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					                                 FICHE TECHNIQUE

                         SECOND -YEAR GRAMMAR
             (Volume Horaire Annuel : 90 heures. Coefficient 2)
                            (Presented by Dr. Ahmed MOUMENE)


   The second-year grammar of English as a foreign language will be covered in three main
terms and fifteen sessions distributed as follows:


TERM I
   TD 1
   General review of the components of the sentence (verb, subject,
       Object, direct and indirect object and the adverb)


   TD 2
   Tense review
   The present perfect progressive


   TD 3
   Determiners (definite and indefinite, demonstratives and possessives)


   TD 4
   Prepositions


   TD 5
   Finite and Non-finite verbs
   Imperative and Vocative
TERM II
  TD 1
  Quantifiers (some, any, all, lot, several, much …)


  TD 2
  The present subjunctive mood
  The past perfect progressive


  TD 3
  Modal auxiliaries


  TD 4
  Revision session about auxiliaries and tenses


  TD 5
  Cardinal and ordinal numbers
   General revision
       Technical card of tutorials (TD)
                          Module: Phonetics
                                 ( 2nd year )
                     Prepared by: Amina HADDAD
                  (Maître Assistant - ENS Constantine)


Tutorial              Topic              Activities Time            Remarks
           - The speech organs           Exercises          Two tutorials may be

  01       - English vowels and glides   1-2-3-4-5          sufficient to deal with this
                                                      3h
                                                            revision of the some of
  02       - The syllable
                                                            the first year’s notions
                                                            that are prerequisite to the
                                                            present course
  03       - Rhythm                       Ex 1-2     1h30

  04       - Stress                       Ex 1-5      3h    The teacher may find it
                                                            useful to check with
                                                            students some of the
                                                            many examples provided
                                                            in the lesson
  05       Prominence and accent                     1h30 The teacher may discuss
                                                            with the class the main
                                                            points of the lesson to
                                                            check their understanding.
                                                            If there are no difficulties,
                                                            he can move directly to
                                                            the next tutorial.
  06       - Intonation                   Ex 1-2     1h30
  07       - Functions of intonation      Ex 1-3     1h30
                                  1st Term


Remarks:
    The time for the discussion of the activities above is only approximate. It
    may extend to 20 hours depending on the needs of the group.
    The exercises above ought to involve oral performance either or after
    before the discussion of the keys in addition to the written consolidation.
                        FICHE TECHNIQUE

                      EXPRESSION ORALE
Introduction :

The following is a set of activities that can be used in class to help the learners
get rid of the psychological barriers that arise when they want to communicate
using English . These activities are intended to initiate the learners to share
their point of view with others without fear of criticism. In addition, they have
a cultural content which helps the learners to be aware of the interaction
patterns of face to face communication among the native speakers.
Each activity is presented to the learners in a clear way but teachers are free
to introduce them the way they think suits their learners best. In addition the
order of the activities is not compulsory. Teachers are free to start with any of
the activities
                                                                            Thanks.
                                                                   Mr. EK. Atamna
                                                        Intonation Fun

Aim : Intonation practice

Time : 10 minutes each.

Procedure : Use this activity to underline the importance of intonation
when your students, as they often do, talk like robots. Basically, get
them to say the words in quotation marks in the contexts that follow.
(Teachers may make the list longer).

1- 'Hello'
to a friend
to a friend you haven't seen for 3 years
to a neighbour that you don't like
to a 6 month old baby
to someone you have just found doing something they shouldn't
to someone on the phone when you're not sure if they are still on the
other end

2- 'Goodbye'
to a member of your family as they are going through the boarding gate
at the airport
to someone who has been annoying you
to a child starting his very first day at school

3- 'How are you?'
to someone you haven't seen for 20 years
to someone who has recently lost a member of the family
to someone who didn't sleep in their own bed last night

4- 'I never go to pubs'
by a person that totally disapproves of drinking alcohol to someone who
often goes to pubs
as a response to someone who has told you they sometimes go to pubs
said before: '…but I quite like discos.'
5- 'What have you done?'
to someone who claims to have fixed your television only that now it's
worse than before
to someone who is scolding you for not doing anything when you suspect
the same about them.
to someone who has just done something very bad and which has serious
consequences


Follow up: The whole class may start a discussion about the extra information
            which may be conveyed by the speakers’ intonation, stress, tone, and
            rhythm and a revision of some phonetic points may follow.
People Who ...



Aim: To complete sentences and also take advantage of the contributions in
     order to generate debate and interaction.

Time: 50 Minutes

Procedure: Teachers just hand out the following sheet with the heading

PEOPLE WHO ...

and tell the students they have to complete the sentences with realism-not just
adding on a grammatically correct ending.

PARK THEIR CARS ON THE FOOTPATH ...

WHO DON'T PAY TAX ...

WHO THROW LITTER ON THE GROUND ...

WHO GIVE MONEY TO CHARITIES ...

EAT CRISPS AT THE CINEMA ARE ...

WHO DRINK AND DRIVE ...

WHO TRAVEL A LOT ...

WHO SAVE LOTS OF MONEY ...

WATCH TV ALL DAY ...

GO TO THE OPERA ...

EAT FROG'S LEGS ...

CLIMB EVEREST ...

HUNT WHALES ...

EAT TOO MUCH ...
DRIVE TOO FAST ...

