morphology

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					 TABLE OF CONTENTS
  PREFACE................................................................................................................................III

Chapter 1 _________________ INTRODUCTION ...................................13
  1.1 LANGUAGE .................................................................................................................... 13
  1.2 LINGUISTICS ................................................................................................................. 14
  1.3 MORPHOLOGY – THE STUDY OF WORD STRUCTURE ....................................... 17
  1.4 MORPHOLOGICAL TYPOLOGY ................................................................................ 18
    1.4.1 ISOLATING LANGUAGES.................................................................................... 19
    1.4.2. AGGLUTINATING LANGUAGES....................................................................... 20
    1.4.3 INFLECTING LANGUAGES.................................................................................. 21
    1.4.4 INCORPORATING LANGUAGES ........................................................................ 21
    1.4.5 INFIXING LANGUAGES........................................................................................ 22
  1.5 LEXICON......................................................................................................................... 22

Chapter 2 _________________ WORD AND LEXEME ..........................29
  2.1 WORD .............................................................................................................................. 29
  2.2 LEXEME .......................................................................................................................... 32
  2.3 WORD FORM.................................................................................................................. 35
  2.4 GRAMMATICAL WORD .............................................................................................. 36
  2.5 SYNCRETISM................................................................................................................. 37

Chapter 3 _________________ BASIC CONCEPTS ................................43
  3.1 MORPHEME ................................................................................................................... 43
  3.2 TYPES OF MORPHEMES.............................................................................................. 46
    3.2.1 FREE MORPHEMES ............................................................................................... 46
    3.2.2 BOUND MORPHEMES........................................................................................... 47
    3.2.3 LEXICAL MORPHEMES........................................................................................ 48
    3.2.4 GRAMMATICAL MORPHEMES .......................................................................... 49
    3.2.5 CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS MORPHEMES................................... 50
    3.2.6 ZERO MORPHEME................................................................................................. 50
  3.3 MORPH ............................................................................................................................ 51
  3.4 ALLOMORPH ................................................................................................................. 51
  3.5 UNDERLYING FORM ................................................................................................... 53
  3.6 FREE AND BOUND ALLOMORPHS........................................................................... 55

Chapter 4 _________________ WORD STRUCTURE ELEMENTS......61
  4.1 ROOT ............................................................................................................................... 61
    4.1.1 FREE ROOTS ........................................................................................................... 62
    4.1.2 BOUND ROOTS....................................................................................................... 62
  4.2 base ................................................................................................................................... 63
  4.3 stem................................................................................................................................... 64
    4.3.1 Stem extensions......................................................................................................... 65
  4.4 AFFIXES .......................................................................................................................... 66
    4.4.1 prefixes ...................................................................................................................... 66
    4.4.2 SUFFIXES .................................................................................................................... 67
    4.4.3 INFIXES ....................................................................................................................... 68
    4.4.4 interfixes .................................................................................................................... 68
    4.4.5 circumfixes ................................................................................................................ 69
  4.5 COMBINING FORM....................................................................................................... 70
  4.6 MORPHEMIC STRUCTURE OF LEXICAL ITEMS ................................................... 71
    4.6.1 SIMPLE LEXICAL ITEM........................................................................................ 71
    4.6.2 COMPLEX LEXICAL ITEM................................................................................... 71
    4.6.3 COMPOUND LEXICAL ITEM............................................................................... 72

Chapter 5 _________________ MORPHOLOGICAL RULES................77
  5.1 MORPHOLOGICAL RULES ......................................................................................... 77
  5.2 MORPHOPHONEMIC RULES ...................................................................................... 79
    5.2.1 Morphophonemic RULES AFFECTING THE AFFIX ........................................... 80
    5.2.2 Morphophonemic RULES AFFECTING THE BASE............................................. 81

Chapter 6 _________________ ENGLISH INFLECTIONAL
MORPHOLOGY ...........................................................................................89
  6.1 INFLECTIONAL MORPHOLOGY ............................................................................... 89
  6.2 REGULAR AND IRREGULAR INFLECTION ............................................................ 90
  6.3 ENGLISH INFLECTIONAL SUFFIXES ....................................................................... 91
  6.4 INFLECTIONAL PARADIGM ...................................................................................... 93
  6.5 ABLAUT .......................................................................................................................... 95
  6.6 SUPPLETION .................................................................................................................. 96
  6.7 CLITICIZATION ............................................................................................................. 97

