PROBLEMS ON PERCENT COMPOSITION, EMPIRICAL FORMULA, AND MOLECULAR FORMULA 1. Determine the percent of sodium in sodium sulfate. 2. Calculate the percentage of water in sodium sulfate decahydrate 3. Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in ammonium phosphate versus ammonium sulfate. 4. Calculate the mass of each metal in: a. 20 grams of chromium (II) chloride b. 10 grams of copper (I) bromide c. 50 grams of barium sulfate 5. Calculate the formula or molecular mass for the following substances: Methanol = Acetic acid = Phosphorous trichloride Potassium sulfate = Potassium carbonate = Calcium hydroxide = Nickel (II) phosphate = Plumbous chromate = 6. Calculate the molar masses for the following substances: Gold Chloric acid Sodium hydroxide Potassium nitrate Magnesium sulfate Dinitrogen pentoxide 7. Calculate the mass in grams of the following quantities: 0.15 mol Na .594 mol S 2.78 mol 1-chloromethane 38 mol sodium sulfite 1.22 mol ammonia gas 7.04 mol sodium perchlorate 8. Calculate the number of moles in the following quantities: 3.43 grams of charcoal (C) 7.05 grams of bromine liquid 74 grams of butane 35.4 grams lithium carbonate 420 grams of phosphoric acid 123.2 grams of ethanol 9. Calculate the number of: Atoms in 777.46 g of Li Number of atoms in 122.0 grams O2 Number of molecules in 43 g of ammonia Number of F.U. in 105.2 grams of Number of oxygen atoms in 159 grams of magnesium sulfate aluminum nitrate Number of molecules in 45.6 grams of Number of SO4-2 ions in 14.3 grams of sulfur dioxide, or smog chromium (III) sulfate 10. Calculate the number of: liters of oxygen gas in 3.45 moles at STP liters of methane gas in 2.20 moles at STP liters of NO2 gas in 5.05 moles at STP liters of OF2 gas in .89 moles at STP 11. Chlorine trifluoride is a colorless, reactive gas that is used in nuclear fuel reprocessing. What is the percentage composition of each element in chlorine trifluoride? 12. Ammonium nitrate is used as a nitrogen fertilizer and in explosive mixtures. What is the mass percentage of each element in this compound? 13. Liquid ammonia (100% ammonia) and pure ammonium nitrate are used as fertilizers due to their nitrogen content. Both sell for approximately $200 per ton. Based on the nitrogen content, which would be a better buy? 14. Phosphorous oxychloride is the starting compound for manufacturing substances used as flame retardants for plastics. An 8.53 mg sample contains 1.72 mg of phosphorous. What is the mass percentage of phosphorous in this compound? 15. Ethyl mercaptan is an odorous substance added to natural gas to make leaks easily detectable. A sample of ethyl mercaptan weighing 3.17 g contains 1.46 g of sulfur. What mass percentage of this substance is sulfur? 16. Determine the empirical formula for each of the following compounds: 48% zinc and 52% chlorine 19% tin and 81% iodine 62.6% Pb, 8.4% N, and 29% O 44.9% K, 18.4% S, and 36.7% O 17. Determine the empirical formula for each of these compounds from the experimental data: 1.99 grams of aluminum combines with 1.76 grams oxygen 2.95 grams of sodium combines with 2.05 grams sulfur 18. Determine the molecular formula for each of the following compounds from the experimental data: 80.0% carbon, 20% hydrogen, and a molecular mass of 30.0 amu 92.3% carbon, 7.7% hydrogen, and a molecular mass of 26 amu 37.5% carbon, 6.3% hydrogen, 55.8% chlorine, and a molecular mass of 127.0 amu 19. Nicotine, a compound isolated from tobacco leaves, is found on analysis to have: 74.0% carbon, 8.7% hydrogen, and 17.3% nitrogen. The molecular mass is found to be 162 amu. Calculate the molecular formula for nicotine. 20. Sulfadiazine, a sulfur drug used in the treatment of bacterial infections, is found on analysis: 48.0% carbon, 4.0% hydrogen, 22.4% nitrogen, 12.8% sulfur, and 12.8% oxygen. The molecular mass was found to be 250 amu. Calculate the molecular formula for this drug. 21. The characteristic odor of pineapple is due to an ester known as ethyl butanoate. It contains C, H, and O. Combustion of 2.78 g of this compound produced 6.32 g of CO2 and 2.58 g of H2O. What is the empirical formula of this compound? 22. Nicotine, the addicting drug in tobacco, is composed of C, H, and N. It has a molar mass of 160 +/- 5g. A 5.250 g sample of nicotine was combusted, producing 14.232 g of carbon dioxide and 4.083 g of water. What is the molecular formula for nicotine? 