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Behavior Theory

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					Behavior Theory
          B.F. Skinner
• Skinner championed radical behaviorism,
  which places primary emphasis on the
  effects of environment on behavior. Skinner
  was also a determinist; he did not believe
  that humans had free choice. He
  acknowledged that feelings and thoughts
  exist, but he denied that they CAUSED our
  actions. Instead he stresses the cause and
  effect links between objective, observable
  environmental conditions and behavior.
  Environmental factors can be directly
  observed and changed. In 197 Skinner wrote
  a book “Beyond Freedom and Dignity”.
4 Areas of Development

•   Classical Conditioning
•   Operant Conditioning
•   Social Learning Theory
•   Cognitive Behavior Therapy
• Classical Conditioning- (respondent
  conditioning)- refers to what happens prior
  to learning that creates a responds thought,
  pairing. Example- knee jerks, salivation
• Operant Conditioning-most of the
  significant responses we make in everyday
  life. Examples are reading, writing, driving a
  car and eating with utensils. Positive and
  negative reinforcement, punishment and
  extinction techniques, illustrates how
  operant conditioning in applied settings can
  be instrumental in developing prosocial and
  adaptive behaviors.
• Social learning theory is interact ional,
  interdisciplinary and multimodal. It involves a triadic
  reciprocal interaction among the environment,
  personal factors (beliefs, preferences, expectations,
  self-perception and so forth), and individual behavior. A
  basic assumption is that people are capable of self-
  directed behavior change.



• Cognitive behavior Therapy-this approach offers
  various action-oriented methods to help people change
  what they are doing and thinking.
      View of Human Nature
• The person is the producer and the product
  of his or her environment
• Developing producers that actually give
  control to acts and thus increases their
  range of freedom
• It aims to increase peoples skills so that they
  have more options for responding
• Given the techniques and skills of self
  change, people have the capacity to improve
  their lives by altering one or more of the
  various factors influencing their behavior
Basic Characteristics and Assumptions:
•   Behavior therapy are based on the principles and procedures
    of the scientific method. Experimentally derived principles of
    learning are systematically applied to help people change
    their maladaptive behavior
•   Behavior therapy deals with the clients current problems and
    the factors influencing them as opposed to an analysis of
    possible historical determinants. At times understanding of
    the past may offer useful info. About the environmental
    events related to present behavior
•   Clients involved in behavior therapy are expected to assume
    an active role by engaging in specific actions to deal with
    their problems. Rather than simply talking about their
    condition they are required to DO something to bring about
    change. Behavior therapy is an action-oriented approach, &
    learning is viewed as being at the core of therapy. Although
    referred to as “therapy” this is an education approach in
    which clients participate in a teaching-learning process.
 Cont..

• The Behavioral approach emphasizes teaching clients
  skills of self-management with the expectation that they
  will be responsible for transferring what they learn in the
  therapist’s office to their everyday lives. Behavior therapy
  is generally carried in the clients natural environment as
  much as possible.
• The focuses is on assessing overt and covert behavior
  directly, identifying the problem, and evaluating change.
  Therapists also assess their clients culture as part of their
  social environments, including social support networks
  relating to target behavior.
• Behavior therapy emphasizes a self-control approach in
  which clients learn self-management strategies.
  Therapists frequently train clients to initiate, conduct, and
  evaluate their own therapy. Clients are empowered
  through this process of being responsible for their
  changes.
 Cont..



• Behavioral treatment interventions are individually tailored
  to specific problems experience by clients. “What treatment,
  by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that
  specific problem and under which set of circumstances?
• The practice of behavior therapy is based on a collaborative
  partnership between therapist and clients and every attempt
  as made to inform clients about the nature and course of
  treatment
• The emphasis is on practical applications. Interventions are
  applied to all facets of daily life in which maladaptive
  behaviors are to be increased
• Therapists strive to develop culture specific procedures and
  obtain their clients adherence and cooperation
                  Therapeutic Goals
•   The general goals of behavior therapy are to increase
    personal choice and to create new conditions for learning
•   The clients with the help of the therapists defines specific
    goals at the outset of the therapeutic process
•   The counselor provides rationale for goals, explain role of
    goals, purpose of goals, and the clients participation in the
    goal-setting process
•   Client identifies the outcomes specifying the positive
    changes that he and she wants from counseling
•   Client is the person seeking help, and he or she can only
    make the changes in their life
•   The benefit effect of all identified goals are explored and
    counselor and client discuss the possible advantages and
    disadvantages of these goals
•   Client and counselor then decide to continue pursuing the
    selected goals, to reconsider the clients initial goals, or to
    seek the services of another practitioner
     Therapeutic techniques and procedure

