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Nixon Era

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					                     Nixon Era
• Foreign Policy
  – “détente”
  – “realpolitik”
  – Issues
     • Multipolar world
     • Vietnam
     • S.U./China
  – Actions
     • Presidential Foreign Policy
     • H. Kissinger
     • Economic focus
                  Nixon Era
•   Nixon “Doctrine”
•   Alliances
•   “shared defense”
•   “secret” negotiations
•   Arms sales
•   Nuclear “restraint”
    – S.A.L.T. negotiations
    – ICBM’s, SLBM’s, L-R Bombers, ABM’s, etc.
                   Nixon Era
• S.E. Asia
  – Withdrawal – only solution
    •   “Vietnamization”
    •   Détente can’t be sacrificed
    •   Timing?
    •   South Vietnamese government & “aid” issues?
    •   Regional stability?
                     Nixon Era
• 1969
  –   Vietcong – Feb. offensive
  –   U.S. troop strength
  –   Nixon’s “secret” reaction
  –   FBI wiretaps
  –   Troop reduction begins
  –   Ho Chi Minh dies – new leadership of “3”
       • Premier – Pham Van Dong
       • General – Vo Nguyen Giap
       • Communist Party – Le Duan
  – Nixon outlines global “alliance” policy (Japan, Mexico,
    Britain/W. Germany, Iran, Zaire, Angola, S. Africa)
                   Nixon Era

• U.S. “wins” space race
  – Apollo missions
  – Apollo 11 mission
  – “tech” advantage?
    • Rockets
    • Spacecraft
  – Offensive/Defensive possibilities?
    • Weapons
    • “Shield”
                    Nixon Era
• 1970-71
• Cambodia (aid, trails, & “spillover” issues)
• Dispute with Congress (plans & $)
   – Senate
   – House
   – SE Asia Resolution rescinded
• Recession begins
• Protest “heightens”
• Pentagon Papers “scandal”
   – Public/Foreign reaction
   – Nixon Admin. reaction
              Nixon Era - China
• China
• Détente as policy
• 1971 – Nixon visit
  – possible reasons for decision
     •   trade
     •   “buffer” in SE Asia
     •   Japan
     •   SU relations
     •   Taiwan
     •   1972 election
              Nixon Era - China
• Feb. 1972
   – U.S. media coverage
   – Nixon’s admin.
   – Chinese coverage
• “Net” effects
   –   Sino-American relations
   –   Japan
   –   Taiwan
   –   S.U.
   –   SE Asia
   –   UN
       Nixon Era – Soviet Union
• Détente continues
• 1972 visit to SU
• Purpose
  –   Presidential Foreign Policy
  –   China
  –   Europe (Germany)(Satellites)
  –   Vietnam
  –   ABM/SOA (SALT I signed)
  –   Quadripartite Pact (’71) (Berlin & “Germanys”)
       • Emigration (W. Ger./E. Ger./Poland)
  – Commercial Treaty (’73)
  – “agreement” on Helsinki Accords (’72)(E.
    Europe/Human Rights)
     Nixon Era – Soviet Union
• Net effects
  – Détente - positive policy?
  – “stabilized” Europe/SE Asia
  – Increased trade ties
  – Increased the Arms Race
  – Nixon – public opinion
        Nixon Era - Vietnam
• Cease-fire in Vietnam
• Operation Linebacker II
  – Dec. 15-30 (post-election)
  – “non-stop” campaign
• N. Vietnamese call for peace talks
  – Kissinger & Le Duc Tho
           Nixon Era - Vietnam
• Cease-Fire Agreement (Jan. 27, ’73)
  –   Immediate cease-fire
  –   U.S. withdrawal of troops
  –   Return of POW’s (last 590 men)
  –   International Treaty Commission
  –   General Elections (supervised)
  –   Inter. Conference on Vietnam
  –   U.S. to help replace S. Vietnamese military supplies
  –   $4.75 Billion aid to N. Vietnam (secret provision)
• War Powers Resolution passed by Congress
  – Why? (Constitutional issues, effectiveness issues)
         Nixon Era - Vietnam
• Reality
  – U.S. cont. “involvement”
     • Political, Economic, and Military aid
  – Soldiers removed (Aug. 15th)
  – Advisors and Diplomats remain
     • Primarily in urban areas & Saigon
     • Question of effectiveness in volatile climate
     • U.S. abandons embassy (1975 – Pres. Ford)
                   Nixon Era
•   Vietnam to Watergate (’73-’75)
•   Military crisis ends in Vietnam (’73)
•   U.S. economic recession deepens
•   “Yom Kippur War” (’73)
    – Arab/Israeli & U.S./S.U.
    – U.S./Israel relations
                        Nixon Era
• North America
  – Canada
       • Trade, Border, Deserters
  – Mexico
       • Trade, Illegal immigration
• Latin America
  –   Panama (Canal nationalization)
  –   Venezuela (leftist government & nationalization)
  –   Chile (1973 Coup)
  –   Cuba (“hardline” rhetoric, Assassination attempts)
                Nixon Era
• Watergate (’72-’74)
  – DNC
  – V.P. Spiro Agnew resigns (bribery, corruption)
  – Plumber’s Unit
  – Congressional Investigation
  – Nixon’s “tampering” issues
  – Whitehouse tape scandal & lawsuit
  – Nixon’s resignation (Aug. 9th, 1974)

				
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