23. A 13.736-gram sample of capsaicin, the compound that gives the hot taste to chili peppers, was analyzed. It has a molar mass of 305.4 g/mol. It contained 9.72 grams of carbon, 1.225 grams of hydrogen, and .631 grams of nitrogen. The rest was oxygen. What is the molecular formula for capsaicin? 24. Aspartame, otherwise known as the artificial sweetener Nutrasweet, has a molar mass of 294 g/mol. It contains 57.14% carbon, 6.12% hydrogen, 9.52% nitrogen, and 27.2% oxygen. What is its molecular formula? 25. The taste of sour milk is lactic acid. What is the molecular formula for lactic acid if the percent composition is 40.00% C, 6.71% H, 53.29% O, and the approximate molar mass is 90 g/mol? 26. Halothane is a popular inhalation anesthetic. It contains 12.15% carbon, 28.86% fluorine, .506% hydrogen, 40.5% bromine, and 17.97% chlorine. What is the empirical formula for this substance? 27. A 5.325-gram sample of methyl benzoate, a compound used in the manufacture of perfumes, is found to contain 3.758 g carbon, .316 g hydrogen, and 1.251 grams of oxygen. What is the empirical formula for this substance? 28. Ethylene glycol, mentioned above, contains 38.7% carbon, 9.7% hydrogen, and 51.6% oxygen by mass. It has a molar mass of 62.1 g/mol. What is its molecular formula? 29. Vanillin, the dominant flavoring in vanilla, contains three elements: hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen. When 1.05 grams of this substance is completely combusted, 2.43 grams of carbon dioxide and .50 grams of water are produced. What is the empirical formula for vanillin? 30. Ethylene glycol is used in automobile antifreeze and in the production of polyester. The name glycol stems from the sweet taste of this poisonous compound. Combustion of 6.38 g of this compound gives 9.06 g of CO2 and 5.58 g of H2O. The compound only contains C, H, and O. What are the mass percentages of the elements in ethylene glycol? Using these percentages, calculate the empirical formula for this compound. 31. A rocket fuel used in the space shuttle was analyzed. It was found to contain 30.45% nitrogen, and 69.55% oxygen. What is the empirical formula for this compound? If the molar mass of the compound is 92.02 g/mole, then what is its molecular formula? 32. Sorbitol is used in sugar free gums as a sweetener. After analysis, a sample of sorbitol contained 3.96 g of carbon, .769 g of hydrogen, and 5.28 g of oxygen. What is its empirical formula? If the molar mass is 182 g/mole, then what is the molecular formula of sorbitol? 33. Neurotransmitters are important chemicals in the brain that assist in the firing of neurons. Norephinephrine is a neurotransmitter that is released in the body when the body is threatened or depressed. It contains 56.8 percent carbon, 6.5 percent hydrogen, 28.4 percent oxygen, and 8.3 percent nitrogen. It has a molar mass of 169 g/mole. What is its molecular formula? 34. Tooth enamel, or hydroxyapatite, is an essential part of the tooth structure. Its composition is 39.8% calcium, 18.5% phosphorous, 41.43% oxygen, and .2% hydrogen. What is the empirical formula? It has a molar mass of 1004 g/mol. What is the molecular formula of this compound? 35. A compound found deep within the heart of the Amazon jungle is isolated from a rare tropical flower root. After analysis, the compound is found to have anti-cancer qualities. Scientists are hoping to synthesize it in the laboratory. After decomposition, it is discovered that it contains 2.1 g of carbon, .374 g of hydrogen, 1.775 g of chlorine, .7 g of nitrogen, .8 g of oxygen, and .7725 g of phosphorous. What is its empirical formula? It has a molar mass of 261 g/mole. What is its molecular formula? 36. The fat stored in the hump of a camel is a source of both energy and water. The fat consists entirely of tristearin, a typical animal fat. If the camel combusts 4.45 grams of tristearin during metabolism for energy, and 12.5076 grams of carbon dioxide are produced, and 4.9852 grams of water are produced, what is the empirical formula for tristearin, which contains only carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen? If the molar mass of tristearin is 891 g/mol, then what is the molecular formula for tristearin? 37. Permethrin was widely used to control lice and other insects, but has been banned by the EPA recently due to its carcinogenic properties. A company suspected of producing it was investigated. A 12.95 gram suspected sample was taken from the company and analyzed using combustion analysis. 