Trends in geomatics - Slide 1

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					    History and trends in Cartography and Geomatics

2000 -> Online mapping, geomatics data integration
Claudius Ptolemy, AD 90-168
The Medieval period:
Thirteenth century “T-in-O” map

The imaginary St. Brendan’s Island
The Renaissance (> 1450): Ptolemy’s world is rediscovered
Vinland map: Discovered 1957, radio-carbon dated to ~1440, but containing 1920s
inks and radiocative elements from 1950s
First map showing North America, 1502
Magellan’s circumnavigation of the earth 1519-1522
Mercator’s projection 1569
Invention of printing press by Gutenberg, 1450
(though movable type was developed in China in 1041 by Bi Sheng)
16th century woodcut: Newfoundland
Copper engraving 1596
16th century map showing cartouches and beasties
Early 18th century colour map (hand coloured)
The return of the sciences                  1700 ->

1700 Division into topographic and thematic mapping

1700 / 1800s Development of surveying techniques

Earth oblateness was measured and Clarke's ellipsoid (1866) later
became the standard for the North American Datum 1927 (NAD27).

1900s National Atlases: The first edition of the Atlas of Canada
was in 1906, the world's second national atlas

The development of aerial photography enabled much faster
topographic surveying after 1945.
Longitude 1759 (Harrison’s chronometer)

                        Sir Cloudsley
                        Shovell and his
                        grave on the
                        Scilly Isles
   International Time zones, 1878
(based on longitude) by Sandford Fleming
Invention of Lithography 1800 (printing process)
  Offset lithography 1900

                     Cyan, Magenta

digital mapping: RGB (screen) v CMYK;   ink-jet printers
Recreational mapping 2000s
Topographic mapping 2000s

3D mapping incorporating satellite images, map drapes, vector layers

   Planetary Surveyor: Mars Orbiter Laser altimeter
Mars Globalmapping:
    MARS:   DEM resolution in the z = 30cm from LiDAR
    Map viewing enabled by software and data
                     - e.g. Google map links:

                       ‘seamless mapping’

Community mapping:

Local area mapping: Pacific Rim

Google maps app:

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