U.S. History What every student should know by SupremeLord

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									  U.S. History
   Top 100
What every student should know
 to pass the U.S. History EOC
          Goals 7-12
Goal 7: The Progressive Movement
• The learner will analyze the economic,
  political, and social reforms of the
  Progressive Period.
        Causes of Progressivism
•   Ineffectiveness of government
•   Poor working conditions
•   Emergence of Social Gospel
•   Unequal distribution of wealth
•   Immigration
•   Urban poor
•   Corruption
    Progressive Party Platform
• The platform called for
  women's suffrage, recall of
  judicial decisions, easier
  amendment of the U.S.
  Constitution, social welfare
  legislation for women and
  children, workers'
  compensation, limited
  injunctions in strikes, farm
  relief, revision of banking to
  assure an elastic currency.
  Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911
• A fire in New York's
  Triangle Shirtwaist
  Company killed 146 people,
  mostly women. The doors
  were locked and the
  windows were too high for
  them to get to the ground.
  Highlighted the poor
  working conditions and led
  to federal regulations to
  protect workers.
• Journalists who
  searched for and
  publicized real or
  alleged acts of
  corruption of public
          Robert LaFollette
• Political leader who
  believed in libertarian
  reforms, he was a
  major leader of the
  Progressive movement
  from Wisconsin.
• Recall, initiative,
   Federal Reserve Act, 1913
• Regulated banking to
  help small banks stay
  in business. A move
  away from laissez-
  faire policies, it was
  passed by Wilson.
     Plessy v. Ferguson, 1886
• The Supreme Court ruled against Plessy,
  saying that segregated facilities for whites
  and blacks were legal as long as the
  facilities were of equal quality.
• The Mississippi supreme court ruled that
  poll taxes and literacy tests, which took
  away blacks' right to vote (a practice
  known as "disenfranchisement"), were
       Booker T. Washington
• Washington believed that African
  Americans had to achieve economic
  independence before civil rights. In 1881,
  he founded the first formal school for
  blacks, the Tuskegee Institute.
             W.E.B. DuBois
• DuBois believed that black
  Americans had to demand
  their social and civil rights
  or else become
  permanent victims of
  racism. Helped found the
  NAACP. He disagreed
  with Booker T.
  Washington's theories.
   New Marketing Techniques
• Advertising
• Mail order catalogs
• Consumerism
   Goal 8: The Great War and Its
      Aftermath (1914-1930)
• The learner will analyze
  United States
  involvement in World
  War I and the war’s
  influence on
  international affairs
  during the 1920s.
    U.S. - Neutrality to Involvement
• May 1915 – U-boats sink the Lusitania
• Sept. 1915 – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships
• March 1916 – Germany sinks the Sussex
• May 1916 – Germany promises not to sink unarmed ships
• Jan. 1917 – Zimmerman note is intercepted
• Feb. 1917 – Germany resumes unrestricted submarine
• April 1917 – U.S. declares war on Germany
    Russian Revolution, 1917
• Instituted a Communist
  government lead by the
  Bolshevik party under
  Lenin. Lenin pulled
  Russia out of WWI.
      Fourteen Points, 1918
• Wilson's idea that he wanted included in
  the WWI peace treaty, including freedom
  of the seas and the League of Nations.
     League of Nations, 1919
• Devised by President Wilson, it comprised
  of delegates from many countries, the U.S.
  did not join. It was designed to be run by a
  council of the five largest countries. It also
  included a provision for a world court.
           Eugene V. Debs
• Debs repeatedly ran for president as a
  socialist, he was imprisoned after he gave a
  speech protesting WWI in violation of the
  Sedition Act.
       Schenck v. U.S., 1919
• United States Supreme Court
  decision concerning the
  question of whether the
  defendant possessed a First
  Amendment right to free
  speech against the draft during
  World War I. During wartime,
  utterances tolerable in
  peacetime can be punished.
          Sacco and Vanzetti
• Sacco and Vanzetti were
  Italian immigrants charged
  with murdering a guard and
  robbing a shoe factory.
• Convicted on circumstantial
  evidence, many believed
  they had been framed for
  the crime because of their
  anarchist and pro-union
Goal 9: Prosperity and Depression
• The learner will appraise the economic,
  social, and political changes of the decades
  of “The Twenties” and “The Thirties.”
            Assembly Line
• Arrangement of equipment and workers in
  which work passes from operation to
  operation in a direct line until the product
  is assembled.
         Impact of Mass Media
•   Radio
•   Marketing
•   Advertising
•   Jazz
•   Silent & “talkie” films
•   “The Jazz Singer”
•   “Fireside Chats”
           Lost Generation
• Writer Gertrude Stein told Hemingway,
  "You are all a lost generation," referring to
  the many restless young writers who
  gathered in Paris after WW I. They thought
  the U.S. was materialistic and they
  criticized conformity.