32.065 grams of CO2 and 11.485 g of H2O were produced. What is the empirical formula for the unknown chemical found at the company? If the molar mass of permethrin is 213.29 g/mole, is the sample found at the company permethrin? How do you know? Assume it contains only C, H, and O. 38. Trioxane is an important fuel source that is used to make camping and military fuel bars. It is also used to dissolve formaldehyde for shipping. It contains only C, H, and O. 17.471 g of trioxane is burned in an apparatus, and 10.477 g H2O and 25.612 g CO2 are formed. What is the empirical formula for this compound? If the molecular mass of trioxane is found to be 90.079 amu, then what is its molecular formula? 39. The koala bear dines exclusively on eucalyptus leaves. Its digestive system detoxifies the eucalyptus oil, which is a poison to other animals. Eucalyptus oil is primarily a substance called eucalyptol, which contains 77.87% carbon, 11.72% H, and the remainder oxygen. What is the empirical formula of this substance? A mass spectrum of this compound showed a peak at 154 g/mole. What is the molecular formula for the substance? EASY STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS! ASSUME STP FOR ALL GASES UNLESS OTHERWISE DESIGNATED! 1. Carbon dioxide can be commercially prepared by heating chalk, or calcium carbonate. How many moles of carbon dioxide can be produced when 3.05 moles of calcium carbonate are heated? 2. Tungsten metal is reacted with carbon to produce tungsten carbide, an extremely hard compound used to make drills and saw blades. How many moles of tungsten carbide will be produced if 1.25 moles of tungsten are reacted with plenty of carbon? 3. Propane (C3H8) is used in BBQ grills because of the intense heat produced when it burns. How many moles of carbon dioxide are produced when 2.25 moles of propane are burned with plenty of oxygen? 4. Aluminum hydroxide, a popular antacid, is made when aluminum oxide is reacted with water. How many moles of aluminum oxide will be needed to produce .64 moles of aluminum hydroxide, if there is plenty of water? 5. Methanol (CH3OH) is used as a fuel additive, to get gasoline to burn cleaner. It is produced by reacting carbon monoxide with hydrogen gas. How many moles of methanol can be created when 4.60 moles of hydrogen gas are reacted with plenty of carbon monoxide? 6. Silver chloride is used to produce photographic paper. It is made by reacting aqueous silver nitrate with aqueous aluminum chloride. How many moles of silver nitrate will be needed to produce .90 moles of silver chloride, if there is plenty of aluminum chloride? 7. Sodium chlorate is used to produce yellow fireworks. Heating sodium chlorate creates oxygen and sodium chloride. How many moles of sodium chlorate are needed to produce 5.70 moles of oxygen? 8. Elemental iodine can be produced for sale by reacting chlorine gas with potassium iodide solution. How many moles of chlorine are required to react with 4.25 moles of potassium iodide? 9. Glucose (C6H12O6) is burned in the human body for energy. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste products. How many moles of oxygen are needed to combust 3.12 moles of glucose? 10. Group 1 metals are explosive when they come into contact with water. If 20.0 grams of potassium were to explode with excess water, how many moles of hydrogen would be produced? 11. Potassium chlorate is the prime ingredient in most Chinese fireworks. If I have 25 grams of potassium chlorate, how many moles of oxygen can I produce? 12. Acetic acid, found in apple cider and apple butter, can cause explosions when heated in aluminum pans. If 250 mL of a 4 M solution of acetic acid were used with plenty of aluminum, then how many moles of hydrogen gas would be produced? 13. Kidney stones can form in the human body if too much soda is consumed. Phosphoric acid can react with calcium nitrate to form a painful solid. How many moles of phosphoric acid are needed to react with 85 grams of calcium nitrate? 14. Iron (III) hydroxide is used to remove poisonous arsenic from drinking water. How many grams of sodium hydroxide are needed to react with excess iron (III) chloride to produce 2.80 moles of iron (III) hydroxide? 15. Aluminum wiring can be a fire hazard because it can oxidize, or combine with oxygen. How many grams of aluminum are needed to react with 3.00 moles of oxygen? 