Let Me Tell You in My Own Words Paraphrasing by ryy82944

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									             I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing

       When you are researching for information to back up your own thesis in a
research paper, you will need to locate and keep track of material from other sources.
You will need to take notes which you will use later to help you write the paper. Three
standard ways of taking notes are quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing. (Of
course, you may also print out your source and highlight your ―notes‖ too) When you’re
taking notes, it’s a good idea to label each note as a quote, a paraphrase, or a summary.
       Furthermore, when you’re writing a research paper, you will need to work the
facts, statistics, examples, and expert opinions, observations and testimonies found in
your research into your own sentences—into your text. Basically there are three ways for
a writer to incorporate the ideas or work of others into his or her own text: quotations,
paraphrasing, and summarizing. This handout will mainly deal with using paraphrase.
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       First, however, you must be able to distinguish between the three methods.


QUOTATIONS must be identical to the original source. They must match the source
       word for word and punctuation mark for punctuation mark. Quotations help you
       zero in on and use a narrower segment of the source instead of discussing a
       larger piece of information or even the entire source. Both direct and indirect
       quotations must be attributed to the original author to avoid plagiarism. You have
       to give credit where credit is due! When taking notes, be sure to put quotations
       marks around any borrowed material that you write down verbatim, and it is very
       important to list the speaker, source, and page number(s).
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PARAPHRASING involves putting a passage from the source into your own words.
       Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a
       somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. A paraphrase
       must also be attributed to the original source. Even though it has been completely
       rewritten into your own words, you must still show that the ideas are not your
            I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing – Page Two


       own; they are borrowed from someone else. When taking notes, be sure to keep
       track of the source and page number(s) of all paraphrased material.
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SUMMARIZING involves putting the main ideas(s) into your own words—just the
       main points, not minor points and supporting details. Summaries are significantly
       shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. Again,
       it is necessary to attribute the summarized ideas to the original source, so keep
       track of the source and page number(s).
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                         PARAPHRASING STEPS

1. Read and reread the original source until you understand its full meaning—its
purpose and main ideas. If you don’t understand it, you can’t paraphrase it correctly.


2. Think about the ideas/info; especially think about how you can relate this
information to your own needs: will it become one of your main points or a supporting
detail such as an example, a reason, or a fact. Where might you use this in your paper?
What will its job be?


3. Cover up the original; write down the ideas in your own words. Check your
paraphrase with the original to make sure that your version has accurate information and
that you haven’t copied any of the writer’s own words.


4. Look back at the original to make sure that you have really changed the grammar,
vocabulary, and sentence structure. If not, change them now.


5. Use quotation marks to identify any unique word(s) or phrases that you just can’t
seem to rephrase. The quotation marks will identify such as a direct quote.
            I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing – Page Three


6. Record the essential information about the source so that you can credit it if you
decide to use this material in your paper.


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                                Now Get Steppin’
         Research Paper Topic: Infringing on Americans’ right to bear arms
Original:
       Named for James Brady, the White House press secretary who was shot and
wounded by John Hinckley Jr. during the attempted assassination of President Ronald
Reagan in March 1981, the Brady Bill establishes a national waiting period and
background check for the purchase of a handgun. (Bender, 1995: 137)


Step 1: Read it again, Sam.       Important ideas to include in my paraphrase:
       Brady Bill—named for James Brady, shot and wounded during an assassination
               attempt on President Reagan
       Government enacted legislation: (1) a national waiting period and
               (2) a background check-- before purchase of a handgun


Step 2: Maybe I can use this in my paragraph about how the government is stepping on
       our constitutional right to bear arms—as an example to discuss


Step 3: Phrases to avoid ―copying‖ from the original:
               Named for James Brady, the White House press secretary who was shot
       and wounded by John Hinckley Jr. during the attempted assassination of
       President Ronald Reagan in March 1981, the Brady Bill establishes a national
       waiting period and background check for the purchase of a handgun. (Bender,
       1995: 137
            I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing – Page Four
       MY PARAPHRASE:
               Bender explains that people who want to buy handguns in the U.S. now
       have a waiting period and a background check as a result of the Brady Bill.
       Congress enacted this bill after White House press secretary James Brady was
       shot and wounded when John Hinckley Jr. tried to assassinate President Reagan in
       March 1981 (137).


Step 4: Grammar, vocab, and sentence check—looks good—all are changed adequately
       to avoid plagiarism. But double check….


Step 5: Nothing is really unique to the original writer—common terms and phrases


Step 6: Bender, 1995 – page 137 – noted in a parenthetical documentation
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                               Now Step Livelier!
       Now you apply the steps to this information. (Use other paper.)


       Downlut believes the Brady Bill trespasses on the rights of law-abiding citizens,
and is therefore inconsistent with the Constitution, because it imposes a waiting period on
exercising the right to own guns. (Bender, 1995: 137)


Step 1: Do you understand the information? Can you list important ideas or points?
Step 2: How and where might you use this info in your paper?
Step 3: What do you need to avoid in your paraphrase? -- Is your paraphrase accurate?
Step 4: Have you really changed the wording and sentence structure. (No copying)
Step 5: Are there any words or phrases that are still too close to the original? Use ― ―.
Step 6: Have you given credit to the original source?

