2002 Sino -African SHP Training

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					                             2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop



 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop
       he 2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop was held from 10 May to 18 June 2002 at
 T     Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro Power(HRC). Attended altogether 9 partici-
pants from 5 African countries, i.e. Burundi, Nigeria, South African, Tanzania and Tunisia. This is
the second training workshop on SHP that HRC conducted for African countries. Last Oct and
Nov HRC held the SHP training for participants from Africa where the majority of the population
has no access to electricity yet. Meanwhile, it is abundant in hydro power resources in Africa and
around 10% of its hydro power potential has been harnessed according to the statistics available.
     This training workshop was sponsored by Chinese Ministry of Foreign Trade and Economic
Cooperation, as one of the technical collaborative projects among the developing countries. All
the lodging, boarding, training, pocket money and the domestic transportation fees were borne by
the Chinese government. This is part of the Chinese contribution to South-South cooperation.

                                                                             the
                                                                    M ost of withteachers were from
                                                                      HRC,        some professors or
                                                                   experts invited from Nanjing. The
                                                                   subjects included procedures of SHP
                                                                   development, feasibility study, hydro-
                                                                   logical analysis, low-cost civil struc-
                                                                   ture, turbo-generator units and auxil-
                                                                   iary, electric equipment design, op-
                                                                   eration, maintenance, SHP policy as-
                                                                   pects etc. Such special topics as the
                                                                   status of hydro power resources in
                                                                   China, SHP technical refurbishment,
                                                                   rubber dam, the pumped storage sta-
                                                                   tions, foreign trade practices, letter
                                                                   of credit, export credit etc were also
                                                                   introduced and considered by the
                                                                   participants as beneficial.

                                                                         In the hardware construction,
                                                                   HRC updated its facilities for the in-
                                                                   ternational participants early this year.
                                                                   The class room was decorated and
                                                                   living rooms renovated. New equip-
                                                                   ment including CD-writer and new ad-
                                                                   vanced computer were purchased for
                                                                   the use of the participants.

                                                                        tudy tour was arranged to
                                                                    S   Shengzhou, Linai, Ningbo,
                                                                   Xiaoshan and Deqing where the par-
                                                                   ticipants visited some SHP stations

 2                                                                          SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                      2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

of various development types, com-         play for the station to provide energy   were arranged by HRC. Participants
bining the techniques of low-cost civil    to the grids at the peak hour and its    were able to enjoy the natural beauty
structures and appropriate automa-         financial record all these years after   of some scenic spots in Hangzhou.
tion controlling equipment. Visits         the commissioning is also impressive.    The basketball match between the
were paid to Linhai Machinery Works                                                 Chinese players and the African par-
and Linhai Electric Machine Works               t the end of the training work-     ticipants offered a glimpse of tena-
where participants were able to see        A shop, HRC provided a forum for         cious spirit manifested by the Afri-
the whole process of the hydropower        the exchange of SHP experience and       can participants. Also, two days were
equipment manufacturing. Director of       technology. The African participants     spent in the developing city, the larg-
Linhai Machinery Works, Mr.Hu              were earnest to prepare and to offer     est city and port of China—Shang-
pointed out: “there is so far no export    their presentations. Altogether          hai. With the opening and reforming
of our electrical equipment to the Af-     around 5 presentations were made by      policy set forth by the Chinese gov-
rican countries. However, the poten-       the participants, introducing the SHP    ernment some 20 years ago, tremen-
tial of SHP in African countries is in     development status, experiences and      dous changes have taken place in that
fact huge. It is expected that the SHP     lessons learnt in the practice of de-    city. A great number of skyscrapers
cooperation between China and Af-          veloping SHP in their own countries.     pop up, with its modern and conve-
rica could be set up, either in our        For instance, the presentation by the    nient transportation network. Partici-
equipment export or establishing           Nigerian participants gave a detailed    pants naturally exhilarated to be in
joint venture firms in African conti-      description of what is required con-     such a modern city like Shanghai.
nent.” Visit was also paid to Kvaerner     cerning the country’s SHP develop-       Many of the participants commented:
Hangzhou Power Equipment Co Ltd,           ment status, experience and poten-       ‘We certainly did not expect that
a joint venture set up in 1996 between     tial of SHP international cooperation.   China is so much developed. We
Kvaerner Energy a.s. in Norway and         Nearly all of the African friends were   thought this is not in Shanghai, but
Hangzhou Electric Equipment Works          able to adopt the Power Point to give    in New York. Before we came to China,
in Hangzhou, China.                        the presentation. Some of their pre-     we had a delusion that China was a
                                           sentations are being considered to be    poor and backward country. The
      Participants went to Ningbo,         issued at the quarterly SHP News         buildings there were shabby and in-
visiting a pumped storage station with     that HRC edits and publishes.            decent. People were suffering from
installed capacity of 80 MW. This sta-                                              hunger. China has set a very good
tion was put into operation at the end          n addition to training and study    example for the other developing
of 1997 and was designed by HRC in         I    tours, sightseeing programs at      countriers like those in Africa to fol-
the past few years. It has a big role to   the weekends and sports competition      low in its economic development’.


                                                                                    H RC is committed toofstimulating
                                                                                      the development       SHP-a re
                                                                                    newable and environmentally sound
                                                                                    energy by conducting SHP training
                                                                                    programs each year. In 2003 HRC will
                                                                                    implement at least two small hydro
                                                                                    power training workshops including
                                                                                    one for African countries and the ex-
                                                                                    act time of implementation will be an-
                                                                                    nounced later this year. It is hoped
                                                                                    that more hydro power resources
                                                                                    could be tapped in future so that the
                                                                                    living standard of the local people
                                                                                    could be improved and their local
                                                                                    economy could be boomed in the
                                                                                    numerous African countries.

 SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                 3
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop




              Speech at opening ceremony of 2002
              Sino-African SHP training workshop
                                          Dr. Chen Shengshui, Director of HRC


                                                                                    constructing over 600 counties of
                                                                                    primary rural electrification program
                                                                                    in China have been completed. Now,
                                                                                    Chinese government has decided to
                                                                                    set up 400 rural electrification coun-
                                                                                    ties during 2000 and 2005 as the fourth
                                                                                    batch. With the increase of SHP in-
                                                                                    stalled capacity and the development
                                                                                    of local grids, the SHP in China has
                                                                                    become a new and proven industry
                                                                                    with unique features. In the recent
                                                                                    years, the State advocates reducing
                                                                                    the electricity price for the rural farm-
                                                                                    ers and reforming the electricity sup-
                                                                                    ply as a commodity into market ori-
                                                                                    ented operation. A series of favor-
                                                                                    able policies that the Chinese central
Good morning !                             national participants from over 60       and local governments adopted to
Dear colleagues,                           countries attended the training pro-     stimulate the exploitation of SHP
      I am honored to be with you this     grams that HRC conducted. Our SHP        have resulted in the large-scale SHP
morning. You all came far away from        missions for SHP feasibility study,      construction, rural grid improvement,
Africa to Hangzhou! On behalf of all       design or construction supervision       SHP station technical renovation and
HRC staff, I’d like to extend my warm      have been implemented over 30 coun-      cultivated the market of SHP technol-
welcome to you for attending the 2002      tries in the world.                      ogy and equipment.
Sino-African SHP Training Work-                  Recently, I have been appointed          China and the African countries
shop.                                      by the Chinese government as Direc-      belong to the developing countries.
      This training workshop has been      tor of HRC and I will do my best with    With the holding of Sino-African Fo-
sponsored by Chinese Ministry of           my colleagues including you-our Af-      rum in Beijing two years ago, Sino-
Foreign Trade and Economic Coop-           rican friends committed to promoting     African ties have been strengthened
eration, as part of China’s contribu-      the SHP construction in the develop-     considerably. In 2001, the first Sino-
tion to South-South Cooperation or         ing countries.                           African SHP training workshop was
TCDC activities. TCDC means tech-                China is vast and rich in hydro-   run at HRC and altogether 9 partici-
nical cooperation among the devel-         power resources, accounting for 680      pants attended. It is much expected
oping countries, to share the exper-       mil kW, of which 380 mil kW is the       that with your active participation,
tise, the facilities and the financial     exploitable resources. The SHP ex-       more SHP cooperative projects could
cost among the developing countries.       ploitable resource is around 87 mil      hopefully be set up between HRC
      HRC has been active in promot-       kW. However, the installed capacity      and the African countries.
ing the global SHP development in          of SHP exploited only reached                  Participants, Hangzhou is a well-
the past years and you have become         around 30% of the total exploitable      known city of long standing in China
part of this process! So far 589 inter-    SHP resource. The three batches of       and it served as capital of China for


 4                                                                                           SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                    2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop




          Opening address to 2002 Sino-
         African SHP training workshop
                                 Mr. Zhu Xiaozhang,       Honorary Director of HRC

                                                                                    mainly from fossil fuel generation,
                                                                                    only about 1/5 from hydropower. In
                                                                                    early 1970s, the price escalation of
                                                                                    petrol pushed people to focus atten-
                                                                                    tion on new and renewable sources
                                                                                    of power production. These revital-
                                                                                    ized the worldwide interest for SHP
                                                                                    development which has almost been
                                                                                    given up during the past several de-
                                                                                    cades. Since then, both developed
                                                                                    and developing countries paid impor-
                                                                                    tance to the development of SHP. A
                                                                                    series of international conference
                                                                                    have been held for exploring ways
                                                                                    and means of strengthening the in-
                                                                                    ternational cooperation in the SHP-
Good morning !                           SHP-professionals, but I wonder if         sectors. Here I’d only mention 3 mile-
Dear Colleagues,                         you are well aware of the history and      stone meetings:
     I am pleased to be here to give     prospect of international cooperation
an opening address to this important     in the SHP sector. As the former Di-          The 1st one is the Kathmandu Meet-
training workshop specially desig-       rector of HRC, I’d like to take this op-   ing organized by UNIDO in 1979 in
nated for our African friends, which     portunity to tell you some stories         Nepal’s capital Kathmandu. This was
shows the sincere friendship between     about this subject.                        the 1st international meeting after the
China and African countries. I’d also,                                              oil crisis in 1970s, and was attended
together with our Director Dr. Chen,           These stories include historical     by 68 representatives from 23 devel-
express my congratulations to you for    background and three milestone meet-       oping countries (including Africans)
your participation in the workshop.      ings for SHP international coopera-        and 10 developed countries and sev-
                                         tion. Up to mid –1970s, the electric       eral UN’s organizations. One of the
     I believe that most of you are      energy supply in the world was             important results of this meeting was



over 200 years in the Chinese history.   chances to see and experience what         countries. We share the same objec-
With the implementation of reform        is going on in Hangzhou and in the         tive: To stimulate the exploitation of
and opening policy during the past       other Chinese coastal areas.               SHP which is a renewable and envi-
20 years in China, tremendous                 Over one month study here at          ronmentally sound energy appropri-
changes have taken place around the      HRC is not long, however, I do hope        ate for the vast rural areas in the de-
city. Apart from your study of SHP       you could benefit from the exchange        veloping countries.
technology to serve your own coun-       of SHP experience and technology,                Finally, I wish your study fruit-
try in the promotion of SHP develop-     and strengthen the international co-       ful and your stay pleasant!
ment after going back, you’ll have       operation of SHP among various

 SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                 5
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

the “Kathmandu Declaration”. It was       the sponsorship of Chinese govern-
appealed that: “Exchange of informa-      ment and UNDP/UNIDO.                           indigenous material for dam con-
tion, knowledge and experience is felt          Due to time limitation, I could       struction;
to be of basic importance for promo-      not mention too much here. Anyhow,              reasonable standard for power
tion of this SHP technology, not only     a lot of conferences and activities for     plant design;
between developed and developing          international cooperation have then            reliable and cost-effective produc-
countries, but also among the devel-      been held over the past 20 years. In        tion of turbine-generators with rea-
oping countries themselves”. This         the mean time, there was also relevant      sonable efficiency level;
statement indicated the earliest con-     expansion of SHP-market worldwide,          and environmentally friendly con-
cept of South-South cooperation,          especially in the equipment supply          sideration of reservoir construction,
which has then been expanded in a         and project construction sectors,           etc.
very broad way and deep senses,           which has correspondingly been ex-
during the past 2 decades. As you         tended from only relying on western               For those social, economic and
have seen, our training workshop here     developed countries into South-             administrative issues, I believe you
is just a kind of South-South coop-       South Cooperation. Today as we are          will certainly differentiate what is suit-
eration project called TCDC program.      facing globalization of economy, the        able and what is not suitable to your
OK, back to the Kathmandu Declara-        worldwide cooperation for SHP de-           countries, according to our different
tion which further stressed: “The Par-    velopment would surely from an im-          political, economic and social sys-
ticipants of the Meeting therefore        portant sector. This is especially true     tems.
decide to underline the need for the      as for as technical aspect is consid-
strengthening of international coop-      ered. I assume you are well aware that            Finally, I’d stress that following
eration in a systematic, efficient and    common consensus has been at-               the tendency of globalization of
effective manner”.                        tained internationally that SHP is an       economy and China’s entry into
                                          appropriate technology instead of           WTO, it is predictable that the eco-
   The 2nd one was a similar meeting      advanced one. As an appropriate             nomic and technical cooperation in
held in Hangzhou, China and Manila,       technology, SHP is most properly for        the SHP-sector between China and
Philippines in 1980 also organized by     and could easily be managed by de-          African countries will have more
UNIDO. Together with the 1st meet-        veloping countries. In fact, rich expe-     space to expand and bilateral trade
ing, it also strongly recommended the     rience has already been accumulated         will also be further promoted. Our
setting up of a center or centers of      in some developing countries. As            colleagues participated in this work-
excellence relevant to SHP.               you have just heard from our Direc-         shop will be expected to act as a
                                          tor, Dr. Chen’s introduction about          bridge and initiators for the future
   The 3rd one I want to inform you is    China’s success on SHP develop-             cooperation. I will be glad to offer my
the UNCNRSE held in 1981 in Nairobi,      ment, and after listening to all the lec-   contribution to you with respect to
the Capital of Kenya in Africa. This      tures in the up-coming workshop, I          knowledge, experience and informa-
grand conference was directly orga-       hope you will understand that China         tion that may be of help to your busi-
nized by the UN Secretariat and at-       is an excellent example in this field. I    ness. For this purpose, I will give a
tended by 124 countries with 1400         don’t want to repeat too much in this       presentation of international coop-
delegates in which 90 were leaders at     connection, but I have to point out         eration for SHP development to you
minister level or higher. According to    that the SHP technology in China is         by end of this workshop. As a fol-
the “Program Action” of the Confer-       mature and proven, which is wrapped         low-up action after that, we may sit
ence, a series of centers of excellence   up through construction of more than        together to explore the potentials of
for new & renewable, including R+D,       40,000 SHP-stations. Furthermore, as        our future cooperation and discuss
demonstration, dissemination, train-      China’s SHP-technology is also plen-        relevant issues that may be of con-
ing and information were anticipated      tiful and versatile, it is suitable for     cerns to both sides and hopefully,
to be set up.                             other developing countries. Of              even make certain commitment of in-
                                          course, what I mean “suitable” here         tention on some specific items.
     Thus, HRC has just been estab-       mainly indicates those pure techni-               I’d finish my address today and
lished from this background under         cal issues, such as:                        thank you for your attention.

 6                                                                                             SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop



           Small Hydro Power in Nigeria
Messr Idris Mohammad (Na-                       Nigeria is rich with several high-    are 3 tiers of Government , namely
                                          lands, lowlands, rivers, mountains,         executive, legislative and the judiciary.
tional Electric Power Author-             plateaux, with various vegetations          Members of the national assembley
ity, Nigeria)                             from one season to another. Promi-          are elected from their constituencies
                                          nent among the rivers are River Niger       by the electorates.
                                          and River Benue. About 65% of the                 Nigeria is rich in tourism attrac-
Ikpo Kalu Ochu(Electrical In-             population earn their living from the       tions. The Temperate climate during
spectorate Services, Federal              land , mainly as subsistence farmers .      the two seasons affords tourist maxi-
                                          Agriculture has been the mainstay of        mum comfort from the outstanding
Ministry of Power & Steel, Ni-            the national economy until the dis-         moderately cold plateau state (temp
geria)                                    covery of crude oil in the late 50’s.       between 12 and 20 ) to the shiny
                                          Petroleum has become the backbone           northern and southern state ( temp
      In partial fulfillment of the re-   of the nation’s economy with Nigeria        between 18 and 37 ) . Some tour-
quirement for the completion of the       as the sixth largest producer of oil in     ists attractions and where the could
training course on SHP, this presen-      the world.                                  be located in Nigeria are as follows.
tation is made to briefly introduce             Nigeria is a multi-ethnic secular     (1) Obudu cattle ranching in Cross
our representative countries, the         state with a great variety of languages          River state( East)
availability of SHP in our countries,     spoken in the country. There are            (2) Olumo rock in Abeokute ,
training experience and possible          about 230 tributes with over 250                 Ogunstate ( West)
areas of co-operation in SHP. The         dialets in Nigeria. The three major trib-   (3) Osun shrine in Oshogbo, Osun
importance of SHP projects (to be         utes are the Housas (north), Igbos               state (West)
initiated in our countries) cannot be     (East) and the Yorubas(West). En-           (4) Ikogusi warm and cold water
overemphasized. This renewable            glish is the official languages in Ni-           spring (Mid West)
approach to power supply is a lu-         geria.                                      (5) Argungu fishing festival , Kebbi
crative and promising future pros-              Nigeria is the GMT+ 1 hour time            state ( North)
pect of energy development that de-       zone , with twelve months of 30 days        (6) Yankari games reserve Baauchi
serves a closer attention. As we de-      ( September, April, June, November)              state (North)
liberate along we will discover a few     31 days (January, March, May, Au-           (7) National Museum at Onikan ,
suggestions that would add more           gust, October, December)and 28 days              Lagos state (West)
flesh to the entire presentation.         for February (or 29 days during leap        (8) Kainji/ Jebba/ Shiroro dams
                                          years).Nigeria uses 220 volts                    Niger state (North Central)
1 BRIEF INTRODUCTION OF                   norminal AC voltage at 50Hz fre-            (9) Mambila plateau – Taraba state
NIGERIA                                   quency.                                          (North East)
                                                Nigeria’s population is esti-         (10) National Theatre at Iganmu,
       he total area of Nigeria is
T      923,770 square kilometers,
bounded in the east by Cameroun
                                          mated at 124 million with average
                                          growth rate of 3.05% and the capital
                                                                                           Lagos state (West)
                                                                                      (11) Usman DanFodio tomb, Sokoto
                                          city of Nigeria is ABUJA . The head              state ( North)
(1690 km) and in the west by Benin        of state , commander in chief of the              There are about 7 major cities in
Republic (773 km) and in the north by     armed forces of Nigeria is Chief            Nigeria with average population of 5
Niger Republic (1497 km) and Chad         Olusegun Obasanjo. There are 36             million people in each . Hospitality
(8 km )bringing the total land bound-     state in Nigria apart from the Federal      industries are ridily available , from
aries to 4,047 km.                        capital territory. Nigeria practices the    the luxurious Hilton and Sheroton
      There are two seasons : the wet     presidenatial system of government.         hotels to the tourist – class hotels.
season which runs from May through        Elections are held every 4 years for        All tourist hotels offer a choice of
October and the dry season which          new leaders to emerge. Next Nigeria         modern hotels with state-of-art com-
prevails from November to April.          election is due by the year 2003. There     munications facilities.
 SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                     7
                                       2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

