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					                                   Verbs
                                  show an
              Interje            action or               Nouns
               ctions             a state
                                                         person,
                sudden,
              interrupti
                                                        place or
                                                         object


      Conjunc                       The 8                    pronou
       tions                        Parts                      ns
         join                          of
        words,                     Speech                    take the



              Preposi                                   Adject
               tions                                     ives
              show how a
                noun or           Adverb               describe
                       i             s                 a noun or

                                  describe
                                   verbs




                                    Lisa Wills
                             Documentation Manual
                       IT 570 Instructional Systems Design
                       Submitted to: Dr. Blanche O'Bannon
                                    Fall 2006



Documentation Manual                                                    i
Table of Contents
Problem Identification and Needs Analysis.....................................................................................3
Learner Analysis ..............................................................................................................................5
Context Analysis..............................................................................................................................7
Task Analysis...................................................................................................................................8
Instructional Objectives .................................................................................................................11
Instructional Sequence ...................................................................................................................12
Designing the Message for the Project: The Plan.........................................................................13
Instructional Strategies...................................................................................................................14
Evaluation ......................................................................................................................................15




Documentation Manual                                                                                                                             2
Problem Identification/ Needs Analysis
Assessment

Statement of the problem
Students with learning disabilities have difficulty learning the parts of speech. If these basic
skills are not mastered, the student cannot move forward to learn other essential reading and
language skills; therefore, the student is at risk to fall behind grade level in these areas.

Discrepancies
   • Existing situation: Students with learning disabilities are usually identified once they
      began to experience performance problems in school. The student may experience
      difficulty reading, writing and understanding basic language concepts.
   • Desired goal: Identify the disability as early as possible to prevent the student from
      falling behind grade level. Once the problem is identified, certain accommodations can be
      put in place to assist with and improve their learning and mastery of the parts of speech.
   • Gap: If the learning disability is not identified for the student, accommodations cannot
      be put in place for the student to learn the parts of speech; therefore, the student will
      continue to experience difficulty in reading and language.
   • Reason for the problem/discrepancies: The main reason for the problem is that the
      student does not know they have a disability. The student will experience frustration and
      inability to perform without realizing that the disability may be the cause. Also, it can be
      difficult to identify the disability if an adult is not aware that a disability may be the cause
      for the problem the student is experiencing. In most schools, a student will not be
      automatically tested if they are experiencing problems in these areas. Most disabilities
      are only discovered because a teacher and/or parent recommends that the student for
      testing after observing certain indicators.

Goal Analysis

Identify an aim
Provide effective instruction that will allow students with learning disabilities to master the parts
of speech.

Set goals
    1.    Identify the student’s disability by reviewing academic records, private testing results,
          etc.
    2.    Determine the current reading/language level of the student through pre-assessment.
    3.    Identify the resources available to support the learning of these concepts. Identify the
          function of verb in the parts of speech.
    4.    Identify the function of noun/pronoun in the parts of speech.
    5.    Identify the function of adjective in the parts of speech.
    6.    Recommend appropriate assessments to determine the disability if needed.




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Refine Goals:
   1.    Identify the student’s disability by reviewing academic records, private testing results,
         etc. (this will already be determined before the student comes in for tutoring)
   2.    Determine the current reading/language level of the student through pre-assessment.
   3.    Identify the resources available to support the learning of these concepts. (too broad
         to cover in this instructional unit)
   4.    Identify the functions of the parts of speech.
   5.    Identify the function of noun/pronoun in the parts of speech. (redundant)
   6.    Identify the function of adjective in the parts of speech. (redundant)
   7.    Identify the definitions of the parts of speech.
   8.    Learn to sentence classify.
   9.    Recommend appropriate assessments to determine the disability if needed. (same as
         goal #1)

Rank Goals:
  1.    Determine the current reading/language level of the student through pre-assessment.
  2.    Identify the parts of speech in a sentence.
  3.    Identify the definitions and functions of the parts of speech.
  4.    Learn to sentence classification.

Recommended Solution for Instruction

Based upon the goal analysis, I will develop an instructional manual that will teach the parts of
speech to students with a learning disability. The instruction manual will consist of the
following units:

   1.      Learn the definitions and functions of the parts of speech.
   2.      Learn to identify the parts of speech in a sentence.
   3.      Master sentence classification.




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Learner Analysis
General Characteristics
   •   Male and female children.
   •   Age ranges from 5 years to 18 years old.
   •   Reading level will vary depending on the student’s disability and testing results.
   •   The students are culturally and socially diverse.
   •   Grade level ranges from kindergarten through twelfth grade.
   •   Attention span is dependent on the type of learning disability and whether or not the
       student is on medication.
   •   All students have a learning disability.
   •   Primary language is English.
   •   The students have diverse ethnic/cultural backgrounds.

