Circulatory System 09-10.ppt - P by wuyunyi

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									    Make some connections
    What does the skeletal system and the
    circulatory system have in common?
• Red marrow is the side of blood cell
formation!
•Blood provides the skeleton with what it
needs to work.
What about the muscular system and blood?
• Delivering Oxygen to muscles.
  – Motivated to run faster, many athletes focus on
    ways to improve VO2 Max levels. VO2 Max is
    the maximum amount of oxygen that our bodies
    can uptake and is measured as the quantity of
    oxygen per body weight over a set period of
    time. VO2 Max is affected by our heart’s
    volume per stroke, the total volume of blood in
    our system, and the hemoglobin’s ability to
    carry the oxygen.

  – http://www.the-fitness-motivator.com/improve-
    vo2-max.html
• OXYGEN CONSUMPTION (VO2)
• VO2 is the amount (expressed as a volume or V) of oxygen used by
  the muscles during a specified interval (usually 1 minute) for cell
  metabolism and energy production. Maximum oxygen consumption
  (VO2max) is the maximum volume of oxygen that can be used per
  minute, representing any individual’s upper limit of aerobic (or oxygen
  dependent) metabolism. It can be expressed as an absolute amout
  (again as a volume per minute) or as a % of each individual's personal
  maximum (%VO2max).
• VO2max. dpends on:
• lung capacity (getting oxygen from the air we breath into the blood
  which is passing through the lungs
• cardiac output (the amount of blood pumped through the lungs, and of
  course the muscles as well, per minute)
• and the ability of the muscle cells to extract oxygen from the blood
  passing through them (the arterio-venous or A-V O2 difference)

• http://www.cptips.com/exphys.htm
 What are some other important
things the blood might carry for
      muscle contraction?
Other things regarding the muscular
   and cardiovascular systems?
• Think about fainting. Why do we faint?
• Muscles contracting around veins push
  blood back to the heart.
• Heat regulation – muscle contraction and
  blood flow diversions to the skin.
Circulatory System
  I. Introduction
    A. Classification
      1. Blood
  2. Cardiovascular
system = heart and blood
vessels and
  3. Lymphatic system =
lymph organs, vessels and
lymph
II. Blood
 A. Overview
    1. Blood is a type of
 connective tissue (cellular
 elements in a matrix)
      a. cell portion -
formed elements
      b. matrix - plasma
(liquid portion)
  2. Helps maintain
homeostasis:
      a. by transportation -
of nutrients and wastes
      b. by protection - by
white blood cells and
antibodies
     c. by regulation -
body temperature and pH
         Health indicators
  3. Color - red
hemoglobin pigment
  4. Volume - about 8% of
body weight, 4 - 6 liter
average
Word origins worksheet – due
          ………
    89 points – don’t turn in late!
   5. Viscosity - resists flow.
Is thicker and denser than
water

6. pH - slightly
basic (7.35 - 7.45)
B. Plasma
  1. Composition
     a. 92 % water
     b. 8 % solutes
          1) proteins, gases,
nutrients, electrolytes, and
hormones
  2. Plasma proteins
      a. functions
          1) increase
viscosity
                Fibrinogens play role in blood clotting.


Gamma Globulins are antibodies
in the immune system.




Albumin increases the viscosity!
         2) immune
response - antibodies are
proteins
         3) blood clotting
C. Formed elements
   1. Erythrocytes - red
 blood cells (RBCs)
      a. 95 % of formed
 elements
http://www.getbodysmart.com/ap/
circulatorysystem/blood/menu/me
             nu.html
      b. 4.6 to 6.2 million
RBCs per mm3 for males
(females 4.2 - 5.4 mill)
      c. biconcave shape
      d. hemoglobin - 1/3
of volume of RBC to carry
oxygen and traces of
   carbon dioxide.
       e. production - in the
red bone marrow.
       1) regulation of
production by response to
oxygen levels in kidney and
liver.
       2) release of hormone
erythropoietin
     f. Life span = about
120 days
           1) recycling of
RBC's ( 10 billion per hour)
   Hemoglobin breaks down
into iron (to bone marrow)
and biliverdin and bilirubin (
to liver)
See page 353 Wingerd

Bile = bile
Verde = green
Erythros = red
Ruber = red
  2. Leukocytes - white
blood cells
      a. about 5,000 to
10,000 per mm   3

      b. Shape and
appearance varies (basis of
classification)
  Word origins – did you know?
Ectomy – excision comes from…
“ec” – out
“tom-” – to cut
“-y” – noun-forming suffix

