U.S. History Top 100 What every student should know to pass the U.S. History EOC Goals 7-12 Goal 7: The Progressive Movement (1890-1914) • The learner will analyze the economic, political, and social reforms of the Progressive Period. Causes of Progressivism • Ineffectiveness of government • Poor working conditions • Emergence of Social Gospel • Unequal distribution of wealth • Immigration • Urban poor • Corruption Progressive Party Platform • The platform called for women's suffrage, recall of judicial decisions, easier amendment of the U.S. Constitution, social welfare legislation for women and children, workers' compensation, limited injunctions in strikes, farm relief, revision of banking to assure an elastic currency. Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911 • A fire in New York's Triangle Shirtwaist Company killed 146 people, mostly women. The doors were locked and the windows were too high for them to get to the ground. Highlighted the poor working conditions and led to federal regulations to protect workers. Muckrakers • Journalists who searched for and publicized real or alleged acts of corruption of public officials, businessmen. Robert LaFollette • Political leader who believed in libertarian reforms, he was a major leader of the Progressive movement from Wisconsin. • Recall, initiative, referendum Federal Reserve Act, 1913 • Regulated banking to help small banks stay in business. A move away from laissez- faire policies, it was passed by Wilson. Plessy v. Ferguson, 1886 • The Supreme Court ruled against Plessy, saying that segregated facilities for whites and blacks were legal as long as the facilities were of equal quality. Disenfranchisement • The Mississippi supreme court ruled that poll taxes and literacy tests, which took away blacks' right to vote (a practice known as "disenfranchisement"), were legal. Booker T. Washington • Washington believed that African Americans had to achieve economic independence before civil rights. In 1881, he founded the first formal school for blacks, the Tuskegee Institute. W.E.B. DuBois • DuBois believed that black Americans had to demand their social and civil rights or else become permanent victims of racism. Helped found the NAACP. He disagreed with Booker T. Washington's theories. New Marketing Techniques • Advertising • Mail order catalogs • Consumerism Goal 8: The Great War and Its Aftermath (1914-1930) • The learner will analyze United States involvement in World War I and the war’s influence on international affairs during the 1920s. U.S. - Neutrality to Involvement • May 1915 – U-boats sink the Lusitania • Sept. 1915 – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships • March 1916 – Germany sinks the Sussex • May 1916 – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships • Jan. 1917 – Zimmerman note is intercepted • Feb. 1917 – Germany resumes unrestricted submarine warfare • April 1917 – U.S. declares war on Germany Russian Revolution, 1917 • Instituted a Communist government lead by the Bolshevik party under Lenin. Lenin pulled Russia out of WWI. Fourteen Points, 1918 • Wilson's idea that he wanted included in the WWI peace treaty, including freedom of the seas and the League of Nations. League of Nations, 1919 • Devised by President Wilson, it comprised of delegates from many countries, the U.S. did not join. It was designed to be run by a council of the five largest countries. It also included a provision for a world court. Eugene V. Debs • Debs repeatedly ran for president as a socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a speech protesting WWI in violation of the Sedition Act. Schenck v. U.S., 1919 • United States Supreme Court decision concerning the question of whether the defendant possessed a First Amendment right to free speech against the draft during World War I. During wartime, utterances tolerable in peacetime can be punished. Sacco and Vanzetti • Sacco and Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory. • Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. Goal 9: Prosperity and Depression (1919-1939) • The learner will appraise the economic, social, and political changes of the decades of “The Twenties” and “The Thirties.” Assembly Line • Arrangement of equipment and workers in which work passes from operation to operation in a direct line until the product is assembled. Impact of Mass Media • Radio • Marketing • Advertising • Jazz • Silent & “talkie” films • “The Jazz Singer” • “Fireside Chats” Lost Generation • Writer Gertrude Stein told Hemingway, "You are all a lost generation," referring to the many restless young writers who gathered in Paris after WW I. They thought the U.S. was materialistic and they criticized conformity. Harlem Renaissance, Langston Hughes • Hughes was a gifted writer who wrote humorous poems, stories, essays and poetry. Harlem was a center for black writers, musicians, and intellectuals. Flappers, 1920’s • Women started wearing short skirts and bobbed hair, and had more sexual freedom. They began to abandon traditional female roles and take jobs usually reserved for men. Fundamentalism • Movement or attitude stressing strict and literal adherence to a set of basic principles. Scopes Trial, 1925 • Prosecution of school teacher, John Scopes, for violation of a Tennessee law forbidding public schools from teaching about evolution. Scopes was convicted and fined $100, but the trial started a shift of public opinion away from Fundamentalism. Stock Market Crash, 1929 • On October 24, 1929, panic selling occurred as investors realized the stock boom had been an over inflated bubble. Margin investors were being decimated as every stock holder tried to liquidate. Millionaire margin investors became bankrupt instantly, as the stock market crashed on October 28 and 29. Dust Bowl, 1930s • A series of catastrophic dust storms caused major ecological and agricultural damage to American prairie lands in the 1930s, caused by decades of inappropriate farming techniques. Bonus Army, 1932 • Facing the financial crisis of the Depression, WW I veterans asked Congress to pay their retirement bonuses early. Congress considered a bill, but it was not approved. Angry veterans marched on Washington, D.C., and Hoover called in the army. Bank Failures • During the first 10 months of 1930, 744 banks failed. In all, 9,000 banks failed during the decade of the 1930s. By 1933, depositors saw $140 billion disappear through bank failures. Causes of Great Depression • Much debt, stock prices spiraling up, over- production and under- consuming, the stock market crashed. Germany's default on reparations caused European bank failures, which spread to the U.S. New Deal Agencies • Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC) • Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) • Works Progress Administration (WPA) • Public Works Administration (PWA) • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA) • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) Long Term Effects of New Deal Programs • Expansion of the role of federal government • Government responsibility for the welfare of its citizens • Expanding government role in the economy • Deficit spending Goal 10: World War II and the Beginning of the Cold War (1930s- 1963) • The learner will analyze United States involvement in World War II and the war’s influence on international affairs in following decades. Lend-lease Act, 1941 • Authorized the president to transfer, lend, or lease any article of defense equipment to any government whose defense was deemed vital to the defense of the U.S. Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and ammunition to the Allies. Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941 • Surprise attack by Japanese on U.S. Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The U.S. declared war on Japan and Germany, entering World War II. D-Day, June 6, 1944 • Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II. War Posters • The radio, print, and film industries reminded Americans that they were in a struggle between dictatorship and democracy. Rosie the Riveter • Women found jobs, especially in heavy industry, that fell outside the traditional realm of women’s work. Korematsu v. U.S., 1944 • Upheld the U.S. government's decision to put Japanese-Americans in internment camps during World War II. G.I. Bill, 1944 • Servicemen's Readjustment Act, also called the G.I. Bill of Rights. Granted $13 billion in aid for former servicemen, ranging from educational grants to housing and other services to assist with the readjustment to society. Marshall Plan, 1947 • Introduced by Secretary of State George G. Marshall, he proposed massive economic aid to Europe to revitalize the European economies after WWII and help prevent the spread of Communism. Korean War, 1950 • On June 25, 1950, the Communist North invaded the Democratic South. The United Nations created an international army, lead by the U.S. to fight for the South and China joined the war on the side of North Korea. This was the first time the United Nations had intervened militarily. Post-war Organizations • United Nations, 1945 - Founded after WWII by victorious Allied Powers to intervene in conflicts between nations and avoid war. • NATO, 1949 - The member nations agreed to fight for each other if attacked. It is an international military force. • SEATO, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian nations modeled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't establish a military force. Containment, George F. Keenan • A member of the State Department, he felt that the best way to keep Communism out of Europe was to confront the Russians wherever they tried to spread their power. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 • After discovering the Russians were building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, the U.S. announced a quarantine of Cuba. After six days of confrontation that almost led to nuclear war, Khrushchev agreed to dismantle the launch sites. Goal 11: Recovery, Prosperity, and Turmoil (1945-1980) • The learner will trace economic, political, and social developments and assess their significance for the lives of Americans during this time period. McCarthyism, 1950-1953 • Senator who began sensational campaign by asserting that the U.S. State Department had been infiltrated by Communists. He accused the Army of covering up foreign espionage. The Army-McCarthy Hearings made McCarthy look so foolish that further investigations were halted. Domino Theory, 1957 • It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect. Sputnik, 1957 • The first artificial satellite sent into space, launched by the Soviets. Brown v. Board of Education, 1954 • The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated. Détente’ • Nixon’s relaxed approach to the Cold war. He wanted to end Vietnam and open Russia and China for Trade Martin Luther King, Jr. • The leader of the Civil Rights Movement and President of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, promoted non- violent protest. Malcolm X • Malcolm X expressed the feelings of many African American activists who had grown impatient with King’s nonviolent methods. Malcolm X preached a message of self-reliance and self- determination. Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan, 1963 • Depicted how difficult a woman's life is because she doesn't think about herself, only her family. It said that middle-class society stifled women and didn't let them use their talents. Attacked the "cult of domesticity." NOW ERA failed Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964 • After a U.S. Navy ship reportedly was fired on, Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression. My Lai Incident, 1968 • An American unit destroyed the village of My Lai, killing many women and children. The incident was not revealed to the public until 20 months later. War Powers Act, 1973 • Gave any president the power to go to war under certain circumstances, but required that he could only do so for 90 days before being required to officially bring the matter before Congress. Détente • A lessening of tensions between U.S. and Soviet Union and China. Besides disarming missiles to insure a lasting peace between superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade relations and a limited military budget. Watergate Scandal, 1972-1974 • In 1972, five men were arrested for breaking into the Democratic National Committee's executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel. Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary. In 1974, as Nixon's impeachment began, he resigned. Cesar Chavez • Non-violent leader of the United Farm Workers from 1963-1970. Organized laborers in California and in the Southwest to strike against fruit and vegetable growers. Unionized Mexican-American farm workers. Goal 12: The United States since the Vietnam War (1973-present) • The learner will identify and analyze trends in domestic and foreign affairs of the United States during this time period. Camp David Accords, 1978 • Peace talks between Egypt and Israel mediated by President Carter. Title IX, 1972 • "No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance." Affirmative Action • Policy that gives special consideration to women and minorities to make up for past discrimination. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke, 1978 • Barred colleges from admitting students solely on the basis of race, but allowed them to include race along with other considerations when deciding which students to admit. • Reverse discrimination North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), 1992 • The North American Free Trade Area is the trade bloc created by the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), whose members are Canada, Mexico and the United States. Election of 2000 • In the presidential election of 2000 Republican George W. Bush was elected over Democrat Al Gore in one of the closest and most controversial presidential elections in the history of the United States. September 11, 2001 • The September 11, 2001 attacks consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist suicide attacks by Islamic extremists on the United States on September 11, 2001. No Child Left Behind, 2002 • President Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act. The law helps schools improve by focusing on accountability for results, freedom for states and communities, proven education methods, and choices for parents.
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