16. Acids can be extremely dangerous when stored next to metals, because they can give off hydrogen gas when reacted with metals. Zinc reacts violently with hydrochloric acid to produce hydrogen gas and zinc chloride. How many moles of zinc chloride are produced when 750 mL of a 3M solution of hydrochloric acid are reacted with plenty of zinc? 17. Copper metal can be produced commercially through a single replacement reaction of aluminum metal and copper (II) chloride. How many grams of aluminum are required to react with 10.05 moles of copper (II) chloride? 18. Sulfur dioxide gas, a form of smog, is formed when sulfur burns with oxygen from the air. How many liters of sulfur dioxide gas would be released at STP if we burned 2.50 moles of sulfur with plenty of oxygen? 19. Bombardier beetles inject boiling hydrogen peroxide, or H2O2, into their victims. It then decomposes into hydrogen and oxygen gas. How many molecules of oxygen can be produced if 4.10 moles of hydrogen peroxide are decomposed? 20. Hydrogen gas is produced for rocket fuel by taking methane, or CH4, and reacting it with steam. The other product is carbon dioxide. How many liters of hydrogen gas can be produced if 45.5 grams of methane are reacted with plenty of steam? 21. Hydrochloric acid, which is widely used for cleaning and disinfecting, is made when hydrogen gas reacts with chlorine gas. How many liters of chlorine gas are needed to react with 35.5 liters of hydrogen gas? 22. Lead (II) sulfide is used in making infrared detectors for security systems. How many grams of lead (II) sulfide can be created when 120.5 grams of lead (II) nitrate are reacted with plenty of sodium sulfide solution? 23. Silver metal is used to plate mirrors. It can be precipitated out of solution by adding zinc metal to silver nitrate solution. How many grams of silver metal can be precipitated out of solution, if 120.5 grams of zinc are used with plenty of silver nitrate? How many grams of silver nitrate will be needed? 24. Antacids react with the hydrochloric acid in your stomach in order to neutralize the acid. How many grams of hydrochloric acid can be neutralized by a 25.0 gram tablet of calcium hydroxide? How many grams of water will be produced? 25. Lithium hydroxide is used in the Space Shuttle and in submarines to remove carbon dioxide gas out of the air. It forms lithium carbonate and water as a result. If an air filter contains 135.5 grams of lithium hydroxide, how many liters of carbon dioxide can be removed at STP? How many grams of water will be produced? 26. Air bags in cars have been designed to inflate when solid sodium azide, or NaN3, decomposes to make sodium metal and nitrogen gas. How many liters of nitrogen gas are produced at STP when 345.0 grams of sodium azide are decomposed? How many grams of sodium metal are produced? 27. Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate, or NaHCO3. It can be used to neutralize any acid, so it is ideal for cleaning up acid spills. If 120 grams of sodium bicarbonate are reacted with 500 mL of 2M hydrochloric acid, how many liters of carbon dioxide will be produced at STP? Which reactant is your limiting reactant? Water and sodium chloride are also produced! 28. Barium sulfate is used in barium shakes, which an individual drinks before having X- Rays taken. It highlights areas of the intestines and stomach, to look for cancerous growths. If 250 mL of 1M barium nitrate is added to 500 mL of 2M sodium sulfate, how many grams of barium sulfate will be produced? Which reactant is your limiting reactant? 29. Cigarette lighters use butane, or C4H10, as their fuel. If 120 grams of butane burn with only 55 liters of oxygen gas at STP, how many liters of carbon dioxide are produced? Which reactant is your limiting reactant? 30. Strontium carbonate is used to color signal flares, used for emergencies on the highway. How many grams of strontium carbonate can be made when 2 L of a 1M solution of strontium chloride is added to 3L of a 3M solution of sodium carbonate? Which reactant is your limiting reactant? 31. How many liters of oxygen could be theoretically made if 35.5 grams of potassium chlorate are decomposed in a firework? If 6.5 liters was actually made, what is your percent yield? 32. How many liters of hydrogen can be made at STP if 55 grams of aluminum react with 750 mL of a 3M solution of hydrochloric acid? Which reactant is your limiting reactant? TOUGHER PROBLEMS WITH STOICHIOMETRY! ASSUME STP FOR ALL GASES UNLESS OTHERWISE DESIGNATED! 