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The Druids

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					         The Druids


Their power, education and religion
  The power of the
  Druids [1]
Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia publica
  ac privata procurant, religiones interpretantur;
  ad hos magnus numerus adulescentium discendi
  causa concurrit, magnoque hi sunt apud eos
  honore.
The Druids are concerned with divine things, they look
  after public and private sacrifices, they explain
  religious questions/beliefs/reverence; a great number
  of young men flock/assemble to them in order to
  learn/for the purpose of learning, and among them
  they are with/have great honour.
  The power of the
  Druids [1]
nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis
  privatisque constituunt, et, si quod facinus
  admissum est, si caedes facta, si de hereditate,
  de finibus controversia est, Druides rem
  decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt.
For they decide about almost all public and private
  arguments/controversies, and, if any crime has
  been committed, if a murder has been
  done/committed, if there is an argument about an
  inheritance, about borders/territory, the Druids
  decide/settle the matter, they decide the rewards and
  punishments.
 The power of the
 Druids [1]
si quis aut privatus aut publicus eorum
   decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt:
   haec poena apud eos est gravissima.
If anyone either private or public does not stand
   by/obey their decision, they ban them from
   sacrifices; this is a very serious punishment
   among them.
 The power of the
 Druids
From Julius Caesar’s book called the Gallic
  Wars
Describing the Gallic and Germanic cultures –
  v different from Roman culture
Druids were one of two top social groupings in
  Gallic society (other were knights)
In charge of religious, judicial and cultural life
  of Gallic tribes (knights in charge of
  military, political and administrative life)
This extract is from 53BC
 The power of the
 Druids [1]
Druides rebus divinis intersunt, sacrificia
  publica ac privata procurant, religiones
  interpretantur; ad hos magnus numerus
  adulescentium discendi causa concurrit,
  magnoque hi sunt apud eos honore.

 Lines 1 – 2:   publica ac privata
 Line 2:        religiones
 Lines 1 – 2:   asyndeton
 Line 2:        ad hos – position
 The power of the
 Druids [1]
nam fere de omnibus controversiis publicis
  privatisque constituunt, et, si quod facinus
  admissum est, si caedes facta, si de hereditate,
  de finibus controversia est, Druides rem
  decernunt, praemia poenasque constituunt.
 Line 5:        fere
                publicis privatisque
 Lines 6 – 7:   anaphora – si … si … si …
                facinus … caedes … hereditate … finibus
 Lines 8 – 9:   asyndeton
 The power of the
 Druids [1]
si quis aut privatus aut publicus eorum
  decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt:
  haec poena apud eos est gravissima.

Line 9:       si quis – mirror of si quod
Lines 9 – 10: aut privatus aut publicus


What impression do we get of the Druids to begin with?
  The power of the
  Druids [2]
ei quibus ita interdictum est numero impiorum ac
  scelestorum habentur; eis omnes decedunt,
  aditum sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex
  contagione incommodi accipiant; neque eis
  petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus datur.
Those who are banned from these things in this way
  are held in the number of impious/wicked and
  wicked/wretched; everyone avoids them, [and] flees
  their approach and conversation in case they receive
  harm from contact; justice is neither given back to
  them when they seek it and no honour is given to
  them.
  The power of the
  Druids [2]
his autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui
  summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc
  mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate
  succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio
  Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de
  principatu contendunt.
But there is one in charge of all these Druids, who has
  the greatest power among them. When this man
  dies, either he who excels/stand out from the rest in
  dignity/importance/honour/prestige suceeds, or, if
  there are many equals, they compete for the
  leadership/top position in a vote of the Druids,
  sometimes even with weapons/in war.
 The power of the
 Druids [2]
disciplina eorum in Britannia reperta atque inde in
   Galliam translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei,
   qui diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt,
   plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa
   proficiscuntur.
It is believed that their rule of life/training was
   discovered/invented      in    Britain and   then
   transferred/spread into Gaul, and now those, who
   want to find out/get to know more carefully this
   matter, for the most part/generally set out for
   Britain for the purpose of learning.
 The power of the
 Druids [2]
ei quibus ita interdictum est numero impiorum ac
  scelestorum habentur; eis omnes decedunt,
  aditum sermonemque fugiunt, ne quid ex
  contagione incommodi accipiant; neque eis
  petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus datur.