      The local currency in Nigeria is      the Federal government , the govern-       Shiroro gorge for a crest length of 700
the Naira made up of 100 Kobo = 1.          ment of the former northern Nigeria        metres. The width of the dam at its
There are denominations of ( 500, 200,      and the former electricity corporation     toe is over 300 metres whilst its crest,
100, 50, 20, 10 and 5) naira notes. Visi-   of Nigerai) recommended that an ini-       which accommodates a service road
tors may import unlimited amount of         tial development near Kurwasa fol-         is 7.5m wide. The crest of the dam
foreign currency , providing declara-       lowed by development at Shiroro and        has a heavy re-inforced concrete
tions of such currency is made to           Jebba would be most beneficial to          parapet wall, more than 5 m high,
customs officials on arrival. Visitors      Nigeria. The Shiroro power station in      which is also designed to protect top
are able to change unused Nigerian          the Kaduna river is of 600 MW.             of the dam from the waves that will
currency back to the foreign currency             The final design of the whole        build up in the lake under wind pres-
of their choice before departure at the     project was prepared for NEPA by           sure.
airport in company of currency dec-         chas T main international inc. of Bos-      POWER INTAKE
laration form and receipt for exchange      ton Mass , USA who were also re-                 he 60m high reenforced concrete
transactions.                               sponsible as Engineers for the super-      T     tower of the power in take with a
                                            vision of all the contracts required for   44m by 15m rectangular plain is lo-
2 AVAILABILITY OF SHP STA-                  its implementation while the contracts     cated on the right bank in the proxim-
TIONS IN OUR COUNTRY                        for the construction of the civil works    ity of the spillway’s structure. At the
                                            was awarded by NEPA to an Italian          bottom the are four openings 5.50 m
       hough our report is suppose to
T      be in small hydro power which
is not available in our country we
                                            firm TORNO SPA towards the end of
                                            1978.
                                                                                       wide and 10m high through which,
                                                                                       and a transition area in the concrete
                                                  Other components of the project      structure , the water from the reser-
have taken Shiroro hydro power as a
                                            where awarded to different compa-          voir enters the circular penstock to
case study.
      Shiroro hydro electric power sta-     nies , which included the Austrian firm    be finally conveyed to the turbines
                                            VOESt ALPINE for the supply and            in the power house. The bottom of
tion is one of the 7 power stations in
                                            installation of the hydraulic turbine      the tower has 1.5m diameter water re-
Nigeria. It belongs to national elec-
tric power authority( NEPA), which          and governs, INGRA RADE                    lease out let to maintain the flow
                                            KONCAR of the federal republic of          when the turbines are not turning to
is situated in Niger state, 550m down
                                            Yugoslavia for the supply and instal-      be used by people living along river
stream of the confluence of Kaduna
River with its tributary , the Dinya        lation of the generator and exciation      down stream from the dam.
                                            system, MITSUI/TOSHIBA of Japan                  The intakes can be short by
River about 60km north –east of
                                            for the generator –transformers and        means of gates operated by hydrau-
Minna , the state Capital.
HISTORY                                     GEC of UK for the projective relay         lic hoists located on the chamber of
                                            and control equipment . High volt-         the top of the tower which is acces-
      he story of the hydro electric
T     project in Nigeria dates back to
                                            age switchgear and other switchgear
                                            equipment where supplied by Si-
                                                                                       sible from the dam crest, through a
                                                                                       steel bridge.
1951 when with the growth of indus-
                                            emens AG of the Republic of Ger-           SPILL WAYS
tries and rapid urbannisation the de-
                                            many while CEI of Italy handled elec-            he spillway is at the right abut-
mand for electricity was rising faster
than the suppler. The decision to build     trical installation and auxillary plant    T     ment of the dam and is a re-
                                            Items. A Spannish company, BYNSA           inforced concrete structure about
a dam across , river Kadnna in the
                                            supplied the project cranes. In a simi-    100m long on its center line, which
area of Shiroro –a small farmers vil-
lage near minna in niger state that         lar vein both the power intake and         includes 4 openings 15m wide and
                                            spillway gates together with the as-       16.65m high. The openings are con-
gives its name to the gorge where the
                                            sociated electro-hydraulic control         trolled by means of hydraulically op-
project is located –has its origin in
the survey carried out in 1951 and          equipment were supplied by                 erated tainter gates. The capacity of
                                            Tampella of Finland.                       the spillways is 7,500 cubic metres per
relevant to the exploitation of the en-
                                            DAM                                        second. Downstream from the
ergy potential of the Nigeria river sys-
                                                  he Dam is of a rock-fill type and    structure a concrete chute 50m wide
tem. As a result of the reports of the
survey, the niger dam project com-
                                            T     stands 115m high above the           and 360m long built within the right
                                            original river bed-elevation, across       bank , takes the spilled water to the
mittee (made up of representatives of

 8                                                                                              SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                       2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

bucket at its end and finally into the      is 150 rpm. These turbine generators           c) 11 kV distribution network
plunge pool which has been provided         are capable of independent operation.                 i) 2     11 kV feeders to the
by the excavating the existing river        GENERATION                                     power station for power station aux-
bed.                                              ower is generated at 16kV volt-          iliaries.
 PENSTOCKS                                  P     age levels. A generator-trans-                  ii) 1 11 kV feeder to the senior
      he penstocks are made up of           former steps up the voltage to 330kV           camp.
T     steel barrel with a diameter of       level for connection to national grid                 iii) 1 11kV feeder to the op-
6.3m and have a total developed             via the agency of a 330kV switch yard.         erators and junior camps with T-off
length of 1,400m in four lines of vary-     The national grid constitutes a power          to Zumba resettlement village.
ing individual lengths , the total          pool to which all the power stations                  iv) 1      11kV feeder to the
weight is 4000 tons. The penstock           and load centers are connected. The            switchyard auxiliaries.
lines, partly horizontal and partly in-     stations annual energy generation is                  v) 11 kV Supply to the supple-
clined are fully encased in reinforced      2230GWh. This accounts for a plant             mentary National Control Center.
concrete.                                   utilization of about 42%.                      SPECIAL FEATURES OF SHIRORO
POWER HOUSE                                 TRANSMISSION                                          a) The station runs on 4 No
      he main building of the power               hiroro power station has 4               Francis Turbines which are suites for
T     house, which is 100m long and         S     200 MVA, 16-330kV power trans-           the medium head reservoir operation
about 40m wide house the 4                  formers through which 4 short span             of Shiroro lake.
150MW units. It is a massive rein-          feeders. Fed two(2) 330kV buses 1 and                 b) Quick start from cold and
forced concrete structure most of it        2. In between these buses 1 & 2 are a          quick load pick-up are also special
within the rock with a structural steel     breaker and half system comprising             features of the machine in the Shiroro
superstructure which supports the           of SF6 circuit breaker and motor op-           power station.
roof as well as the rails of the 210 tons   erated disconnect switches (Isola-                    c) Each of the 4 Shiroro machines
over head traveling cranes used for         tors). From the 2 buses emerge 4               can boost power supply to the Na-
the erection of the turbines and gen-       330kV feeders(2) between Shiroro and           tional Grid by 150 MW in just 6 min-
erators and for their major mainte-         Jebba and (2) between Shiroro and              utes.
nance. The maximum height of the            Kaduna. The arrangement of the                        This is one of the most impor-
building from the foundation level to       buses allow for multiple sources of            tant special features of Shiroro power
the roof top is 51m. From the power         power utilizing the 4 lines. Provision         station which makes the station vital
house the water flows back into the         for double circuit to Abuja has been           in handling emergencies resulting
riverbed a downstream from the dam,         made and partially equipped for fu-            from sudden increases in load demand
through steel lined draft tubes and         ture supply to Abuja at 330kV. Within          or sudden loss of the machine in an-
eight opening which can be short by         the switch yard there is a provision           other station.
means of the gates , controlled by          of 2 150MW , 330/132/33 kV auto                UNIQUE ACHIEVEMENTS AND
another gantry crane of 30 ton capac-       grid transformers for the provision of         AWARD WINNING PERFORMANCE
ity.                                        the following transmission voltage                    a) Shiroro power station has re-
INSTALLED CAPACITY                          levels.                                        mained the most reliable power sta-
      hiroro hydro power has a total        a) 132 kV transmission lines                   tion in the country’s electricity net-
S     capacity of 600MW from the 4                i)Double circuit 132 kV to Minna         work.
generating units rated at 150MW             which also supplies Suleja, Abuja and                 b) Shiroro power station oper-
each at a head of 97m, each unit com-       Bida.                                          ates at 100% capacity.
prise of a vertical francis hydraulic             ii) Single circuit 132 kV Shiroro               c) Its units are the fastest in
turbine unit controlled by an electro       Te g i n a w h i c h a l s o s u p p l i e s   boosting power supply to the Na-
hydraulic governor. The turbine             Contagora substation.                          tional Grid.
drives a synchronous generator of           b) 33 kV transmission lines                           d) In emergencies National Elec-
salient pole construction having a net            i) Single circuit from Shiroro to        tric Power Authority (NEPA) of Ni-
output of 150MW. The generator is           Gwada and Kuta.                                geria falls balk on Shiroro power sta-
excited by a static self excitation sys-          ii) 33 kV supply to 2 15 MVA             tion for bulk production of electric-
tem. The speed of rotation for the unit     33/11 kV transformers.                         ity.

 SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                         9
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

      e) It generates 25% of Nigeria      2) FISHING                                 the following crops : sugarcane, veg-
electricity demand.                             Fishing activities around Shiroro    etables, tomatoes, pepper, e.t.c. .
IMPACT OF THE DAM ON ITS EN-              dam on the river Kaduna was almost
VIRONMENT                                 none existent before the creation of       3 EXPERIENCE DURING THE
      lthough the power station           the dam. After the construction of         TRAINING COURSE ON SHP IN
A     project involves the relocation     the dam , fishing has since com-           CHINA
                                                                                     1)LECTURES
of families, it also offers benefits to   menced resulting in more than forty
the local communities. The creation       fishing villages located along the         TECHNOLOGY
                                                                                            mall hydro-power is a new tech-
of the dam led to the change of cli-
matic condition in and around the lake
                                          banks of river Kaduna and its major
                                          tributaries mainly rivers Munye,           S      nology which has not been
                                                                                     praticed in our country. During the
area. It modified the relative tempera-   Sarkinpawa, Dinya and Guni. The cre-
ture of the catchment area resulting      ation of the dam has attracted immi-       training the technological aspect of
in cold/warm zone in the Shiroro lo-      grants from distant areas such as Edo      SHP were thoroughly taught and un-
cal government area. The northern         state, Sokoto state, Borno state, and      derstood. Areas covered under SHP
area where the lake is situated has a     even Niger and Mali countries out-         were hydrology, geology, power, pro-
colder temperature than the southern      side Nigeria.                              tection, control , construction and
part of the local government.                   The construction of Shiroro dam      metering systems. All these aspects
   1) ECONOMIC & SOCIAL IM-               has therefore given rise to the follow-    were taught by different research en-
PACT                                      ing.                                       gineers/specialists in details theoreti-
      a) The dam and the switchyard             a) Commercial fishing activity.      cally and later followed by practical
constitutes a tourist centre where              b) Improved nutritional value on     explanation during site visit outside
people from all works of life visit for   the diet of the villagers.                 HRC training center.
tourism during holidays and week-               c) Alternative commercial activi-          The Automation of electrical
ends.                                     ties and source of income instead of       energy is also an important aspect
      b) The presence of the dam has      the usual farming activity alone .         that was taught. This automation
created job opportunities at various            d) Improved social status since      made technology easier operationally,
levels for the indigenes and non-in-      additional income is generated .           though it has a disadvantage of cre-
digenes as well.                                e) Improved social interaction       ating unemployment in the country.
      c) The indigenes feel a sense of    with the immigration of people from        Since research is the back bone of
belonging by way of contributing to       far and wide settling among the local      any developing country, redundant
national development through power        people.                                    workers caused by automation can
generation from Shiroro power sta-        3)AGRICULTURE                              be transferred to reaserch centers in
tion.                                           Before the impounding of the         order to discover more technologies
      d) The station represents a         lake, the vegetation of the land along     or improve on the existing ones.
unique engineering firm for students      the Kaduna river was mainly sa-            INTERNATIONAL TRADE
                                                                                           he main aim of this training is
on excursion and provides a good
training ground for industrial train-
                                          vanna, with patches of few wood
                                          lands along its tributaries of Guni,
                                                                                     T     technical cooperation which
ing of students of engineering and        Muye, e.t.c. . However , the construc-     cannot be achieved without interna-
allied courses of study.                  tion of the dam has improved the fol-      tional trade among developing coun-
      e) The station contributes imme-    lowing agricultural activities in large    tries. During the training some of the
diately towards science education by      scales.                                    international trade terms were high-
providing higher institutions with in-          a) Livestock production.             lighted and explained in details. These
structional materials like old trans-           b) Fadama farming.                   terms assist both the import /buyer
formers, electric motors, pumps e.t.c..         c) All year round farming by irri-   and the exporter or seller. Some of
      f) The construction of Shiroro      gation from the lake.                      these terms are FOB,FCA,CPT,CIP,
dam has resulted in improved rev-               d) Normal raining season farm-       etc. All these terms are provided to
enue generation for the state and lo-     ing, the major crops grown in the lake     guide both the importer and exporter,
cal government through taxis from         catchment area include maize, rice,        so when ever our country is ready to
civil servants and various levies from    yam, cassava,millet, potatoes and          import something from China, we
other settlers.                           guinea corn. The Fadama area yields        have been taught during this train-
 10                                                                                            SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                      2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