                        Now Step Livelier! --A Key
Step 1: Ideas to consider:

      1. This is Downlut’s idea

      2. The Brady Bill infringes on citizens’ rights

      3. The Brady Bill is contrary to the Constitution

      4. It restricts the citizens’ right to bear arms



Step 2: To support my major point in paragraph 2

Step 3: Phrases to avoid:

      Downlut believes the Brady Bill trespasses on the rights of law-
abiding citizens, and is therefore inconsistent with the Constitution,
because it imposes a waiting period on exercising the right to own guns.
(Bender, 1995: 137)


      My paraphrase:
      According to Downlut, Americans shouldn’t be denied their rights,
including, in this case, the right to bear arms. Because the Brady Bill makes
citizens wait to purchase a gun, it restricts one of their basic rights and goes
against the Constitution (Bender 137).


Step 4:
Step 5:
Step 6:
           I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing – Page Five
                             Some Examples To Compare


The original passage:
       Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a
result they overuse quotations in the final [research} paper. Probably only
about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter.
Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of
source materials while taking notes.
Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47


A legitimate paraphrase:
       In research papers student writers often quote excessively, failing to keep the
amount of quoted material down to an appropriate level. Since the problem usually
originates during note taking, it is essential for students to minimize the material they
record verbatim (Lester 46-47).


An acceptable summary:
       When they are preparing a research paper, students should take a just a few notes
in direct quotation from sources to help minimize the amount of quoted material in their
finished research paper (Lester 46-47).


A plagiarized version:
       Students often use too many direct quotations when they take notes, resulting in
too many of them in the final research paper. In fact, probably only about 10% of the
final copy should consist of directly quoted material. So it is important to limit the
amount of source material copied while taking notes.
                      In Step with Paraphrasing: Practice


         On a separate piece of paper, write paraphrases of TWO of the following
passages. Use the six step process for writing acceptable paraphrase (see back of this
page.)


1. ―The Antarctic is the vast source of cold on our planet, just as the sun is the source of
our heat, and it exerts tremendous control on our climate,‖ [Jacques] Cousteau told the
camera. ―The cold ocean water around Antarctica flows north to mix with warmer water
from the tropics, and its upwellings help to cool both the surface water and our
atmosphere. Yet the fragility of this regulating system is now threatened by human
activity.‖
From ―Captain Cousteau,‖ Audubon (May 1990):17


2. The twenties were the years when drinking was against the law, and the law was a bad
joke because everyone knew of a local bar where liquor could be had. They were the
years when organized crime ruled the cities, and the police seemed powerless to do
anything against it. Classical music was forgotten while jazz spread throughout the land,
and men like Bix Beiderbecke, Louis Armstrong, and Count Basie became the heroes of
the young. The flapper was born in the twenties, and with her bobbed hair and short
skirts, she symbolized, perhaps more than anyone or anything else, America’s break with
the past.
From Kathleen Yancey, English 102 Supplemental Guide (1989): 25


3. Of the more than 1000 bicycling deaths each year, three-fourths are caused by head
injuries. Half of those killed are school-age children. One study concluded that wearing
a bike helmet can reduce the risk of head injury by 85 percent. In an accident, a bike
helmet absorbs the shock and cushions the head.
From ―Bike Helmets: Unused Lifesavers,‖ Consumer Reports (May 1990): 348
                         In Step with Paraphrasing: Practice
                                           Page Two


                         SIX STEPS OF PARAPHRASING


Step 1: Read for understanding. Do you fully understand the information? Can you list
          the important, useful ideas or points?




Step 2: Think about the ideas/info. How and where might you use this information in
          your paper? What will its job be?




Step 3: Underline any words and phrases in the original that you must avoid copying.
          Cover the original and write down the ideas in your own words. Is your
          paraphrase accurate?




Step 4: Look hard at the original again. Have you really changed the wording and
          sentence structure well enough to avoid plagiarism?




Step 5: Use quotation marks to identify any words or phrases that are unique to the
          original writer or that are still too close to the original.




Step 6:     Write down essential information about the source. Have you given credit
          where credit is due?
                     I’ll Put It in My Own Words: Paraphrasing
                                    Quiz -- 20 Points


True or False


____1. It is a good idea to label each note you record as either a quotation, a paraphrase,
       or a plagiarism.
____2. When taking notes, be sure to put quotation marks around any borrowed
       material that you write down verbatim.
____3. Both direct and indirect quotations must be attributed to the original writer when
       you use them in your own text.
____4. Because paraphrased material has been completely rewritten into your own
       words, you do not have to give credit to the original source in your text.
____5. When you summarize material in your notes, be sure to include all facts and
       examples discussed by the writer.
____6. When you’re taking notes, think about how and where you might use each
       quotation, paraphrase, or summary in your paper.
____7. Sometimes you just can’t change a writer’s words enough for an acceptable
       paraphrase; in that case, use quotation marks to identify those words as a
       direct quote.
____8. Always when you’re taking notes, record the essential information about the
       source so that you can give it credit if you decide to use that material
       in your paper.


Questions 10 – 15:            The SIX Steps of Paraphrasing


       For each step, write at least one complete sentence explaining that step. Use the
back of this paper. Label each step: Step 1, step 2, step 3 and so on. (two points each
step: one for complete sentences and one for content)

								
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