Specific Entry Characteristics

Prerequisite skills
   • The student must be diagnosed with a specific learning disability.
   • The student must be able to listen to follow oral and written directions that are adjusted to
      the student’s reading and language comprehension.
   • The student must be motivated to learn new accommodations and techniques in order to
      master the parts of speech.

Attitudes and aptitudes
   • The student is reluctant to the tutoring because they do not know if the accommodations
       will improve their ability to master these skills.

Learning Styles

Perceptual Preferences and Strengths
Each type of disabled student has unique limitations and requires special considerations
depending on the type of disability.
   • Auditory students will listen to the parts of speech spoken and identified in verbal
       sentences.
   • Visual students will see examples of the parts of speech being used in written sentences.
   • Tactile and kinesthetic students will prefer hands-on practice by classifying sentences.

Information Processing Habits
   • The student will prefer self-paced instruction with accommodations and repetition until
      the skill is mastered.
   • The student will prefer short and clear exercises with frequent breaks to allow for re-
      focus.



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Motivational Factors
  • The student will express anxiety and frustration because they have been unsuccessful to
      improve their reading and language skills.
  • The student is socially motivated to learn so that they will not fall behind grade level or
      be removed from the mainstream classroom.
  • The student lacks self confidence in their capability to improve.

Physiological Factors
   • The student’s learning disability will hinder performance and mastery of these skills.




Documentation Manual                                                                              6
Context Analysis
Description of Orienting Context

What goals does the student have for taking the instruction?

   1.      The student’s goals are to master the parts of speech and improve their reading and
           language skills.
   2.      What is the student’s perceived utility of the instruction?
   3.      The student’s perceived utility of the instruction includes: learning the parts of
           speech, improving reading and language skills, increasing self-confidence, and
           maintaining grade level.
   4.      What is the student’s perception of accountability?
   5.      The student has a self imposed accountability established by the desire to keep up
           with fellow classmates.
   6.      The student has an imposed accountability by their parent and/or guardian to perform
           and improve their skills.

Description of Instructional Environment

The instructional environment is a mock classroom located in a private residence.

   •    Lighting-Lighting includes florescent ceiling lights and lamps. All lighting can be
        controlled by the instructor. There are no windows.
   •    Noise- The room has hardwood floors which will carry sound during oral instruction.
        The room is located in the front of the house which faces a road. (Traffic noise is minimal
        as this is not a main or heavily traveled road.)
   •    Temperature- The approximate temperature of the room is 72 degrees Fahrenheit and
        can be controlled by the instructor.
   •    Seating- The student has a standard classroom chair and desk.
   •    Accommodations- Additional seating areas are located in the floor and away from the
        desk area to accommodate for the anxious student.
   •    Equipment- The room is equipped with a bookcase of resource materials, books,
        chalkboard for exercises, and pencil and paper.
   •    Transportation- The student will be transported to the facility by a parent or guardian.




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Task Analysis
Topical Analysis

   1. Verb
      a. A verb is a word or group of words that show an action or a state of being, helps
          another verb, or links a word in the predicate to the subject.
      b. Verbs are either Action or Non Action:
         i.   Action: Physical or Mental
        ii.   Non Action: Being, Helping or Linking
      c. The last verb in a verb phrase determines if it is Action or Non-Action.
      d. The type of verb (Action or Non-Action) determines what part of speech follows it.
   2. Noun/Pronoun
      a. A noun is a person, place or object.
      b. Nouns are generally categorized as common or proper nouns.
      c. A pronoun takes the place of a noun.
      d. Nouns and Pronouns have five different functions:
         i.   Subject- example: Jane at the ice cream.
        ii.   Direct Object- example: Jane ate the ice cream.
       iii.   Indirect Object- example: Jane gave Sam the ice cream.
       iv.    Predicate Nominative- example: The ice cream is chocolate.
        v.    Object of a prepositional phrase- example: Jane gave Sam some (of the chocolate
              ice cream).
      e. Put prepositional phrases inside parentheses, then label the object of the prepositional
          phrase.
      f. There CANNOT be a VERB in a prepositional phrase.
      g. When you make a noun or pronoun possessive, it becomes an adjective.
   3. Adjective
      a. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.
      b. Adjectives specify things- examples include:
         i.   Size



