University Biomechanics

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					University Biomechanics
      Chandra Mura
       Jill Helgesen
        Amee Alan
       Ziad Dahdul
       Graduate Schools
University of Arizona
University of Michigan
University of Las Vegas
New York University
University of Southern California
The Johns Hopkins University
     University of Arizona
  Entrance Requirements:
Bachelor's degree in engineering, mathematics,
or physical or life sciences, with a minimum GPA
of 3.0
General GRE scores, minimum of 500 verbal, 650
quantitative and 650 analytical
Coursework in calculus, ordinary differential
equations, linear algebra & matrix methods; at
least one course each in computing and life
Additional paperwork as described in application
Average Time for Program

              5 years doctoral
              full time

              2 years master's
              full time
                         Admission Fee’s:

                       Graduate Program Fee’s – (per semester)
                  RESIDENT                                   NON-RESIDENT
          UNITS                 TOTAL                UNITS                   TOTAL
1 UNIT                $237.13              1 UNIT                  $566.13
2 UNITS               $459.13              2 UNITS                 $1117.13
3 UNITS               $681.13              3 UNITS                 $1668.13

4 UNITS               $928.13              4 UNITS                 $2244.13
5 UNITS               $1150.13             5 UNITS                 $2795.13
6 UNITS               $1372.13             6 UNITS                 $3346.13
7 UNITS               $2173.63             7 UNITS                 $3906.63
8 UNITS               $2173.63             8 UNITS                 $4457.63
9 UNITS               $2173.63             9 UNITS                 $5008.63
10 UNITS              $2173.63             10 UNITS                $5559.63
11 UNITS              $2173.63             11 UNITS                $6110.63
12 UNITS              $2173.63             12 UNITS                $6663.63
     University of Michigan
    Entrance Requirements:

The Admissions Committee takes
into consideration your GPA and GRE
Students with > 3.5 GPA and > 2100
GRE are almost always accepted.
Letters of recommendation
Your statement of purpose
Any work/research experience.
Average Time for Program

              1-2 years MS full

              4-6 years PhD full
               Admission Fee’s

         Graduate Program Fee’s          – (per year)

         Residents                     Non-residents

Fall/Winter    Spring/Summer     Fall/Winter     Spring/Summer
                 (half-term)                       (half-term)
$13,370.00       $3,611.00      $27,456.00         $7,236.00
University of Las Vegas,
   Entrance Requirements:

2.75 GPA overall or 3.0 during last 2

1000 minimum combined GRE (any 2
Average Time for Program

         Master’s Program:
          2 years master's full time
          3 years master's part time
                                    Admission Fee’s

Graduate Program Fee’s –                                 (per credit)

                                            Per Credit                    Per Year

Graduate Fee-                               $123.50                       Per Year, Full-Time (18
                                                                          credits) $2,223.00
(per credit)
All students (resident & non-
*Good Neighbor Policy-                      $136.00 per credit +          Per Year, Full-Time (18
                                            $123.50 graduate per credit   credits) $4,671.00
Full time (7 or more credits)

Full Time– (7 or more                       $4,337.00 per semester +      Per Year, Full-Time (18
units)                                      $123.50 graduate per credit   credits) $10,897.00
Part Time– (1-6 units)                      $136.00 per credit +          Per Year, Part-Time (12
                                            $123.50 graduate per credit   credits) $3,114.00

*must have lived in Nevada for at least 12 consecutive months
New York University
   Entrance Requirements:

3.0 GPA

1200 total GRE (V, A, Q)
   Average Time for Program

1.5 year for M.S. student full time
3 years for M.S. student full time

5 – 6 years for Ph.D. student
                 Admission Fee’s

Tuition for 24 points = $23,304

First point = $292
Per point after first point = $52

First point = $305
Per point after first point = $52

In brief, for a full-time student registered for 24 points, the cost
of tuition and fees will be $25,045
University of Southern


 BA or BS
 1000 GRE         Average Time for

                   PhD, 3-5 years
                Admission Fee’s:

Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 8-14
units (tuition costs are per $1,010 per unit - this budget is
based on 10 units of enrollment for 2 semesters.)
 – Tuition and mandatory fees-$24,724

Estimated Graduate Costs for 2 Semesters taking 15+
units. (This budget is based on a flat rate of tuition for 2
 – Tuition and mandatory fees-$30,472
      The Johns Hopkins
     Entrance Requirements
GPA of 3.5 or higher
Official Graduate Record Examination scores (GRE) / MCAT
scores will be acceptable. Research experience, course
grades, and recommendations carry more weight
Three letters of recommendation - These letters should
come from faculty members who are acquainted with you
and your academic work.
Personal Statement - a typewritten statement (one page
maximum) indicating the basis of your interest in graduate
study and your career objectives. Included should be a
discussion of any research experience you have had.
            Admission Fee’s
Graduate Division of Education
– $360 per credit for graduate-level courses except those
  offered in Washington, DC
– The estimated cost for one year of graduate study is:
           Financial Support:
All universities offer financial aid through teaching and
research assistantships.
– The primary duty of teaching assistants is assistance in all
  aspects of instruction (tutoring, grading, advising, sectional
  teaching, sectional laboratory teaching, field work teaching,
  limited lecturing)
– The primary duty of research assistants is assistance in all
  aspects of university research.