So ectomy literally means, “the process of
  cutting out”.
Word origins – the –sis, -sia, -osis
        to –tic change.
-sis = formation (the noun form)
-ic = forming (or pertaining to
  formation) (adjectival form)
  c. Classification
      1) Granulocytes
(Named by how they react
to acid/base stains.)
          a) Neutrophils
          b) Eosinophils
          c) Basophils
     2) Agranulocytes
         a) Lymphocytes
         b) Monocytes
  d. Functions =
protection from disease
          1) Phagocytosis
              a) diapedesis -
WBC moving inbetween
cells outside the vessels.
              b) pus - living,
dead, and broken cells and
plasma
Dia - “through”
Pedan - “to leap”
          2) Antibody
production
          3) Histamine
production - histamine
causes swelling to help
move the WBCs to the area
of injury or infection.
3. Platelets/Thrombocytes
      a. Formation - from
precurser cell fragments
      b. Quantity - 150,000
- 360,000 per mm3
     c. shape - disc shape,
about a tenth the size of a
RBC
     d. Function - initiate
blood clot formation
 D. Hemostasis (stopping
 blood) - time- 2 to 8 minutes


Note: text that is reduced to a non-
 visible font are things omitted from
 the 2009 circulatory system unit.
    1. Step 1 - Blood vessel spasm
                          a. smooth muscle contraction when a vessel is damaged.
b. usuallysts less than 30 minutes ( serotonin lengthens the time)
                                           c. contraction closes broken ends of a vessel
2. Step 2 - Platelet plug

             a.   platelets migrate to injury
             b.   platelets increase in size
             c.   platelets become sticky
             d.   platelets form a clump with collegen fibers of the vessel wall.
3. Step 3 - Coagulation = blood clotting

                     a. plasma protein conversions
                                         1) ultimately fibrinogen to fibrin (thread-like proteins)
 Blood clotting problems
1. vitamin K deficiency
2. liver diseases
3. hemophilia ( lacking various
 clotting factors)
4. unwanted clots = thrombus

5. embolus = a free floating
 thrombus
 E. Blood Groups
   1. Discovery = clumping
 of RBCs when non
 compatible blood mixed
(1800s)
   2. Cause of clumping
     a. RBC antigens
         b. plasma
antibodies
  3. ABO Blood typing
                           Source:
http://www.mc.maricopa.edu/~johnson/labtools/Dbiochem/blda.jpg




                     Type A
                      Blood!
Type
B
Blood
     see table 12-2 on page
360 Wingerd text
4. Rh factor
       a. named after the
 rhesus monkey following its
 discovery
      b. additional
antigens on the RBC
named Rh antigens
      c. Rh+ = antigens
present
     d. Rh- = antigens not
present
     e. antibodies not
automatically present (anti-
Rh)
       1) anti-Rh formed after
blood is sensitized
       2) sensitization when
Rh - blood is exposed to Rh+
blood.
  f. if anti-Rh comes in
contact with Rh+ anitigens
the blood aglutinates.
              First Child
If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh +




If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh -
             Second Child
If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh +



If Mom is Rh – and child is Rh -
   III. Cardiovascular system

• Note: the heart anatomy lecture will be
  skipped. Please review these notes and
  your laboratory exercise of the heart
  dissection.
III. Cardiovascular system
 A. Anatomy
    1. Heart
       a. size - about 14 cm
 long by 9 cm wide
       b. coverings
       1) pericardium =
double-layer serous
membrane
           a) parietal and
visceral
       2) endocardium -
squamous epithelial inner
lining of the heart
  c. chambers
      1) atria - receive
blood from the vessels
          a) pectinate
muscles - ridges of muscle
in anterior wall
          2) auricles - small
expandable attachments to
the atria
             a) pectinate
muscles (Latin pecten =
comb)
         3) interatrial
septum - separates atria
               a) fossa ovalis =
on posterior right atrial wall,
was location of opening in the
fetal heart (foramen ovale).
Blood did not go to the lungs
(nor the right ventricle).
4) ventricles - pump blood
 to body by contraction of
 myocardium.
       a) walls are thicker
 than atria, left side thickest
      b) trabeculae carneae
- irregular folds of muscle
      c) papillary muscles -
projections of trabeculae
carneae which attach to
valves.
d) interventricular septum -
 parallels a groove in the
 outer surface of the heart
 (the interventricular
 sulcus).
d. valves - allow only one
 direction of flow
           1) atrioventricular
 (AV) valves
          a) tricuspid - 3
folded valve between right
A and V
          b) biscuspid -
mitral valve - 2 folded on
left side
          c) made of dense
connective tissue
         d) chordae
tendineae = attach cusps to
papillary muscles.
         e) heart murmur
= condition where some
blood returns to the atrium
while the ventricle pumps.
      2) Semilunar valves -
between ventricle and the
first major artery.
          a) Right ventricle
and pulmonary trunk -
pulmonary
          b) Left ventricle
and aorta - aortic valve
        c) 3 half-moon
shaped cusps
        d) heart
murmurs possible but more
rare
  e. Coronary vessels
         1) right and left
coronary arteries - at aortic
base
         2) Coronary sinus
- main vein carrying blood
from the heart and
emptying into the right
atrium.
http://www.gwc.maricopa.edu/class/bio202/cyberheart/cardio.htm
2. Blood Vessels
       a. Structure
          1) Arteries and
 veins
         a) Arteries have
thicker smooth muscle
layer while veins have
larger lumen and also have
valves.
         2) Arteriloe and
venules
         a) Thinner walls
and smaller lumen.
      3) Capillaries
         a) Single layer of
epithelium only
         b) lumen ave.
diameter .01 mm
        c) form vast
branching networks
3. Circulation pathways.
       a. Pulmonary
 Circulation        - label your diagrams with the following:

          1) Pulmonary trunk
          2) Right and left pulmonary veins
             b. Systemic Circulation
following arteries:
                    1) Arteries -
                                label diagrams with the
Common carotid
Thoracic aorta
Abdominal aorta
Subclavian
Common Iliac
Femoral
Don’t need to know
                            Don’t need to know
Don’t need to know
Don’t need to know

Don’t need to know          Don’t need to know

Don’t need to know
  Don’t need to know   Don’t need to know

Don’t need to know




Don’t need to know
Brachiocephalic
Radial
Deep Femoral
Axillary
Ulnar
Popliteal
Brachial
Aortic arch
Anterior tibial
Dorsalis Pedis
Inferior Mesenteric
External Iliac
2) Veins - label diagrams with the following veins:
Internal jugular
Internal Iliac
Anterior tibial
Superior vena cava
Great saphenous
External jugular
External iliac
Brachiocephalic
Inferior vena cava
Popliteal
Axillary
Femoral
Subclavian
Common Iliac
Peroneal
3) Hepatic-portal system
 (portal systems involve
 blood flow from a capillary
 bed to another before going
 to the heart)
        a) Hepatic veins of the
liver - empty into inf. vena
cava
        b) Hepatic portal vein -
from some digestive organs to
the liver.
        c) Hepatic artery
B. Physiology
 1. Heart
     a. Cardiac cycle - the
contraction of both atria
and then both ventricles.
          1) systole = state
of contraction (blood
forced out)
          2) diastole = state
of relaxation (blood drawn
in)
         3) both ventricles
at the relax or contract at
the same time
         4) likewise atria
are simultaneous
        b. Heart sounds -
  results from valves shutting
lub-dup _____
lub-dup _____
lub = AV valves
dup = Semilunar valves
          c.   Heart conduction - electrical stimulus of the heart for each cycle

                   1) Sinoatrial node = "pacemaker" - generates the electrical impulses to cause atrial contraction (located in superior part of right
atrium)
2)   Atrioventricular node = located in inferior right atrium - relays impulses to ventricles
a) AV bundle - bundle of conducting fibers in interventricular septum.

b) Perkinje fibers- terminal branches off the AV bundle at the apex of the heart.
      d. ECG -
electrocardiogram
          1) measures the
electrical events of the
cardiac cycle.
          2) in healthy heart
the patterns are consistent.
e. Cardiac output
          1) product of
 heart rate and stroke
 volume
          2) average
 volume is 70 ml
          3) average heart
rate is 75/minute
          4) average
cardiac output is 5.25
Liters/min
f. Regulation of the Cardiac cycle

                  1) Medulla oblongata sends messages to SA and AV nodes.
2)   Arterial baroreceptors send messages about blood pressure   to the Medulla.
e.g. increased blood
 pressure stimulates
 decreased Cardiac Output.
 Decreased blood pressure
 from hemorrhage
 stimulates increased
 cardiac output.
Disorders and Disease –
 some highlights.
Anemia – reduction in numbers
of RED blood cells or in amount
of hemoglobin.
Leukemia – cancer of the
 blood. Much more
 complex than low amounts
 of WBCs and is more about
 abnormal WBCs which
 cause red blood cell
 anemia.
       More disorders….
Leukopenia – lowered WBC
 count.
Septicemia – bacterial infection
 in blood stream “blood
 poisoning”
Shock – Any problem with
 blood circulation such that
 blood does not get to vital
 tissues and organs. Due to
 decreased blood volume, heart
 failure, or vessel constriction.
Aneurysm – blood vessel or
 heart chamber wall stretches
 and forms a sac. This sac
 may tear causing a
 hemmorhage.
Atherosclerosis – Accumulating
 plaques “harden” the arteries
 leading to restriction. Reduced
 flow and higher blood pressure.

								
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