IB SINO -SOVIET RELATIONS - Chan by pengxiuhui

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									SINO-SOVIET RELATIONS
      1950-1990
       IB NOTES
     THE COLD WAR
EARLY RELATIONS
 Share 4500 mile border, China lost territories to Russia
 Failure of Manchu Dynasty to resist Western domination
 Stalin supported the Chinese Nationalists!!
 USSR-PRC ideological beliefs, Stalin disagreed with Mao’s
  interpretation of Marxism, using peasants as the basis for
  revolution.
 USSR stripped $2 billion of equipment and machinery from
  Manchuria
REASONS WHY STALIN DIDN’T
SUPPORT CCP
 Feared Mao as a rival for the leadership of the Communist
  world
 Did not want the Cold War to spread to Asia
 Knew that Chinag’s Goumindang (GMD) would recognize
  Soviet claims to the disputed border territory along frontiers
  in Manchuria and Xinjiang
 Underestimated the CCP and believed the GMD to be the
  stronger party. He urged the CCP to unite with the GMD,
  even in the late 1940s when CCP victory was looking
  inevitable
MAO’S REACTION
 Convinced that Stalin wanted a divided and weak China to
  leave the USSR the dominant power in Asia
 Saw Stalin’s policies as rooted in self-interest, rather than
  true revolutionary doctrine
 Mao later said that in 1945 Stalin refused to give China
  permission to carry out a revolution
 Mao believed that Stalin saw him as another Tito, rather than
  a true revolutionary
SINO-SOVIET TREATY OF ALLIANCE
 After 2 months Stalin offered the PRC Soviet expertise and
    low-interest aid
   Chinese were offended by ‘unfriendly’ treatment
   Soviet aid would be loans and the Chinese would have to
    repay with interest
   Soviet planners and engineers developed 200 construction
    projects in the 1950s
   Soviet science and technology was favored over Western tech
KOREAN WAR
 As UN forces neared the Yalu River Stalin encouraged the
    PRC to send troops into Korea
   Soviets demanded that China pay for all weapons and
    materials (1.35 billion!!!)
   Mao had some respect for Stalin, but there had been tensions
    and suspicions
   Stalin may have deliberately delayed the end of the Korean
    War to exhaust China
   After Stalin’s death in 1953 relations improved (1953-1956)
   Loans & tech were given to China, treaties were more equal
MAO & KHRUSHCHEV SPLIT
 The ‘Secret Speech’ by Khrushchev in Moscow in October
  1956, Mao saw the comments about the ‘Cult of Personality’
  as an attack on his own style of leadership
 The crushing of the Hungarian uprising and problems in
  Germany & Poland were viewed as failures to contain
  reactionary forces
 Krushchev’s ‘peaceful co-existence’ was viewed as ideological
  heresy (revisionist Soviet policy which strayed from
  Marxism)
 1955 Geneva Summit and the Austrian State Treaty of 1955
  were viewed likewise

								
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