Intro to Montessori

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Intro to Montessori Powered By Docstoc
					  Educating the
“Human Potential”

•Introduce Students – current
 and past
•Introduce Sunnyside Staff
•Introduce Maria Montessori’s
 theory of education and
 interesting facts
          Dr. Maria Montessori
Is Montessori “magical”?
No. The realization of each child’s
potential that can be met in the carefully
prepared Montessori environment is.
Maria Montessori stated many times over
in various ways the world
“…speak to everyone of the child and of
his secret; unveil the truth; reveal the
powers of this “spiritual embryo” of the
human soul; proclaim him for what he is;
the father of man, the builder of
humanity, the creative and transforming
energy which can act on the hearts of
men and can offer new elements for the
solution of social problems.” - Maria
Dr. Maria Montessori

• Dr Maria Montessori (1870-1952) has been
  described as an educator, scientist,
  physician, philosopher, philanthropist,
  feminist, and humanitarian, and was the first
  early childhood educator to be nominated
  for the Nobel Peace Prize.
• Dr Montessori felt strongly that a radical
  reform of education was essential if there
  was to be any hope for peace in our time.
• Her method came from studying physicians Jean Itard and
  Edouard Seguin. She developed an environment for the
  scientific study of children with physical and mental disabilities.
  After successes in treating these children, she began to study
  the application of her techniques to the education of children
  without intellectual or developmental disabilities.
• By 1906, Montessori was well known enough that she was
  asked to head a day-care center in Rome's run-down San
  Lorenzo district. She used the opportunity to observe the
  children's interactions with materials developed to appeal to
  the senses (sensorial materials), refining them as well as
  developing new materials with which the children could work.
• Her initial work focused on children of preschool age. After
  observing developmental changes in children just
  commencing elementary school, and recognizing that young
  children's thought or cognitive processes are inherently
  different from those of adults, Montessori and her son, Mario,
  began a new course of research to adapt her approach to
  elementary-school children.
What is Montessori all about?
• Developmental planes – each stage needing to
    fulfill specific goals and objectives (4 in childhood)
•   Global or “cosmic” view of humanity – emphasizing
    the interdependence of people and the
•   The child is a highly respected and valued member
    of the world society
•   Individualized – meeting the needs of each child
•   Multi-age groupings – promoting peer teaching
    and learning
•   Emphasis on group cohesion and cooperation
•   Materials – scientifically based, self correcting, and
    sequential matched with the child
•   Scientific observation in a Prepared Environment
How does this happen?
• self-directed learning.
• teacher to be an "observer" of the child instead of a lecturer.
• "sensitive periods" of development are understood and
  utilized in facilitation of the child’s growth, during which a
  child's mind is particularly open to learning specific skills or
  knowledge. These skills are learned effortlessly and joyfully.
• Children are masters of their school room environment, which
  has been specifically prepared for them to be academic,
  comfortable, and to encourage independence by giving
  them the tools and responsibility to manage its upkeep.
• Children learn through discovery, so didactic materials with a
  control for error are used. Through the use of these materials,
  which are specific to Montessori schools (i.e., checker boards,
  and science experiments) children learn to correct their own
  mistakes instead of always relying on a teacher to give them
  the correct answer.
• This also happens because it is understood that the hand is
  intimately connected to the developing brain in children.
Side effects of a Montessori education
• There are of course benefits academically - well
    documented in many studies the world over, but
    the most profound and long lasting benefits are in
    the children’s mental and spiritual health.
•   The result is a deep respect for themselves, their
    classmates, the community within the school and
    outside of the school, and a profound LOVE and
    RESPECT of our earth.
•   Our children have an absolute knowledge that all
    things are connected and all things must be
•   Some other side effects may include: ongoing joy of
    learning, self controlled will, and deep
•   Many Montessori students have discovered a
    unique and individual way to contribute. This is the
    essence of real "Montessori" work today.
Measurements of achievement
• The Montessori method discourages traditional measurements
  of achievement (grades, tests) under the premise that it is
  damaging to the inner growth of children.
• Feedback and qualitative analysis of a child's performance
  does exist but is usually provided in the form of a list of skills,
  activities and critical points, and sometimes a narrative of the
  child's achievements, strengths and weaknesses, with
  emphasis on the improvement of those weaknesses.
• A key point to understanding Montessori Education is the
  recognition that what is important is not so much the product,
  but the process by which the product is attained.
The Three Period Lesson
• “Tell me - I forget. Show me – I understand. Involve me – I
    remember.” – Chinese Proverb

