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									All About bihar

ABOUT BIHAR
The name Bihar derived from Sanskrit word “Vihar” meaning abode, is indeed a land of monasteries. Called as “Magadh” in ancient times, Bihar boasts of abounding Hindu, Buddhist, Jain, Muslim and Sikh shrines. Soil of Bihar has either archeological remains or minerals. It is bounded by Nepal to the north and by the Indian states of West Bengal to the northeast and Uttar Pradesh to the west. It spans an area of about 94,164 km² and its population is over 82,878,796. The passage of Ganga, flowing wide and deep enrich the plains of Bihar before distributing in Bengal's deltoid zone. The state capital is Patna and the language is Hindi (Bihari dialect). Being the land where India’s first major empires rose and fell, and the ruins of the World’s earliest University slumbers in the void of time, Bihar is a rich state of variegated wealth of Indian Civilization, history and culture coupled with exquisite scenic beauties. wild life and minerals.

History of Bihar
In the Early Vedic Period (beginning about 1500 BC) several kingdoms existed in the Bihar plain. North of the Ganges was Videha, the land belonged to the father of Princess Sita, the wife of Lord Rama and the heroine of the Ramayana. Maharishi Valmiki, who wrote Ramayana, lived in ancient Bihar. During the same period, the capital of the ancient kingdom of Magadha was Rajagrha. A new kingdom later arose in southern Videha, with its capital at Vaisali. By about 700 BC, the kingdoms of Vaisali and Videha were replaced by a confederacy of the Vrjjis—said to be the first republican state known in history.
It was here that Prince Gautam attained enlightenment, became the Buddha- at the present Bodh Gaya- a town in central Bihar; and the great religion of Buddhism was born. It is here also that Lord Mahavira, the founder of another great religion, Jainism, was born and attained nirvana. It is here that the tenth and last Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh was born.

Bihar played an active role in the successive phases of Indian nationalism. Mahatma Gandhi, the national leader who advocated nonviolent resistance, first launched the satyagraha (“devotion to truth”) movement against the tyranny of the European indigo planters in the Champaran region of northern Bihar. Rajendra Prasad, who played a leading part in the freedom movement and was elected the first president of independent India, was born in the Saran district, northwest of Patna. Upon India's independence in 1947, Bihar became a constituent part (becoming a state in 1950), and in 1948 the small states of Saraikela and Kharsawan were merged with it. In 1956, when the Indian states were reorganized on a linguistic basis, a territory of some 3,140 square miles was transferred from Bihar to West Bengal.

Bihar Geography
Bihar is mainly a vast stretch of very fertile flat land. The transitional nature of the climatic zone is reflected in the cropping pattern, which shows a mixture of wet and dry crops. Rice is everywhere the dominant crop, but corn (maize), wheat, barley, gram, oilseeds, and pulses (legumes) are important supplementary crops. Sugarcane is grown in a fairly well-defined belt in the northwest. Jute, a crop of the hot, moist lowlands, is found only in the easternmost plain districts. There are three harvests in a year: bhadai, dominated by corn that is sown from May to June and gathered in Bhado (August to September); aghani, consisting primarily of rice sown in mid-June and gathered in the month of Aghan (December); and rabi, made up largely of wheat that ripens in the plains in spring. Fruits and vegetables are extensively grown. Muzaffarpur and Darbhanga are particularly noted for mangoes, bananas, and litchi fruits. Vegetables are important in the vicinity of large towns. The potato-growing area near Bihar Sharif, in Patna district, produces the best variety of seed potato in India. Chilies and tobacco are important cash crops on the banks of the Ganges.

Location of Bihar

Bihar : Air Network

Air: All major airlines operate flights directly to Patna. Indian Airlines operates daily flights to, Delhi Kolkata and Ranchi and Lucknow. The office is located next to Hotel Maurya , Patna. Sahara Air and Air Deccan also has a daily flight from Patna to other cities. Some international flights also operate from Gaya airport. The airport is 7km west of the city centre.

Bihar : RAIL NETWORK

Rail: The railway station is located in the centre of the Patna. It connects the city to all major cities and towns of India. There are direct trains daily for New Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi, Ranchi and northeastern states like Assam.

Bihar : Road Network

Bus: The bus stand has shifted to Mithapur at the outskirt of the Patna city. There are buses to almost all the places within the state and also for Ranchi, Siliguri etc.The fare varies according to the speed of the service. Auto rickshaw- Shared auto rickshaws runs within the city and in most parts of the state. They are cheap and shuttle between different points.

