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					The Participle and the
Participle Phrase
Verbals and Verbal Phrases

 • A VERBAL is a word that is
   formed from a verb but is used
   as a noun, an adjective or an
   adverb.
 • There are 3 types of verbals
   • The participle
   • The gerund
   • The infinitive
The Participle

• A participle is a verb form that
  can be used as an adjective.
  • 1. Present participles end in –ing
    • Ex) The smiling child waved.
         – Smiling, a form of the verb smile,
           modifies the noun child.
    • Ex) The horses trotting past were not
      frightened by the crowd.
         – Trotting, a form of the verb trot,
           modifies the noun horses.
• 2. Most past participles end in –d
  or –ed. Some past participles are
  irregularly formed.
Examples
  • Ex.) The police officers searched the
    abandoned warehouse.
       – Abandoned, a form of the verb
         abandon, modifies the noun,
        warehouse.
  • Ex.) This plate, bought at a flea
    market, is a valuable antique.
  • Ex.) Chosen for her leadership
    abilities, Dawn was an effective team
    captain.
*One last Tip:

• Do not confuse a participle used
  as an adjective with a participle
  used as part of a verb phrase.
  • ADJECTIVE: Planning their trip, the class learned
    how to read a road map.
  • VERB PHRASE: While they were planning their
    trip, the class learned how to read a road map.
The Participial Phrase

• A participal phrase consists of a
  participal and any modifiers or
  complements the participle has.
  The entire phrase is used as an
  adjective.
• A participle may be modified by
  an adverb or an adverb phrase
  and may also have a
  complement, usually a direct
  object.
Examples

• Seeing itself in the mirror, the
  duck seemed quite amused.
    • The participal phrase modifies the
      noun duck. The pronoun itself is the
      direct object of the present participle
      seeing. The adverb phrase in the
      mirror modifies the present participle
     seeing.
Examples

• After a while , we heard the
  duck quacking noisily at its own
  image.
    • The participal phrase modifies the noun duck.
      The adverb noisily and the adverb phrase at its
      own image modify the present participle
      quacking.
Examples:

• Then, disgusted with the other
  duck, it pecked the mirror.
    • The participal phrase modifies the pronoun it.
      The adverb phrase with the other duck modifies
      the past participle disgusted.
• A participial phrase should be placed
  as close as possible to the word it
  modifies. Otherwise, the phrase may
  appear to modify another word and
  the sentence may not make sense.
  • MISPLACED: Slithering through the grass, I saw
    a snake trimming the hedges this morning.
  • CORRECTED: Trimming the hedges this
    morning, I saw a snake slithering through the
    grass.

				
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