Documentation Manual                                                                            8
        ii.   Color
       iii.   Number
   4. Adverbs
      a. An adverb describes verbs, adjectives or other adverbs and specify in what manner,
          when, where, and how much.
   5. Prepositions
      a. Prepositions show how a noun or pronoun is related to another word in a sentence.
      b. Can also be used as adverbs.
   6. Conjunctions
      a. Conjunctions join words, phrases, or clauses.
      b. There are 2 types of conjunctions:
         i.   Coordinating
        ii.   Subordinating
   7. Interjections
      a. Interjections are sudden, interrupting words or phrases (exclamations).
      b. They are often signaled by an exclamation mark.
   8. Articles
   9. Subject Complements




Documentation Manual                                                                          9
Procedural Analysis

Classify a sentence to identify the parts of speech:
                                 The strong boy ate a lot of his spinach.
*Articles (a, and,the) will be pre-defined.


1. Identify the verb and label it Action or Non-Action.
    CUE: Action verbs are physical and mental. Non-Action verbs are being, helping and
    linking.

    CUE: The last verb in a verb phrase determines if it is Action or Non-Action
2. Identify the Noun/Pronoun.
    CUE: Determine if the subject is a noun (common or proper) or a pronoun (takes the place
    of a noun).
    CUE: Ask the question, “Who or What” verb? The Answer will be the Subject.
3. Identify the Noun/Pronoun and label the Function.
    CUE: Ask the question, “Subject + Verb”, What? The Answer will be Direct Object (DO)
    or Predicate Nominative (PN).
    CUE: Ask the question, “Subject + Verb + Direct Object” to or for Whom? The Answer will
    be Indirect Object (IO).
4. Identify the Adjective.
    CUE: Ask the question, Which one?, What kind?, How Many?, Whose?
5. Identify the Articles

Completed Classification
                                                                                               Object
                                                          Direct                               of the
Article    Adjective   Subject      Verb       Article    Object     Preposition   Adjective   Preposition
The        strong      man          ate        a          lot        of            his         spinach




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Instructional Objectives
Objective 1:
The student will correctly define the functions of the parts of speech.

Content: Fact
Performance: Recall

Objective 2:
Given a sentence, the student will identify the parts of speech with no errors.

Content: Fact
Performance: Recall

Objective 3:
Given 10 sentences, the student will classify each sentence showing the parts of speech with 80%
accuracy.

Content: Procedure
Performance: Application




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Instructional Sequence
Learner Related Sequencing
Phenomenon: Difficulty
Teach the student to identify the verb first so that it makes the other parts of speech easier to
identify.


World-Related Sequencing
Phenomenon: Temporal
Teach the student to complete a sentence classification by showing them step by step how to
identify the parts of speech.




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Designing the Message for the Project: The Plan
What is the pre-instructional strategy that you are going to use? Overview

How many sections will you have in your module? 3 sections
1.   Defining the functions of the parts of speech
2.   Identifying the parts of speech
3.   Classifying sentences

How will your instructional objectives be worded?
All objectives will be worded as normal conversation.

What message design will you choose for the instructional unit?
Title: various fonts- used on cover
Heading 1: Arial 18, bold
Heading 2: Arial 14, bold
Text: Times New Roman 14
Photo captions: Times New Roman 9pt, Italicized and Labeled; (example 1-1, 2-1)
Page numbers: Arial 10

What are the common text structures (Armbruster’s) that you will use in your unit?
Definitions and Examples for Objectives 1 and 2- Factual
Temporal Sequence for Objective 3- Procedural

What “pointer” words (Meyer)?
For example:          Factual Objectives
First, Second, Third: Procedural Objective
Buddy’s Checkpoint :                Evaluations

                                 ♦    Helpful hints




What “document margins” will you use?
Margins:   L-1.25”; R-.75”; T-1”; B-1”

What layout will you use per section to try to create a unified approach to your topic?
Example used here- (Please note: heading name will change depending on module.)

What photos will you use in your module?
Representational pictures will be used to show definitions and functions of parts of speech. For
example, verbs show action so the student will see a picture of a person playing basketball to
demonstrate the function of a verb.


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Instructional Strategy
Initial Presentation and Generative Strategy

Objective 1: The student will correctly define the functions of the parts of speech.
Content/Performance: Fact/Recall
Initial Presentation: The student will be introduced to the definitions of the parts of speech and
will be given examples of how they are used in a sentence. Pictures will be used along with the
sentences to show the parts of speech in action.
Generative Strategy: First, the student will review the functions of the parts of speech. Second,
the student will define the functions of the parts of speech. (Rehearsal)

Objective 2: Given a sentence, the student will identify the parts of speech with no errors.
Content/Performance: Fact/Recall
Initial Presentation: The student will see an example of the parts of speech in a sentence.
Written tips and examples will be used to show the student how to recognize the parts of the
speech in a sentence based on their function.
Generative Strategy: First, present the student with the parts of speech labeled in a sentence.
Second, the student will identify the parts of speech in an example sentence. (Rehearsal)

Objective 3: Given 10 sentences, the student will classify each sentence showing the parts of
speech with 80% accuracy.