Other financial aid options include fellowships, grants, and
   Sport Biomechancis

     Sport Analysis
    Perform Enhance

    Consultant Sport
Biomechanists and Applied
        Perform Enhance
Perform Enhance is a company committed
to the highest standards in sport skill and
movement analysis
Established in 1971 by Geoff Hosford and
Don Miekle who are leaders in the fields of
sport biomechanics and applied anatomy
Perform Enhance offers the most
comprehensive biomechanical and
anatomical analyses of any selected skill
         Perform Enhance
A written documentation service is offered to
students, teachers, coaches and athletes. Each
analysis will include:
1. Phasic breakdown of the skill
2. Critical elements in technique
3. Identification of major faults
4. Biomechanical principles and their application
5.Anatomical analysis of specific muscles and
major muscle groups
6. Appropriate biomechanical and anatomical
diagrams together with sequence photographs
7. Programs for strength, conditioning and
flexibility specific to your skill
                 Perform Enhance
Perform Enhance caters to various areas in which they
are needed to perform a specific task. The following are
areas in which Perform Enhance has been particularly
Corporate Sport Administrators
Legal Fraternity
Private Investigators
Teachers of Physical Education
Sport Coaches
Students of Human Movement Science
Elite Athletes
Aspiring Sports Persons
         Nike Laboratory
Nike Sports Research Lab sits in the
Advanced Research and Development
group. More importantly -- it's not in
some offsite or outsourced location. It
commands nearly 13,000 square feet and
is decked out with state-of-the-art
research equipment
These researchers, most all with master's
degrees, many with their doctorates, in
fields such as biomechanics and
                       Nike Laboratory
In simplest terms, their scientific work falls into three primary areas:

   Biomechanics (study of human movement and related forces)
   Physiology (study of the integration of the body's energy systems and responses to
   environmental stresses)
   Sensory/perception (subjective evaluation of product attributes, usability, and

For each of those, researchers must take into account the nuances of at least four
    differentiating factors:

   Geography. Runners in the United States often run on hard surfaces while runners
   in Europe prefer trails. That leads to different cushioning demands and different
   potential injuries.
   Gender. On average, for any shoe size, women tend to weigh 10% to 50% less than
   men. That translates into different structural needs.
   Age. Children learning to walk - and the lab has studied even them - have different
   stability needs than those of a master athlete.
   Skill level. Someone learning to hit their first clean shot off the tee has different
   needs than Tiger Woods.
             Nike Laboratory
To do all this, the scientists have an incredible array of
measurement and analysis tools. Their data collection
includes virtually every variety of muscle sensor, pressure
platform, breath analyzer, foot scanner, and thermal
imaging devices. Two of the most striking are the high-
speed video cameras that capture soccer kick data at 1,000
frames per second and the scanner that produces in just
seconds a perfect 3D digital image of your foot, even if
you're a size 22, as was one recent visitor.

An array of testing surfaces, such as a huge section of
regulation basketball hardwood, artificial soccer turf, and a
70-meter sprinter's track runway. The lab's doors are even
specially designed to allow runners to circle through the lab
and out into the carpeted hall so they need not slow their
pace while being tested indoors. Then there's the endless
field testing that takes place outdoors in various terrain.
Here's an abbreviated list of some scientific techniques
      the researchers use to quantify their finds:
  Motion analysis (kinematics)
  Ground reaction forces and loading rates (kinetics)
  Foot-pressure measurement (in-shoe and external)
  Ankle range of motion (ROM)
  Foot morphology
  High-speed video
  Metabolic cart
  Heart-rate monitors
  Skin and core-temperature sensors
  Blood work
  Several other methods/devices the NSRL has created but
  which remain, obviously, confidential
           Nike Laboratory
One of the lab's most crucial relationships is with
Nike's Material and Mechanical ("M&M") Testing
lab. Located just across the hall from the NSRL,
the M&M lab has millions of dollars of custom-
made testing equipment in roughly 7,000 square
feet. Scientists there gauge everything from the
breath ability and traction of a shoe to the
durability and waterproof characteristics of
specific apparel fabrics. One of their machines
can, in just over 24 hours, put 1,000 miles of
wear on a shoe. Unlike a human test subject, the
machine doesn't get exhausted, bored, injured,
or complain. If the lab needs a piece of testing
equipment that doesn't exist, they build it.
The scientists and designers wanted to
create a design and materials that would
bounce back to the original shape every
time a runner's force smashed them
down. They knew they were on to
something when they created four foam-
filled columns to support a resilient plate
immediately below the heel. The bendable
plate and compressing columns absorb
and then immediately release the energy
of impact, helping propel a foot through
the running stride. That makes for a more
comfortable and protected run.
Nike Shox
  Orthotists and Prosthesists
What they do:
   Orthotists and Prosthesists design,
   produce, and fit devices such as artificial
   limbs, orthotic shoes and equipment,
   and replacement joints
Where they work:
   Private hospitals
   Private practices
   Rehabilitation facilities
   Research labs
Ankle Foot Orthotics (AFO)