• 2 or 3 materials are selected from what the children are
    working with.
•   Period 1 consists of providing the child with the name of the
    material. “This is_”
•   Period 2 is to help the child recognize the different objects.
    “Point to _ or "Give me _” . After spending some time in the
    2nd period, the child may move on to period 3.
•   Period 3 involves checking to see if the child not only
    recognizes the name of the material, but is able to tell you
    what it is. "What is this?" We know the child fully understands it.
•   Dr. Maria Montessori was very clear to point out that if the
    child does not go through the 3rd period, it is OK and the
    teacher must simply put the material away to try some other
    time. There is no undue pressure from the teacher to learn the
•   Communication between teacher, child and home is
Montessori Myths
• Montessori is only for Well Behaved Children - well trained and
    reflective teachers creating an environment that will attract and
    engage the children, so that by degrees, they become calmer and
    more in control of their bodies and their actions.
•   Montessori is Too Structured -the environment is, rather than from the
    teacher. The shelves are set out in areas, with activities set out on the
    shelf in a particular way, usually from left to right, from easier to
    presented with a lesson. Structure also comes in the control of error
    in the material. The control of error allows the child to learn from
    interacting with the material, without an adult having to point out to
    them they have made a mistake. Children with time and space are
    often able to work it out for themselves. Structure comes in the
    careful and methodical observations the teachers make of the
    children, so they know exactly where a child is, what they need and
    when to show them something new. It also comes in the careful
    training the teacher undergoes to be able to prepare exactly the
    right environment for a child at his or her developmental stage.
•   What happens when all of this structure is put together is an
    environment where it is possible to give children the freedom to
    interact in it as they wish – and usually they wish to interact in a
    positive manner, engaging and exploring with the Montessori
    materials, excited to share their discoveries with their friends and
Checker Board

• The checker board is a Montessori primary (6-12) math
    material used to do long multiplication of numbers into
    the 100’s of millions. The material is part of a
    progression of math materials that enables the student
    to experience the process of multiplication using
    coloured beads and a painted board.
•   The Montessori student does not learn about
    multiplication as an abstraction; but knows why you ‘add
    the zero’, why you ‘carry the 10’ and what the multiplier,
    multiplicand and partial product actually are. The
    material appeals to primary-aged children who are
    fascinated by large numbers and is seen in both 6-9 and
    9-12 classes.
• Grammar, story-writing and reports are focused on during the
    elementary years. Grammar is taught with very hands-on materials. In
    a 6-9 classroom, the child learns about :

• Noun - large black triangle. A triangle is used because it represents a
    very sturdy object and something that is concrete.
•   Article - small, light blue triangle.
•   Adjective - medium size, dark blue triangle. The triangles are used
    with articles and adjectives because they are part of the noun
•   Verb - Red Circle. The red circle is used because it represents action.
•   Conjunction - pink line. A pink line is used here to represent a ribbon
    that ties the ideas together.
•   Preposition - green bridge. A green bridge is used because a
    preposition connects two nouns together and bridges their
•   Adverb - smaller orange circle. Since the adverb is related to the
    verb, it also uses a circle.
•   Interjection - a golden object that looks like an exclamation point or
    key hole.
•   In the 9-12 classroom, a focus is also placed on learning gerunds,
    abstract nouns, and other more advanced grammar concepts. The
    materials are similar to the parts of speech symbols used in 6-9, but
    there are additions to them.
Some famous people exposed to the
Montessori philosophy and education
 The short list includes: Alice Waters, Friedrich Hundertwasser,
  Julia Child, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Helen Keller, Alexander
  Graham Bell, Thomas Edison, Henry Ford, Mahatma Gandhi,
  Sigmund Freud, Buckminster Fuller, Leo Tolstoy, Bertrand
  Russell, Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, John Holt, Ann Frank, the
  Dalai Lama, Jacqueline Kennedy Onassis, Prince William and
  Prince Harry of the English royal family, Cher Bono, Yul
  Brynner, Bill and Hillary Clinton, Larry Page and Sergey Brin -
  founders of Google, Jeff Bezos - founder of,
  Sean „P.Diddy‟ Combs – singer, T. Berry Brazelton -
  pediatrician and author, Elizabeth Berridge – actress, Kami
  Cotler – actress, Melissa and Sarah Gilbert – actors, David
  Blaine - magician, Gabriel Garcia Marquez - Nobel Prize
  winner for Literature, Katherine Graham - ex-owner of the
  Washington Post, and finally Yo Yo Ma to mention a few.
• 'I see the world being slowly transformed into a wilderness, I hear the
   approaching thunder that, one day, will destroy us too, I feel the
   suffering of millions. And yet, when I look up at the sky, I somehow
   feel that everything will change for the better...that this cruelty too
   shall end, that peace and tranquillity will return once more. In the
   meantime, I must hold on to my ideals. Perhaps the day will come
   when I'll be able to realise them!'' – Anne Frank (Montessori student),
   July 15, 1944, age 15
Montessori vs Traditional Education
Montessori:                                                                       Traditional

