Causes of World War Two - PowerPoint

					Causes of World War Two
   How did World War One lead to World War Two?
   Failures of War
Neither side was “defeated” in the
Great War
   U.S. entry into the war gave Germany no hope for
    victory.
   Germany appealed directly to President Wilson by
    agreeing to his 14 points.
   What did the 14 points do?
Wilson’s Fourteen Points
   The 14 points stressed self determination of sovereign
    nations (right to self-govern) but this went against
    European politics. There were no sovereign nations,
    only “empires”. This idea of “sovereignty” did not
    appeal to the people of Europe, was less harsh on
    Germany.
The Treaty of Versailles
   Germany was not
    represented, could not
    invade another nation
   Therefore, it was not
    considered “sovereign”
    couldn’t build up its military
   A democratic government
    was imposed on the Weimar
    Republic(Germany)
   This government was
    opposed by the German
    People, one in particular:
Adolf Hitler




   Hitler had discovered much to his delight that he could speak well
    in front of a strange audience, hold their attention, and sway them
    to his point of view.

   For his next assignment, he was ordered in September of 1919 to
    investigate a small group in Munich known as the German
    Workers' Party.
Mandates of the Treaty of Versailles
   1. The War Guilt Clause: Germany should
    accept blame for starting World War One
   2. Reparations: Germany had to pay over 33
    billion dollars for damages caused by the war.
    This wiped out the German Economy with
    runaway inflation.
   4. Disarmament: Germany was only allowed to
    have a small army and six naval ships. The
    Rhineland was to be de-militarized.
Rhineland-border/France-Germ.
Disarmament (continued)
   Germany was to have no tanks, no air force,
    and no submarines.
   This disarmament and de-militarization,
    however, resulted in tremendous savings and
    the German economy eventually recovered
    more quickly than France.
   This would become a problem with the onset of
    the Great Depression.
Territorial Clauses
   Land was taken away from Germany (Alscace/Lorraine
    on the French border) and Union with Austria
    (Anchluss) was forbidden.
Territorial Clauses- (conclusion)
   The German People were very unhappy with the
    Treaty of Versailles and voted into power a man who
    promised to rip up that treaty.
   His name? Adolf Hitler.
Break-up of the Austria-Hungarian
Empire:




   When the Austria-Hungarian Empire was broken up,
    the newly independent nations exposed rivalries which
    still continue today.
   Leadership in the region was weak and communism
    was a threat.
The League of Nations
   The security France sought with the League of Nations was lost
    when President Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke. The
    agreements to make the League effective were never ratified
    (made into law) by the U.S. senate and the U.S. reverted back to
    its isolationist policies. The League of nations became , for the
    most part, useless.
League of Nations failed: 4 reasons
   Not all countries joined the League (Germany
    & Soviet Union)
   The League had no real power with trade
    sanctions due to the Great Depression.
   The League had no armed forces of its own.
   The League did not move quickly and it only
    met four times a year.
France & Germany




   France marched into eastern Germany and stayed
    there for two years.
   The result was a deep resentment of the French by the
    Germans.
   France and Germany’s economies were inflationary.
Europe lost a generation of young
men due to World War One.




   13 million people died. The countries in Europe were
    left vulnerable for dictators who used persuasive
    propaganda.
   Totalitarian governments (one party rule over every
    aspect of a society) became the norm for fallen
    monarchies.
Totalitarian Leaders
                      Adolf Hitler- became
                       chancellor of Germany in
                       1933 and began to
                       ignore Treaty of
                       Versailles
                      Mussolini’s fascist (rule
                       of a dictator) took over
                       Italy in 1922 and invaded
                       Ethiopia in 1935
Russia (USSR) Joseph Stalin




   Russian Czar, Nicholas II, was overthrown by a
    communist revolution (Bolsheviks) and Joseph Stalin
    ruled with an iron fist from 1922 until 1954. He
    executed, imprisoned or deported all people in the
    Soviet Union (Russia)who did not swear loyalty to
    communist doctrine. This was called the Great Purge.
Kaiser Wilhelm (Germany) Czar Nicholas II (Russia)
and King George V (England) were first cousins!
The United States after WWI




   The United States attained a leadership role in
    the world but was owed BILLIONS by its allies
    and we would never be paid back in full.
Concerning the Pacific




   Because Japan entered WORLD WAR ONE on the
    allied side, it was given some Pacific Islands after the
    war that Germany had prior claim to.
   Japan emerged from WORLD WAR ONE in a strong
    economic, commercial trade and political position.
Japan had claim to :