 Requirements for becoming an
    Orthotist or Prosthesist
General requirements:
– Bachelor’s degree in biomechanics, orthotics,
  or prosthetics (can also be other related
– Graduate degree in orthotic and prosthesist
– Time served in a residency program to gain
  clinical experience

Orthotists and prosthesists must also become
 certified by the American Board for
 Certification in Orthotics and Prosthetics
Average Salaries of Orthotists and
 – Non-certified practitioner: $30,752
 – After 60 months: $46,289
 – ABC-certified practitioner: $48,760
 – After 60 months: $91,455
   Can make from anywhere between
   $40,000 and $150,000, with the
   average salary ranging from $49,000 to
  Miscellaneous Information
Generally, the field is becoming more and more
difficult for entrepreneurs because of the
consolidation of smaller companies by the larger
companies. So in this field, it would be much
more difficult to climb the corporate ladder and
become your own boss, although it’s not

Contact or check out the American Orthotic and
Prosthetic Association for more details on how to
get involved in the field
     Accident Re-simulation
          Vector Scientific

Vector Scientific, Inc. provides high-quality
   consulting services and conducts high-
     level scientific research in order to
       advance the science of forensic
       engineering and biomechanics
Vector Scientific - Research
  Auto Impact
  New Neck Injury Dynamics in Rear-end Impacts
  PCL, ACL, MCL Rupture in Auto Accident
  Unique Pedestrian Impact Dynamics and Trajectory
  Commercial Truck Accident Reconstruction

  Sports and Recreation
  Injury Mitigation Produced by Protective Pole Padding on Ski
  Determination of Snowboarder vs. Snowboarder Impact
  Configuration Using Injury Biomechanics

  Slip, Trip, and Fall
  Lateral Tibial Plateau Fracture From a Stair Descent Misstep

  Nail Gun Knee Injury and Product Testing
  Forensic Investigation of a Lumbar Disc Injury in an Industrial Setting
         Vector Scientific
The experts at Vector Scientific have
analyzed injury biomechanics in thousands
of automobile accidents, from low-speed
collisions with minor soft tissue injuries to
high-speed collisions with severe and fatal
Crash tests are sometimes conducted to
reconstruct specific cases and assess the
impact severity and injury potential of the
Accident Re-simulation
Accident Re-simulation
  Exercise Physiology and Exercise
Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise

Located in Houston, Texas

A research center that is affiliated
with NASA
 The Goals and Objectives:
To support pre-flight, in-flight, and
post-flight medical physical fitness
testing operations

To assist in the development of
astronaut physical conditioning
  The Goals and Objectives:
To evaluate and validate exercise
countermeasure equipment, procedures,
protocols, and conditioning programs
related to the maintenance of crew health
and performance during Space Shuttle
and International Space Station Missions

To understand the effect of microgravity
on human performance during and after
exposure to weightlessness and space
  Exercise Physiology and Exercise
Biomechanics of Space Flight Exercise
The Laboratory also evaluates in-flight
exercise responses and activity patterns
as a way of evaluating and validating
exercise countermeasure concepts.
Research areas include cardiorespiratory
functional capacity, musculoskeletal
strength development and maintenance,
orthostatic intolerance, biomechanics of
movement, bone metabolism, and
modeling of space-flight exercise activity
     Anthropometry and
 Biomechanics Facility (ABF)
The Anthropometry and
Biomechanics Facility (ABF) is
located at the Johnson Space Center
in Houston, Texas .
ABF has been tasked to research and
evaluate flight equipment,
procedures, and systems from the
perspective of biomechanics, human
performance, and ergonomics.
         What ABF does
ABF personnel have tested and evaluated
crew work procedures and equipment,
spacesuit design, Extravehicular Activity
(EVA) and Intravehicular Activity (IVA)
human performance issues, EVA/IVA tool
design, and EVA/IVA crew-induced loads.
Data gathered by the ABF are used to
improve crew living and working
conditions in order to enhance productivity
and operational efficiency.
The ABF Vicon 612 is a passive marker tracking
system. With integration of external devices
including force plates and EMG systems and with
flexible modeling software they can provide
tailored solutions to your particular study: full
body, hand, or foot.

