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Make some connections What does the skeletal system and the circulatory system have in common? • Red marrow is the side of blood cell formation! •Blood provides the skeleton with what it needs to work. What about the muscular system and blood? • Delivering Oxygen to muscles. – Motivated to run faster, many athletes focus on ways to improve VO2 Max levels. VO2 Max is the maximum amount of oxygen that our bodies can uptake and is measured as the quantity of oxygen per body weight over a set period of time. VO2 Max is affected by our heart’s volume per stroke, the total volume of blood in our system, and the hemoglobin’s ability to carry the oxygen. – http://www.the-fitness-motivator.com/improve- vo2-max.html • OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (VO2) • VO2 is the amount (expressed as a volume or V) of oxygen used by the muscles during a specified interval (usually 1 minute) for cell metabolism and energy production. Maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be used per minute, representing any individual’s upper limit of aerobic (or oxygen dependent) metabolism. It can be expressed as an absolute amout (again as a volume per minute) or as a % of each individual's personal maximum (%VO2max). • VO2max. dpends on: • lung capacity (getting oxygen from the air we breath into the blood which is passing through the lungs • cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped through the lungs, and of course the muscles as well, per minute) • and the ability of the muscle cells to extract oxygen from the blood passing through them (the arterio-venous or A-V O2 difference) • http://www.cptips.com/exphys.htm What are some other important things the blood might carry for muscle contraction? Other things regarding the muscular and cardiovascular systems? • Think about fainting. Why do we faint? • Muscles contracting around veins push blood back to the heart. • Heat regulation – muscle contraction and blood flow diversions to the skin. Circulatory System I. Introduction A. Classification 1. Blood 2. Cardiovascular system = heart and blood vessels and 3. Lymphatic system = lymph organs, vessels and lymph II. Blood A. Overview 1. Blood is a type of connective tissue (cellular elements in a matrix) a. cell portion - formed elements b. matrix - plasma (liquid portion) 2. Helps maintain homeostasis: a. by transportation - of nutrients and wastes b. by protection - by white blood cells and antibodies c. by regulation - body temperature and pH Health indicators 3. Color - red hemoglobin pigment 4. Volume - about 8% of body weight, 4 - 6 liter average Word origins worksheet – due ……… 89 points – don’t turn in late! 5. Viscosity - resists flow. Is thicker and denser than water 6. pH - slightly basic (7.35 - 7.45) B. Plasma 1. Composition a. 92 % water b. 8 % solutes 1) proteins, gases, nutrients, electrolytes, and hormones 2. Plasma proteins a. functions 1) increase viscosity Fibrinogens play role in blood clotting. Gamma Globulins are antibodies in the immune system. Albumin increases the viscosity! 2) immune response - antibodies are proteins 3) blood clotting C. Formed elements 1. Erythrocytes - red blood cells (RBCs) a. 95 % of formed elements http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/ circulatorysystem/blood/menu/me nu.html b. 4.6 to 6.2 million RBCs per mm3 for males (females 4.2 - 5.4 mill) c. biconcave shape d. hemoglobin - 1/3 of volume of RBC to carry oxygen and traces of carbon dioxide. e. production - in the red bone marrow. 1) regulation of production by response to oxygen levels in kidney and liver. 