Virtual Museum of Archaeology - by fjwuxn

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									    ARCHAEOLOGICAL &
 CULTURAL MUSEUM OF JAMA
      VIRTUAL MUSEUM
Volume 1 of Cultural Images
and Information on the Past and
Present of the Canton Jama.
  PROYECTO DE RESCATE OF THE
ARQUEOLOGICAL “RESCUE”ARQUEOLOGICO
CULTURES OF DEL PERIODO JAMA
            JAMA
   JAMA MUNICIPALITY

   Zoot. Alex Cevallos Medina
   MAYOR

   Project Author: Eudaldo J. Loor
         City Council member, Jama
   José Luis Lovecchio, Archaeologist
   Kathryn Glaser, Ecologist

Web version edited by Catherine Woodward
Ceiba Foundation for Tropical Conservation
                       Cantón Jama


• The area of Canton Jama is 579 km2
• It is a valley that descends through the Cordillera de Camarones
• The Canton has 46 communities and borders the Canton
  Pedernales to the North and the Canton San Vicente to the
  South. To the East lay the cantons of Pedernales, Chone, and
  Sucre and to the west lays the Pacific Ocean.
• The population is 20,230
• Primary economic activities are cattle ranching, shrimp farming,
  agriculture and fishing.
Agriculture and cattle ranching are
very important production activities in
the Canton Jama.
Shrimp farming is a permanent source of
income and employment, and made Jama
one of Ecuador’s most productive
provinces in Ecuador.
Shrimp cultivation in captivity
Artesanal fishing primarily takes place in
the north of the province and represents
a major source of income there.
Lugar: El Matal
Places like the Arc of Love have
great tourist potential and
exemplify the beauty of this
province.
Lugar: Tasaste
The region boasts pristine
beaches of incomparable beauty.
Lugar: Tasaste
Beautiful sunset in Jama.
Lugar: Don Juan
Punta Ballena, natural port used by
ancient Jama natives.
Lovely beaches
Lugar: El Matal
            Ecology and Environment
    One of the numerous rivers that flow into
the Pacific Ocean flows through Jama. Located
between Bahía de Cojimíes to the north and
Bahía de Caráquez to the south, it is a small to
medium sized watershed with an estimated
area of 1612 Km2. Jama is located at
approximately 00º-12’-38” S y 80º-16’-05” W.

    There are four types of forest (Holridge Life
Zones) in the Canton Jama due to the climatic
transition zone it occupies: Very Dry Tropical
Forest, Dry Tropical Forest, Pre-montane Dry
Forest, and Pre-montane Humid Forest. The
area also contains a few relict mangrove,
although most have been wiped out by shrimp
farming.
Dry forest orchids
Vigua Waterfall
      Cultures that settled the Río Jama Valley


•   Valdivia.- The culture extended through the north of Manabí. Félix Martínez
    was the first explorer to discover this culture.
•   Chorrera.- This culture was discovered by Profesor Francisco Huerta Rendón.
    Today we know that this culture disappeared from the Jama River valley after
    the massive eruption of Pululahua Volcano 2300 – 2325 years ago.
•   Jama.- This civilization settled in the valleys of Jama and Coaque 2300 years
    ago, and lasted until the genocide brought on by Spanish conquistadors. There
    are four known periods of this culture, known as Muchique 1 – 2 – 3 – 4.
Culture: Valdivia
Phase 8 or Terminal
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Domestic pot with
incisions and ornaments
Culture: Valdivia
Phase 8 or Terminal
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Ceremonial vase, grey in
color with ornamentation.
              The Geology of Jama

    The north of Manabí has a unique geology showing the indelible
imprints of past volcanic activity. The history of volcanic eruptions has
been studied by geography students in Ecuador, under the direction of
geologist Patricia Mothes. One of the most obvious volcanic ash layers is
the one left by Pululahua volcano that occured 2300 – 2325 years ago.
    Artifacts from the Chorrera culture is found only under this layer,
evidence that this culture disappeared due to the effects of the explosion.
    Above this ash layer, we find evidence of the Jama Civilization, thus
we deduce that this civilization is at maximum 2300 years old.
                                       Pululahua Volcano
                                        2300 – 2325 bp



Bend in the Jama River where one can
observe distinct layers of volcanic
sediment.
                                      Tephra 3




Detail of a soil profile in the
Camarones River watershed, Mound 4,
where one can observe the volcanic
ash layer named Tephra 3.
       Camarones River Watershed

