The Inclusive Classroom by pengxiuhui


									Using Adaptations and
 Modifications in the
 Inclusive Classroom

Live Classroom Presentation
        April 9th, 2009
         Diana Carr

        Based on the book
      Learning in Safe Schools
       By Brownlie and King
How to support an inclusive classroom?

Be flexible
Be collaborative
Be prepared to problem solve
Be a planner
Be aware of the language used when describing
Be aware of how you spend your time
Be prepared to play a key role in beginning and
 maintaining an inclusive focus
  Stainback and Stainback, authors of Support
           Networks for Inclusive Schooling
“In inclusive schools , the focus is not exclusively on how
   to help students…fit into the existing, standard
   curriculum in the school. Rather the curriculum in the
   regular education class is adapted, when necessary,
   to meet the needs of any student for whom the
   standard curriculum is inappropriate or could be
   better served through adaptation. Possibly the most
   common curricular modification in inclusive schools
   involves arranging for students to pursue different
   objectives within the same lesson.”
How can one lesson be taught to the entire class
  while meeting the individual needs of each

• Consider
  – Clarify difference between the concepts and the
    content to develop the concepts
  – Presentation
  – Student practice
  – Evaluation
When a teacher makes adaptations, the
curriculum maintains the exact
same learning outcomes for the student,
but the goals/expectations,
presentation, materials, assistance or
environment may vary or be different.
              So remember…
• You are adjusting the way the student will gain
  access to the learning situation
• The difficulty of the task cannot be affected

• What is being evaluated cannot be modified
• Must be clearly indicated in the student’s IEP
When a teacher makes modifications, there
are different learning outcomes for the
student, as identified in his or hers
Individualized Education Plan.
The materials used may be
similar or different from those of the
other learners in the classroom
             So remember…
• Requirements or the evaluation criteria of
  the competencies are modified

• The difficulty level of the task is reduced

• All modification of task requirements and
  evaluations are clearly recorded on the
  established IEP
     Adaptation vs. Modification
Use of adaptation over modification when possible
 enhances the student's acceptance and inclusion in
 the classroom
Adaptation reduces teacher time needed for
 planning and delivering multiple curricula
Once clearly understood and practiced it almost
 comes naturally

*Avoid assuming the child requires a separate curriculum since the overuse
  of a separate curriculum increases the exclusion of the child and
  workload of the teacher.
           Ask Four Questions
1.   Which curriculum learning outcomes can the child
     meet without any changes?
2.   What adaptations can be made, and where for the
     child to meet these learning outcomes?
3.   Which learning outcomes will need to be modified?
     (can this be done with the same classroom
4.   Are there any times when the child will be working
     on different learning outcomes with different, but
     age appropriate, materials?
Types of Adaptation
      1. Input

      2. Output

       3. Time
          Possible Adaptations
• Changes to the environment
• Student materials
  – Availability
  – Adapted devices
• Adapting the page set up
• Presentation of lesson
• Time allocation
• Technology
Types of Modification
         1. Difficulty

     2. Level of support

           3. Size

  4. Degree of participation

      5. Alternate goals

   6. Substitute Curriculum
           Possible Modifications
• Different objective with same materials
   – Simplify the vocabulary/questions
   – Simplify the task

• Provide the answers
• Grade work turned in, not work required
• Alternate expectations
• Fill in the blank
• Provide functioning level materials
         Why Adapt and Modify?
• Encourages inclusion of all students
• Addresses different learning styles
• Allows teacher to reach all students some of the time
• Allows for diversity among students
• Fosters social relations and self-worth
• Meets social, emotional and academic needs
• MOST OF ALL… Success for all
       Elementary School Exam
          Support Measures
Adaptations may include:
  – Additional time as specified in the IEP
  – Isolated workspace
  – Read aloud or reader provided
  – Chunking the work
  – Adult to pace and keep student on task
  – Read directions aloud at student’s request
       Elementary School Exam
          Support Measures
• Modifications may include:
  – Reduce difficulty of assigned task
  – Use of word processor with correction tools
  – Adult interpretation of text
  – Adult facilitating discussion of material
  – Breaking situational problem down into smaller
  – Use of various resources
             Secondary School Exam
               Support Measures*
        *taken form the Administrative Manual for the Certification of Secondary School Studies 16-7175A, Chapter 5

5.2 The intervention plan can include means allowing
   students to understand instructions and questions and
   give their answers. However, educational institutions
   must maintain requirements for issuing secondary school
          The school principal is authorized to introduce the
   following measures if they are included in a student's
   individualized education plan:
                           Chapter 5
•   extending the time allotted for the exam by up to one third of the time
    normally allowed
•   adaptation of specific measures: the attendant provides assistance that
    the student requires according to his or her needs
•   allowing students to use a computer without grammar corrector or
    speller while respecting certain conditions
•   ensuring that the exam is held in a secure location and that the students
    are supervised
•   allowing the students to use various writing aids
•   allowing students to give their answers using a tape recorder
•   allowing students to use a reading aide such as a monitor, magnifying
    glass or inclined reading stand
             Elements for Success
• Flexibility and creativity
• Understanding of students’ backgrounds
• Resources and materials
• School support
• Understand students’ IEPs
• Professional development opportunities are especially
  necessary in order for teachers to improve their skills and
  knowledge in curriculum modification
   Salisbury, Mangino, Petrigala, Rainforth,
         Syryca & Palombaro, (1994)

Salisbury and her colleagues found that modifying
  curriculum based on student’s IEP resulted in successful
  physical, social, and instructional inclusion of students
  with mild to profound disabilities.
     Buxton, 1999; Fradd, Lee, Sutman &
                Saxton, 2001
• Major focus of this study was on the modification of
• Teachers’ perceptions regarding the effectiveness of
  curriculum modification shifted from uncertain to
• That teachers need to understand the characteristics and
  specific needs of particular groups when determining
  how curriculum should be modified
• School failure is less likely to occur and student’s self-
  esteem increases when their culture is successfully
“The whole reason for education is to help create
  whole people for the future. We build in students
  what we want in a future society. The principles
  around inclusion are what we are all searching for
  in our lives. I think if we give a taste of this to
  children, they will seek it out for the rest of their

     -Kim Ondrik, teacher

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