Chapter 7 _________________ MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS.......103
  7.1 PARSING ....................................................................................................................... 103
  7.2 IMMEDIATE CONSTITUENT ANALYSIS ............................................................... 105
  7.3 labelled bracketing ......................................................................................................... 107
  7.4 TREE STRUCTURE...................................................................................................... 108
  7.5 PORTMANTEAU MORPHEMES ............................................................................... 113
  7.6 FORMATIVE ELEMENTS........................................................................................... 114
  7.7 “CRANBERRY” MORPHEMES.................................................................................. 115
  7.8 REANALYSIS ............................................................................................................... 116

Chapter 8 _________________ DERIVATIONAL AFFIXATION .......121
  8.1 affixation......................................................................................................................... 121
  8.2 DERIVATIONAL PARADIGM ................................................................................... 122
  8.3 class I and class II AFfixes............................................................................................. 123
  8.4 PREFIXATION.............................................................................................................. 124
  8.5 english PREFIXES ......................................................................................................... 126


Chapter 9 _________________ DERIVATIONAL AFFIXATION 2 ....153
  9.1 SUFFIXATION.............................................................................................................. 153
  9.2 ENGLISH SUFFIXES ................................................................................................... 155
    9.2.1 NOUN FORMING SUFFIXES .............................................................................. 155
    9.2.2 VERB FORMING SUFFIXES .............................................................................. 172

Chapter 10 _________________ DERIVATIONAL AFFIXATION 3 ..179
  10.1 ADJECTIVE FORMING SUFFIXES ......................................................................... 179
  10.2 ADVERB FORMING SUFFIXES .............................................................................. 191
  10.3 ENGLISH INTERFIXATION ..................................................................................... 193
  10.4 ENGLISH EXPLETIVE INFIXATION...................................................................... 193



Chapter 11 _________________ COMPOSITION ...................................199
  11.1 DEFINITION OF COMPOSITION ............................................................................ 199
  11.2 FORM OF COMPOUNDS .......................................................................................... 201
  11.3 TYPES OF COMPOUNDS ......................................................................................... 203
    11.3.1 endocentric compounds......................................................................................... 203
    11.3.2 exocentric compounds........................................................................................... 203
    11.3.3 copulative compounds........................................................................................... 204
    11.3.4 phrasal compounds ................................................................................................ 204
  11.4 CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOUNDS..................................................................... 204
    11.4.1 NOUN COMPOUNDS ......................................................................................... 205

Chapter 12 _________________ COMPOSITION 2 ................................213
  12.1 COMPOUND VERBS ................................................................................................. 213
    12.1.1 verb – verb............................................................................................................. 213
    12.1.2 noun – verb ............................................................................................................ 213
    12.1.3 adjective – verb ..................................................................................................... 214
    12.1.4 adverb particle – verb............................................................................................ 214
  12.2 COMPOUND ADJECTIVES ...................................................................................... 215
    12.2.1 noun - participle present..................................................................................... 215
    12.2.2 noun -participle past ............................................................................................. 216
    12.2.3 noun-adjective ....................................................................................................... 216
    12.2.4 participle present - adjective ................................................................................. 216
    12.2.5 verb - adverb.......................................................................................................... 217
    12.2.6 adjective - participle present ................................................................................. 217
    12.2.7 adjective - participle past ...................................................................................... 217
    12.2.8 adjective - adjective............................................................................................... 217
    12.2.9 adverb – participle present ................................................................................... 217
    12.2.10 adverb – participle past ....................................................................................... 218
    12.2.11 adverb - adjective ................................................................................................ 218
    12.2.12 numeral – noun.................................................................................................... 218
  12.3 OTHER COMPOUNDS .............................................................................................. 218
    12.3.1 COMPOUND ADVERBS .................................................................................... 218
    12.3.2 COMPOUND PREPOSITIONS........................................................................... 219
    12.3.3 COMPOUND PRONOUNS ................................................................................. 219
    12.3.4 COMPOUND CONJUNCTIONS ........................................................................ 220
  12.4 REDUPLICATION ...................................................................................................... 220
    12.4.1 repetitive reduplication.......................................................................................... 220
    12.4.2 non-repetitive reduplication .................................................................................. 221
  12.5 COMBINING FORMS in ENGLISH.......................................................................... 223

