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					    MetroHealth Hospital
Emergency Medicine Residency

   BALLISTICS
         Craig Sluiter
   Axiom Investigative Services
       September 12, 2006
     BALLISTICS - An Overview
   Definitions
   Bullet styles
   “Accidents Happen”
   Characteristics of pistol bullets
   Hands on and in-depth info on types
   Perspective
   Reading and Resources on ballistics
   Q and A
                  GLOSSARY
   Ballistics
    1 a: the science of the motion of projectiles (as
    bullets) in flight b: the flight characteristics of a
    projectile (as a bullet)
    2: the study of the processes within a firearm as it
    is fired

   Muzzle velocity- the speed of a projectile,
    usually expressed in feet or meters per second, as
    it leaves the muzzle of a gun

   Projectile- an object fired from a gun with an
    explosive propelling charge, such as a bullet shell,
    rocket, or grenade.
    -a body projected or impelled forward, as through
    the air
           GLOSSARY-cont
   Trajectory- The path of a projectile or
    other moving body through space.

   Fragmentation- The scattering of the
    fragments of an exploding bomb or other
    projectile

   Revolver- a handgun having a revolving
    chambered cylinder for holding a number
    of cartridges, which may be discharged in
    succession without reloading
          GLOSSARY-cont
   Semiautomatic firearm -Partially
    automatic.
    Ejecting a shell and loading the next
    round of ammunition automatically,
    but requiring a squeeze of the trigger
    for each shot

   Automatic firearm -a firearm that
    reloads itself and keeps firing until
    the trigger is released
           GLOSSARY-cont
   Hollow point bullet -A hollow point
    bullet is a bullet that has a pit, or hollowed
    out shape, in its tip, generally intended to
    cause the bullet to expand upon entering
    a soft target. A hollow-cavity bullet is an
    extreme variant of a hollow point bullet.
    In a hollow-cavity bullet, the hollow
    dominates the volume of the bullet and
    causes drastic expansion or even outright
    disintegration on impact
            GLOSSARY-cont
   Wadcutter        -A wadcutter is a bullet specially
    designed for shooting paper targets, usually at
    close range and with significantly subsonic
    velocities under 800 ft/s (244 m/s) such as are
    found in handgun and airgun competitions. A
    wadcutter has a flat or nearly flat front, which
    acts to cut a very clean hole through the target,
    making it easier to score and hopefully reducing
    errors in scoring to the favor of the shooter. Since
    the flat nosed bullet is not well suited for feeding
    out of a firearm's magazine, wadcutters are
    normally used in revolvers or specially designed
    semi-automatic pistols.
          GLOSSARY-cont
   Parabellum -The name
    Parabellum is derived from the Latin:
    Si vis pacem, para bellum ("If you
    seek peace, prepare for war"), It has
    become the most widespread pistol
    cartridge in the world. It also is
    widely used in a variety of pistol-
    caliber carbines by civilians, and has
    been the dominant submachine gun
    cartridge since World War II.
    Pistol and Revolver Bullets
   Pistol and revolver bullets are of several
    kinds. They may be of homogeneous
    heavy metal (usually lead or lead alloy);
    they may be coated with a thin layer of
    copper or other metal; and they may be
    wholly or partially jacketed

   Pistol bullets are often round-nosed but
    may also be flat (wadcutter or semi-
    wadcutter) or concave (hollow-point).
     Pistol and Revolver Bullets
   Frangible bullets are made of small pieces of iron compressed
    together and designed to break apart on impact. Duplex or
    tandem bullets consist of two bullets, fired from the same
    cartridge. A bullet known as the Super Vel. is designed so that
    the soft lead core separates from the jacket on impact, and
    the KTW bullet is Teflon-coated and has a tungsten core,
    designed to penetrate cars. In general, lead hollow-point
    bullet, jacketed hollow-point and semi-wadcutter bullets have
    a substantially greater wounding effect (i.e., they create a
    larger temporary cavity) than lead round-nosed bullets. Fully
    jacketed bullets, as used in military service, cause the
    smallest temporary cavities. The difference in wounding
    power arises from the fact that, apart from the fully jacketed
    bullets, all the bullets are capable of deforming on impact


   "all handgun bullets studied pose a
    serious hazard to bystanders".
          Hollow Point Bullets
    Modern hollow point bullet designs use many
    different methods to provide controlled
    expansion, including:

   Jackets that are thinner near the front than
    the rear to allow easy expansion at the
    beginning, then a reduced expansion rate

   Partitions in the middle of the bullet core to
    stop expansion at a given point
    Hollow Point Bullets - cont
   Bonding the lead core to the copper jacket
    to prevent separation

   Fluted or otherwise weakened jackets to
    encourage expansion or fragmentation

   Posts in the hollow, to prevent clogging of
    the cavity with materials that may prevent
    expansion, such as hair and cloth
     Hollow Point Bullets - cont
   Solid copper hollow points, which are far stronger
    than jacketed lead, and provide very limited
    expansion even at high velocities

   Plastic inserts in the hollow, which provide the
    same profile as a full metal jacketed round, but
    crush on impact to expose the hollows

   Hollow point bullets are one of the most common
    types of civilian and police ammunition, due
    largely to the reduced risk of bystanders being hit
    by over-penetrating or ricocheted bullets, and the
    increased speed of incapacitation
            How it Works
When the bullet strikes a soft target the pressure
created in the pit forces the lead around it to
expand greatly into a mushroom-shape. The greater
surface area limits penetration into the target, and
causes more tissue damage along the wound path.
Many hollow point bullets, especially those intended
for use at high velocity, are partially jacketed, that
is, a portion of the lead bullet wrapped in a copper
casing. This jacket provides additional strength to
the bullet, and can help prevent the bullet from
leaving deposits of metal inside the bore. In
controlled expansion bullets, the jacket helps to
prevent the bullet from breaking apart; a
fragmented bullet will generally not penetrate to the
desired minimum depth.
                               EXAMPLES
   357 Magnum rounds.      6.5 x 55 mm Swede before and after expanding.
    Left: Jacketed, Soft                                                        A fired 38 spl hollow
                            The long base & small expanded diameter show
    Point (JSP) bullet.                                                         point bullet viewed
                            this is a bullet designed for deep penetration on
    Right: Jacketed,                                                            from the side, showing
                           large game. The bullet in the photo traveled more
    Hollow Point (JHP)                                                          the intended terminal
                                      than halfway through a moose
    bullet.                                                                     ballistics sometimes
                                                                                referred to as
                                                                                mushrooming. This
                                                                                image was taken using
                                                                                a digital camera
                                                                                attached to a stereo
                                                                                microscope at 10x
                 Ballistic Characteristics of Handgun Rounds
Caliber            Type               Weight of bullet,   Muzzle velocity,   Muzzle energy,
                                      g                   m/s                J
5.6 mm             .22LR              2.5                 250                80

.25 (6.35 mm)      Automatic          3.2                 245                99


7.65 mm            Browning           4.6                 291                197

.32 (8.13 mm)      Smith and          5.5                 214                132
                   Wesson
9.0 mm             9x17 ACP           6.2                 280                243
                   (Browning Short)
9.0 mm             9x19 Luger         7.5                 345                450
                   (Parabellum)
.357 (9.0 mm)      .357 Magnum        10.2                380                736