ing how to make use of these terms.        knowledge acquired we have seen            returning to our respective countries,
If these terms are properly defined by     the importance of SHP and some new         and probably make a visit /business
both the importer and exporter at the      dimensions taken by China in the field     trip to China via HRC.
beginning of the business the would        of technology. Some of these new di-       4) RECOMMENDATIONS
be no difficult in resolving dispute if    mensions include pumped storage                  he knowledge acquired during
it occur at the end of the business.       power stations, used to balance loads      T     the training on SHP has exposed
For example if CPT(carriage paid to        at base and peak periods . This could      us to many fields of technology. The
destination) agreement is made and         also be used to maintain generation        following recommendations are
exporter failed to pay for the carriage,   at low water head in the dam by pump-      therefore important for our country
CPT term would be refered to and law       ing water from the down stream to          to be implemented.
will be enforced on the exporter to        the upstream of the dam.                         a) Construction of SHP projects to
fulfill the agreement.                           The decentralization of power        improve the stability of power supply.
GENERAL                                    control and independent power sta-               b)Construction of pumped stor-
      There are other experiences or       tions practiced in China is also some-     age hydro power stations to minimize
trainings acquired during this course      thing that brings about the stability      non-generation due to water shortage .
period apart from technology and in-       of power supply in the country. This             c) Decentralization of national
ternational trade experience.              is possible because of the construc-       control centre to minimize total black-
      During the site seeing, it was       tion of many SHP stations at differ-       out due to loss of a unit or line.
discovered that Chinese government         ent localities to supply particular or           d) Construction of independent
converted some wonders of nature           specific communities. This will pre-       SHP stations at different localities to sup-
in and outside Hangzhou to recre-          vent a whole nation from experienc-        ply particular or specific communities.
ational and tourist centers. This at-      ing total blackout due to failure from           e) Sending personnel to devel-
tracts many people within China and        a station or line. SHP can be as many      oped or developing countries to par-
other parts of the world to come as        as possible because it is pollution free   ticipate in the construction of SHP
tourists or for recreation. It also pro-   and has lower maintenance costs            stations.
vides revenue for the government and       than others.
job opportunities for the citizens.        3) WELFARE IN CHINA                        4 POSSIBLE AREAS OF CO-OP-
There are natural places like those of           n the area of welfare, HRC has       ERATION ON SHP BETWEEN
China in our country which could be        I     done a lot to make us comfort-       OUR TWO COUNTRIES
utilized in the same way or even bet-      able at all times both in and outside
ter. From the knowledge we have ac-        HRC. Site seeing was regularly orga-             he training programme on SHP
quired through the training, this will
be conveyed to our country and simi-
                                           nized from time to time in and outside
                                           Hangzhou city. The co-ordinators of
                                                                                      T     in China can be described as an
                                                                                      eye opener. The availability of the
lar recreational centers shall be con-     the course were always ready to ac-        much needed electrical energy
structed. Some of these places are         cept our complaints. Whenever we           through SHP exploitation in China
West Lake, Fish/Animal zoo, where          required anything outside HRC pre-         provides a great lesson to be learnt
rocks were excavated to house ani-         mises, they would describe the place       by an inquiring mind. The need to pre-
mals and fish. There are other places      to us and many times accompany us          serve our much treasured forests and
visited outside Hangzhou where foot-       to the place. None of the HRC staff        wild life by providing alternative
path was provided over a long hill of      has ever frowned at us despite our         means of fuel for daily domestic uses,
about 2km which also has water falls       continues request of one thing or          the need to pull our resources to-
at different elevations. This also         another, instead they laughed and          gether to fight desert encroachment
brings revenue to the government as        joked with us, thereby making us to        in the northern part of our country
one of the recreational and tourist        always fill at home. We shall really       through construction of SHP dams,
centre in China.                           miss all of our co-ordinators after de-    and the need to establish cottage in-
2) NEW DIMENSIONS                          parture to our various countries, be-      dustries in the rural areas as abun-
      mall hydro construction has led      cause they treated us like their own       dant SHP energy will be readily avail-
S     to new dimensions in the field       brothers especially messrs Pan,Yan,        able, thereby decreasing rural-urban
of technology . Presently there is no      Shen,and Zhao. We promise to con-          drift make it abundantly necessary
SHP in our country, but from the           tinue communicating with them after        that areas of possible co-operation
 SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                  11
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

between our two countries should be       manufacture, operation and control         for this exchange of goods and ser-
diligently sought and established.        of SHP technology, it becomes a lot        vices between the two countries.
This measure will in the nearest fu-      easier to also train some team of tech-          The volume of economic trans-
ture make Nigeria benefit from the        nical personnel from Nigeria within        action between the two counties will
gains of SHP projects that is being       the same industries in China.              further increase public confidence in
enjoyed by China presently.                     There is possibility of systematic   future areas of co-operation, this time
1) CO-OPERATION THROUGH                   technology transfer in the area of SHP     around, on small hydro power gen-
EDUCATION                                 exploitation in Nigeria from China since   eration.
Information dissemination                 the latter has a complete and compre-            More bilateral agreements could
      he two countries can co-oper-       hensive package of this lucrative re-      be advocated between the two coun-
T     ate to a great extent depending     newable energy. Provision of spare         tries on such areas as project execu-
on the level of information that is       parts , useful result-oriented solutions   tions, intermediate technology devel-
available to both the government and      and proper maintenance culture will not    opment or other aspects of technical
the governed. Information on avail-       pose any problem. China is fully           co-operation.
ability of small hydro power alterna-     equipped and appears ready for any         5) CONTINUITY OF CO-OPERA-
tives and its gains will normally rouse   proposals from our country.                TION
attentions especially if the present      3) GOVERNMENT POLICIES                           he consolidation and suste-
means of power supply is unsatisfac-            he government of Nigeria is          T     nance of the different possible
tory.                                     T     known for polices that are both      areas of co-operation between the
      Creating awareness through the      people oriented and intergovernmen-        two countries so far discussed will
media or radio/TV adverts, newslet-       tal-friendly. As a democratic govern-      further create greater opportunities.
ters and publications will greatly af-    ment , the welfare of the governed         This means that the co-operation en-
ford everyone an opportunity to com-      constitutes the major aspect of the        joyed by the present generation will
pare and contrast, and thereby make       government’s programme. Provision          be transferred to the next. This con-
positive contributions towards the        of steady and uninterrupted power          tinuous co-operation will gradually
establishment of SHP protects in the      supply has been one of the outstand-       transform into inter-governmental co-
country.                                  ing feats the present government           operation of unimagined proportion.
      Educational materials in form of    seeks to achieve. Introduction of such           This will bring about lots of mu-
journals, correspondence courses          policies in China (to the government       tual benefits between the two countries.
and possible integration of SHP           of Nigeria) that created enabling en-
courses in the curriculum of Nigerian     vironment for SHP projects and sup-        5 CONCLUSION
higher institutions will greatly en-      ply to thrive is a very useful tool that
hance co-operation on SHP between
the two countries.
                                          can bring about real co-operation on
                                          SHP.
                                                                                     C      hina has gone a long way in
                                                                                            establishing an SHP industry
                                                                                     and its subsidiaries. The prospects
2) TECHNICAL CO-OPERATION                       The policies of government of
                                                                                     are very high for China to exploit the
      pecial technical training           Nigeria greatly favour foreign invest-
S     programme may be signed be-         ments in Nigeria. Chinese government
                                                                                     abundant opportunities for con-
                                                                                     structing SHP stations in Nigeria.
tween the two countries whereby           can fully use this opportunity to invest
                                                                                           The Nigerian Government at-
technical personnel will be sent to       on SHP in Nigeria and become a major
                                                                                     taches a lot of priority to stable and
China from Nigeria to be trained on       shareholder. This will be a most desir-
                                                                                     un-interrupted power supply. These
the rudiments of SHP technical know-      able venture in Nigerian economy.
                                                                                     two Governments can cooperate at
how. These trained personnel subse-       Chinese government stands to gain
                                                                                     this level to enable China deliver her
quently work closely with experts         a lot form this joint venture co-opera-
                                                                                     packaged energy potentials on the
from China in the course of consult-      tion.
                                                                                     one hand, and afford Nigeria the op-
ing, planning, construction and ex-       4) ECONOMIC CO-OPERATION
                                                                                     portunity of realizing her dream of
ecution of SHP projects in Nigeria.              oods and services abound in
This aspect of possible co-operation      G      China of which our two govern-
                                                                                     abundant power supply for economic
                                                                                     prosperity on the other hand. These
will also involve equipment supply        ments can co-operate,SHP project
                                                                                     cooperations in our opinion should
and maintenance. Since China has          being a priority presently. Economic
                                                                                     take immediate effect.
fully developed and automated the         liberalization in Nigeria opens doors
 12                                                                                            SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                      2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop


                    Small Hydro Power and Rural
                     Electrification in Tanzania
                                           gas.                                        masl) has hot days and cool nights.
                                                The history of Tanzania goes           The Northern and Southern high-
                                           back over one and half million years.       lands has temperate climate. The
                                           The remains of the earliest known           rainy seasons extend from November
                                           man were discovered at Olduvai              to May and dry seasons from June to
H.Boby;                                    Gorge, Northern Tanzania in 1959.           October.
                                           There is evidence of at least six civili-   1.3 Hydrology and Environment
D.Mashauri                                 sations, which have left traces of their          Tanzania is the country of the
                                           culture and history. Excavations have       Great Lakes. It is bounded in the
                                           revealed Roman coins and Chinese            North by Lake Victoria, the source of
(Tanzania Electric Supply                  pottery.                                    River Nile, in the West is Lake
Company Ltd.)                                                                          Tanganyika, and the second deepest
                                           1.1 Salient features                        lake in the world and in the South is
                                           Coverage 945,090 sq. km                     Lake Nyasa. There are also inland
                                           Inland Water Area 59,050 sq. km             lakes mainly, Rukwa, Manyara, Eyasi
                                           Protected Wildlife Area 247,550 sq.         and Natron.
                                           km                                                Tanzania main river basins are:
                                           Coastline 1,424 km                          Rufiji, Kagera, Malagarasi, Ruvuma,
                                           Population 32,000,000 (2001 estimate)       Pangani, Wami, Mara and coastal riv-
                                           Language Kiswahili and English              ers, of which all have hydropower
                                           Highest Elevation 5,895 masl (Mt.           potentials most of them undeveloped.
                                           Kilimanjaro)                                      Environmental issues include
                                           Deepest Point 773 mbsl (Lake                soil degradation, deforestation, deser-
                                           Tanganyike bed)                             tification, destruction of coral reefs
1 TANZANIA IN BRIEF                        Electricity 220Volts, 50Hz                  threatens marine habitats, unreliable
     he United Republic of Tanzania
T    was formed in 26th , April 1964. It
                                           1.2 Topography and Climate
                                                 The country rolls from forested
                                                                                       rainfall affects marginal agriculture.
                                                                                       1.4 Economy
consists of the mainland, formerly         mountains in the North and South,                 The economy is mainly depen-
known as Tanganyika and Zanzibar           through the great central plateau of        dent on agriculture, which accounts
Island. The capital is Dar es Salaam       rich brown savannah grasses and             for 56% of GDP, provides 85% of ex-
and the official administrative capital    bushes, down to the tropical coast-         ports, and employs 90% of the work
is Dodoma.                                 line in the East. Extremes of topo-         force. Topography and climatic con-
     It is located in Eastern Africa,      graphical relief of African continent       ditions, however, limit cultivated
bordering the Indian Ocean to the          lie within Tanzania territory. Mount        crops to only 4% of the land area.
East, Kenya and Uganda to the              Kilimanjaro has a permanent ice cap         Industry accounts for 15% of GDP
North, Rwanda, Burundi and Demo-           at 5,895 masl, and the deepest point        and is mainly limited to processing
cratic Republic of Congo (Zaire) to        lies in the Tanganyika Lake bed at 773      agricultural products and light con-
the West, Zambia and Malawi to the         mbsl. The significant geological            sumer goods. Services account for
Southwest and Mozambique to the            structure is the East African Rift val-     the remaining 29%.
South. Geographic Co-ordinates are         ley, its escarpment being the most          2 ENERGY
02 00 S-11 00 S and 30 00 E-40 00 E.       favoured terrain for hydropower po-               he Ministry of Energy and Min-
     Natural resources exist in the
country include hydropower, tin,
                                           tential.                                    T     erals is responsible with all en-
                                                 The coastal areas are hot and         ergy-related matters in Tanzania. Un-
nickel, phosphates, iron ore, coal, dia-   humid, with average day temperature         der the Ministry, Tanzania Electric
monds, gemstones, gold and natural         of 30 . The central plateau (~1,200         Supply Company Ltd.(TANESCO), a
SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                    13
                                   2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

state owned company, was formerly       call for a development of the hydro-     2.4 Small Hydropower
the only company responsible for        power potential sites, which are at            The capacity range of small hy-
generation, transmission and distri-    feasibility stage (Upper Kihansi,        dro power plants is not exactly de-
bution of electricity. Other institu-   Ruhudji and Rumakali) and add more       fined, however in Tanzania the fol-
tions involved are Ministry of Wa-      gas turbines. Currently there is a       lowing classification is used: small-
ter( MoW) and The University of Dar     short-term plan to import more energy    scale hydropower plants 2.0-10.0
es Salaam(UDSM). Recently, the en-      from Zambia. The current installed       MW, mini hydropower plants 0.5-
ergy sector has been reformed to al-    capacity is as shown in table 1.         2.0 MW, micro hydropower plants
low private investment. Currently                                                0.5MW.
                                        2.2 Electricity Generation
there is only one IPP thermal power                                                    Presently there are five devel-
                                              The current status is that ther-
plant with installed capacity of 100                                             oped small hydropower stations and
                                        mal amounts to 12.10% and hydro
MW.                                                                              only one (Nyumba ya Mungu) with
                                        87.90% of total country generation.
      The main source of energy is                                               installed capacity of 8.0 MW is con-
                                        However, the installed capacity is
biomass (fuel wood), which accounts                                              nected to the grid. Three stations
                                        41% and 59% respectively.
to 85% of the total energy consump-                                              (Kikuletwa, Tosamaganga and
                                        2.3 Hydropower Potential
tion. Fossil fuel and Electricity ac-                                            Mbalizi) currently are not working.
                                              Total hydropower potential is
counts to 9% and 6% respectively.                                                The last one (Uwemba) is isolated
                                        4002 MW, out of which, 70 MW is
2.1 Electricity                                                                  from the gird with an installed capac-
                                        Small Hydropower. The current de-
      Electricity consumption by the                                             ity of 0.75 MW, supplying power to
                                        veloped hydropower makes only 14%
end of year 1999 was 1911 GWh, out                                               Njombe district (county), in South-
                                        of the total hydropower potential, and
of which, 87GWh were imported from                                               ern Tanzania.
                                        the developed small hydropower is
Uganda. The current energy produc-                                               2.5 Rural Electrification
                                        16% of the total Small Hydropower
tion does not meet the demand, this                                                    Tanzania is currently involving
                                        potential.
                                                                                 herself in a rural electrification pro-
                                                                                 gram, whereby all district headquar-
Table 1                                                                          ters and load centers should be elec-
                                                                                 trified. Through this initiative, devel-
GRID INSTALLED CAPACITY
                                                                                 opment of small hydropower is very
HYDRO
                                                                                 important. The existing non-working
POWER STATION              INSTALLED CAPACITY (MW)                               small hydropower plants will be re-
KIDATU                     204.00                                                furbished and some of 23 studied
KIHANSI                    180.00                                                small hydropower potential will be
MTERA                      80.00                                                 developed, pending on availability of
NEW PANGANI FALLS          68.00                                                 funds.
HALE                       21.00                                                 2.6 Conclusion
NYUMBA YA MUNGU            8.00                                                        It is estimated that in the devel-
TOTAL HYDRO                561.00                                                oping countries alone, it would be an
THERMAL                                                                          economic proposition to put about
DIESEL                     152.00                                                200,000 MW of installed capacity to
                                                                                 use by means of small-scale hydro-
GAS TURBINE                112.00
                                                                                 power plants. This provides an ample
IPP                        100.00
                                                                                 scope for rural electrification on the
TOTAL THERMAL              364.00
                                                                                 basis of renewable energy. Joint ef-
TOTAL GRID CAPACITY        925.00                                                fort and International Corporation
ISOLATED INSTALLED CAPACITY                                                      (Technology Transfer, Consultancy,
HYDRO                      0.75                                                  Information Sharing, Business Cor-
THERMAL                    28.00                                                 poration) among developing coun-
TOTAL ISOLATED             28.75                                                 tries is needed to harness the abun-
TOTAL INSTALLED CAPACITY   953.75                                                dant potential.

14                                                                                         SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                         2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop



Small hydro Power in Burundi

                              B URUNDI has very good cooperation with CHINA especially in tech-
                                nique and Economy.
                             - From 1972, CHINA has promised to construct the first national SHP
NTUNZWENIMANA                plant on the MUGERE river near Bujumbura (8 MW). In 1982, this SHP
Gagarine,                    began to output electricity.
                             - Actually CHINA has accepted to finance the MPANDA SHP project (10.4
                             MW).
NIYONGINGO Nehemie           - CHINA has also accepted to build a technical university at Bujumbura to
                             increase technical engineer staff.
(REGIDESO, Burundi)          - There is many other works: health, textile industry, roads construction.

                                  This good and effective cooperation has been especially confirmed
                             through the two last regular complete revisions of the MUGERE SHP even
                             if some times the security on the field was disturbed. The last one has been
                             supported by the CHINA Government (more than 400,000 US $). Also, two
                             Chinese staffs assisted by three Burundian operators are going on with
                             preventive and curative maintenance of the equipments of this SHP plant.
                                  Burundi geographic informations and economic situation informa-
                             tions are shown in table 1 and table 2.




                                                                       SINELACCEPGL 13.3 MW) by two
                             1 SHP in Burundi                          overhead HV lines.
                                                                             All these 11 SHP assume the
                             1.1. Historic                             BURUNDI electricity supply by HV
                                                                       electrical lines: 110 kV, 70 kV, 35 kV, 30
                             - 1959: An overhead electrical line 70    kV and 10 kV.
                             kV from RUZIZI I SHP plant of                   There is a thermal power station
                             CONGO supplied Bujumbura.                 of total installed capacity 5.5 MW (2
                             - 1982: The first national SHP plant         1.5 MW, 2 1.25 MW) which has
                             (MUGERE 8 MW) constructed by the          been constructed in June 1996 for
                             CHINA Government has also sup-            scour supply of the capital
                             plied Bujumbura since May, 12. 1982.      Bujumbura.
                             - Since that date to 1988, eight (8)            Actually there are 4 national in-
                             other SHP plants have been con-           terconnected SHP (RWEGURA,
                             structed progressively to supply the      MUGERE, RUVVYIRONZA and
                             main centers inside the country, as       NYEMAGA) and 5 isolated SHP
                             showed on the national electric net-      (GIKONGE, MARANGARA,
                             work map.                                 KAYENZI, BUHIGA and SANZU).
                                   This network is actually supplied
                             by- 9 national SHP with a total in-       1.2. SHP
                             stalled capacity of 30.9 MW,- 2 for-
                             eign SHP plants (one of SNEL-             See the table 3.
                             CONGO with 4 MW, another of               As presented through this table,

SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                       15
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