1. What mass of salt can be produced from the reaction of 15 grams of sodium carbonate with excess hydrochloric acid? How many liters of carbon dioxide are produced? What mass of HCl is consumed? 2. If 25 grams of hydrogen react with 25 grams of oxygen, which reactant will run out first? What mass of water will be produced? What is your excess reactant? How much excess reactant will be left? 3. If 25.0 grams of barium nitrate are placed in a 100.0 ml of 2 M sodium sulfate, what mass of precipitate will form? 4. If 150.5 grams of lithium react with 258 grams of aluminum chloride in solution, How many grams of each product can be formed? What is your limiting reactant? 5. 460 mL of a 3M solution of nitrous acid is added to 45 grams of powdered aluminum hydroxide. How many grams of water can be produced? 6. If 214 liters of oxygen were created at STP, how many grams of nickelous chlorate were decomposed? 7. 34.5 grams of a non-metal oxide were created from phosphorous acid decomposing. How many grams of the other product are also produced? Phosphorous acid is used as a flame retardant in clothing. 8. How many liters of gas can be generated from 105.5 grams of lithium sulfite, used as a photographic paper preservative, reacting with excess chloric acid? 9. Calcium oxide reacts with water in the production of concrete. How many grams of calcium oxide reacted with excess water if 120.5 grams of product formed? 10. Ammonium chloride is used in the manufacture of circuit boards. If 745 mL of a 4M solution of ammonium chloride is reacted with 85.5 grams of lithium hydroxide, how many liters of gas are generated at STP? 11. Hydrofluoric acid cannot be stored in glass bottles because the acid attacks compounds called silicates in the glass. For example, sodium silicate reacts with the acid in the following way: Na2SiO3(s) + 8HF(aq) ------------> H2SiF6(aq) + 2NaF(aq) + 3H2O(l) How many moles of acid are required to chemically eat away .5 mol of sodium silicate? How many grams of sodium fluoride form if only .5 mol of HF were to react this way? How many grams of sodium silicate can be reacted if only 10.5 grams of HF react? 12. How many grams of carbon dioxide can form when a mixture of 20.5 grams of ethane and 45.0 grams of oxygen is ignited? Assume complete combustion occurs! 13. What mass of salt would be produced when 2 L of a 4M solution of phosphoric acid react with 690 mL of a 1.5M solution of aluminum hydroxide? 14. How many grams of barium reacted with excess hydroiodic acid, if 65.5 liters of gas were liberated at STP? 15. What mass of gas could be produced from the decomposition of 126 grams of sodium chlorate? 16. How many grams of sodium oxide would be required to form 320 grams of base, if the other reactant is in excess? 17. What mass of water could be produced from the decomposition of 126 grams of nitrous acid? 18. What mass of product will be produced when 40.0 g of diphosphorus pentoxide are mixed with 40.0 g of ferrous oxide? 19. If 200.0 liters of carbon dioxide react with water to form carbonic acid, and if all the carbon dioxide is consumed, how many molecules of water will be consumed? 20. What mass of aluminum chlorate will be required to produce 255 liters of oxygen at STP? 21. What mass of silver iodide can be precipitated from 70 mL of a 4M solution of sodium iodide and 43 grams of silver nitrate? 22. 160 grams of sodium hydroxide are added to 3 liters of 3M phosphoric acid. How many moles of sodium hydroxide are present? How many moles of acid are present? Which reactant is limiting? How many moles of water will form? What mass of sodium phosphate will form? 23. What mass of sodium hydroxide is needed to make 5 liters of a 2M solution? 24. 750 mL of a 4 M solution of HCl are reacted with 420 grams of zinc. a. What mass of zinc is consumed? b. How many moles of non-gaseous product are produced? c. What volume of gas is produced at STP? 25. 78.0 grams of potassium are mixed with 44.8 liters of chlorine. What is the limiting reactant? What mass of product is created? 26. What volume of oxygen at STP would be required to completely oxidize 54 grams of Al? 27. How many grams of a non-metal oxide would be required to neutralize 500 mL of a 4M solution of lithium hydroxide if water and lithium perfluorate were produced? 