Content/Performance: Procedure/Application
Initial Presentation: The student will be shown an illustration of how to correctly classify a
sentence. Written tips and hints will be used in the example to remind the student of how to
identify the parts of speech in the sentence.
Generative Strategy: Provide 10 sentences for the student to classify. (Practice)

Preinstructional Strategy
Strategy: Overview- The student will be introduced to the definition and function of the parts
of speech.

Function: The function is to prepare the student to identify the parts of speech in a sentence.

Content Structure: Little or no structure with short explanations and many examples.

Learner: Higher and lower ability students with learning disabilities.

Task Attributes: Facts


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Evaluation
Formative Evaluation Plan
Purpose: The evaluation will be used to modify and improve the curriculum and should reveal
whether the student has mastered the concepts of the parts of speech and can identify them in a
sentence. These concepts are essential for the student to improve their reading level and progress
within their appropriate grade level. Feedback the tutor receives will assist the tutor in
modifying the student’s learning plan and goals.

Audience
  • Private Tutor- SME
  • Instructional Designer

Issues
    • Did the module meet the specified objectives?
    • After receiving instruction, can the student master the concepts presented?
    • Was the student able to progress through the module with and/or without the direction of
       the tutor?
    • Was the tutor able to adapt the module for the specific needs of the student?
    • Did the module have adequate practice exercises for the student?
    • Was the tutor able to determine whether or not the student mastered the concept
       presented?
    • Did the pictures and hints provide appropriate support for the concepts?
    • Was the module well organized and easy to follow?

Resources
   • Tutor- SME
   • Students
   • Medical evaluations for the student
   • Academic records for the student
   • Other diagnostic tests and pre-assessment results for the student
   • Copies of the materials
   • Environment conducive for learning- preferably the tutor’s mock classroom.
   • Calculator for data analysis

Evidence
   • Student percentages of the sentence classifications
   • Verbal and written comments from the student and tutor
   • School records (example: grades) to show progress/digression of the student

Data-gathering techniques
   • End of module checkpoints




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   •   The sentence classification exercise will be scored to determine the percentage of
       sentences the student correctly classified.

Analysis
  • Descriptive percentages for each student will be collected.
  • Listing of comments by the tutor and student will be compiled.

Reporting: The results will be presented to the tutor so that the student’s learning plan can be
modified in line with the results.

Summative Evaluation Plan

Objective 1: The student will correctly define the functions of the parts of speech.

Content/Performance: Fact/Recall
Initial Presentation: The student will be introduced to the definitions of the parts of speech and
will be given examples of how they are used in a sentence. Pictures will be used along with the
sentences to show the parts of speech in action.
Generative Strategy: First, the student will review the functions of the parts of speech. Second,
the student will define the functions of the parts of speech. (Rehearsal)
Method: Objective testing will be used for this objective.
Type of Exercise: Matching exercise: A list of functions will be provided for the student to
match. One extra definition will be included as a distractor.

Objective 2: Given a sentence, the student will identify the parts of speech with no errors.

Content/Performance: Fact/Recall
Initial Presentation: The student will see an example of the parts of speech in a sentence.
Written tips and examples will be used to show the student how to recognize the parts of the
speech in a sentence based on their function.
Generative Strategy: First, present the student with the parts of speech labeled in a sentence.
Second, the student will identify the parts of speech in an example sentence. (Rehearsal)
Method: Objective testing will be used for this objective.
Type of Exercise: Multiple choice exercise: Sentences will have specific words identified and
labeled. The student must choose the correct sentence that is properly labeled.




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Objective 3: Given 10 sentences, the student will classify each sentence showing the parts of
speech with 80% accuracy.

Content/Performance: Procedure/Application
Initial Presentation: The student will be shown an illustration of how to correctly classify a
sentence. Written tips and hints will be used in the example to remind the student of how to
identify the parts of speech in the sentence.
Generative Strategy: Provide 10 sentences for the student to classify. (Practice)
Method: Problem solving will be used for this objective.
Type of Exercise: Problem Solving exercise: Sentences will be provided for the student to
correctly classify. All parts of speech must be properly labeled. Partial credit will be given. An
example exercise will be provided at the beginning of the test to show the student how to
complete the exercise.




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