Lines 1 – 2:   impiorum ac scelestorum – position of law-
breakers
Lines 2 – 4:   asyndeton
      What does this tell us about the attitude of Celts?
Lines 4 – 5:   neque … neque – effect of what is being said
  The power of the
  Druids [2]
his autem omnibus Druidibus praeest unus, qui
  summam inter eos habet auctoritatem. hoc
  mortuo, aut is qui ex reliquis excellit dignitate
  succedit, aut, si sunt multi pares, suffragio
  Druidum, nonnumquam etiam armis, de
  principatu contendunt.

 Lines 6 – 7:   What insight does this give us into Druids?
 Lines 8 – 9 : aut … aut – what is the effect of the way this is
 written? How does it mirror what has previously been written
 about law-breakers?
 Lines 8 – 11: What does this tell us about Druids?
 Line 10:       nonnumquam – double negative
 The power of the
 Druids [2]
disciplina eorum in Britannia reperta atque inde in
  Galliam translata esse existimatur, et nunc ei,
  qui diligentius eam rem cognoscere volunt,
  plerumque in Britanniam discendi causa
  proficiscuntur.
Line 11:      disciplina
Lines 11 – 12: in Britanniam


What do we learn about Druid beliefs and tribal connections
in the ancient world?
 The Education of
 the Druids [1]
Druides bello adesse solent neque tributa una cum
  reliquis     pendunt;      militiae     vacationem
  omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. tantis
  praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in
  disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus
  propinquisque mittuntur.
The Druids are accustomed to be absent from war and
  do not pay tribute together with the rest; they have
  exemption      from    military      service    and
  exemption/freedom from all duties. Encouraged by
  such great rewards many both gather of their own
  accord for training and are sent by their parents
  and relations.
 The Education of
 the Druids [1]

magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur;
  itaque nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina
  permanent.       neque fas esse existimant hos
  versus litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere
  rebus Graecis litteris utantur.
They are said there to learn by heart a great number of
  verses; and so several remain in training for twenty
  years. And they do not believe that it is right to
  entrust these verses to writing, although they use
  Greek letters in almost all other things.
 The Education of
 the Druids

id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur,
  quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri
  velint, neque eos, qui discunt, litteris
  confisos minus memoriae studere.
They seem to me to have begun/established it for
  two reasons, because they don’t want either to
  have made known/spread the training in the
  general public nor do they want those who are
  learning to study relying on the
  letters/writing less than on memory.
 The Education of
 the Druids

in primis hoc volunt persuadere, animas non
  perire, sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad
  alios, atque hoc maxime homines ad
  virtutem excitari putant metu mortis
  neglecto.
Especially they want to persuade people of this,
  that souls do not die, but they cross from one
  after death to another, and they think that
  people are greatly encouraged by this to virtue
  by having ignored the fear of death.
 The Education of
 the Druids

multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum motu, de
  mundi ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum
  natura, de deorum immortalium vi ac potestate
  disputant et iuventuti tradunt.
Besides they discuss and hand over to the young people
  many things about the stars and their motion,
  about the universe/world and the size of the world,
  about natural matters/natural order of things,
  about the power/might and power of the immortal
  gods.
 The Education of
 the Druids [1]
Druides bello adesse solent neque tributa una cum
  reliquis    pendunt;     militiae    vacationem
  omniumque rerum immunitatem habent. tantis
  praemiis excitati et sua sponte multi in
  disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus
  propinquisque mittuntur.
Line 1:        tributa – taxes
Lines 2 – 3:   vacationem … immunitatem – similar words
Line 3:        tantis praemiis – shows importance
Lines 4 – 5:   et … et …
What do these lines tell us about the status of Druids?
 The Education of
 the Druids [1]

magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur;
 itaque nonnulli viginti annos in disciplina
 permanent.      neque fas esse existimant hos
 versus litteris mandare, cum in reliquis fere
 rebus Graecis litteris utantur.
Line 7:       dicuntur – what does this suggest?
              viginti annos – what does this suggest about these
people?
Line 8:       fas – what does it mean?
Lines 9 – 10: Graecis litteris
 The Education of
 the Druids [2]

id mihi duabus de causis instituisse videntur,
  quod neque in vulgum disciplinam efferri
  velint, neque eos, qui discunt, litteris
  confisos minus memoriae studere.