                                                                                  1. Emphasis on rote knowledge and social development
1. Emphasis on cognitive structures & social development

2. While the teacher guides the learning process, the student is an active        2. Teacher's role is dominant and student is a passive participant
         and primary participant

                                                                                  3. Teacher is primary enforcer of external discipline
3. Environment and method encourage internal self-discipline

                                                                                  4. Group instruction that conforms to adult's teaching style
4. Individual and group instruction adapts to each student's learning style

5. Mixed age grouping                                                             5. Same age grouping

6. Children encouraged to teach, collaborate, and help one another                6. Most teaching done by teacher and collaboration is discouraged

7. Child formulates concepts from self-teaching materials                         7. Child is given concepts by teacher rather than by self-discovery

8. Concentrated work time on a single subject                                     8. Child sits in assigned seat, not allowed to move about classroom

9. Child sets own learning pace to internalize information                        9. Instruction pace set by group norm or teacher

                                                                                  10. Errors corrected by teacher
10. Child spots own errors through self-correcting materials

11. Learning is reinforced through child's own repetition of activity, internal   11. Learning reinforced externally by rewards, punishments
        feelings of successful repetition

12. Multi-sensory materials
                                                                                  12. Few materials for sensory, concrete manipulation

                                                                                  13. Child is given specific time for work in one subject and then moved on to another subject perhaps before
13. Child can work where he or she is comfortable, is allowed to move
                                                                                           subject has been adequately covered
         around classroom as long as he or she is not disruptive to others
•   Montessori Education Provides Better Outcomes than Traditional Methods, Study Indicates
•   A study comparing outcomes of children at a public inner-city Montessori school with children who
    attended traditional schools indicates that Montessori education leads to children with better social
    and academic skills.The study appears in the Sept. 29, 2006 issue of the journal Science.Montessori
    Provides Better Outcomes'Science' Article on Montessori Research'Science' Article Supporting
    Outcomes for Students in a Montessori Program
    A Longitudinal Study of the Experience in the Milwaukee Public Schools
•   "This study supports the hypothesis that Montessori education has a positive long-term impact.
    Additionally, it provides an affirmative answer to questions about whether Montessori students will be
    successful in traditional schools.""A significant finding in this study is the association between a
    Montessori education and superior performance on the Math and Science scales of the ACT and
    WKCE. In essence, attending a Montessori program from the approximate ages of three to eleven
    predicts significantly higher mathematics and science standardized test scores in high
    school."Download research report (PDF 127 KB)A Comparison of Montessori and Traditional Middle
    Schools: Motivation, Quality of Experience, and Social Context
    by Kevin Rathunde
•   With the help of co-investigator Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, Dr. Rathunde compared the experiences and
    perceptions of middle school students in Montessori and traditional schools using the Experience
    Sampling Method (ESM). Montessori students reported a significantly better quality of experience in their
    academic work than did traditional students. In addition, Montessori students perceived their schools as
    a more positive community for learning, with more opportunities for active, rather than passive, learning.
•   This study was sponsored by the North American Montessori Teachers’ Association (NAMTA, an affiliate
    organization of AMI) and published in The NAMTA Journal 28:3 (Summer, 2003), pages 12-52.
•   Download research report (PDF 152 KB)
•   Optimal Developmental Outcomes: The Social, Moral, Cognitive, and Emotional Dimensions of a
    Montessori Education
    by Annette M. Haines, Kay Baker, and David Kahn
•   This series of articles (including a new introduction by Annette Haines, NAMTA's Director of Research)
    spells out optimal outcomes of Montessori education for the early childhood, elementary, and
    adolescent years. Haines states, "we find the possibility of an educational continuum that extends
    naturally along a developmental path from birth to adulthood. It is hoped that the delineation of this
    path within the three distinct developmental stages will enable educators to look at students and
    schools from a new perspective."
•   Sources: The NAMTA Journal 25:2, Spring, 2000; The NAMTA Journal 26:1, Winter, 2001; The NAMTA
    Journal 28:1, Winter 2003.
•   Download research report (PDF 200 KB)
•   Visit NAMTA's website for additional research studies and resources.
Thank-you for coming out!

• Please feel free now to ask questions
  to those who are wearing a name tag
  with SS (Sunnyside Elementary)
• We will be ending this evening at 8:30
• Please feel free to contact me
  anytime at