• Client keeps record of intensity or occurrences to devise
  if the therapy is working
• Some assessment instruments including; self-report
  inventories, behavior rating scales, monitoring self form,
  and simple observation techniques
• Treatment outcomes are multifaceted, changes are all or
  nothing
• Behavior therapy is used for a specific person not some
  random therapy
• Behavioral therapy can be incorporated into other
  approaches
• Some approaches of the behavioral therapy ranges from
  behavioral analysis, functional assessment model,
  relaxation training, systematic desensitization, exposure
  therapies, eye movement, assertion training, self-
  management programs, self-direct behavior, and
  multimodal therapy
Operant conditioning Techniques
• Some key principles of operant conditioning are: positive
  reinforcement, negative reinforcement, extinction,
  positive punishment and negative punishment
• Positive reinforcement involves the addition of something
  of value to the individual as a consequence of a certain
  behavior
• Negative reinforcement involves escape or avoidance of
  unpleasant stimuli. Individual motivated to exhibit a
  desired behavior to avoid the unpleasant condition
• Extinction can be used for behaviors that have been
  maintained by positive reinforcement or negative
  reinforcement. Doing so can eliminate certain behaviors.
• Positive punishment aversive stimulus is added after the
  behavior to decrease the frequency of a behavior
• Negative punishment id reinforcing stimulus is removed
  following the behavior to decrease the frequency of a
  target behavior
• Both kinds of punishment, the behavior is less likely to
  happen again
    Functional Assessment Model

•   The first step is to conduct a functional assessment
    using both indirect and direct observation, and
    information about antecedent events, including the time
    and place of the behavior and the people present when
    the behavior occurs
•   The therapist develops hypotheses about the nature of
    the problem behavior and the condition contributing to
    this behavior
•   Hypothesized to be maintaining the problem behaviors
•   Negative punishment procedures may be used to
    decrease problem
•   After treatment methods have been used it’s very
    important to develop strategies to maintain behaviors
         Relaxation Training

• Clients are given a set of instructions that
  ask them to relax in a quite environment
  and taking deep and regular breathing
  patterns
• Clients are suppose to “let go”
• Clients are encouraged to actually feel
  and experience the tension building up, to
  notice their muscles getting tighter and
  study the tension, to hold and fully
  experience the tension
• A normal relaxation practice lasts for 20
  to 25 minutes
• It helps relieve stress and anxiety
Systematic Desensitization
•   Clients are to imagine successively more anxiety arousing
    situations at the same time that they engage in a behavior that
    competes with anxiety
•   Gradually clients become less sensitive to the anxiety arousing
    situations
•   The therapist conducts an initial interview to identify specific
    information about the anxiety and to gather relevant background
    information about the client
•   Background information gives the therapist a good understanding
    of the client
•   Find out under what circumstances does the clients have anxiety
•   Therapist conducts a relaxation training before going to therapy,
•   Conducts anxiety hierarchy which stimuli that elicit anxiety in a
    particular situation such as rejection, jealousy, criticism,
    disapproval, or any phobia
•   Desensitization begins after several sessions, client reaches
    complete relaxation with eyes closed, then imagine the least
    anxiety arousing scene, therapist moves progressivly up the
    hierarchy until the client signals anxiety, relaxation is introduced
    again until little anxiety is experienced
              Exposure Therapies
•   Exposure therapies are designed to treat fears and other
    negative emotional responses by introducing client to the
    situation that contributed to such problems
•   In Vivo desensitization involves the client exposure to the
    actual feared situation in the hierarchy in real life rather
    than simply imagining situations
•   Flooding which refers to either in vivo or imaginal
    exposure to anxiety-evoking stimuli for a prolonged period
    of time
•   Allows the anxiety to decrease on it’s own
•   Flooding can be used for many fearful anxieties such as
    flying, riding in subways, riding in elevators and phobia of
    certain animals
•   Because of the discomfort in this treatment with intense
    exposure some clients may not elect these exposures
    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing
                      EMDR

