ARCHAEOLOGICAL & CULTURAL MUSEUM OF JAMA VIRTUAL MUSEUM Volume 1 of Cultural Images and Information on the Past and Present of the Canton Jama. PROYECTO DE RESCATE OF THE ARQUEOLOGICAL “RESCUE”ARQUEOLOGICO CULTURES OF DEL PERIODO JAMA JAMA JAMA MUNICIPALITY Zoot. Alex Cevallos Medina MAYOR Project Author: Eudaldo J. Loor City Council member, Jama José Luis Lovecchio, Archaeologist Kathryn Glaser, Ecologist Web version edited by Catherine Woodward Ceiba Foundation for Tropical Conservation Cantón Jama • The area of Canton Jama is 579 km2 • It is a valley that descends through the Cordillera de Camarones • The Canton has 46 communities and borders the Canton Pedernales to the North and the Canton San Vicente to the South. To the East lay the cantons of Pedernales, Chone, and Sucre and to the west lays the Pacific Ocean. • The population is 20,230 • Primary economic activities are cattle ranching, shrimp farming, agriculture and fishing. Agriculture and cattle ranching are very important production activities in the Canton Jama. Shrimp farming is a permanent source of income and employment, and made Jama one of Ecuador’s most productive provinces in Ecuador. Shrimp cultivation in captivity Artesanal fishing primarily takes place in the north of the province and represents a major source of income there. Lugar: El Matal Places like the Arc of Love have great tourist potential and exemplify the beauty of this province. Lugar: Tasaste The region boasts pristine beaches of incomparable beauty. Lugar: Tasaste Beautiful sunset in Jama. Lugar: Don Juan Punta Ballena, natural port used by ancient Jama natives. Lovely beaches Lugar: El Matal Ecology and Environment One of the numerous rivers that flow into the Pacific Ocean flows through Jama. Located between Bahía de Cojimíes to the north and Bahía de Caráquez to the south, it is a small to medium sized watershed with an estimated area of 1612 Km2. Jama is located at approximately 00º-12’-38” S y 80º-16’-05” W. There are four types of forest (Holridge Life Zones) in the Canton Jama due to the climatic transition zone it occupies: Very Dry Tropical Forest, Dry Tropical Forest, Pre-montane Dry Forest, and Pre-montane Humid Forest. The area also contains a few relict mangrove, although most have been wiped out by shrimp farming. Dry forest orchids Vigua Waterfall Cultures that settled the Río Jama Valley • Valdivia.- The culture extended through the north of Manabí. Félix Martínez was the first explorer to discover this culture. • Chorrera.- This culture was discovered by Profesor Francisco Huerta Rendón. Today we know that this culture disappeared from the Jama River valley after the massive eruption of Pululahua Volcano 2300 – 2325 years ago. • Jama.- This civilization settled in the valleys of Jama and Coaque 2300 years ago, and lasted until the genocide brought on by Spanish conquistadors. There are four known periods of this culture, known as Muchique 1 – 2 – 3 – 4. Culture: Valdivia Phase 8 or Terminal Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Domestic pot with incisions and ornaments Culture: Valdivia Phase 8 or Terminal Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Ceremonial vase, grey in color with ornamentation. The Geology of Jama The north of Manabí has a unique geology showing the indelible imprints of past volcanic activity. The history of volcanic eruptions has been studied by geography students in Ecuador, under the direction of geologist Patricia Mothes. One of the most obvious volcanic ash layers is the one left by Pululahua volcano that occured 2300 – 2325 years ago. Artifacts from the Chorrera culture is found only under this layer, evidence that this culture disappeared due to the effects of the explosion. Above this ash layer, we find evidence of the Jama Civilization, thus we deduce that this civilization is at maximum 2300 years old. Pululahua Volcano 2300 – 2325 bp Bend in the Jama River where one can observe distinct layers of volcanic sediment. Tephra 3 Detail of a soil profile in the Camarones River watershed, Mound 4, where one can observe the volcanic ash layer named Tephra 3. Camarones River Watershed The first archeological exploration was conducted at the Hacienda Camarones, property of the Loor family. Here, a series of mounds (Tolas) were found, in lines apparently perfectly aligned with the movement of the sun in an east-west direction. We arrived at the conclusion that these were habitational mounds, with approximately 50 m between lines, and 25 m separating mounds within the line. These remains are believed to be the principal constructions of a town, preconceived and planned in a strategic way, to be situated on the banks of the Camarones River and near the Pacific Ocean, two