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					      Grammatical Cohesion
• Cohesive relations in and between
  sentences create texture, which makes a
  set of sentences a text

• Cohesive relations in text are constructed
  where the interpretation of one element is
  impossible without reference to another
                Conjunction
• Conjunctive relations is one kind of
  cohesive relations established in text
  (Halliday & Hasan 1976)
• Conjunctives, explicit markers of
  conjunctive relations, relate text to co-text
  (i.e. the verbal or linguistic context of a
  text)
• Conjunctive relations fall in different
  categories…
               Conjunction
• Additive: and, or, furthermore, similarly, in
  addition
• Adversative: but, however, on the other
  hand, never the less
• Causal: so, consequently, for this reason,
  it follows from this
• Temporal: then, after that, an hour later,
  finally, at last
             Co-reference
• Wash and core six cooking apples. Put
  them into a fireproof dish
                   (Halliday & Hasan 1976: 2)
• Them refers back to six cooking apples
• This kind of reference is anaphoric
  reference
• The anaphoric function of them provides
  cohesion between the two sentences such
  that we interpret them as one text
             Co-reference
• Co-referential forms are forms which
  ‘instead of being interpreted [...] in their
  own right [...] make reference to something
  else for their interpretation’ (Halliday &
 Hasan 1976: 31)
• Co-referential forms exist in an
  endophoric relation with one and other
 (See exophoric versus endophoric reference
 below)
            Co-reference
• Two kinds of endophoric relations:
• Anaphoric reference – requiring reader
  to ‘look back’ in the text
• Cataphoric reference – requiring reader
  to ‘look forward’ in the text
• Endophoric relations contribute to
  cohesion
             Co-reference
• Exophora: Look at that

• Endophora:
  – Anaphoric: Look at the sun. It’s going
    down quickly
  – Cataphoric: It’s going down quickly, the
    sun
              Co-reference
• The sun is a full lexical expression and it is
  a pronominal
  (pronoun ≈ ‘instead of’ noun)
• However, other forms can also be co-
  referential and thus create cohesion:
   e.g.    (a) substituted forms
           (b) ellided forms
               Substitution
• One expression is replaced by another,
  which ‘stands for’ it
• Words like one, do, so are common pro-
  forms:
  ‘I bought a blue jumper and then I saw a green
     one’
  ‘I bought a blue jumper and my sister did too’
  ‘Are you buying the green jumper?’ ‘I don’t think
     so’
                    Ellipsis
• Part of an utterance is omitted
• Explicitly ‘recovered’ in the co-text
  Examples:
  – Subject ellipsis:  Jack fell down
                       And [ ] broke his crown…
  – Answers to questions:
     ‘Are you a cricketer, sir?’
     ‘I was [ ] once upon a time. I subscribe to the
     club here, but I don’t play [ ]’
          Co-referential Chains
• One thing was certain, that the white kitten had had
  nothing to do with it: it was the black kitten’s fault
  entirely. For the white kitten had been having its face
  washed by the old cat for the last quarter of an hour (and
  bearing it pretty well, considering); so you see that it
  couldn’t have had any hand in the mischief.
            (Lewis Carroll, Alice Through the Looking Glass)
• The white kitten – the white kitten – its – it
• It – it – the mischief
        Co-referential Chains
• Implication of co-referential chains is that
  however far into the text the reader is, all
  subsequent co-referential forms must be traced
  back to original which alone displays exophoric
  reference

• Brown and Yule say this must be implausible:
  more likely readers establish a referent in mental
  representation and relate all subsequent
  references to that referent back to mental
  representation rather than co-referential form

				
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posted:10/14/2010
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