    The first archeological exploration was conducted at the Hacienda
Camarones, property of the Loor family. Here, a series of mounds (Tolas)
were found, in lines apparently perfectly aligned with the movement of the
sun in an east-west direction.
    We arrived at the conclusion that these were habitational mounds,
with approximately 50 m between lines, and 25 m separating mounds
within the line. These remains are believed to be the principal
constructions of a town, preconceived and planned in a strategic way, to
be situated on the banks of the Camarones River and near the Pacific
Ocean, two marvelous sources of primary resources to maintain an
organized society.
Camarones River, where once
again the Tephra 3 ash layer is
visible.
Topographic location of the
habitational complex of
Camarones.
       Architectural Aspects of the Mounds

    The structure of the habitational mounds was clarified by the excavation
of Mound 4 in the Camarones complex.
    The excavation down to the original soil layer showed that the people
did not use natural mounds as a base for their houses but that these
mounds were constructed entirely of piled-up fill material. This
demonstrates that the habitational complex of Camarones was
architecturally preconceived, constructed communitarily and directed by a
competent architect.
    No aspect of the design is random, and the location, alignment and
construction reflect a coherent cosmovision of the builders. This site
suggests a prosperous, organized town located in natural surroundings with
abundant fresh water, the sea and the forest, suitable for sustaining the
development of culture.
Habitational mound (tola) in
Camarones
   Profile of an artificial mound on the
     banks of the Camarones River

Compacted earth                 Present surface




                                       Layer of cobbles




         Cobblestone base
      Bivalves and other Mollusks
  Ornamentation, Trade and Commerce

     One of the tasks of the “archeological rescue” operation in the Canton
Jama was the intensive recovery of archeological artefacts originally
removed illegally by “graverobbers”, an all-too-common situation in the
area.
     This effort was highly successful, with the recovery of a considerable
quantity of bivalve and other mollusk-derived artefacts that were utilized for
alimentation, ornamentation and ceremonies. One of the most heavily
utilized bivalves was Spondylus.
     Both Spondylus calcifer and Spondylus princeps were utilized by many
cultures, both along the coast and in the highlands. Spondylus calcifer was
used as currency for trade, and Spondylus princeps was used for
meteorological prediction, especially to predict periods of rains or drought.
Edible snail
Hexaplex regius
Edible snail
Hexaplex brassica
Spondylus calcifer
Uses: Food, ornamentation and
currency
         Ceramic and Metallurgic Kilns
             Tabuga Watershed

     The second excavation was conducted in the Tabuga stream-valley, at
the northern limit of the Canton Jama.
     Four ovens for baking ceramics were uncovered on the property of Mrs.
Nelly Sabando. All of these ovens are designed with an exposed opening
at the top.
     The study concluded that the ovens, which are of considerable size, are
constructed from ceramic plaster covered by an 18 cm thick layer of cold-
hardening adobe.
     Ceramic pieces were introduced into the kiln through the opening in the
top, onto coals of charcoal or firewood, and the kiln was partially covered to
maintain the desired temperature.
Ceramic kiln in Tabuga
Sra. Nelly Sabando
Metallurgic and Ceramic kilns
in Tabuga
Sr Luciano Crisanti
Process of cleaning and reconstructing the
kilns of Tabuga.
Process of cleaning and reconstructing the
kilns of Tabuga.
Ceramic and metallurgic kilns are shown here, 50%
     cleaned and reconstructed, in Tabuga
Metallurgic kiln
                        Metallurgy

    The Jama civilization attained mastery in the art of metallurgy, with
a thorough knowledge of alloy production, in particular a well-
developed alloy of coper and arsenic. They were also well-versed in
the process of gold-plating.
    The method employed for founding metal was to place the metal
in a ceramic crucible and heat it using wood charcoal as fuel. Air was
blown into the kiln with a bamboo tube, until the temperature reached
1100ºC, sufficient to melt gold or copper.
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold-plated copper
Use: Nose ring
Details: 2.9 cm wide
         2.1 cm high
         1.4 cm thick
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold
Use: Earring
Details: Gold plating
           Width 3.1 cm
           Height 2.2 cm
           0.6 mm thick
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold alloyed with copper
Use: Sewing needles
Detailes: Top needle – 6 cm long
         Bottom needle - 5 cm de largo
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold and copper
Use: Nose ring
Details: Width 2.2 cm
        Height 1.8 cm
        Thickness 1.5 cm
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold
Use: Earring
Details: Gold plating
         width 2.9 cm
         height 1.7 cm
         thickness 0.3 mm
Culture: Jama
Material: Gold-plated copper
Use: Nosering
Details: width 1.9 cm
        height 1.8 cm
        thickness 0.1 mm
Culture: Jama
Material: Sheets of gold
Details: Left, width 1.5 cm
            Height 0.8 cm
        Right, width 2.0 cm
            Height 1.3 cm
            CERAMICS of JAMA

•   The ceramics of Jama are characterized by their fine quality, red
    and ivory colors, and detailed finishing.