2) release of hormone erythropoietin f. Life span = about 120 days 1) recycling of RBC's ( 10 billion per hour) Hemoglobin breaks down into iron (to bone marrow) and biliverdin and bilirubin ( to liver) See page 353 Wingerd Bile = bile Verde = green Erythros = red Ruber = red 2. Leukocytes - white blood cells a. about 5,000 to 10,000 per mm 3 b. Shape and appearance varies (basis of classification) Word origins – did you know? Ectomy – excision comes from… “ec” – out “tom-” – to cut “-y” – noun-forming suffix So ectomy literally means, “the process of cutting out”. Word origins – the –sis, -sia, -osis to –tic change. -sis = formation (the noun form) -ic = forming (or pertaining to formation) (adjectival form) c. Classification 1) Granulocytes (Named by how they react to acid/base stains.) a) Neutrophils b) Eosinophils c) Basophils 2) Agranulocytes a) Lymphocytes b) Monocytes d. Functions = protection from disease 1) Phagocytosis a) diapedesis - WBC moving inbetween cells outside the vessels. b) pus - living, dead, and broken cells and plasma Dia - “through” Pedan - “to leap” 2) Antibody production 3) Histamine production - histamine causes swelling to help move the WBCs to the area of injury or infection. 3. Platelets/Thrombocytes a. Formation - from precurser cell fragments b. Quantity - 150,000 - 360,000 per mm3 c. shape - disc shape, about a tenth the size of a RBC d. Function - initiate blood clot formation D. Hemostasis (stopping blood) - time- 2 to 8 minutes Note: text that is reduced to a non- visible font are things omitted from the 2009 circulatory system unit. 1. Step 1 - Blood vessel spasm a. smooth muscle contraction when a vessel is damaged. b. usuallysts less than 30 minutes ( serotonin lengthens the time) c. contraction closes broken ends of a vessel 2. Step 2 - Platelet plug a. platelets migrate to injury b. platelets increase in size c. platelets become sticky d. platelets form a clump with collegen fibers of the vessel wall. 3. Step 3 - Coagulation = blood clotting a. plasma protein conversions 1) ultimately fibrinogen to fibrin (thread-like proteins) Blood clotting problems 1. vitamin K deficiency 2. liver diseases 3. hemophilia ( lacking various clotting factors) 4. unwanted clots = thrombus 5. embolus = a free floating thrombus E. Blood Groups 1. Discovery = clumping of RBCs when non compatible blood mixed (1800s) 2. Cause of clumping a. RBC antigens b. plasma antibodies 3. ABO Blood typing Source: http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~johnson/labtools/Dbiochem/blda.jpg Type A Blood! Type B Blood see table 12-2 on page 360 Wingerd text 4. Rh factor a. named after the rhesus monkey following its discovery b. additional antigens on the RBC named Rh antigens c. Rh+ = antigens present d. Rh- = antigens not present e. antibodies not automatically present (anti- Rh) 1) anti-Rh formed after blood is sensitized 2) sensitization when Rh - blood is exposed to Rh+ blood. f. if anti-Rh comes in contact with Rh+ anitigens the blood aglutinates. First Child If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh + If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh - Second Child If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh + If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh - III. Cardiovascular system • Note: the heart anatomy lecture will be skipped. Please review these notes and your laboratory exercise of the heart dissection. III. Cardiovascular system A. Anatomy 1. Heart a. size - about 14 cm long by 9 cm wide b. coverings 1) pericardium = double-layer serous membrane a) parietal and visceral 2) endocardium - squamous epithelial inner lining of the heart c. chambers 1) atria - receive blood from the vessels a) pectinate muscles - ridges of muscle in anterior wall 2) auricles - small expandable attachments to the atria a) pectinate muscles (Latin pecten = comb) 3) interatrial septum - separates atria a) fossa ovalis = on posterior right atrial wall, was location of opening in the fetal heart (foramen ovale). Blood did not go to the lungs (nor the right ventricle). 4) ventricles - pump blood to body by contraction of myocardium. a) walls are thicker than atria, left side thickest b) trabeculae carneae - irregular folds of muscle c) papillary muscles - projections of trabeculae carneae which attach to valves. d) interventricular septum - parallels a groove in the outer surface of the heart (the interventricular sulcus). d. valves - allow only one direction of flow 1) atrioventricular (AV) valves a) tricuspid - 3 folded valve between right A and V b) biscuspid - mitral valve - 2 folded on left side c) made of dense connective tissue d) chordae tendineae = attach cusps to papillary muscles. e) heart murmur = condition where some blood returns to the atrium while the ventricle pumps. 