  Harlem Renaissance, Langston
• Hughes was a gifted
  writer who wrote
  humorous poems,
  stories, essays and
  poetry. Harlem was a
  center for black writers,
  musicians, and
           Flappers, 1920’s
• Women started wearing
  short skirts and bobbed
  hair, and had more
  sexual freedom. They
  began to abandon
  traditional female roles
  and take jobs usually
  reserved for men.
• Movement or attitude stressing strict and
  literal adherence to a set of basic
         Scopes Trial, 1925
• Prosecution of school teacher, John
  Scopes, for violation of a Tennessee law
  forbidding public schools from teaching
  about evolution. Scopes was convicted and
  fined $100, but the trial started a shift of
  public opinion away from Fundamentalism.
      Stock Market Crash, 1929
• On October 24, 1929, panic selling occurred as
  investors realized the stock boom had been an over
  inflated bubble. Margin investors were being
  decimated as every stock holder tried to liquidate.
  Millionaire margin investors became bankrupt
  instantly, as the stock market crashed on October
  28 and 29.
           Dust Bowl, 1930s
• A series of catastrophic dust storms caused
  major ecological and agricultural damage to
  American prairie lands in the 1930s, caused
  by decades of inappropriate farming
           Bonus Army, 1932
• Facing the financial crisis of
  the Depression, WW I
  veterans asked Congress
  to pay their retirement
  bonuses early. Congress
  considered a bill, but it was
  not approved. Angry
  veterans marched on
  Washington, D.C., and
  Hoover called in the army.
              Bank Failures
• During the first 10 months of 1930, 744
  banks failed. In all, 9,000 banks failed during
  the decade of the 1930s. By 1933,
  depositors saw $140 billion disappear
  through bank failures.
  Causes of Great Depression
• Much debt, stock prices
  spiraling up, over-
  production and under-
  consuming, the stock
  market crashed.
  Germany's default on
  reparations caused
  European bank failures,
  which spread to the U.S.
            New Deal Agencies
•   Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
•   Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)
•   Works Progress Administration (WPA)
•   Public Works Administration (PWA)
•   Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC)
•   Agricultural Adjustment Act (AAA)
•   Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
  Long Term Effects of New Deal
• Expansion of the role of federal
• Government responsibility for the welfare
  of its citizens
• Expanding government role in the
• Deficit spending
  Goal 10: World War II and the
Beginning of the Cold War (1930s-
• The learner will analyze
  United States
  involvement in World
  War II and the war’s
  influence on
  international affairs in
  following decades.
        Lend-lease Act, 1941
• Authorized the president to transfer, lend,
  or lease any article of defense equipment
  to any government whose defense was
  deemed vital to the defense of the U.S.
  Allowed the U.S. to send supplies and
  ammunition to the Allies.
 Pearl Harbor, December 7, 1941
• Surprise attack by Japanese on U.S.
  Pacific Fleet harbored in Pearl Harbor,
  Hawaii. The U.S. declared war on Japan
  and Germany, entering World War II.
        D-Day, June 6, 1944
• Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops
  (the largest invasion force in history)
  stormed the beaches at Normandy and
  began the process of re-taking France.
  The turning point of World War II.
              War Posters
• The radio, print, and
  film industries
  reminded Americans
  that they were in a
  struggle between
  dictatorship and
          Rosie the Riveter
• Women found jobs,
  especially in heavy
  industry, that fell
  outside the traditional
  realm of women’s work.
     Korematsu v. U.S., 1944
• Upheld the U.S. government's decision to
  put Japanese-Americans in internment
  camps during World War II.
               G.I. Bill, 1944
• Servicemen's
  Readjustment Act, also
  called the G.I. Bill of
  Rights. Granted $13
  billion in aid for former
  servicemen, ranging
  from educational grants
  to housing and other
  services to assist with
  the readjustment to
        Marshall Plan, 1947
• Introduced by Secretary
  of State George G.
  Marshall, he proposed
  massive economic aid to
  Europe to revitalize the
  European economies
  after WWII and help
  prevent the spread of
          Korean War, 1950
• On June 25, 1950, the
  Communist North invaded
  the Democratic South. The
  United Nations created an
  international army, lead by
  the U.S. to fight for the
  South and China joined the
  war on the side of North
  Korea. This was the first
  time the United Nations had
  intervened militarily.
        Post-war Organizations
• United Nations, 1945 - Founded after WWII by
  victorious Allied Powers to intervene in conflicts
  between nations and avoid war.
• NATO, 1949 - The member nations agreed to fight
  for each other if attacked. It is an international
  military force.
• SEATO, 1954 - Alliance of non-Communist Asian
  nations modeled after NATO. Unlike NATO, it didn't
  establish a military force.
 Containment, George F. Keenan
• A member of the State Department, he felt
  that the best way to keep Communism out
  of Europe was to confront the Russians
  wherever they tried to spread their power.
    Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962
• After discovering the
  Russians were building
  nuclear missile launch
  sites in Cuba, the U.S.
  announced a quarantine of
  Cuba. After six days of
  confrontation that almost
  led to nuclear war,
  Khrushchev agreed to
  dismantle the launch sites.
Goal 11: Recovery, Prosperity, and
       Turmoil (1945-1980)
• The learner will trace economic, political,
  and social developments and assess their
  significance for the lives of Americans
  during this time period.
      McCarthyism, 1950-1953
• Senator who began sensational
  campaign by asserting that the
  U.S. State Department had
  been infiltrated by Communists.
  He accused the Army of
  covering up foreign espionage.
  The Army-McCarthy Hearings
  made McCarthy look so foolish
  that further investigations were
      Domino Theory, 1957
• It stated that if one country fell to
  Communism, it would undermine another
  and that one would fall, producing a
  domino effect.
             Sputnik, 1957
• The first artificial
  satellite sent into
  space, launched by
  the Soviets.
Brown v. Board of Education, 1954
• The Supreme Court
  overruled Plessy v.
  Ferguson, declared that
  racially segregated
  facilities are inherently
  unequal and ordered all
  public schools
• Nixon’s relaxed approach to the Cold war.
  He wanted to end Vietnam and open
  Russia and China for Trade
      Martin Luther King, Jr.
• The leader of the Civil Rights Movement
  and President of the Southern Christian
  Leadership Conference, promoted non-
  violent protest.
Malcolm X
 • Malcolm X expressed the
   feelings of many African
   American activists who
   had grown impatient with
   King’s nonviolent
   methods. Malcolm X
   preached a message of
   self-reliance and self-
 Feminine Mystique, Betty Friedan,
• Depicted how difficult a
  woman's life is because
  she doesn't think about
  herself, only her family. It
  said that middle-class
  society stifled women and
  didn't let them use their
  talents. Attacked the "cult
  of domesticity." NOW
  ERA failed
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, 1964
• After a U.S. Navy ship
  reportedly was fired on,
  Congress passed this
  resolution which gave the
  president power to send
  troops to Vietnam to
  protect against further
  North Vietnamese
       My Lai Incident, 1968
• An American unit
  destroyed the village of
  My Lai, killing many
  women and children.
  The incident was not
  revealed to the public
  until 20 months later.
       War Powers Act, 1973
• Gave any president the power to go to war
  under certain circumstances, but required
  that he could only do so for 90 days before
  being required to officially bring the matter
  before Congress.
• A lessening of tensions between U.S. and
  Soviet Union and China. Besides disarming
  missiles to insure a lasting peace between
  superpowers, Nixon pressed for trade
  relations and a limited military budget.
 Watergate Scandal, 1972-1974
• In 1972, five men were arrested for breaking
  into the Democratic National Committee's
  executive quarters in the Watergate Hotel.
  Nixon admitted to complicity in the burglary.
  In 1974, as Nixon's impeachment began, he
             Cesar Chavez
• Non-violent leader of the United Farm
  Workers from 1963-1970. Organized
  laborers in California and in the Southwest to
  strike against fruit and vegetable growers.
  Unionized Mexican-American farm workers.
 Goal 12: The United States since
 the Vietnam War (1973-present)
• The learner will identify and analyze trends
  in domestic and foreign affairs of the
  United States during this time period.
   Camp David Accords, 1978
• Peace talks between Egypt and Israel
  mediated by President Carter.
             Title IX, 1972
• "No person in the United
  States shall, on the basis of
  sex, be excluded from
  participation in, be denied the
  benefits of, or be subjected to
  discrimination under any
  education program or activity
  receiving Federal financial
          Affirmative Action
• Policy that gives special consideration to
  women and minorities to make up for past
     Regents of the University of
      California v. Bakke, 1978
• Barred colleges from admitting students solely
  on the basis of race, but allowed them to include
  race along with other considerations when
  deciding which students to admit.
• Reverse discrimination
     North American Free Trade
     Agreement (NAFTA), 1992
• The North American Free Trade Area is the
  trade bloc created by the North American
  Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), whose
  members are Canada, Mexico and the
  United States.
            Election of 2000
• In the presidential
  election of 2000
  Republican George W.
  Bush was elected over
  Democrat Al Gore in one
  of the closest and most
  controversial presidential
  elections in the history of
  the United States.
        September 11, 2001
• The September 11, 2001
  attacks consisted of a
  series of coordinated
  terrorist suicide attacks
  by Islamic extremists on
  the United States on
  September 11, 2001.
    No Child Left Behind, 2002
• President Bush signed
  the No Child Left Behind
  Act. The law helps
  schools improve by
  focusing on accountability
  for results, freedom for
  states and communities,
  proven education
  methods, and choices for

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