•   Molds were utilized to fabricate series of pieces.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Domestic pot
Polished red color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Domestic pot
Polished red with etching
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Domestic pot
Polished terracota color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Domestic pot
Polished red with internal
etching
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Compote
Polished red over grey
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Uso: Polypoid household dish
Polished red with tan interior
12 cm diameter, 9 cm tall
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Uso: Polypoid household dish
Red terracota color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Household pot
Polished red color, 46 cm diameter
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Household pot
Red terracota, 34 cm diameter, 9 cm tall
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Household pot
Diameter 47.3 Height 14 cm
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Anthropomorphic
figurine, with ceremonial
adornment on the forehead.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Anthropomorphic    figurine  for
didactic medical use, showing a
specific illness.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Uso: Household dish with
mammiform polypoids
Red and tan color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Uso: Household dish with
mammiform polypoids
Red and tan color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Uso: Household dish with
mammiform polypoids
Red and tan color
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use: Anthropomorphic figurine,
in seated position, with shell
designs on poncho and hat.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Use:Ceremonial
Anthrozoomorphic      figurine,     that
represents a shaman transfigured into a
man-tiger.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Anthropomorphic figurine, in
seated position on a cassava
plant, eating corn.
Side view of anterior
figure, showing cassava
plant “chair”.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Anthropomorphic figurine representing a
musician playing a wind instrument.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Anthropomorphic figurine representing
a musician playing a wind instrument.
Culture: Jama
Material: Clay
Piece: Ceramic
Anthropomorphic figurine
representing an eagle-man.
Use: Monotonic wind
instrument
Side view of previous figure
Culture: Jama
Material: Polished obsidian
Use: Instrument for stellar
observacion
Length 12.3 cm Width 11.1 cm
Culture: Jama
Material: Polished obsidian
6 cm. x 6 cm.
Culture: Jama
Material: Polished obsidian
6 cm. X 4 cm.
Culture: Jama
Material: Ground stone
Use: Canoe anchor
Location: Punta Brava
Culture: Jama
Material: Ground stone
Use: Canoe anchor
Location: Punta Brava
Cultura: Jama
Material: Obsidian
Use: Arrow heads
Location: Camarones River site,
Mound 4
Culture: Jama
Material: Quartz
Use: Arrow heads
Location: Camarones River site,
Mound 4
Culture: Jama
Material: Stone
Use: Household grindstones
Location: Camarones river site, on
surface of Mound 2
Culture: Jama
Calcified corn
Location: El Matal
The Truncated Pyramid of Sálima
     Where Sálima Creek meets the Jama River, a mound was discovered
 that was covered with conglomerate rocks containing arsenic. This place
 functioned as a ceremonial and administrative center of the Cacique
 during the Jama period. This ceremonial center consists of pyramid of
 three levels, 50 meters long by 34 meters wide, and 2.9 meters high.

     Like all ceremonial pyramids found in South America, this is a
 truncated pyramid, with an entrance ramp paved by stone. As far as we
 know, this is the only pyramid that has been found on the coast of
 Ecuador and as such as been designated as an archeological park for
 long-term conservation. The structure is currently being studied.

     The stones that make up this structure are believed to have been
 brought from a place 8 km away. The geographic location of the pyramid
 is 00º 13’ 18,1” S, 80º 14’ 34.2” W.
Excavation of the truncated
pyramid of Salima.
Excavation of the truncated
pyramid of Salima.
Excavation of the truncated pyramid of
Salima, showing rocks used in construction
Truncated ceremonial and
administrative pyramid
Sálima
Signage to the archeological
park at Salima
Sign marking entrance to
pyramid
              ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thanks to all the persons and institutions who have,
directly or indirectly, supported the creation of this virtual
museum, whose purpose is to reveal the history of our
ancestors, give value to the links we have with them, and
provide a snapshot of our past to help us construct our
future.

Eudaldo J. Loor
Lovecchio – Glaser
Translated by: Catherine Woodward

                                     September 2003
                                     Jama – Ecuador
      All rights reserve. Reproduction or use prohibited without express consent of the authors.

								
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