Bihar Culture
DANCE AND MUSIC
Chhau Dance Jat-Jatin Dance Bidesia Jhijhian Dance Kajari Dance Sohar-Khilouna Dance Jumari Dance Harvest Dance Vidyapati Songs

ARTS OF BIHAR
Madhubani Painting Patna Qalam : Patna Qalam is a very popular School of Painting of Bihar. This offshoot of the well-known Mughal Miniature School of Painting flourished in Bihar during early 18th to mid 20th century. With the decline of the Mughals, the Delhi artists migrated to Murshidabad. The style is famous for its soft colors and the use of hand made paper or mica sheets. Most of these paintings depict the life of the people of Bihar.

Bihar Cuisine
Staple Food Bhat Dal Roti Tarkari Achar Kichdi Chitba, prepared from rice Pitthow, prepared basically from rice Chewda of Katarni rice Tilba prepared from Katarni rice

Sweets
Anarasa Laktho Snacks Chiwra Dhuska Litti Makhana Sattu Belgrami Chena Murki Tilkut Mal Pua Motichoor ka Ladoo Parwal ki Mithai

Tourist Map of Bihar

Adventure in Bihar
• Wildlife Safari In Bihar one can watch tigers apart from that a variety of wild animals like deer's - Nilgai, Chital, Blackbuck, bears, leopards, the rhinos, elephants and different kinds of birds. • Trekking The trekking opportunity in Bihar is outstanding for the fact that, the terrain is very challenging like in Himalayan areas but with the advantage of not being snow-wrapped. • Jungle Safari Safari is an adventure to explore the unexplored trails and unspoilt natural horizons of desert or country side or forests. One such safari is Jungle safari. Jungle safari not just involves exploring the jungles of a particular region. • Gliding Flying like a bird, soaring through the sky with heedless enthusiasm- floating in the cool breeze, swooping high and low looking down from a new paradise the running life, endless stretch of green vegetation and other targets below!

Wildlife in Bihar
Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary 107 km from Ranchi. Palamau Tiger Reserve 180 km from Ranchi. Lawalong Wildlife Sanctuary 100 km from Gaya. The best time to visit is October-June. Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary 10 km from Jamshedpur. The best time to visit is October-June. Rajgir Wildlife Sanctuary 102 km from Patna. Topchanchi Wildlife Sanctuary 100 km from Bettiah. The best time to visit is October-June. Kabar Lake Bird Sanctuary 22 km from Begusarai.

Major Destinations
        PATNA BODHGAYA PAWAPURI VAISHALI RAJGIR SASARAM NALANDA SONEPUR

Patna
Kumrahar Golghar Har Mandir Takht Martyr's Memorial Pathar ki Masjid Sher Shah Suri Masjid Khuda Baksh Oriental Library Patna Museum Jalan Museum Sadaqat Ashram
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Bodhgaya
According to Buddhist traditions, circa 500 BC Prince Gautama Siddhartha, wandering as a monk, reached the sylvan banks of Falgu River, near the city of Gaya. There he sat in meditation under a bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa). After three days and three nights of meditation, Siddharta attained enlightenment and insight, and the answers that he had sought. He then spent seven weeks at seven different spots in the vicinity meditating and considering his experience. After seven weeks, he travelled to Sarnath, where he began teaching Buddhism. According to Buddhist traditions, circa 500 BC Prince Gautama Siddhartha, wandering as a monk, reached the sylvan banks of Falgu River, near the city of Gaya. There he sat in meditation under a bodhi tree (Ficus religiosa). After three days and three nights of meditation, Siddharta attained enlightenment and insight, and the answers that he had sought. He then spent seven weeks at seven different spots in the vicinity meditating and considering his experience. After seven weeks, he travelled to Sarnath, where he began teaching Buddhism.

Pawapuri
In Pawapuri, or Apapuri, 38 kilometres from Rajgir and 90 kilometres from Patna, all sins end for a devout Jain. Lord Mahavira, the final tirthankar and founder of Jainism, breathed his last at this place, and was cremated here around 500 B.C. It is said that the demand for his ashes was so great that a large amount of soil was removed from around the funeral pyre, creating the water tank. A marble temple, the Jalmandir, was later built in the middle of the tank, and is now a major pilgrimage spot for Jains. Another Jain temple called Samosharan is located here. How To Get There Patna, 90 kilometres away is the nearest airport. The nearest rail heads are Rajgir and Gaya. A taxi or bus can be taken from Patna, Rajgir, Gaya or other major cities of Bihar to visit Pawapuri. Patna is linked by air to Delhi, Calcutta, Mumbai, Ahmedabad and Lucknow. It also has rail connections with Delhi, Mumbai, Varanasi, Calcutta and many other major cities.