Chapter 13 _________________ CONVERSION ....................................235
  13.1 DEFINITION OF CONVERSION .............................................................................. 235
  13.2 KINDS OF CONVERSION......................................................................................... 237
    13.2.1 Complete Conversion............................................................................................ 237
    13.2.2 PARTIAL CONVERSION ................................................................................... 238
    13.2.3 SECONDARY CONVERSION ........................................................................... 238
  13.3 TYPES OF COMPLETE CONVERSION .................................................................. 239
    13.3.1 NOUN > VERB..................................................................................................... 239
    13.3.2 VERB > NOUN..................................................................................................... 242
    13.3.3 ADJECTIVE > NOUN ..................................................................................... 244
    13.3.4 ADJECTIVE > VERB ...................................................................................... 244
    13.3.5 ADVERB > VERB................................................................................................ 245
    13.3.6 ADVERBIAL PARTICLE > NOUN ................................................................... 245
    13.3.7 ADVERBIAL PARTICLE > VERB .................................................................... 245
  13.4 TRANSPOSITION....................................................................................................... 246
    13.4.1 NOUN > ADJECTIVE ......................................................................................... 246
    13.4.2 ADVERB > ADJECTIVE .................................................................................... 246
    13.4.3 CONJUNCTION > NOUN................................................................................... 247
    13.4.4 CONJUNCTION > VERB.................................................................................... 247
    13.4.5 AFFIX > NOUN.................................................................................................... 247

Chapter 14 ________________ SECONDARY PROCESSES OF
LEXEME FORMATION ............................................................................251
  14. 1 BACK-FORMATION................................................................................................. 251
  14. 2 CLIPPING ................................................................................................................... 252
    14.2.1 procope (fore-clipping) ......................................................................................... 254
    14.2.2 apocope (back-clipping)....................................................................................... 254
    14.2.3 procope - apocope (front-back clipping) .............................................................. 254
    14.2.4 syncope (middle-clipping) .................................................................................... 255
    14.2.5 clipping of compounds and phrases...................................................................... 255
  14.3 ACRONYMY............................................................................................................... 256
    14.3.1 alphabetisms .......................................................................................................... 257
    14.3.2 word-like acronyms............................................................................................... 257
  14.4 BLENDING.................................................................................................................. 259
    14.4.1 first part – second part blends ............................................................................... 260
    14.4.2 first part – first part blends .................................................................................... 260
    14.4.3 whole – part blends ............................................................................................... 261
  14.5 TELESCOPING ........................................................................................................... 262
  14.6 EPONYMY .................................................................................................................. 262
    14.6.1 proper name > noun............................................................................................... 263
    14.6.2 proper name > verb .............................................................................................. 264
    14.6.3 proper name > adjective ........................................................................................ 265
  14.7 ECHOISMS AND PHONAESTHEMES .................................................................... 265
  14.8 LEXICAL IMPORT..................................................................................................... 267
    14.8.1 Arabic .................................................................................................................... 268
    14.8.2 Classical languages ............................................................................................... 268
    14.8.3 GREEK .................................................................................................................... 268
    14.8.4. LATIN .................................................................................................................... 268
    14.8.5 CELTIC ................................................................................................................... 269
    14.8.6. Danish         and Norse ........................................................................................... 270
    14.8.7. DUTCH................................................................................................................... 270
    14.8.8. French ................................................................................................................... 270
    14.8.9 GERMAN ................................................................................................................. 271
    14.8.10 Hindi / Urdu......................................................................................................... 271
    14.8.11 Italian ................................................................................................................... 272
    14.8.12 JAPANESE ............................................................................................................. 272
    14.8.13 Russian................................................................................................................. 272
    14.8.14 Spanish................................................................................................................. 273
    14.8.15 Turkish................................................................................................................. 273
    14.8.16 Other languages................................................................................................... 274

Chapter 15 __________PRINCIPLES IN MORPHOLOGY AND
LEXEME FORMATION ............................................................................279
  15.1 WELL-FORMEDNESS ............................................................................................... 279
  15.2 analogical formation..................................................................................................... 279
  15.3 PRODUCTIVITY ........................................................................................................ 281
  15.4 constraints on productivity........................................................................................... 283
    15.4.1 phonological constraints........................................................................................ 283
    15.4.2 morphological constraints ..................................................................................... 283
    15.4.3 syntactic constraints .............................................................................................. 284
    15.4.4 semantic constraints .............................................................................................. 285
  15.5 creativity ....................................................................................................................... 285
  15.6 NONCE FORMATION (hapax legomenon)............................................................... 286
  15.7 neologismS ................................................................................................................... 288
    15.7.1 existing processes .................................................................................................. 288
    15.7.2 existing words with new meanings ....................................................................... 289
    15.7.3 invention ................................................................................................................ 290
  15.8 LEXICALIZATION..................................................................................................... 291
  15.9 INSTITUTIONALIZATION ....................................................................................... 292

  LITERATURE...................................................................................................................... 297

				
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