   Pacific Islands north of the equator that had previously
    “belonged” to Germany.
   Japan set up a puppet government in Manchuria,
    China thus began its second war with China, called the
    Sino-Japenese war in 1937.
Manchuria, China
Japan & the Pacific
   England was pressured by the U.S. to give up her
    close relationship with Japan. This removed ALL
    European influence over Japan.
   Japan contributed to international trade by “policing”
    railroads in China and eventually taking over
    Manchuria.
Japan & the Pacific
   Eventually, world powers concluded that Japan
    had overstepped its bounds. Japan chose to
    leave the League of Nations in 1931.
   Japan’s activities were somewhat ignored by
    the U.S. & European leaders because they
    were busy monitoring Hitler’s actions in
    Europe.
   Japan committed horrible atrocities upon the
    Chinese and eventually attacked the
    Philippines and United States.
Philippines and Hawaii
Hitler’s Actions
   Hitler became chancellor (leader) of Germany in 1933
   He began to build up Germany’s military in 1934 and
    his troops entered the Rhineland in 1936.
   Hitler also made important pacts with Mussolini’s Italy
    and the country of Japan.
Hitler’s actions (cont.)
   Hitler’s troops marched into Austria in 1938 and into
    Czechoslovakia a few months later in September 1938.
   The Prime Minster of Great Britain met with Hitler 3
    times in September of 1938 in an effort to make an
    agreement to avoid war.
The Munich Agreement
   The Munich Agreement stated that Hitler could have
    the Sudetenland (golden/brown area on map) of
    Czechoslovakia if he promised not to invade the rest of
    the country.
The Failure Of Appeasement
   Appeasement-giving into someone provided their own
    demands are seen as reasonable.
   When Germany began building up its military, many
    politicians thought this was reasonable. It would help
    prevent the spread of communism
Failure of Appeasement
   The Prime Minister of Great Britain, (England) Neville
    Chamberlain, signed the Munich Agreement thinking it
    would prevent another war and that was also
    “reasonable”
THE FAILURE OF APPEASEMENT
   Europe did not want another war because
    “another war would be useless; without reason”
   Modern Military Technology would lead to
    “fruitless carnage “ with no victors
   War could be avoided because Hitler could be
    appeased (Ha!)
   As European Leaders were appeasing him,
    Hitler built up his armies and utilized other
    countries’ natural resources.
Hitler broke the Agreement!!!
   Hitler invaded the rest of Czechoslovakia and then
    Poland in 1939.
   Poland had to be defended by its allies, France &
    Great Britain.
   Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939 and
    World War Two begins!
Moscow-Berlin Pact
   A Nazi-Soviet pact was signed on August 23, 1939. In
    the pact an anti-communist Germany came to terms
    with the USSR to open an opportunity for the invasion
    of Poland. The Soviets, who could not negotiate an
    agreement with the British and/or French decided to
    protect themselves by dealing with the Nazis directly.
    The pact, signed in Moscow by Joachim von
    Ribbentrop and Vyacheslav Molotov, included
    nonaggression and trade agreements.World War II
    began within weeks with the German invasion of
    Poland. The pact was broken when the Germans
    invaded the USSR in June, 1941.
Great Britain (England)
   Great Britain declares war on Germany in September
    1939
   Winston Churchill becomes Great Britain’s new Prime
    Minister.
U.S. reluctance to enter war:
   Isolationism becomes the United States national sentiment.
   Totalitarian governments form in other countries:
   Russia-> (Soviet Union) Joseph Stalin
   Italy-> Benito Mussolini
   Germany-> Adolf Hitler
   Spain-> Francisco Franco
United States edged toward war
   Fascism in Japan: Hideki Tojo was the “Prime Minister”
    of Japan. He was a fascist. His political party, a war
    party, ruled in Japan. Fascism is when one political
    party assumes complete control of a country. He took
    control over the government in Manchuria, China.
    Fascism is not democratic.
Other factors that led U.S. toward
War:
   Mussolini invades Ethiopia (Africa)
   Spain has a revolution led by Francisco Franco that
    overthrew the government (Civil War)
   Germany expands control of European countries &
    U.S. allies.
The Great Depression
   United States’ allies of
    World War ONE are not
    paying back their debts
    to the U.S. due to the
    Great Depression
   Germany breaks treaty
    due to The Great
    Depression and invades
    Poland
   England and France
    declare war on Germany
    and Germany is allied
    with Japan.
United States attitude begins to
change:
   Lend Lease Act: the
    U.S. begins to lease
    weapons to our allies
    (Great Britain).
   Atlantic Charter: an
    agreement between the
    U.S. and Great Britain to
    fight wars against
    fascism and use
    Greenland as a base.
President Franklin D. Roosevelt




   “FDR”
   Announces that the United States will no longer trade
    gasoline (oil) & iron to Japan in 1941.
   Japan and Germany become allies in 1941
U.S. & Japan
   Japan invades French Indochina (Vietnam) and the
    Philippines in July 1941.
    As a result, the United States freezes all Japanese
    assets ( bank accounts).
Japan attacks Pearl Harbor on
December 7, 1941
The United States Declares War
   On Japan on Dec. 8.
    1941.
   “A day that will live in
    Infamy” -FDR
   The Japanese “awoke a
    sleeping giant”.
   Japan had already allied
    itself with Germany &
    Italy
   The United States
    officially entered the war
    on two fronts:
United States Enters World War
Two:
   In the Pacific




   In Europe

				
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