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Lesson 8 The US Navy and America

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Lesson 8 The US Navy and America Powered By Docstoc
					Sea Power and Maritime
       Affairs



Lesson 8: The U.S. Navy and American
       Imperialism, 1898-1914
            Learning Objectives
   Know the influence of the mass media in U.S. relations
    with Spain and the effect of the destruction of the U.S.S.
    Maine on public opinion.

   Comprehend the impact of Mahanian doctrine on the naval
    strategy and thinking in preparation for and conduct of the
    war.

   Comprehend the reasons for the acceleration of U.S. Navy
    expansion following the war with Spain.
          Learning Objectives
   Know the effect of the Progressive Era in
    domestic politics on the Navy.

   Comprehend the threats and resultant
    actions taken by the U.S. concerning
    activities in the Pacific and Caribbean
    during the period 1900-1914.
The Spanish-American War
                             Causes

   Decreased isolationism in U.S. public and Congress

   Cuban Revolution (1895-1898):
    –   U.S. investments threatened
    –   Spanish authorities commit atrocities against Cuban civilians
    –   Sympathetic to Cubans
                       The Fuze
   USS Maine Explosion - February 1898:
    –   Havana, Cuba.
    –   Mission — protect U.S. citizens and property.
    –   U.S. public angered - blame placed on Spain.
          ―Free Cuba!‖
          ―Remember the Maine!‖
   President William McKinley
    –   Congress declares war on Spain -- April 1898.
USS
Maine

Havana,
 Cuba

February
  1898
               Fighting the War
   Geography
    – Spanish Empire- Cuba, Puerto Rico,
      Philippines, Guam
    – U.S. strategic interests
          Panama Canal, Hawaii
   U.S forces
    – Atlantic: Sampson/Schley
    – Asiatic: Dewey (China/Japan)
President
 William
McKinley
         Naval Orders of Battle
   United States
     – North Atlantic Squadron
            Sampson based in Key West.
            Schley’s ―Flying Squadron‖ in Norfolk.
            USS Oregon sent from Pacific to Atlantic.
    –   Asiatic Squadron
            Commanded by Commodore George Dewey at Hong Kong.
               –   Sent by Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt.
   Spain
     – Inferior naval forces.
            Montojo - Manila Bay
            Cervera - Cape Verde Islands
             Fighting the War
   Cuba
    – Blockade of Santiago harbor (1 May)
    – Amphibious landing at Daiquiri (June 20)
    – Destruction of Cevera’s Fleet (July 3)
        Sampson/Schley command controversy

        Naval Results
  Rear
 Admiral
William T.
Sampson

 Commander

North Atlantic
 Squadron
Rear Admiral
Winfield Scott
   Schley
   Commander

  North Atlantic
 Flying Squadron

 Spanish-American
       War
    Admiral
    Pascual
    Cervera
    Commander
   Spanish Fleet
Battle of Santiago de
         Cuba
                      Battle of Santiago
   American blockade of Santiago Harbor.
    –   Guantanamo Bay seized by Huntington’s battalion of Marines.
   Amphibious landing at Daiquiri.
    –   Confusion between Army and Navy: Shafter and Sampson.
   Rough Riders’ Teddy Roosevelt.
    –   Leads charge at the Battle of San Juan Hill.
   Spanish governor orders fleet to flee harbor - 1 July 1898.
    –   Sampson / Schley command controversy.
   Results and lessons:
    –   Spanish home fleet recalled while en route to the Philippines
    –   U.S. technological superiority overwhelms Spanish.
    –   U.S. becomes dominant power in the Caribbean Sea.
    –   Improvement needed in fire control and amphibious doctrine.
                 Battle of San Juan Hill
     The
“Rough Riders”        1 July 1898
Teddy Roosevelt
Rough Riders
  USS Oregon
Battle of Santiago
Battle of Santiago
              Fighting the War
   Pacific
    – Philippines: Phase I
        Dewey’s Descent

        Spanish Fleet sunk at anchor

        Dewey national Hero

        Siege of Manila
Commodore
  George
  Dewey

  Commander
  U.S. Asiatic
   Squadron

Spanish-American
      War
   Admiral
 Don Patricio
  Montojo

    Commander
   Spanish Fleet
Battle of Manila Bay
              Battle of Manila Bay
                            1 May 1898
   U.S. Asiatic Fleet sails from Hong Kong to Manila.
    – Dewey orders increased training and gunnery practice.
 Spanish use shore guns to augment anchored fleet.
 Dewey: ―You may fire when you are ready, Gridley.‖
    –   Spanish fleet sunk at anchor.
    –   Superior American gunnery.
 Dewey becomes a national hero.
 Siege of Manila follows with Army troops.
 War against Aguinaldo's Philippine Nationalists.
    – Philippine Insurrection or Filipino-American War- 1899-1902.
    – U.S. establishes control of entire Philippine Archipelago.
                Battle of Manila Bay
             Philippines

                           .   MANILA

                                        Manila   Manila
Dewey from                              Bay
Hong Kong
Battle of Manila Bay
    Battle
     of
  Manila Bay

