Chapter 6 Drills by fjwuxn


									  Alessie, M . & Trollip, S. R. (2000). Part II of Multimedia for learning: Methods and development (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon.
  陸虹妙 2006/ 05/ 01

  Chapter 6 Drills
     1. What’s a drill program?
     2. What are the design factors relevant to drills?
     3. What are the advantages of multimedia drills?

  Q1: What’s a drills program?
      Drills are used primarily for the third phase, providing practice. (no presentation of
      The general structure and flow of a drill

      INT RODUCTORY                          SELECT                        QUEST ION AND
          SECT ION                            IT EM                          RESPONSE

      CLOSING                            FEEDBA CK                            RESPONSE

           The General Structure and Sequence of a Tutorial Program

  Q2: What are the design factors relevant to drills?
        The introduction of a drill                                           Item grouping procedures
        Item characteristics                                                  Motivating the learner
        Item selection and queuing procedures                                 Data storage
(1) The introduction of a drill

    Initial learner control (讓學習者選擇練習訊息型態,而不是選擇練習的 items)

    A common and useful part of an introduction is a presentation of the complete list of items (stimuli and
    responses) to be practiced in the drill.
    Presenting the list of items serves two purpose:
     Learners may decide whether it is appropriate for them.
     It serves as a quick review of the items before the practice begins.
(2) Ite m characteristics: Ite m types, Hints, Judge ment, Graphics in drill items, Item difficulty, Pace
   and Pacing, item lists and item generation algorithms.
    Item Types
     Drill items vs. drill question:
         An example: paired-associate item (Any pair of related words or events).
         Other kinds of items are also used in drills: standard questions such as multiple-choice,
Alessie, M . & Trollip, S. R. (2000). Part II of Multimedia for learning: Methods and development (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

             sentence-completion, and short-answer questions.
       Item Modes
       Item Direction ( bidirectional or not)
       Transfer of Learning
       An item is typically considered “incorrect” for purpose of queuing if it is answered correctly only
        on subsequent tries or if the correct answer is requested by the learner.
      Graphics in Drill Ite ms
     Item Difficult
    Authors should treat the difficulty factor in one of the following ways.
       Keep difficult constant
       Increase difficulty based on learner performance
       Group items by difficulty
      Pace and Pacing
       Pace: How quickly the drill moves along from item to item.
       Pacing or speeded responding: Give the learner a limit amount of time to respond to an item or a
          group items.
      Item lists and Ite m Generation Algorithm
    Drills use two major methods to present items
       List selection: To select items from a list
       Generation of items by an algorithm (used primarily for math drills and science problem solving).
          E.g. addition.
(3) Ite m selection and queuing procedures: Random selection, organize d queuing, retire met criteria,
    choice of queuing parameters, termination.
      The selection procedure refers to the rules the program follows to select an item for each iteration of the
      drill cycle.
      Item selection procedures should be designed in recognition of this process and of the limited nature of
      short-term memory.
      Random Selection
      Organized Selection (Queuing)
       Queuing means determining in a systematic way the order in which items are presented.
       The selection of items is determined by past performance.
       Two organized techniques:
        Flashcard Queuing
            Computer program can increase the frequency of repetition for items that are incorrectly answered,
            thus providing more practice than with random selection.
          Variable Interval Performance Queuing
       Other organized techniques:
          Two-pool and three-pool drills, increasing ratio review drills, and progressive state drills.
      Retirement Crite ria
       The retirement criterion: The criterion for taking an item out of the list.
Alessie, M . & Trollip, S. R. (2000). Part II of Multimedia for learning: Methods and development (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

       Retirement can be based on
          The queuing parameters and the number of successive times an item is answer correctly,
          the percentage of times an item has been answered correctly,
          the speed of responding, or
          some aspects of learner performance.
      Choice of Queuing Parameters
       Queuing Parameters: best number of insertions, insertion position, retirement criteria.
       Various drill parameters vary based on the difficulty of the items, the type of items, the number of
           items, and the level of mastery desired.
       To determine reasonable parameter values through pilot testing.
       Temporary Termination
       Permanent Termination
        Permanent Termination should be based on learner performance or mastery level.
          Terminate permanently when all items have been retired. But two problems exist.
             Following errors may be impossible after all but a few items have been retired the original
                positions for reinsertions.
            The drill becomes very tedious when the same items are repeated over and over.
          Three solutions: altering the queuing parameters, resurrection, and premature terminations
                Alte ring the queuing parameters
                Resurrection: taking items that have been previously retired and reinserting them in the future
                Premature termination: when all but a small number of items are retired, the drill is
                terminated despite some items being still unretired.
(4) Feedback
      Most of the factors concerning feedback in tutorials apply to drills as well. (improve comprehension,
      thinking and future performance.)
      discrimination errors: provide correct feedback and another stimulus at the same time (paired
(5) Ite m grouping procedures
Two techniques for drill ite m grouping are subdrill grouping and endless continuum.
      Subdrill Grouping: divide the material into many subdrills.
       Subdrill grouping is the usual way of dealing with drills for a large amount of subject matter.
       Four relevant factors in grouping items into subdrills:
        Group Size
             A drill takes about 15 minutes to complete.
             Group size depends on the factors: Item difficulty, The length of time needed to respond to items,
                The likelihood of discrimination errors
            The Methods of Assigning Items to Groups
            Three criterions are relevant to grouping ite ms in the same subdrill.
             Grouping by difficulty
             To select items based on the likelihood of discrimination errors
Alessie, M . & Trollip, S. R. (2000). Part II of Multimedia for learning: Methods and development (3rd ed.). Allyn & Bacon.

             The organization principle
            Group Selection
             Generally, having grouped items into subdrills, just one subdrill is used in a drill session.
             In some cases, a drill might select items from different groups in a single session.
            Review of Items
             Review is needed especially for the items that the learner finds most difficult or uses least often
                in situations outside the learning environment.
      The Endless-Continuum Technique
       The procedure treats the subject matter as one long, ordered list.
          In the first drill session, the program begins administering the first ten or twenty items according to
           a VIP or similar queuing technique.
          Whenever an item is retired, it is immediately replaced with a new item, the next one on the long
           ordered list.
          The learner gradually masters and retires items from the beginning of the list and moves on to
        items further down on the list.
       The drill is never terminated permanently. Sessions may be terminated based on learner choice,
           when a certain number of old items have been retired, or when a specified amount of time has been
        spent on.
 (6) Motivating the learner
     The motivational quality of drills is inherently low because drills are repetitious in nature: the same or
     similar questions, the same response format , Giving the same type of feedback.
     Some additional motivation techniques particularly relevant in drills:
      I. Competition

      II. Cooperative Learning (團隊競爭)

      III. Multiple Modes and Display Variety
      IV. Goal Setting and Scoring (akin to competition against oneself)
      V. Adjunct Reinforcement
      VI. Drill Session Length
      VII. Game

Q3: What are the advantages of multimedia drills?
     Multimedia drills can be made more interesting through competition, games, the use of graphics,
     informing the learner of progress, and introducing variety.
     The use of interactive graphics can be used to increase the effectiveness of drills in ways not possible
     with workbooks or flashcards. Using graphics as prompts, as context, as motivators, and as feedback.
     The sophisticated queuing methods possible on a computer, which emphasize practice on difficult items,
     have great potential for increasing drill efficiency.
     Feedback is better in multimedia drills.
     The computer is very good at storing many types of data automatically and effortlessly.


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