverstimulates the heart.
     Carbon monoxide reduce the oxygen supply to the
     Tars and other smoke residues increase the risk of
      cholesterol build-up in the arteries.
     Smoking increases blood clotting.
     Smoking causes irreversible damage to the arteries.
 Understanding Blood Lipids

Low Density Lipoproteins (LDL) - Fatty substances
produced by the liver that carry cholesterol to arterial
walls: “bad” cholesterol

High Density Lipoproteins (HDL) – Fatty substance
that picks up cholesterol in the bloodstream and
returns it to the liver; “good cholesterol

Triglycerides – Fats that flow through the blood after
meals and have been linked to increased risk of
coronary artery disease
Serum Cholesterol Guidelines
              Amount          Rating
Total         <200 mg/dl      Desirable
              200-239 mg/dl   Borderline High
              >240 mg/dl      High Risk
LDL           Less than 100   Optimal
              mg/dl           Near Optimal
Cholesterol   100-129 mg/dl   Borderline High
              130-159 mg/dl   High
              160-189 mg/dl   Very High
              190+ mg/dl
HDL           >45 mg/dl       Desirable
              36-44 mg/dl     Borderline High
              <35 mg/dl       High Risk
The Lifestyle Syndrome
   Definition: A cluster of conditions and
    diseases that result from:
     Consuming too  many calories.
     Ingesting too much saturated fat, sodium, and
     Not burning up enough calories.
     Smoking or being exposed to tobacco smoke.
   Consequences:
     Hypertension,   metabolic syndrome, obesity, high
      cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, cancer,
      osteoarthritis, depression, sexual dysfunction,
      and diabetes mellitus.
Unclogging The Arteries
         Cholesterol-lowering drugs
         Low-fat diet
         Dean Ornish Diet (without
            Very low-fat diet (8% of total
             daily calories)
            Moderate exercise for 1 hour
             three times per week.
            Stress counseling.
            One hour of yoga, meditation,
             breathing, and progressive
             relaxation per day.
Heart-Smart Strategies For Life
                Don’t smoke
             Watch your weight
 Cut down on saturated fat and cholesterol
                Get moving
          Lower your stress levels
         Know your family history
 Get your blood pressure checked regularly
             Tame your temper
          Get a lipoprotein profile
       Take appropriate medications

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