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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine

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					Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine
“Glow-in-the-dark” dogs!
     What is stem cell research?
• Understand more about development, aging,
  disease
  – Experimental model systems
• Prevent or treat diseases and injuries
  – Cell-based therapies
  – Pharmaceutical development
     • Includes testing and drug delivery
       Trachea transplantation:
Example of adult stem cell-based tissue regeneration
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research, therapies,
  and technologies?
                  How did they make those dogs?
• Conclusion and future directions
                                                                              Day 1




In the IVF procedure, sperm and eggs “interact” in a dish leading to insemination.
They literally swim up to the egg and burrow toward the nucleus.
The first one to get there wins, and all others are blocked out.

Male fertility issue: Sometimes sperm cannot latch onto and penetrate the egg.
They may choose to have Intra(within)-Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI)
Embryonic
Stem
Cells
      At what point is this a fetus?
• Days 7-14: Uterine implantation
• Day 14:    Three distinct layers begin to form
             (no more pluripotent stem cells)
• Days 14-21: Beginning of future nervous system
• Days 21-24: Beginning of future face, neck,
              mouth, and nose
• Weeks 3-8: Beginning of organ formation
                                   This picture is Week 5
• Week 5-8+:    Now it’s called a fetus
                     (no consensus on a single timepoint)
Embryonic Development:
      Zebrafish model




                         Keller et al. 2008
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research,
  therapies, and technologies?
• Conclusion and future directions
Symmetric cell division
      Asymmetric cell division
1. Self-renews
2. Differentiates

                           Progenitor cell




Stem cell                     Stem cell
 SELF – RENEWAL 
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research,
  therapies, and technologies?
• Conclusion and future directions
Embryonic stem cells in the dish:
    What do cultured ES cells look like?
Fluorescent imaging of embryonic
       stem cell colonies.
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research,
  therapies, and technologies?
• Conclusion and future directions
           This cell
      Can form the
Embryo and placenta



            This cell
   Can just form the
             embryo




                        Fully mature
Stem cells in the adult brain:
 Are they still working for us now?
Stem cells in mature skeletal muscle:
    Is there power still in our stem cells?
            Signals to Stem Cells


Matrix Molecules
                                                             Self-Renewal




Soluble Factors




   Other Cells                                              Differentiation

                  Little, et al. Chemical Reviews (2008).
How do cells know what to become?
      All cells in a person share the same genotype
            Yet eye cells differ from nose cells
                  Central dogma of biology
     Genetic
   engineering




         Tissue
        therapy
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells
    Genetically engineering new stem cells




  Skin cells                           iPS cells
       Recreating Pluripotency




Image courtesy of Clontech
Induced Pluripotent Stem (iPS) Cells
    Genetically engineering new stem cells




  Skin cells                           iPS cells
          Pros and Cons to iPS cell
                technology
• Pros:
  – Cells would be genetically identical to patient or
    donor of skin cells (no immune rejection!)
  – Do not need to use an embryo
• Cons:
  – Cells would still have genetic defects
  – One of the pluripotency genes is a cancer gene
  – Viruses might insert genes in places we don’t want
    them (causing mutations)
Factors known to affect stem cells



  •   Low stress levels
  •   Regular exercise
  •   Enriching experiences
  •   Learning new information
  •   Healthy diets: rich in antioxidants
  •   Avoid excessive drinking
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research,
  therapies, and technologies?
• Conclusion and future directions
 Experimental model system
Heart muscle cells beating in a petri dish!




         Videos by the Exploratorium
   Bone marrow transplant:
Example of adult stem cell-based therapy
            Spinal cord injury:
Example of embryonic stem cell-based therapy




Geron video: http://www.geron.com/grnopc1clearance/
             Stem cells for drug delivery
             More focused delivery, fewer side affects

               Day 0              Day 7                   Day 14


     NSCs
  injected
(no tumor)




     NSCs
  injected
   (tumor)




                                              Shah et al. Dev Neurosci 2004
  What are stem cell technologies?

  • Cloning technologies
     – Is human cloning a technology?
     – What is different about cloning embryonic stem cells?


  • Induced Pluripotent Stem cells
     – New ways to potentially avoid the use of embryos
     – Disease-specific stem cell lines created
     – The promise and potential pitfalls of this approach



When does research actually become technology?
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT)
          Cloning of embryonic stem cells


                               Udder cell




   Egg cell
Types of Cloning
         Outline of Presentation
• Introduction to fertilization and embryonic
  development
• What makes stem cells unique?
• What do stem cells look like?
• What are the different types of stem cells?
• What are examples of stem cell research,
  therapies, and technologies?
• Conclusion and future directions
Why do researchers want to use embryonic
stem cells along with other technologies?

• Pluripotent
   – Expanded developmental potential allows them
     to be used in ways that adult stem cells cannot
• Can proliferate indefinitely in culture
• Easier to obtain than adult stem cells
Science is discovering the unknown
• Stem cell field is still in its infancy
• Human embryonic stem cell research is a decade old,
  adult stem cell research has 30-year head start
• Holds hope for curing or improving treatments for
  70+ diseases



How can you help to shape the direction of this field?
         Take our survey please!

Students:
https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcell2010

Teacher:
https://www.surveymonkey.com/s/stemcellteach2010

				
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