“You may fire when
  ready, Gridley.”
  - Commodore
       George Dewey
 Captain
Charles V.
 Gridley

Commanding
  Officer

USS Olympia

   Battle
     of
 Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay




                1 May 1898
 Commodore
   George
   Dewey

Battle of Manila Bay
Battle of Manila Bay
             Dewey’s Flagship
                 Fighting the War
   Pacific
    – Philippines: Phase I
           Dewey’s Descent
           Spanish Fleet sunk at anchor
           Dewey national Hero
           Siege of Manila
    – Other islands- Wake seized, Guam seized, Hawaii
      annexed
    – Philippines: Phase II
           War against Philippine Nationalists
           U.S. bogged down
        U.S. “Empire” Established
   From Spain in 1898:
    – Puerto Rico
    – Guam
    – Philippines
    – Guantanamo Bay Naval Base in Cuba
    (Spain sells other island territories in the Pacific to the
      German Empire in 1899.)

   Formerly Independent:
    – Hawaii (Annexed 1898)
    – Wake Island - 1899
    –   ―American‖ Samoa (Harbor of Pago Pago) - 1899
American Pacific Territories
   Coaling Stations for Ships
    U.S. Navy after the War
 Battle Ships principle warship
 Mahan's advocacy of fleet engagements vindicated.
    –   Commerce raiding discredited.
   Construction programs to be completed by 1905:
    –   10 first-rate battleships.
    –   4 armored cruisers.
   Global empire yields:
    –   Overseas bases.
    –   Expanded obligations to protect overseas interests.
   Dewey heads new Navy General Board.
    –   First U.S. peacetime strategic planning apparatus.
    –   Missions are to devise war plans and assess foreign navies’
        capabilities.
Progressive Era Politics (1901-
                           1914)
   Strong Presidents:
    – Theodore Roosevelt, William Howard Taft, and
      Woodrow Wilson.
   Republican Congress funds battleships and canal
    construction.
    – Large increases in federal budget.
    – Large increase in percentage of federal budget for
      Department of the Navy.
   Dewey and General Board
    – Access to Secretary of the Navy and / or the President
      on a regular basis due to increased importance of the
      Navy.
Prewar International Concerns
         1900-1914
 Expanding Interests of Germany, U.S.
  attention to Caribbean
 Expanding Interests of Japan, U.S. attention
  in Pacific
               The Caribbean
   Threat: Germany
    – U.S. has stake in Caribbean
        Annexation of Puerto Rico

        Naval base in Cuba

    – Germany has strong interest in Latin America
    – Venezuela Crisis (1902)
        Germany wants base there

        Germany (plus Britain, Italy) blockades to recover
         from default on 12.5 million loan
Roosevelt Corollary to Monroe
          Doctrine
   Caribbean Sea
    – Vital defense of the U.S. - Navy protects access to
        Panama Canal.
   European relations with Latin America.
    –   Venezuela Crisis (1902) demonstrates need for U.S.
        to ensure European powers need not intervene in
        Western Hemisphere.
                 “The Big Stick”
   Theodore Roosevelt (December 1904):
    –   U.S. obligated ―in flagrant cases of wrong-doing or
        impotence (in Latin America) to the exercise of an
        international police power.‖
   Constant interventions by Navy and Marines:
    –   Haiti, Nicaragua, and the Dominican Republic.
    –   Cuba - Platt Amendment.
    –   Vera Cruz, Mexico.
   ―Yankee Imperialism‖ despised by many Latin
    Americans.
                   Panama Canal
   Renewed U.S. desire for canal in Central America.
    –   Link between Atlantic and Pacific Fleets.
          Need for the canal is highlighted by USS Oregon’s long
           transit to the Battle of Santiago.

   Strong support from President Theodore Roosevelt.
    –   Essentially Mahanian
                 Panama Canal
   Panamanian Revolution against Colombia - 1903.
    –   Engineered and influenced by U.S.
    –   Panama Canal Zone ceded to U.S.

   Construction of the canal begins in 1904.
    –   Completed in 1914.

   Increased importance of U.S. control of Caribbean
    Sea.
    –   Protection of Panama Canal is vital to defense of the
        U.S.
        U.S. Interests in the Far East