At the heart of the system is the Vicon Data
Station, it provides power, and synchronizes
signals from not only the Vicon cameras, but also
provides direct integration for ancillary devices
such as force plates and EMG systems.
provides 3D motion in real time,
Bodybuilder - flexible kinetic and
kinematic modeling software,
Polygon - multimedia report
authoring tool, Plug-In Gait -
clinically accepted full body model,
Plug-in Modeler - select your own
Body Language model.
         Sports Biomechanist
What sport biomechanists do and why
– aim to prove that the laws of physics and mechanics apply to not only
  non-living objects but also to humans in movement

– Analyze the motions and movements of athletes while involved in their
  respective sports

The main purpose of biomechanical analysis in sports is to gain a
  level of understanding as to how the mechanisms of sports
  motion effect an athlete’s performance
 3 Techniques in Biomechanical

1. Film Analysis

2. Three Dimensional Analysis

3. Neuromotor Analysis
             Film Analysis
First, the athlete is filmed while performing his or
her sport

Film is then broken down, with each individual
photograph being digitized for analysis

Segmented landmarks placed on the joints of
concern are used to see the athlete’s motion,
move by move, in its entirety in order to properly
analyze the athlete

Angular momentum, joint movement and force,
and center of mass are examples of what a film
analysis may look for
Retroflective markers placed on athletes
         Film Analysis
Example of baseball pitcher, in
digitized format
 Three Dimensional Analysis
Athlete/participant is analyzed in multiple
planes as opposed to one plane

Almost every sport or activity involves
movements in multiple planes, which
makes this form of analysis very valuable

This type of analysis is basically film
analysis done with multiple cameras to
catch a specific motion or movement from
numerous angles
      Neuromotor Analysis
Involved the use electromyography (EMG)

Analyzes the motion or movement by
measuring the signal of a contracting
muscle and amplifying it

the purpose of this method is to establish a
relationship between muscle activation and
an accompanying motion or movement
     Education and Salary of a
salary is usually based on the amount of
schooling and previous experience in the field
with an undergraduate degree and no
experience, expect a starting salary between
salary in this field, however, is highly affected by
factors such as geographic location, experience,
age, and the current demand of the market.
with an advanced degree, salary is expected to
increase. However, the factors listed above would
determine how substantial the increase would be.
Research Projects: Advanced space suit
          joint mobility study
The ABF has been assisting personnel in
NASA's Crew and Thermal Systems Division in
the evaluation of three advanced space suit
prototypes. The ABF's role in these evaluations
is to compare the mobility of the suits by
collecting motion analysis data while subjects
perform specific joint motions when wearing
each suit. Once all of the motion analysis data
are analyzed, the results will provide insight on
how each suit affects a particular subject's joint
mobility in relation to his/her unsuited motions,
plus reveal the differences in mobility between
the three suits.
Astronaut Being Tested in the ABF
Hand grasp break-away study
With the advent of astronaut deployment and
retrieval of satellites and other massive objects,
concerns were raised about whether these
mass-handling tasks would exceed the design-
certified loads for the space suit. It was
determined from simulations of satellite handling
tasks that the maximum imparted load could be
calculated from an astronaut's hand grasp
breakaway strength. This is the strength of the
hand while grasping a moving object, which
involves dynamic eccentric contractions of the
hand muscles.
Hand grasp break-away study
ABF personnel conducted a study to document hand
grasp breakaway strengths of astronauts who were
scheduled to perform extravehicular tasks during future
missions. [Rajulu, S. L. and Klute, G. K. (1993). A
Comparison of Hand Grasp Breakaway Strengths and
Bare-Handed Grip Strengths of the Astronauts, SML III
Test Subjects, and the Subjects from the General
Population. NASA Technical Paper 3286].

The results of this study also revealed that hand grasp
breakaway strength cannot be directly predicted from
hand grip strength, which is the strength of the hand
while gripping or squeezing a stationary object.
Hand grasp break-away study
      The Neutral Buoyancy
The Sonny Carter Training Facility (SCTF)
provides controlled neutral buoyancy operations
to simulate the zero-g or weightless condition
that is experienced by spacecraft and crew during
space flight. It is an essential tool for the design,
testing and development of the International
Space Station and future NASA programs. For the
astronaut, the facility provides important pre-
flight training for extravehicular activities (EVA)
and with the dynamics of body motion under
weightless conditions. Also, be sure to read the
rationale behind building the NBL -- a "better,
faster, cheaper" solution for providing quality EVA
The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory
           References con’t…