2) Semilunar valves - between ventricle and the first major artery. a) Right ventricle and pulmonary trunk - pulmonary b) Left ventricle and aorta - aortic valve c) 3 half-moon shaped cusps d) heart murmurs possible but more rare e. Coronary vessels 1) right and left coronary arteries - at aortic base 2) Coronary sinus - main vein carrying blood from the heart and emptying into the right atrium. http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio202/cyberheart/cardio.htm 2. Blood Vessels a. Structure 1) Arteries and veins a) Arteries have thicker smooth muscle layer while veins have larger lumen and also have valves. 2) Arteriloe and venules a) Thinner walls and smaller lumen. 3) Capillaries a) Single layer of epithelium only b) lumen ave. diameter .01 mm c) form vast branching networks 3. Circulation pathways. a. Pulmonary Circulation - label your diagrams with the following: 1) Pulmonary trunk 2) Right and left pulmonary veins b. Systemic Circulation following arteries: 1) Arteries - label diagrams with the Common carotid Thoracic aorta Abdominal aorta Subclavian Common Iliac Femoral Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Don’t need to know Brachiocephalic Radial Deep Femoral Axillary Ulnar Popliteal Brachial Aortic arch Anterior tibial Dorsalis Pedis Inferior Mesenteric External Iliac 2) Veins - label diagrams with the following veins: Internal jugular Internal Iliac Anterior tibial Superior vena cava Great saphenous External jugular External iliac Brachiocephalic Inferior vena cava Popliteal Axillary Femoral Subclavian Common Iliac Peroneal 3) Hepatic-portal system (portal systems involve blood flow from a capillary bed to another before going to the heart) a) Hepatic veins of the liver - empty into inf. vena cava b) Hepatic portal vein - from some digestive organs to the liver. c) Hepatic artery B. Physiology 1. Heart a. Cardiac cycle - the contraction of both atria and then both ventricles. 1) systole = state of contraction (blood forced out) 2) diastole = state of relaxation (blood drawn in) 3) both ventricles at the relax or contract at the same time 4) likewise atria are simultaneous b. Heart sounds - results from valves shutting lub-dup _____ lub-dup _____ lub = AV valves dup = Semilunar valves c. Heart conduction - electrical stimulus of the heart for each cycle 1) Sinoatrial node = "pacemaker" - generates the electrical impulses to cause atrial contraction (located in superior part of right atrium) 2) Atrioventricular node = located in inferior right atrium - relays impulses to ventricles a) AV bundle - bundle of conducting fibers in interventricular septum. b) Perkinje fibers- terminal branches off the AV bundle at the apex of the heart. d. ECG - electrocardiogram 1) measures the electrical events of the cardiac cycle. 2) in healthy heart the patterns are consistent. e. Cardiac output 1) product of heart rate and stroke volume 2) average volume is 70 ml 3) average heart rate is 75/minute 4) average cardiac output is 5.25 Liters/min f. Regulation of the Cardiac cycle 1) Medulla oblongata sends messages to SA and AV nodes. 2) Arterial baroreceptors send messages about blood pressure to the Medulla. e.g. increased blood pressure stimulates decreased Cardiac Output. Decreased blood pressure from hemorrhage stimulates increased cardiac output. Disorders and Disease – some highlights. Anemia – reduction in numbers of RED blood cells or in amount of hemoglobin. Leukemia – cancer of the blood. Much more complex than low amounts of WBCs and is more about abnormal WBCs which cause red blood cell anemia. More disorders…. Leukopenia – lowered WBC count. Septicemia – bacterial infection in blood stream “blood poisoning” Shock – Any problem with blood circulation such that blood does not get to vital tissues and organs. Due to decreased blood volume, heart failure, or vessel constriction. Aneurysm – blood vessel or heart chamber wall stretches and forms a sac. This sac may tear causing a hemmorhage. Atherosclerosis – Accumulating plaques “harden” the arteries leading to restriction. Reduced flow and higher blood pressure.
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