   War Plan Orange
    –   U.S. Navy plan for war with Japan.
    –   Defense of the Philippines and defeat of the Japanese Navy.
                   The Open Door
   U.S. ―Open Door‖ policy in China:
    –   Policy has two aspects.
         (1) Ensure territorial integrity of China.
         (2) Ensure free trade in China for all countries.
    –   China’s Boxer Rebellion - 1900
            U.S. Marine Regiment attached to U.S. Army force protecting
             Westerners.
    –   Counter European and Japanese attempts at ―spheres of
        influence‖.
            Yangtze River Patrol - U.S. gunboats protect American
             commerce.
The Rise of Japanese Sea
         Power
        Opening and Modernization
   Commodore M.C. Perry - 1854
    – Treaty of Kanagawa
    – European powers quickly follow U.S. lead.
   Meiji Restoration - 1868
    –   End of Tokugawa Shogunate’s feudal system.
    –   Emperor restored to power.
 Increased trade with the West.
 Rapid modernization of industry and armed forces.
 Colonial expansion begins on Pacific Islands.
 Japanese Navy
    – From the Age of Galleys directly to the Modern Age.
    – Skips entirely the Age of Sail.
   Conflict with China
                              Sino-Japanese War
    –   Ryukus                          1894-95
    –   Taiwan
    –   Korea
   Japanese make a surprise first strike.
    – Prior to declaration of war.
   Battle of the Yalu:
    – Chinese fleet takes ―V‖ formation.
    – Japanese divide fleet into two squadrons.
   Outcome: Expansion of Japanese Empire in East Asia.
    –   Korea
    –   Taiwan (Formosa) and Pescadores
    –   Port Arthur
Battle of the Yalu - 17 September 1894
 Admiral
Heihachiro
  Togo
    Russo-Japanese War 1904-05
 Japan forced to withdraw from Korea and Port Arthur
 Russian Expansion into the Far East
    – Trans-Siberian Railway
          Chinese allow Russian construction through Manchuria.
    – Russian Naval Base at Vladivostok
   Port Arthur and Manchuria
    – Occupied by Russian forces.
 Korea threatened.
 Anglo-Japanese Alliance - 1902
    – Attempt by Japan to keep European powers out of the war.
 Japanese strike first again.
 Battle of the Yellow Sea.
Russian
Warships
Russian Battleship Navarin
Japanese Battleship Mikasa
Japanese Battleship Asahi
Japanese Battleship
    Shikishima
Japanese Armored Cruiser Yakuma
             Balance of Power
Russia                               Japan
   Advantages                          Disadvantages
    –   Number of Troops                 –   Number of Troops
    –   Fleet Strength                   –   Fleet Strength
    –   Natural Resources                –   Natural Resources
   Disadvantages                       Advantages
    –   Division of Forces               –   Strategic Center
           Three Fleets
    –   Lines of Communication           –   Multiple Naval Bases
           Trans-Siberian RR
    –   Initial Defensive Strategy       –   First Strike
             Battle of Tsushima Strait
   Baltic Fleet commanded by Admiral Zinovi Rozhestvenski.
    –   Transit to Vladivostok.
    –   Protection of supply ships.
   Vice Admiral Heihachiro Togo
    – Togo ―Crosses the T‖ -- Decisive Japanese victory.
   Lessons learned:
    –   Rear Admiral Nebogatov - Surrender not an option.
    –   Heavy armor and guns.
    –   Semi-independent divisions.
    –   Dividing the fleet.
   Treaty of Portsmouth - President Theodore Roosevelt:
    – Port Arthur and Southern Sakhalin ceded to Japan.
    – Japan becomes the dominant power in the Far East.
    Increases in U.S. Naval Power
   By 1898
     – 4 1st Class Battleships: Indiana, Massachusetts, Oregon, and
       Iowa.
     – 2 2nd Class Battleships: Texas and Maine.
     – 2 Armored Cruisers.
     – 10 Protected Cruisers.
     – Gunboats, Monitors, Torpedo Boats.
   Modern technology in the fleet:
     – Steam, armor, and rifled breech-loading guns.
     President
     Theodore
     Roosevelt
          and
   Rear Admiral
 Robley D. “Fighting
   Bob” Evans

 Prior to the sailing of
the Great White Fleet -
         1907.
The Great White Fleet
Route of the Great White Fleet –
            1907-08
   Improved gunnery:                    Technology
    –   Smokeless powder.               Improvements
   HMS Dreadnought - 1907
    – First all ―big-gun‖ battleship launched by Great Britain.
    – Makes all other battleships obsolete.
   Battle Cruisers
    – Same armament as dreadnoughts but less armor.
    – Faster speeds.
 Destroyers - Vital part of fleet - protection from torpedoes.
 Submarines
    –   USS Holland - 1900
    –   Diesel engines developed allow greater maneuverability.
   Radios - Improved communications.
HMS Dreadnought
    - First all “big gun”
      Battleship.
    - Eight 12-inch guns.
HMS Dreadnought
HMS Dreadnought
                  Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
Wright Brothers
                       17 December 1903
Eugene Ely
USS Birmingham (CL 2)

14 November 1910
How it all Started!!!
          Dawn of Naval Aviation
   Wright Brothers -- Kitty Hawk, North Carolina:
    1903
   Eugene Ely
     – First flight of an aircraft from a ship in 1910.
     – First landing of an aircraft on a ship in 1911.
   Glenn Curtiss - First seaplane landing - 1911.
   Lieutenant ―Spuds‖ Ellyson: Naval Aviator #1.
   Royal Navy in a similar stage of development in
    aviation.
      Dawn of Naval Aviation
 Birthday of Naval Aviation: 8 May 1911.
   – U.S. Navy purchases two Curtiss biplanes.
 Office of Naval Aeronautics established in 1914.
 Early naval aviation missions:
   – Scouting location of the enemy fleet.
   – Directing naval gunfire.
    Discussion




Next time: The U.S. Navy and World War I,
                1914-1918

				
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