                                                                                     * Two foreign SHP contribute to sup-
Table 1 Burundi Geographic Informations                                              ply in electricity the Burundian inter-
                                                                                     connected grid:
1     Geographic situation      - Near the west lift valley, beside the Tanganyika   -     RUZIZI I: belongs to SNEL
                                  lake                                               CONGO company (total installed ca-
                                - In the middle of Africa (Great lakes Region)       pacity 39.7 MW, power part to
                                - In South of the Equator line (3 degree)            BURUNDI 4 MW) by a 70 kV over-
2     Neighbor counties         TANZANIA (East and South-East), CONGO                head electrical line.
                                (West and South-West) and RWANDA (North)             -     RUZXIZI II: belongs to
3     Seasons                   Two seasons                                          SINELAC CEPGL (BURUNDI,
                                - Rain season (October-May)                          CONGO, RWANDA) company (total
                                - Dry season (June-September)                        installed capacity 45 MW, power part
4     Area and surface          - In general, a mountainous area in the middle       to BURUNDI 13.3 MW) by a 110 kV
                                - With two very narrow plains in the West and        overhead electrical line.
                                  in the East                                        * Five SHP projects are presented.
                                - Surface: 27800 km2                                 -     2002 to 2005: MPANDA SHP
5     Population                6,000,000                                            (10.4 MW) and KABU 16 SHP (20
6     Water                     - In general the all area has some small rivers.     MW).
                                - The Tanganyika lake is the biggest reservoir       -     After 2005 two other SHP are
                                  for water supply to the capital Bujumbura and      projected: Jiji 003 (15.5 MW) and
                                  other nearby cities.                               MULE 34 (16.5 MW).
                                - There are in the North 4 very small lakes.         -     The 5 th is RUSUMO FALLS
                                                                                     MHP plant (61.2 MW) which will be-
                                                                                     long to the OBK (BURUNDI,
                                                                                     RWANDA, UGANDA, TANZANIA)
Table 2 Burundi Economic Situation Informations                                      international organization.
                                                                                           M o r e o v e r, o u r c o m p a n y,
I.    Natural resources
                                                                                     REGIDESO, is constructing HV lines
1     Ores                        - Very few, not enough to be exploited by com-
                                                                                     to prepare for few years the intercon-
                                    panies
                                                                                     nection of all it’s SHP. So, the
                                  - Only there is a Nickel exploitation project in
                                                                                     BURUNDI will be electrically sup-
                                    preparation - with a South-African company
                                                                                     plied by one interconnected grid more
                                    ENDOVER.
                                                                                     reliable.
2     Soil fertility              In general, the soil is not very fertile.
3     Agriculture                 - The most part (>95%) is a family small agri-
                                                                                     1.3 Electricity and Water
                                    culture for direct consumption.
                                  - A little part is for exportation: Coffee, Thee
                                                                                           The electricity and water pro-
                                    and Cotton agriculture.
                                                                                     duction and distribution are assumed
4     Forest and Reforestment     -There are some natural forest and the Gov-
                                                                                     by a national company, REGIDESO.
                                  ernment encourages the peoples to reforest.
                                                                                     - Total staff: 1200 persons,
                                                                                     - Service duration: 40 years. From this
II. Breeding and Fishing
                                                                                     30th of June will be the 40th anniver-
                                  - There is familial breeding of Cows, Pork,
                                                                                     sary.
                                    Goats, Sheep, Chickens, ….(for fumier, meat
                                                                                           There is another small public de-
                                    and milk resources).
                                                                                     partment (DGHER) which supply wa-
                                                                                     ter and electricity in rural small cities
                                  -Fishing is especially made in the Tanganyika
                                                                                     to promote the development of the
                                   lake (very good quality fish).
                                                                                     rural areas.


 16                                                                                            SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                     2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

III.   Transport lines to for-                                                   2 Our Benefits in This Training
       eign countries                                                            Workshop
                                 - Water line though the Tnganyika lake to
                                 reach the nearby ports of TANZANMIA             2.1 SHP
                                 (Kigoma), ZAMBIA (Lusaka), MLAWIA
                                 (Mpulungu) and some small others of CONGO             In our companys, we are in two
                                 - sea area, no sea transport line               technical electrical services: power
                                 - Roads: there are roads to reach the neigh-    Production(Mr NTUNZWENI-
                                 bor countries but two of them are the most      MANA Gagarine ) and network de-
                                 important roads for tank truck and transit      sign and planning (Mr NIYONGINGO
                                 goods carrying to reach Dar-es-Alam             Nehemie). As technical staff, this
                                 (ANZANIA) and Mombassa (KENYA) ports.           training workshop has given us many
                                 - Air lines: from the Bujumbura international   detail knowledge’s as follows.
                                 airport
IV     Tourism                                                                   - The different structures of a SHP
                             There are beaches (on the sides of the lakes),      from design, construction until exploi-
                             sceneries, small parks, natural reserves,           tation;
                             mountains, falls and small hydrographic es-
                             tablishments.                                       - The different inspections to prepare
V      Industry or manufacturing                                                 the revisions or the refurbishments;
                             - Most of them are in the capital Bujumbura.
                             But some others are in the rural area.              - The abilities of CHINA (it’s compa-
                             - Drinks manufacture: BRARUDI, BRAGITA              nies and research centers, in particu-
                             - Coffee manufacture: OCIBU, SODECO                 lar HRC) to promote the SHP inside
                             - Cotton production and manufacturing:              and in foreign countries;
                             COGERCO, COTEBU, RAFINA
                             - The production and manufacturing: OTB             - The CHINA cooperation about SHP
                             - Sugar manufacturing: SOSUMO                       promotion very useful for develop-
                             - Many other small manufactures and work-           ing countries (especially African
                             shops                                               countries);
VI     Trading
                             The importation is greater than the exporta-        - Complete case study presentation,
                             tion.                                               our own case study: MUGERE SHP
                             The importation concerns the foreign manu-          (near Bujumbura);
                             factured products from China, Taiwan, Japan,
                             France, Germany, Italia, ….                         - The comprehensive exploitation of
                             The exportation concerns especially the cof-        dams (water supply, irrigation, power
                             fee, the thee, the cotton.                          generation, flood protection, fishing,
VII    Energy resources                                                          sightseeing … ).
                             Hydro-energy is the most utilized. The total
                             potential HP capacity is 300MW and the to-          2.2 Reception, Visite and Tourism
                             tal already installed capacity is 30 MW (10%).
                             The petrol is imported (1l cost: 0.8 $ US),         CHINA (HRC) has made us a very
                             Wood for heating (70 % of the all used wood).       good reception to be considered as
                             Sun lotion is no exploited until now.               example. The manufactures visited
                             Peat: used especially for cooking in big people     (KVAERNER, LMMW) have given us
                             center as schools, camps ….                         opportunities to realize the Chinese
                                                                                 potential SHP partners to BURUNDI
                                                                                 (REGIDESO). Tourist sites, rural ar-

SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                              17
                                          2002 Sino-African SHP Training Workshop

Table 3 SHP Description in Burundi

Position   SHP         Location    Start year   Number             Installed   Guarantee   Mean            Guarantee     Discharge Head
                                                and type           capacity    power       energy          energy        (m3/s)     (m)
                                                of turbine         (MW)        (MW)        (GWh/year)      (GWh/year)
1          Mugere      Bujumbura 1982           4 Pelton           8           2.2         40              19            0.944      274
2          Rwegura     Cibotoke    1986         3 pelton           18          4.6         55              35.7          1.52       480
3          Ruvyironza Gitega       1980         3 Crossflow        1.275       1.2         11              10.5          3.2        17.4
4          Gikonge     Muramvya 1982            2 Crossflow        0.85        0.24        6.8             2.1           2.15       27.3
5          Marangara   Ngozi       1984         2 Francis          0.24        0.22        2               1.9           0.29       60
6          Kayenzi     Muyinga     1984         2 Francis          0.8         0.15        1.3             0.31          1.91       26.4
7          Buhiga      Karuzi      1984         1 (+1) Crossflow   0.24 (0.48) 0.15        1.2             0.95          1.1        26
8          Sanzu       Ruyigi      1982         1 Crossflow        0.072       \           \               \             \          \
9          Nyemanga    Bururi      1988         2 (+2) Pelton      1.4 (2.8)   1.4         12.2            12.2          0.37       226
10         Ruzizi I    RD Congo 1959            4 Kaplan           4           4           34              34            \          \
11         Ruzizi II   RD Congo 1989            3 Francis          13.3        5.4         73              47            \          \
12         Mpanda      Bubanza     Proj         2 Pelton           10.4        3.7         34              30            \          874
13         Kabu 16     Cibitoke    Proj         2 Francis          20          8           111.7           70.08         6.425      181.5
14         Jiji003     Bururi      Proj         3 Pelton           15.5        \           \               \             1.87       375
15         Mule 34     Bururi      Proj         3 Pelton           16.5        \           \               \             2.85       235
16         Rusumo      Tanzania-   Proj         \                  61.2        \           \               \             \          \
           Falls       Uganda



eas and cities visits have been for us          to give us their knowledge in SHP:                us and for others even if fare we are.
opportunities to see the East CHINA             technical design, business and trad-              It will be a great contribution to de-
human activities and environment                ing.                                              velop the all world especially our
which are very good examples to our                   It is sure that this improves for           country (among developing coun-
country.                                        us how to serve our country (particu-             ties) in Hydro Plants.
      This training workshop has                larly our company REGIDESO) when
given us more knowledge and atten-              we will be back.                                        Last but not least, we could not
tion to pay on SHP also the CHINA’s                   This contribution effort among              finish our presentation without ex-
ability to promote these stations               developing countries has merited our              pressing our sincere thanks to
among developing countries. This is             greatest congratulations to CHINA                 CHINA, especially HRC and all it’s
a very important thing to our country           People Republic Government, par-                  staff, for all the effort used to receive,
BURUNDI (and our company                        ticularly to HRC.                                 to accompany and to teach us from
REGIDESO) which use almost only                       About these training work-                  the beginning until the end of this
SHP to produce electrical energy. It            shops, we would like to express the               training workshop. We go back with
is sure that this will be very useful for       following recommendations.                        the very distinguished fruit of your
the already being and future hydro-                                                               laborious work that we carry very
power.                                                                                            honestly to our country. It gives us
                                                - May such training workshop go on                more ability to the works of our com-
3 Conclusion                                    until outreach the all (developing)               pany.
                                                countries> It is also a way to increase
     Began by a very good reception,            their development.                                      To end, we thank to all the rep-
the SHP training workshop has been                                                                resentatives of CHINA People Re-
successfully made. HRC has used all             - It is desirable to be created a HRC             public Government, TCDC, the rep-
the means to disponibilize highly               internet site for technical works, pub-           resentatives of HRC, all the HRC‘s
qualified and experimented teachers             lications. This will be very useful for           staff and our friends trainees.