28. If 345 grams of plumbic nitrate is heated in a flare, then how many liters of gas are released if the reaction is done at STP? 29. If 135 grams of dichlorine pentoxide are reacted with 75 grams of calcium oxide, what is your limiting reactant? How many grams of product can be made? 30. What mass of a non-metal oxide would be required to react with 350 mL of a 6M solution of barium hydroxide, if water is produced along with barium phosphate? 31. What mass of lithium perchlorate and water are produced when excess lithium hydroxide solution is reacted with 255 grams of a non-metal oxide? 32. If 254 grams of diiodine trioxide powder reacts with 440 mL of a 5M solution of sodium hydroxide, what mass of each product can be produced? 33. If 4.55 grams of potassium periodate in solution and water are manufactured, how many grams of a non-metal oxide did you start with, assuming the non-metal oxide was reacted with excess potassium hydroxide solution? ULTIMATE STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS WITH NON-IDEAL GASES 1. 50.0 grams of ammonium chloride powder are mixed with 125 grams of solid barium hydroxide. What volume of gas would you expect to collect at 1.20 atm, and at 40 oC? 2. If you want to collect 20.0 ml of oxygen at 25 oC and 95.0 Kpa, what mass of 3% hydrogen peroxide would be necessary to decompose? 3. What pressure of carbon dioxide in psi would be needed to produce 150 grams of sodium carbonate in a 4.5 liter bottle at 20 oC, if you were using excess aqueous sodium hydroxide? 4. How many milliliters of hydrogen gas can be produced if 24.5 grams zinc is reacted with excess nitric acid at 105 kPa on a 30 oC day? 5. How many liters of oxygen are needed to combust with propane to make 20 liters of carbon dioxide in a gas grill, when the temperature outside is 28 oC and the pressure is 770 mm Hg? Assume the gas is at these conditions when collected. 6. What volume of gas can be produced in a lab where P is 16.0 psi and T is 25.0 degrees Celcius if you collect it from the reaction of 50.0 g ammonium sulfate powder with 50.0 g aluminum hydroxide powder? 7. You want to make 40.0 ml of gas from some aluminum carbonate. The temperature of the lab is 23.0 degrees Celcius and the pressure is 760.0 torr. If you collect the gas that is released, what mass of reactant is necessary? 8. 100.0 grams of sodium sulfite are mixed with 200 mL of 3.00 M phosphoric acid at 780.0 mm Hg and 25.0 oC, and the resulting gas is collected, answer the following questions. a. How many moles of excess reactant remain? b. Which reactant is limiting? c. How many moles of gas are formed? d. What volume of gas could be collected? 9. What mass of zinc would need to react with hydrochloric acid in order to produce 25.0 ml of hydrogen gas collected at 25.0 oC and 105 kPa? a. Solution technique using combined gas laws b. Solution technique using the ideal gas law 10. How many liters of chlorine gas at 25 oC and 0.950 atm can be produced by the reaction of 185 g of MnO2 and 1200 mL of a 4M solution of HCl? MnO2(s) + 4HCl(aq) -> MnCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + Cl2(g) 11. What volume of oxygen gas at 320 K and 680 torr will react with 5.00 L of NO gas at the same temperature and pressure? 2 NO + O2(g) -> 2NO2(g) 12. 750 mL of a 4 M solution of bromic acid are reacted with 850 grams of nicklic carbonate. What volume of gas would you expect to collect at 18.0 psi and 40.0 oC? 13. How many grams of each reactant are required to produce 5.70 liters of ammonia gas at 104 kPa and 305 oK, if aqueous barium bromide and water are also produced? 14. How many grams of arsenic acid are required to produce 45,000 ml of CO2 gas at 2400 mm Hg and 2000C, if you have excess sodium carbonate? 15. How many grams of an acid would be required to react with 14.5 liters of ammonia at 55 degrees C and 1100 Torr, if ammonium chlorate is the only product? 16. How many liters of a non-metal oxide gas are required to react with 25.5 grams of solid zinc hydroxide, if zinc sulfate and water are being produced? The reaction occurs at 45 degrees C and 119 kPa pressure. 17. 155 grams of barium hydroxide pellets can be neutralized by now many liters of sulfur dioxide gas at 820C and 995 mm Hg? 18. If 254 liters of carbon dioxide present in a container, then how many grams of cupric hydroxide can react with the gas if the reaction is done at 34 psi and 13 degrees C?