Participles by wuyunyi


									        Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Participles
                       (But Didn’t Think to Ask)

Definition: Participles are verbal adjectives, i. e., adjectives made out of verbs. They decline in three
   genders, four cases, and two numbers. Locate: tense, voice, mood; case, gender, number > dict.form.

Forms (full declensions in Mueller, pp. 74ff.):
   Pres. Act.:       luvwn luvousa lu/on (decline 3rd, 1st, 3rd declension)
   Pres. Mid./Pass.: luo,menoj luome,nh luo,menon (decline 2nd, 1st, 2nd declension)
   Future:           Same as pres. except add s between stem and endings (luvswn)
   2 Aor.:           Same as pres. except use 2 Aor. stem

Translation of participles depends heavily on how they are used. A key is to notice whether or not
   an article preceeds the participle. This determines whether it is used adjectivally or adverbially.
   (Review principles of adjective position, Davis, # 118-119.)

I. Adjectival usage -- Article is normally present.
   1. Attributive -- article present; modifies a noun = “the blanking noun”
   2. Substantive -- article present; noun understood = “the one who blanks”

II. Adverbial usage -- Article is never present.
    3. Circumstantial -- no article = “Blanking/having blanked/while/after he blanked,” etc.
    4. Genitive absolute -- no article; participle and noun in gen. case, disconnected from sentence =
       “While somebody blanked, another did something else.”

I. Adjectival usage -- The article is normally present (attributive/substantive position). (Exception:
   If participle modifies a noun which is anarthrous [“without an article”], then the participle will be anarthrous too;
   so you can have an attributive participle without the article. )

   1. Attributive -- The participle is used like an adjective in attributive position to modify any
      noun or pronoun in the sentence; it must agree in case, gender, and number with the noun
      modified. The participle describes or delimits the noun by telling “which one.” It can be
      translated with an English participle or turned into a relative clause ("who/which").

       Ex.:     (1) hJ mevnousa ejlpiv" = the abiding hope or the hope which abides
                    hJ ejlpiv" hJ mevnousa       = the abiding hope or the hope which abides

                (2) oJ katabaivnwn a[nqrwpo" kataV th'" oJdou' blevpei toVn kuvrion.
                    The man going down the road sees the Lord.                       or
                    The man who is going down the road sees the Lord.

   2. Substantive -- Similar to # 1 but the noun is understood, leaving the participle to stand in
      place of a noun. Variations of "the one who" frequently appear in the translation.

       Ex.:     (1) oJ pisteuvwn = "he who believes/the one who believes/the man who believes."

                (2) oiJ pisteuvonte" = "they who believe/the ones who believe/those who believe"

                (3) toVn pisteuvonta = "him who believes" etc. (participle does not have to be subject)
Spring ’07
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II. Adverbial usage -- The article is never present (predicate position).

   3. Circumstantial -- The participle agrees in case, gender, and number with some noun or
      pronoun in the sentence (or with the understood subject of the verb). The participle does not
      describe or delimit the noun but makes an additional statement denoting some
      "circumstance" under which the action of the finite (main) verb takes place. Sometimes you
      can translate these with an English participle; other times you need to turn them into a
      subordinate clause. The choice of subordinating conjunctions (when, while, after, although,
      because, and, etc.) is a judgment call, depending on the translator's sense of the logical
      connection of the participle to the verb (i. e., context). (Tense combinations also affect
      choice of conjunction.)

       Ex.:    (1) oJ a[nqrwpo" katabaivnwn kataV th'" oJdou' blevpei toVn kuvrion.

                    Going down the road, the man sees the Lord. (Not: “The man going down
                    the road sees the Lord.” That would be attributive.)

                    While the man is going down the road, he sees the Lord.

               (2) oJ a[nqrwpo" katabaivnonta kataV th'" oJdou' blevpei toVn kuvrion.

                    The man sees the Lord while the Lord is going down the road. (The participle
                    now modifies the direct object.)

               (3) oJ a[nqrwpo" katabaivnwn kataV th'" oJdou' ei\don toVn kuvrion.

                    While the man was going down the road, he saw the Lord. (Present participle
                    expressing action simultaneous with action of main verb, which now is aorist.)

   4. Genitive absolute -- A participial phrase consisting of a participle together with a noun or
      pronoun, both in the genitive case and grammatically unrelated to the rest of the sentence.
      (They function just like ablative absolutes in Latin and nominative absolutes in English.)
      You may be able to use a participial phrase, or you may have to turn it into a subordinate
      clause with the noun modified by the participle as the subject. (These are similar to
      circumstantial participles except that the noun modified has no grammatical connection to the
      main part of the sentence.) Do not translate the genitive as “of.”

       Ex.:    tou' kurivou levgonto" tau'ta oiJ dou'loi ajph'lqon.

               While/As/Because the Lord was saying these things, the slaves departed.

Two uses of participles which are not analyzed here are predicate adjective and periphrastic
  constructions. Both of these can be translated straightforwardly as participles.

Fall ’07

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