18                                                                                                             SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                                     SHP in China




                                    ENROLMENT INFORMATION
 2002 TCDC Training Workshop on Small Hydro Power
      ponsored by the UN and China,       ing country report on SHP.                should be endorsed by the depart-
S     Hangzhou Regional Center for        9.Participant’s Qualifications and        ments concerned of their respective
SHP (HRC) aims at promoting the           Requirements for Admission:The            governments, and submit with valid
SHP development in the world. China       applicants should be under 45 years       Health Certificates provided by au-
has most SHP stations and has gained      old, graduated from technical schools     thorized physicians or hospitals to the
much experience in SHP develop-           with two years’ SHP practice, be in       Economic and Commercial
ment. In order to disseminate SHP         good health with no infectious dis-       Counsellor’s Office of Chinese Em-
technology, HRC has already held          eases and not handicapped, be profi-      bassy (ECCOCE) for endorsement; If
with success 34 training workshops        cient in English; prepare a review        endorsed, Admission Notices will be
for 589 participants from 60 countries.   paper or report on SHP development        issued to the accepted participants by
1.Objectives: To master the basic         of the participants’ country, not to      ECCOCE through the related govern-
theory and principles of SHP devel-       bring family members to the training      ment departments. With Admission
opment, feasibility study, operation,     course, to observe all the laws, rules    Notices, participants should go
maintenance etc.                          and regulations of P.R. China and re-     through all necessary formalities with
2.Date:From 9 Oct. to 18 Nov. 2002,       spect the Chinese customs.                all the mentioned documents to China
Hangzhou, P.R. China.                     10.Training Expenses:The expenses         on the registration date.
3.Venue:Hangzhou Regional Center          of training, boarding and lodging, lo-    12.Insurance:The training course or-
for SHP, Hagnzhou, China.                 cal transportation, pocket money of       ganizer dose not hold any responsi-
4.Course Contents: Procedures of          RMB 30 Yuan per person per day            bility for such risks as loss of life,
SHP development, feasibility study,       during the training period in China       accidents, illness, loss of property
hydrological analysis, low-cost civil     will be borne by the Chinese govern-      incurred by the participants during the
structure, turbo-generator, electric      ment and distributed by HRC. The          training period.
design, automation, economic evalu-       international travel costs including      13.Liaison Address:Attn:Mr.D.Pan
ation, operation, maintenance.            round trip tickets, transit fares, the    &Ms. Shen Xuequn
5.Training Methods:Lectures, dis-         expenses of medical care, insurance       Hangzhou Regional Center (Asia-
cussions, field trips & seminar.          for the participants are covered by the   Pacific) for Small Hydro power
6. Medium of Instruction:English          participants themselves.                  Hangzhou, P.R. China, 310012;
7.Source of Trainees:SHP technical        11.Application and Admission:             Phone:0086 571 88086586
personnel or officials from develop-      Nominated by their respective gov-        Fax:0086 571 88062934
ing countries.                            ernments, applicants are requested to     E-Mail:hrc@mail hz.zj.cn
8.Methods for Evaluation: present-        fill up the Application Forms, which      http://www.hrcshp.org
SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                 19
                    SHP in China



Sino-Vietnam Cooperation for Water Conservancy &
        Hydropower Further Strengthened
                           F ollowing the invitation of Vietnam Institute for Wa-
                             ter Resources Research (VIWRR), the Chinese del-
                           egation from Hangzhou Regional Center for Small Hydro
                           Power (HRC) headed by the deputy director of Nanjing
                           Hydraulic Research Institute (NHRI), director of HRC,
                           Prof. Chen Shengshui, has paid a visit to VIWRR from
                           June 5 to June 9, 2002 to explore the possibility and fields
                           of cooperation. The delegation consists of three mem-
                           bers, i.e. Director of HRC, Prof. Chen Shengshui, Chief of
                           automation division Mr. Xujincai and senior consultant
                           Mr. Li Zhiwu.
                                 During its stay in Vietnam, the delegation mainly held
                           technical exchange and cooperative discussion with the
                           Vietnam Institute for Water Resources Research (VIWRR)
                           and its affiliated Hydro Power Center (HPC).
                                 In the afternoon of June 5, the delegation arrived in
                           Hanoi, and on June 6 the deputy Director of HPC intro-
                           duced the multi-purpose hydropower project Jinshan
                           Lake station, as well as the basic profiles of other 6 sta-
                           tions under programming or feasibility study that carried
                           out by HPC.
                                 In the morning of June 7, the delegation visited the
                           Vietnam Institute for Water Resources Research, and with
                           the participation of Dr. Nguyen Tuan Anh, Director of
                           VIWRR, the deputy Director and senior researchers from
                           the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development etc.,
                           both sides conducted technical exchanges, and introduced
                           the structures and the business scopes of their research
                           institutes, the main achievements scored and the being
                           executed scientific and research activities as well. Coop-
                           erative fields and the possibility were discussed among
                           VIWRR, HPC, Nanjing Hydropower Research Institute
                           (NHRI) and Hangzhou Regional Center (Asia-Pacific) for
                           Small Hydropower (HRC).
                                 In the afternoon of June 7, Mr. Hoang Van Thang,
                           Director of HPC emphasized that Vietnam would quicken
                           steps to develop the medium and small-sized hydropower,
                           and planned that recently 40 medium and small-sized hy-
                           dropower stations are to be tapped, among which there
                           are 15 stations with the installed capacity of 0.5-7MW,
                           and 25 stations with the installed capacity of 9-100MW.
                           In the past, in Vietnam the medium and small-sized hydro-
                           power stations are all invested by the state, and now more
                           fund channels are adopted including foreign fund and
20                                                       SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                                       SHP in China




                                            talk, the discussion was focused on       and bamboo resources as well as
                                            the sustainable development for new       kinds of processing industries, there-
                                            and renewable energy; the mature          fore, to help local people to improve
                                            technology and rich experience of         their living conditions and to be able
                                            SHP development in China; as well         to enjoy rich life finally. The
                                            as the assistance on poverty-allevia-     Bluemoon Fund stressed that, distin-
                                            tion for rural people, etc. The           guished from previous ways or from
                                            Bluemoon Fund is originally known         other foundations, they hope to be
           29,2002, delegation
O n May BluemoonaFund(USA)
  from the
                                            as Jones Foundation, which has been
                                            running for over 50 years, and en-
                                                                                      able to set up a kind of new and prac-
                                                                                      ticable developing mode, which will
paid a visit to HRC. The guests were        joyed a high reputation in USA. Re-       help the poverty-stricken areas find
Ms. Diane Edgerton Miller, the Presi-       cently, the Bluemoon Fund planned         ways to increase income, and not only
dent, Mr. Ji-Qiang Zhang, the Vice-         to select sites in Yunnan Province,       being undertaken as a simple one-
President, and Ms. Pat Jones                China and in Peru, to establish some      time donation.
Edgerton, the treasurer. It’s their first   special investment companies, to                The Bluemoon Fund showed its
time to HRC. Dr. Chen Shengshui, the        which excellent talents engaged in        high appreciation of HRC’s contri-
director of HRC, Ms. Cheng Xialei,          various fields will be sent for provid-   bution to the global SHP develop-
the deputy director and Mr. Zhu             ing assistance on planning, evalua-       ment, and expected possible coopera-
Xiaozhang, the honorary director re-        tion, construction, operation as well     tion and assistance from HRC on the
ceived and held friendly discussion         as training. On this basis, it is ex-     above-mentioned proposal. Mean-
with them. Mr. Zhu Xiaohua from Di-         pected to create favorable investment     while, with respect to the “new con-
vision of Science, Mr. Lu Jianping          environment, attract local investment     cept aid” proposed by the Bluemoon
from Division of Electromechanical          in various forms, and then have com-      Fund, which was featured as sustain-
and Ms. Shen Xuequn from Division           prehensive development and utiliza-       able and comprehensive, HRC ex-
of Training also attended this meet-        tion on local resources effectively and   pressed its admiration as well as the
ing.                                        efficiently, such as the integrated de-   willingness to offer technical support
     During over two hours’ cordial         velopment on water resources, rattan      for the potential SHP projects.

private investment.                         tection, tourism and so on.                         Cooperation in the program
      On June 8, a field visit was orga-         On June 9, the delegation intro-     of providing hydraulic rams and small
nized to the pilot multi-purpose            duced the Director of HPC with the        hydropower stations to mountainous
Jinshan Lake hydropower station, in         basic thoughts of comprehensively         area in Vietnam;
which the dam, the powerhouse and           developing the Jinshan Lake hydro-                  Cooperation in the program
the transmission lines have already         power station.                            of flood control and natural disaster
been implemented, and turbine-gen-               After several rounds of friendly     mitigation.
erator units and the automation sys-        discussions and field trip to the pro-          A delegation of VIWRR will visit
tem waits to be equipped. The invest-       posed hydropower plant, a memoran-        to the NHRI to exchange experiences
ment for this station is from VIWRR.        dum of cooperation agreement              and discuss the cooperation in con-
After this visit, Chinese delegates be-     signed coveres the following fields.      sulting design a hi-tech experiment
lieve that, this hydropower station is               Experience exchanges on          area of the VIWRR which is 27 km
very close to Hanoi and the famous          scientific studies and technology rel-    away from Ha noi.
scenic area-Xialong Bay, only 40km          evant to small hydropower                       Because Vietnam has great po-
away from Youyi Quan, which is en-          works,automation, river training,         tential resources of SHP and is in rap-
dowed with beautiful natural environ-       coastal engineering, irrigation, drain-   idly development stage to explore
ment, and other functions such as           age and reclamation, new building         SHP, the cooperation between
power generation, flood prevention,         material and software for water re-       VIWRR, HPC and NHRI, HRC will
irrigation, fishery, environment pro-       sources;                                  have a brighter future.
SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                    21
                                                       SHP in China


                       A Chinese Magazine
                    “Small Hydropower” by HRC
                      Hydro-
 T he Chinese “Small that Na-
   power”, a magazine
                                           ternational SHP activities and impor-
                                           tant events in the field of SHP have
                                                                                     more popular in over 600 rural coun-
                                                                                     ties which is primarily hydro-electri-
tional Research Institute for Rural        also been widely included.                fied, more than 2,300 counties with
Electrification (NRIRE) and                     This magazine has carried news,      hydropower resources, more than
Hangzhou Regional Centre (Asia-            views and articles on all aspects of      50,000 small-sized hydropower sta-
Pacific) for Small Hydro Power has         small hydro power. It is useful to        tions, thousands of colleges or uni-
edited and published for 105 issues        those who are intersted in technical      versities, research institutes and other
(bimonthly), allocated with the Inter-     experience of SHP development in          administrative authorities on SHP.
national Standard Serial Number            China.                                    Advertising is welcome for any
ISSN 0256-3118, and China Standard              “Small Hydropower” is the only       equipment manufacturer to target
Serial Number CN33-1204/TV. It             professional publication on small hy-     Chinese market on SHP construction,
was published in Chinese and with          dropower in China, which is issued        equipment purchasing or other busi-
English titles. Special features are       domestically and abroad. It is widely     nesses.
technical experience of SHP devel-         circled in all corners of China con-      Subscription rates (1 year):USD40.00
opment in China. Information of in-        cerning SHP, and getting more and
    The main contents of the 103th issue (2002 No 1) read as follow.
 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
       Working Research
       Necessity of SHP used instead of firewood
       Influence of annual operating hours analysed by SHP statistical data