Line 1:        mihi … videntur – Caesar commenting
Line 2:        neque … neque
Lines 2 – 4:   what do these lines suggest about a) Druids
               and b) Caesar?
 The Education of
 the Druids [2]

in primis hoc volunt persuadere, animas non perire,
   sed ab aliis post mortem transire ad alios, atque
   hoc maxime homines ad virtutem excitari putant
   metu mortis neglecto.

 Lines 4 – 6: animas … transire ad alios – similar to
 Pythagorean philosophy
 Lines 6 – 7:   What does Caesar suggest is consequence of
                this belief?
 The Education of
 the Druids

multa praeterea de sideribus atque eorum
 motu, de mundi ac terrarum magnitudine,
 de rerum natura, de deorum immortalium
 vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti
 tradunt.

 Lines 8 – 10: de … de … de … de …
 Lines 8 – 11: pairs
 What does this tell us about the Druids?
  The religion of
  the Druids
natio omnis Gallorum est magnopere dedita religionibus,
  atque ob eam causam ei, qui sunt affecti gravioribus
  morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro
  victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos esse vovent
  administrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur, quod,
  nisi pro vita hominis reddatur hominis vita, non posse
  deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur;
All the nation of the Gauls is greatly devoted/attached to
  religious rites, and for that reason those who are affected by
  more serious illnesses and who are engaged/occupied in
  battles and dangers, either sacrifice people as victims or vow to
  be sacrificed themselves and they are used as assistants to the
  Druids at these sacrifices, because unless the life of a person is
  returned for the life of a person, they believe it is not possible
  to appease/propitiate the divine power/will of the immortal
  gods;
  The religion of
  the Druids
publiceque eiusdem generis habent instituta
  sacrificia.    alii simulacra ingenti magnitudine
  habent, quorum membra viminibus contexta vivis
  hominibus complent; simulacris incensis homines
  flamma circumventi pereunt.
And publicly/in the name of the state they have
  sacrifices of the same type established. Some have
  figures with a huge size whose limbs woven from
  branches they fill with living people; when the figures
  have been set alight the people die surrounded
  with/by flame.
  The religion of
  the Druids
supplicia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio
  aut aliqua noxia sint comprehensi gratiora
  deis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed,
  cum copia eius generis defecit, etiam ad
  innocentium supplicia descendunt.
The executions of those who have been
  caught/detected in theft or in robbery or in
  some offence they think are pleasing to the
  immortal gods; but when the supply of this
  kind fails/runs out, executions come down
  even to/on the innocent.
  The religion of
  the Druids
natio omnis Gallorum est magnopere dedita religionibus,
  atque ob eam causam ei, qui sunt affecti gravioribus
  morbis quique in proeliis periculisque versantur, aut pro
  victimis homines immolant aut se immolaturos esse vovent
  administrisque ad ea sacrificia Druidibus utuntur, quod,
  nisi pro vita hominis reddatur hominis vita, non posse
  deorum immortalium numen placari arbitrantur;
 Lines 1 – 2: dedita religionibus
 Lines 2 – 4: sunt affecti … versantur – conditions
 Lines 4 – 6: aut … aut … que
 Line 5:      immolant … immolaturos esse
 Lines 5 – 6: words of sacrifice
 Line 7:      pattern of line
 What does this tell us about the beliefs of the Druids and
 Celts?
  The religion of
  the Druids
publiceque eiusdem generis habent instituta
  sacrificia. alii simulacra ingenti magnitudine
  habent, quorum membra viminibus contexta vivis
  hominibus complent; simulacris incensis homines
  flamma circumventi pereunt.
 Line 10:       sacrificia
                alii
 Lines 10 – 11: ingenti magnitudine
 Lines 10 – 12: simulacra … simulacris
 Lines 11 – 12: membra viminibus contexta
 Line 12:       vivis hominibus
  The religion of
  the Druids
supplicia eorum qui in furto aut in latrocinio
  aut aliqua noxia sint comprehensi gratiora
  deis immortalibus esse arbitrantur; sed,
  cum copia eius generis defecit, etiam ad
  innocentium supplicia descendunt.

Lines 14 & 17: supplicia
Lines 14 – 15: in furto … noxia – list
Line 16:       arbitrantur – attitude
Line 17:       etiam ad innocentium – attitude

				
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