Vaishali
Set amidst lush paddy fields, 55 km north of Patna, lies the quiet hamlet steeped in legend, Vaishali. Named after King Visala, it was the capital of the Lichhavis, and is believed to be one of the earliest republics of the world, having an elected body of representatives and an efficient administration, as early as 6th century BC. Vaishali is significant to both Buddhists and Jains. Lord Buddha preached his first sermon, and announced his impending Nirvana, here. To commemmorate the importance of the site, Emperor Ashoka erected one of his famous pillars. Vaishali is also the birthplace of Lord Mahavira. What to see Buddha Stupa 1 Buddha Stupa 2 Coronation Tank Bawan Pokhar Temple Chaumukhi Mahadeva

Rajgir
Rajgir, known earlier as 'Rajagriha' or Girivaraja, nestles in the rocky hills, that witnessed the teachings of both Buddha and Mahavira. It lies 15 km south of Nalanda, and was the ancient capital of the Magadha kings. The Buddha frequented Rajagriha, seeking the solitude and tranquillity of the Jivkamaravana monastery, preaching and meditating at the Griddhakuta hill (Hill of vultures). It was at this hill, that he converted one of his celebrated followers, the Mauryan king Bimbisara, to Buddhism. After the Buddha reached 'parinirvana', his followers held the first Buddhist council at the Saptaparni cave. It was here, that His teachings were penned down for the very first time. What to see Gridhakuta Ajatashatru's Fort Venuvana Vihara

Nalanda
Though the Buddha visited Nalanda several times during his lifetime, this famous centre of Buddhist learning shot to fame much later, during 5th - 12th centuries. The Chinese scholar and traveller Hiuen Tsang stayed here in the 7th century, and has left an elaborate description of the excellence, and purity of monastic life practised here. About 2,000 teachers and 10,000 students from all over the Buddhist world, lived and studied in this international university. The Gupta kings patronised these monasteries, built in old Kushan architectural style, in a row of cells around a courtyard. Kings Ashoka and Harshavardhana were some of its most famous patrons, who built impressive temples and monasteries. Recent excavations have unearthed elaborate structures. An international centre for Buddhist Studies was established in 1951. The Nalanda Museum and the Nava Nalanda Mahavihar are definitely worth a visit.

Sasaram
Sasaram is also famous for being the birthplace of Pashtun Emperor Sher Shah Suri who ruled at Delhi for five years, his famous red sandstone mausoleum(122ft high)stands magnificently in the middle of an artificial lake,which is known as second taj mahal of india. And there is another tomb at Sherganj known by Sukha Rauza (It is in the middle of green field. It also has a Baulia (Small pond used by queens of the emperor for baths. The NH2 (Grand Trunk Road) cross from city.
The tomb of Sher Shah Suri in Sasaram, Bihar Sasaram is also famous for Maa Tara Chandi Temple and also for Kaimur mountain. Sasaram is also famous for Stone Chips and Stone mining industries

Sonepur
Sonepur is famous for its Cattle Fair which is largest in Asia. It begins every year in the month of November/ December on the full moon of kartik purnima.

Nearly all animals brought here for sale include all breeds of dogs to camels to buffaloes, donkeys, ponies, monkeys, chimps, Persian horses, sheep, rabbits, bears, cats, and guinea pigs. All varieties of birds, poultry and fishes are also available. The Sonepur mela specialises in the sale of every type of bird and animal, big or small.This is only place in the world that sells elephants in large numbers.

• The best time to visit Bihar is from October to March since the weather at this time is pleasant and cool.

Forthcoming Tourism events in Bihar
Name of Event Rajgir Mahotsav'2007 Venue : Rajgir From October 24, 2007 To Event's Main Features Showcases Cultural Heritage of India and the Bihar State The World's Largest Cattle Fair October 26, 2007

Harihar Kshetra Mela (Sonepur Fair)
2007 (Distt: Saran)

Nov 5
(Likely dates)

Nov 21

END OF PRESENTATION

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