       Technology Exchange
       Design of non-pressure tunnel used instead of diversion canal
       Arrangements and drainage design of sunk basin in SHP of low head and axial flow turbine
       Design of emergency gate of culvert pipe in Qihe SHP station

       Mechanical and Electrical Equipment
       Selection and renewal of storage cell and AC system in Shenzhen SHP station
       Attrition test of runner wear ring
       Improvement of water supply in low-head SHP station

       Computer Application
       Application of PC computer in turbine-generator electric stop
       LH 2001 synthetical monitoring system applied to Nanwan SHP station

       Renewal and Reconstruction
       Enlarge benefits by replacing runner
       Renewal of service dischange pump
       Capacity increase of Lilin first cascade power station

       Service and Maintenance
       Renewal of turbine top cover lifting and discharge
       Effect of linking to network on Reactive Power in SHP station
       Reason of shearing screw bolt of upper guide bearing block and its service
       Acid removal of transformer oil in site

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
22                                                                                                SHP News, Autumn, 2002
                                                         SHP in China


             Cambodia rehabilitates Kirirom                                               Hydro plants could
                                                                                           fight Laos floods
         he China Electric Power Tech-       at that time, and will also install two
 T       nology Import & Export Cor-         new turbines and re-erect the 110kV          C        HINA IS PROPOSING
                                                                                                   THAT Laos contributes to the
poration (CETIC) has signed a US$            transmission line. Work is expected
                                                                                         cost of damming the upper Mekong
26M contract with Cambodia’s Min-            to begin in mid 2001 and be completed
                                                                                         river, as the project could help re-
istry of Industry, Mines and Energy          by early 2003.
                                                                                         lieve annual floods which devas-
(MIME) to rehabilitate the Kirirom 1               The contract signals the effec-
                                                                                         tate Laos.
hydro project.                               tive rebirth of Cambodia’s state power
                                                                                                Each year the Mekong river
      The 10MW plant which lies              sector. MIME oversees Electricite du
                                                                                         bursts its banks with greater force
110km southwest of Phnom Penh, was           Cambodia, which will soon be gov-
                                                                                         than the year before, but flooding
originally commissioned in 1968.             erned by a brand new electricity law
                                                                                         could be relieved by the 300m high
However, it was abandoned in 1972            and regulated by the Energy Author-
                                                                                         Xiaowan dam planned for China’s
when the plant and its transmission          ity of Cambodia.
                                                                                         Yunnan province. China is asking
line was damaged by warfare, deny-                 Other hydro projects in the pipe-
                                                                                         for Laos to help finance the project,
ing power to Cambodia’s capital city.        line are Prek Thnot, Stund Kamchay,
                                                                                         but David Jezeph, chief of Water
      CETIC will be re-building one of       Stung Mnam 2 and the Stund Atay
                                                                                         and Mineral Resources at the Eco-
three earthfill dams that were breached      diversion.
                                                                                         nomic and Social Commission for
                                                                                         Asia and the Pacific said that coun-
     China expreses interest in philippine hydro
                                                                                         tries in the lower Mekong basin are
                                                                                         concerned that China could exert
                 A
 M EMBERS OFwhichCHINESE
   trade mission   visited the
                                             mission is also interested in establish-
                                             ing small thermal power stations and        too much power over water re-
Philippines in December 2000 have            mini hydro projects.                        sources.
said they are prepared to invest up to             Napocor’s president, Frederico
                                                                                          Cascade 1 Hydropower Station Imple-
US$19M in the Philippines’ energy            Puno, told reporters that his company
sector, and are particularly interested      is interested in China’s expertise in        mented on Woka River in Tibet of China
in hydro power projects.
      In a meeting with the National
                                             developing hydro power plants. He
                                             said that China has particularly ex-         O     n October 12,2000 the repre-
                                                                                                sentatives from all sides for-
Power Corporation(Napocor) the mis-          pertise when starting new hydro             mally signed at the acceptance test
sion, headed by vice minister Chen           power in harsh or geographically re-        for implementing cascade 1 hydro-
Xiahun of the Ministry of Foreign Trade      mote settings.                              power station on Woka River in Ti-
                                                                                         bet, which marks that the second larg-
and Economy, expressed an interest           Source:INTERNATIONAL WATER
                                                                                         est one of China’s national 62 assist-
in hydro power projects, especially in       POWER & DAM CONSTRUCTION ,
                                                                                         ing-Tibet projects is fully succeeded.
Northern Luzon. Chen said that the           FEBRUARY, 2001                                      This station is a low-head di-
           Test on the 30kW Vibrating                                                    version one, over 3,600m above sea
                                                                                         level, with the installed capacity of
       Wave-power Station Accepted in China                                              20MW. The effective generation
           o meet the demand of island       entific & technological items during the    amounts to 73GWh, and the invest-
  T        residents on the electric power   national 9th “Five-year Plan” period, and   ment totals RMB849.69 million. On
 for their daily lives, a 30kW vibrating     the design and construction of this sta-    September 10, 1999 the first batch of
 wavepower station, designed and built       tion embodies very important meanings       units started for generation, and in
 by the Oceanic Technology Research          to the economic development of islands,     that October this station was put into
                                                                                         trial operation, which was highly
 Institute of China National Bureau of       utilization of island resources and the
                                                                                         qualified. After the construction of
 Ocean, is presently conducted with test     construction of national defense, which
                                                                                         this project, it provides urgently elec-
 in Jimo city of Shangdong province, and     symbolizes that China has already           tric power to the power system in Laze
 accepted by China National Bureau of        achieved the advanced international-        prefecture of Tibet, and plays a sig-
 Ocean and China’s Academy of Sci-           standard technology in the vibrating        nificant role in promoting the local
 ence. This project is one of the key sci-   wave-power generation.                      economy in Tibet.
SHP News, Autumn, 2002                                                                                                       23
                                                        News in SHP


        Hydropower Development                                                               2. Considering the viewpoints
                                                                                       of comprehensive economy, the spe-
          Strategy in Australia                                                        cial function of hydropower in the
                                                                                       electric power system shall be fully
        to some effective policies
 O wingstrategies, the Australian
   and
                                             analysis on the economic benefit and
                                             the environment arising from those 3
                                                                                       used. One of the reasons for Austra-
                                                                                       lia developing hydropower, is mainly
government made its exploitation rate        power sources and their combination,      to fully adopt the dynamic effects and
of hydropower resources more than            conducted by the Federal Electric         partially use the static effects of hy-
60% in a relatively short period.            Power Commission and the state elec-      dropower stations in the electric
These strategies mainly include as           tric power commissions, it is con-        power system, and meanwhile, this
follows.                                     cluded that it’s more preferential to     viewpoint is considered to be the
      1. According to the principles         develop hydropower (for instance,         basic planning & design principle of
of market economy, priority given            hydropower from snow hills) rather        hydropower projects, as to make each
to the SHP development. Australia            than the local coal-generated power       sole power grid integrated together,
is very rich in resources for generat-       or other power sources to meet the        and enlarge the power-supply scope
ing the electric power such as nuclear       power demand of the state and its         of the integrated power grids to take
source, coal, petroleum and gas etc.,        districts. During the loan-Payback        shape of a large power grid with high-
especially among those eastern states        period the price of the correspond-       voltage grade. So the whole hydro-
where water resources are very abun-         ing peak load is US$1 .2 cent/kW h,       power station can fully perform its
dant, the coal reserves accounts for         and after payment it is reduced to        adjustment on frequency, phase and
over 80% of the whole country, and           US$0.07 cent/kW h, which is lower         peak load etc., to guarantee the
there is a good condition for coal           than the material (coal) cost of the      power-supply quality and reliability
quality, its production and transpor-        thermal power, therefore, a strategy      of the system and to achieve the com-
tation, with relatively low price. Gen-      of giving priority to hydropower de-      prehensive economic profits for so-
erally, people think that it’s a certainty   velopment is promulgated and pit into     cial production and living improve-
to develop the local coal in these           practice.                                 ment of the people.
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
states, but after a comprehensive                                                      98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        Iran funds dam completion
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                              Iran has signed a contract with
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
NEW TURNKEY PACKAGE FOR                                                                 unnamed foreign financiers for
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        US$300M to fund two half-finished
MINI HYDRO LAUNCHED                                                                    98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        dam schemes, according to Tehran
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
 A lstom Power’s Hydroits Mini-
   on 22 June launched
                       division              suitable for a variety of heads, with
                                             applications rated from 0.5MW (the
                                                                                        radio. The schemes are the Ostur
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        dam in Mianeh in East Azerbaijan
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        province and the Molla Sadra dam
Aqua range, as a turnkey approach            minimum end of the ‘very low head’        98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
to mini hydropower installation. Ex-         range) up to 15MW (the top of the          in Fars province. The Ostur dam
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        will have a storage capacity of 2B
tensive work over the previous year-         ‘high head’ range). The standardized      98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
and-a-half has contributed to the de-        design can be automatically scaled         m3 and a 160 MW hydro power sta-
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
velopment of an integrated package,          to a given site by computer, with the
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        tion. The dam will be completed by
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
comprising turbine, generator and a          turbine type varying with the differ-      an Iranian company working with
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
PC-based control system. The com-            ent levels of head; Kaplan for very       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        Swiss and Austrian assistance.
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
pany noted that there was a ‘rapid           low (2-6 metre) and low (6-30 metre)             Molla Sadra will store up to
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
growth’ in the mini hydro market,            heads, Francis for medium (20-300          400M m3 of water and generate
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
caused by ‘the development of dis-           metre) heads, and Pelton for high (150-    100MW. This dam will be com-
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
tributed power      and by the politi-       1000 metre) heads. Alstom foresees         pleted by an Iranian company with
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        Chinese assistance.
cal will in many countries to increase       that Mini-Aqua will cover 80-85% of       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
significantly the share of renewable         its targeted hydro market. Orders for            The Deputy Energy Minister,
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        Rasul Zargar, said that the
energy produced.’                            15 systems have already come from         98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
      Using standardized compo-              Brazil, and two from Morocco.              US$300M will be used to fund a
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                        water supply scheme in Kerman.
nents, the package is designed to be                                                   98765432109876543210987654321
                                                                                       98765432109876543210987654321
24                                                                                              SHP News, Autumn, 2002

				
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