.38 (9.65 mm)      .38 Special        10.2                271                375

10 mm              10 mm Auto         11.7                360                758

.41 (10.4 mm)      .41 Remington      13.6                396                1066
                   Magnum
.45 (11.43 mm)     ACP                14.9                258                521
.22LR ammo
  .22LR ammunition is very popular and
  in widespread use in sport target
  shooting. This ammunition was
  designed for shooting practice, but
  not for personal defense purposes.
  Stopping power of a .22LR bullet is
  poor, and .22LR ammunition is not
  suitable for self defense. But a gun
  with .22LR is better than empty
  hands.
9MM:9x19 Luger (Parabellum) ammo
 9x19 Luger (Parabellum) - Standard
 ammunition for modern military 9 mm
 semi-automatic pistols and sub-
 machine-guns. It provides high
 kinetic energy, high versatility, high
 stopping power. Perfectly suitable for
 self defense.
.38 Special ammo
 Classic police revolver
 ammunition, .38 Special
 cartridges provide shooters with
 relatively high firepower. Quite
 sufficient for personal defense.
.357 Magnum ammo
    Very powerful ammunition,
 .357 Magnum ammo gives
 immensely high stopping power
 that's not typical for 9 mm
 ammunition. Excellent choice for
 self defense.
.45 ACP ammo
  Some people don't trust 9 mm
  ammunition - they say that larger .45
  (11.43 mm) caliber is more reliable in
  case of stopping power. Undoubtedly,
  .45 ACP ammunition provides very
  high stopping power, but owing to
  considerably lower velocity of .45 ACP
  bullet in comparison with .357
  Magnum bullet, the energy of a .45
  bullet is lower than that of a .357
  Magnum bullet.
.41 Magnum ammo
 The firepower of .41 Magnum
 ammunition is extremely high. It's
 what you might not expect from
 handgun if you're not familiar with
 Magnum calibers. This kind of
 ammunition is suitable for hunting;
 the stopping power provided is much
 higher than you usually need for self
 defense.
         Suggested Reading
Fackler, Martin L., M.D.: "The 'Strasbourg Tests:'
  Another Gunwriter/Bullet Salesman
  Fraud?" Wound Ballistics Review, 1(4): 10-11;
  1994.
MacPherson, Duncan: "Bullet Penetration --
  Modeling the Dynamics and the
  Incapacitation Resulting from Wound
  Trauma." Ballistic Publications, El Segundo,
  California. 1994
Fackler, Martin L., M.D.: "FBI 1993 Wound
  Ballistics Seminar: Efficacy of Heavier
  Bullets Affirmed." Wound Ballistics Review,
  1(4): 8-9; 1994.
         Wound Ballistics Articles
Patrick, Urey W.:“Handgun Wounding Factors and Effectiveness." U.S.
   Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1989.
Roberts, Gary K.; Wolberg, Eugene J.: "Book Review, Handgun Stopping
   Power: The Definitive Study." Association of Firearm and Toolmark
   Examiners Journal, 24(4); 383-387: 1992.
Fackler, Martin L., MD.: "Book Review, Street Stoppers: The Latest
   Handgun Stopping Power Street Results." Wound Ballistics Review,
   3(1); 26-31: 1997.
MacPherson, Duncan: “Sanow Strikes (Out) Again." Wound Ballistics
   Review, 3(1): 32-35; 1997.
van Maanen, Maarten: "Discrepancies in the Marshall & Sanow 'Data
   Base': An Evaluation Over Time." Wound Ballistics Review, 4(2); 9-13:
   Fall, 1999.
Fackler, Martin L., MD.: "Undeniable Evidence." Wound Ballistics Review,
   4(2); 14-15: Fall, 1999.
MacPherson, Duncan: "The Marshall & Sanow 'Data' - Statistical
   Analysis Tells the Ugly Story." Wound Ballistics Review, 4(2); 16-21:
   Fall, 1999.
Dodson, Shawn: "Reality of the Street? A Practical Analysis of Offender
   Gunshot Wound Reaction for Law Enforcement." Tactical Briefs, 4(2);
   April 2001
                    Resource Page
Several years ago when we first became acquainted with Dr. Martin L.
   Fackler, M.D., he was a Colonel in the US Army Medical Corps researching
   wound ballistics at Letterman Army Institute of Research, Presidio of San
   Francisco, California. Dr. Fackler kindly provided us several articles he’d
   written, co-written or suggested we read that cover a wide spectrum of
   wound ballistics. We’re listing some of these articles below for the benefit
   of those of you (especially medical students and researchers) who are
   truly interested in learning as much as you can about wound ballistics.
   Many of these articles can be located in the libraries and medical libraries
   of large universities.
"Wounding Effects of the AK-47 Rifle Used by Patrick Purdy in the
   Stockton, California Schoolyard Shooting of January 17, 1989."
   Martin L. Fackler, M.D., John A. Malinowski, B.S., Stephen W. Hoxie, B.S.,
   and Alexander Jason, B.A., The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and
   Pathology, 11(3): 185-189, 1990.
"Wounding Patterns of Military Rifle Bullets." Martin L. Fackler,
   International Defense Review, 59-64, 1/1989.
"Emergency War Surgery, Chapter II Missile Caused Wounds." Thomas
   E. Bowen, M.D. and Ronald F. Bellamy, M.D., The Emergency War Surgery
   NATO Handbook (Second United States Revision), USDoD, 13-34.
"Emergency War Surgery, Chapter XVI Wounds and Injuries of the
   Soft Tissues." Thomas E. Bowen, M.D. and Ronald F. Bellamy, M.D., The
   Emergency War Surgery NATO Handbook (Second United States Revision),
   USDoD, 230-238.
              Q and A



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