•   EMDR is a form of exposure therapy that involves imaginable
    flooding, cognitive restructuring, and the use of rapid, rhythmic
    eye movement and other bilateral stimulation to treat clients
    who have experienced traumatic stress
•   EMDR is applied to many populations that deal with
    posttraumatic stress disorders, sexual abuse victims, combat
    veterans, victims of crime, rape survivors, accident victims,
    children, couples
•   It also deals with individuals that have anxiety, panic,
    depression, grief, addictions and phobias
•   The client is instructed to visually track the therapist’s index
    finger as they move it back and forth 12 to 24 times
•   Client is instructed to block out negative experience
    momentarily and breathe deep and to report what he/she is
    imagining, feeling and thinking
•   Client is asked the positive cognition and identify and body
    tension
•   Do reevaluation in next session
             Assertion Training
•   Useful for people who can’t express anger or irritation,
    difficult to say no, people who are overly polite and
    allows others to take advantage of them, people who find
    it difficult to express affection and other positive
    responses, people who feel they have no right to express
    their thought beliefs, and feelings and people who have
    social phobias
•   The assumption underlying assertion training is so
    clients can have the right to express themselves
•   A goal in assertion training is to teach clients to express
    themselves in ways that reflect sensitivity to the feelings
    and rights of others
•   Clients have the CHOICE of whether to behave
    assertively in certain situations
•   Assertion does not mean aggression, assertive clients
    don’t stand up for their rights at all cost, ignoring the
    feelings of others
    Self Management & Self Direct Behavior

•   Involves psychologists being willing to share their
    knowledge so that consumers can increasingly lead self-
    directed lives and not be dependent on experts
•   Therapist teach clients skills that they will need to
    manage their own lives effectively
•   Clients have a direct role of their own treatment,
    techniques aimed at self-change tend to increase
    involvement and commitment to their own treatment
•   Self management strategies include but limited to, self
    monitoring, self reward, self contracting, stimulus control
    and self as model
•   Five characteristics are combination of self management,
    engage regularly over period of time, client make self
    evaluation, use self reinforcement and a degree of
    environmental support
     Multimodal Therapy: Clinical Behavior Therapy

•   Multimodal therapy is a comprehensive, systematic,
    holistic approach to behavior therapy develop
•   This model implies that we are social beings who move,
    feel, sense, imagine and think
•   Multimodal is an open system, that encourages technical
    eclecticism
•   New techniques are being introduced constantly and
    existing techniques are refined
•   Therapist take great plain to determine what relationship
    and what treatment strategies will work best with each
    individual in a particular situation
•   Assumption of this approach is that because individuals
    are troubled by a variety of specific problems it is
    appropriate that multitude of treatment strategies be
    used in bringing about change
              Technical Eclecticism

• Therapist borrow techniques from many other therapy
  systems
• Therapist recognize that many clients come to therapy to
  learn skills, and therapist are willing to teach, coach,
  train, model and direct their clients
• Main function is provide information, instructions and
  reactions
• Therapist challenge self defeating beliefs, offer
  constructive feedback, provide positive reinforcement
  and are appropriately self disclosing
• Failure to apprehend the clients situation can easily
  leave the client feeling alienated and misunderstood
               The Basic I.D.


•   B=Behavior
•   A=Affective responses
•   S=Sensations
•   I=Images
•   C=Cognitions

• I=Interpersonal relationships
• D=Drugs, biological functions, nutrition and
  exercise
             Role of Therapist
• Therapist are very active during therapy sessions,
  educators, consultants, and role models
• Therapist provide information, instructions and
  feedback as well as modeling assertive behaviors,
  challenging self defeating beliefs, offering
  constructive criticism and suggestions, offering
  positive reinforcement and being appropriately self-
  disclosing
• Therapists need to make choices regarding different
  styles of relating to clients
• Over the years has been learning to blend
  appropriate and effective techniques with the most
  suitable relationship style

				
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