marvelous sources of primary resources to maintain an organized society. Camarones River, where once again the Tephra 3 ash layer is visible. Topographic location of the habitational complex of Camarones. Architectural Aspects of the Mounds The structure of the habitational mounds was clarified by the excavation of Mound 4 in the Camarones complex. The excavation down to the original soil layer showed that the people did not use natural mounds as a base for their houses but that these mounds were constructed entirely of piled-up fill material. This demonstrates that the habitational complex of Camarones was architecturally preconceived, constructed communitarily and directed by a competent architect. No aspect of the design is random, and the location, alignment and construction reflect a coherent cosmovision of the builders. This site suggests a prosperous, organized town located in natural surroundings with abundant fresh water, the sea and the forest, suitable for sustaining the development of culture. Habitational mound (tola) in Camarones Profile of an artificial mound on the banks of the Camarones River Compacted earth Present surface Layer of cobbles Cobblestone base Bivalves and other Mollusks Ornamentation, Trade and Commerce One of the tasks of the “archeological rescue” operation in the Canton Jama was the intensive recovery of archeological artefacts originally removed illegally by “graverobbers”, an all-too-common situation in the area. This effort was highly successful, with the recovery of a considerable quantity of bivalve and other mollusk-derived artefacts that were utilized for alimentation, ornamentation and ceremonies. One of the most heavily utilized bivalves was Spondylus. Both Spondylus calcifer and Spondylus princeps were utilized by many cultures, both along the coast and in the highlands. Spondylus calcifer was used as currency for trade, and Spondylus princeps was used for meteorological prediction, especially to predict periods of rains or drought. Edible snail Hexaplex regius Edible snail Hexaplex brassica Spondylus calcifer Uses: Food, ornamentation and currency Ceramic and Metallurgic Kilns Tabuga Watershed The second excavation was conducted in the Tabuga stream-valley, at the northern limit of the Canton Jama. Four ovens for baking ceramics were uncovered on the property of Mrs. Nelly Sabando. All of these ovens are designed with an exposed opening at the top. The study concluded that the ovens, which are of considerable size, are constructed from ceramic plaster covered by an 18 cm thick layer of cold- hardening adobe. Ceramic pieces were introduced into the kiln through the opening in the top, onto coals of charcoal or firewood, and the kiln was partially covered to maintain the desired temperature. Ceramic kiln in Tabuga Sra. Nelly Sabando Metallurgic and Ceramic kilns in Tabuga Sr Luciano Crisanti Process of cleaning and reconstructing the kilns of Tabuga. Process of cleaning and reconstructing the kilns of Tabuga. Ceramic and metallurgic kilns are shown here, 50% cleaned and reconstructed, in Tabuga Metallurgic kiln Metallurgy The Jama civilization attained mastery in the art of metallurgy, with a thorough knowledge of alloy production, in particular a well- developed alloy of coper and arsenic. They were also well-versed in the process of gold-plating. The method employed for founding metal was to place the metal in a ceramic crucible and heat it using wood charcoal as fuel. Air was blown into the kiln with a bamboo tube, until the temperature reached 1100ºC, sufficient to melt gold or copper. Culture: Jama Material: Gold-plated copper Use: Nose ring Details: 2.9 cm wide 2.1 cm high 1.4 cm thick Culture: Jama Material: Gold Use: Earring Details: Gold plating Width 3.1 cm Height 2.2 cm 0.6 mm thick Culture: Jama Material: Gold alloyed with copper Use: Sewing needles Detailes: Top needle – 6 cm long Bottom needle - 5 cm de largo Culture: Jama Material: Gold and copper Use: Nose ring Details: Width 2.2 cm Height 1.8 cm Thickness 1.5 cm Culture: Jama Material: Gold Use: Earring Details: Gold plating width 2.9 cm height 1.7 cm thickness 0.3 mm Culture: Jama Material: Gold-plated copper Use: Nosering Details: width 1.9 cm height 1.8 cm thickness 0.1 mm Culture: Jama Material: Sheets of gold Details: Left, width 1.5 cm Height 0.8 cm Right, width 2.0 cm Height 1.3 cm CERAMICS of JAMA • The ceramics of Jama are characterized by their fine quality, red and ivory colors, and detailed finishing. • Molds were utilized to fabricate series of pieces. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Domestic pot Polished red color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Domestic pot Polished red with etching Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Domestic pot Polished terracota color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Domestic pot Polished red with internal etching Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Compote Polished red over grey Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Uso: Polypoid household dish Polished red with tan interior 12 cm diameter, 9 cm tall Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Uso: Polypoid household dish Red terracota color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Household pot Polished red color, 46 cm diameter Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Household pot Red terracota, 34 cm diameter, 9 cm tall Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Household pot Diameter 47.3 Height 14 cm Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Anthropomorphic figurine, with ceremonial adornment on the forehead. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Anthropomorphic figurine for didactic medical use, showing a specific illness. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Uso: Household dish with mammiform polypoids Red and tan color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Uso: Household dish with mammiform polypoids Red and tan color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Uso: Household dish with mammiform polypoids Red and tan color Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use: Anthropomorphic figurine, in seated position, with shell designs on poncho and hat. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Use:Ceremonial Anthrozoomorphic figurine, that represents a shaman transfigured into a man-tiger. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Anthropomorphic figurine, in seated position on a cassava plant, eating corn. Side view of anterior figure, showing cassava plant “chair”. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Anthropomorphic figurine representing a musician playing a wind instrument. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Anthropomorphic figurine representing a musician playing a wind instrument. Culture: Jama Material: Clay Piece: Ceramic Anthropomorphic figurine representing an eagle-man. Use: Monotonic wind instrument Side view of previous figure Culture: Jama Material: Polished obsidian Use: Instrument for stellar observacion Length 12.3 cm Width 11.1 cm Culture: Jama Material: Polished obsidian 6 cm. x 6 cm. Culture: Jama Material: Polished obsidian 6 cm. X 4 cm. Culture: Jama Material: Ground stone Use: Canoe anchor Location: Punta Brava Culture: Jama Material: Ground stone Use: Canoe anchor Location: Punta Brava Cultura: Jama Material: Obsidian Use: Arrow heads Location: Camarones River site, Mound 4 Culture: Jama Material: Quartz Use: Arrow heads Location: Camarones River site, Mound 4 Culture: Jama Material: Stone Use: Household grindstones Location: Camarones river site, on surface of Mound 2 Culture: Jama Calcified corn Location: El Matal The Truncated Pyramid of Sálima Where Sálima Creek meets the Jama River, a mound was discovered that was covered with conglomerate rocks containing arsenic. This place functioned as a ceremonial and administrative center of the Cacique during the Jama period. This ceremonial center consists of pyramid of three levels, 50 meters long by 34 meters wide, and 2.9 meters high. Like all ceremonial pyramids found in South America, this is a truncated pyramid, with an entrance ramp paved by stone. As far as we know, this is the only pyramid that has been found on the coast of Ecuador and as such as been designated as an archeological park for long-term conservation. The structure is currently being studied. The stones that make up this structure are believed to have been brought from a place 8 km away. The geographic location of the pyramid is 00º 13’ 18,1” S, 80º 14’ 34.2” W. Excavation of the truncated pyramid of Salima. Excavation of the truncated pyramid of Salima. Excavation of the truncated pyramid of Salima, showing rocks used in construction Truncated ceremonial and administrative pyramid Sálima Signage to the archeological park at Salima Sign marking entrance to pyramid ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to all the persons and institutions who have, directly or indirectly, supported the creation of this virtual museum, whose purpose is to reveal the history of our ancestors, give value to the links we have with them, and provide a snapshot of our past to help us construct our future. Eudaldo J. Loor Lovecchio – Glaser Translated by: Catherine Woodward September 2003 Jama – Ecuador All rights reserve. Reproduction or use prohibited without express consent of the authors.
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