JUMP QUEUES ...

WHISTLE AT GIRLS ...

SMOKE IN PUBLIC SPACES ...

EARN A LOT OF MONEY ...

THROW THEIR OLD COOKER INTO A FIELD ...

SNORE ...

Etc .......... (Add more!)

NB: The idea is to get personal, individual endings.
Plot Structure Scenarios


Aim: Writing a story

Organisation: 2s or 3s

Time: 60 minutes.

Procedure: Photocopies of the present handout to be given to the learners in
class.

Handout:

Travel through the sections below and choose one or several elements from
each. Tell, write or verbally improvise a story that utilizes all the elements
chosen. For improvisational fun...put each element on a card and randomly select
character, setting, problem and solution.

Introduce Character(s)
Choose one or more characters.

           •   girl
           •   boy
           •   animal
           •   man
           •   woman
           •   idea
           •   spirit
           •   machine
           •   thing
           •   plant, etc.

Setting

Environment:

           •   farm
           •   village
           •   otherworldly
           •   city
           •   mountains
           •   forest
           •   arctic
           •   ocean
           •   desert

Time:

           •   olden
           •   modern
           •   future

Problem:

In trouble:

           •   Caught stealing
           •   Told a lie
           •   Saw or heard a secret
           •   Lost something
           •   Been captured
           •   Under a spell or curse
           •   Goes to forbidden place
           •   Finds forbidden object
           •   Has enemy
           •   Is undervalued
           •   Is unrecognized
           •   Causes jealousy
           •   Forgets something
           •   Broke something
           •   Does not like something
           •   Needs something
           •   Needs to escape or hide
           •   Needs to rescue someone
           •   Needs to rescue something
           •   Needs to prove worth

Inner Traits

Inner Traits That Cause Original Trouble:

           •   Is greedy
           •   Dangerously curious
           •   Doesn't follow advice
           •   Is lazy
           •   Is pessimistic
           •   Is blindly in love
           •   Is enraged & seeks revenge
           •   Is naive & trusting
           •   Is clumsy
           •   Is untrained
           •   Lacks confidence
           •   Is foolish

Inner Traits That Aid Solution:

           •   Is courageous
           •   Is resourceful
           •   Is imaginative
           •   Is kind
           •   Is generous
           •   Is clever
           •   Is loyal
           •   Is strong
           •   Is optimistic

Solution

           •   Has helper
                   o Magical
                   o Non-magical
           •   Is rescued
           •   Is transformed
           •   Discovers skill
           •   Finds magic
           •   Helps self:
                   o Exercises cleverness
                   o Uses inner traits
           •   Journey undertaken to obtain solution

Conclusion

           •   Returns to original setting new in some way:
                  o Is rewarded
                  o Is wiser
                  o Is transformed
             o   Comes with gift or treasure

End

      •   Lives well
      •   Passes luck or reward on to others
      •   Has positive impact on the world
      •   Offers wisdom
Proverbs: Wisdom Tales Without the Plot

Aim: Creative thinking

Time: 60 minutes

Organisation: 2s

Procedure: Have students choose a familiar proverb and develop a story that can
surround and carry that thought. Multicultural proverbs offer interesting
insights into the universality of wisdom. The following are some selected
proverbs from Wisdom Tales From Around the World by Heather Forest,
August House Publishers.

"This evocative form of folklore sometimes stands in the stead of a wisdom tale.
Thought-provoking proverbs can suggest a larger scenario. I invite the students
to look at proverbs creatively and imagine the story the proverb suggests." -


   •   One finger cannot lift a pebble. (Iranian)
   •   When elephants battle, the ants perish. (Cambodian
   •   If you chase two hares, you will not catch either. (Russian)
   •   The pot calls the kettle black. (United States)The sieve says to the
       needle: You have a hole in your tail. (Pakistan)
   •   It is better to turn back than to get lost. (Russian)
   •   Handsome words don't butter cabbage. (German)
   •   Talk does not cook rice. (Chinese)
   •   After the rain, there is no need for an umbrella. (Bulgaria)
   •   When the kettle boils over, it overflows its own sides. (Yiddish)
   •   You can't chew with somebody else's teeth. (Yiddish)
   •   Mistrust is an axe at the tree of love. (Russian)
   •   If a farmer becomes a King, he will still carry a basket on his
       back.(Hebrew)
   •   Not all that is black is charcoal. (Philippine)
   •   Little brooks make great rivers. (French)
   •   Every kind of animal can be tamed, but not the tongue of man. (Philippine)
   •   Do not look for apples under a poplar tree. (Slovakian)
   •   Every ass loves to hear himself bray. (English)
   •   He that goes barefoot must not plant thorns. (English)
   •   Better to be a free bird than a captive King. (Danish)
   •   A blow passes on, a spoken word lingers. (Yiddish)
   •   You can't spit on my back and make me think it's rain. (Yiddish)
•   A book gives knowledge, but it is life that gives understanding. (Hebrew)
•   A crooked branch has a crooked shadow. (Japanese)
•   Better bread with water than cake with trouble. (Russian)
•   The heaviest burden is an empty pocket. (Yiddish)
•   A candle lights others but consumes itself. (English)
•   It takes a village to raise a child. (Africa)
•   It is one thing to cackle and another to lay an egg. (Ecuador)
•   One dog barks because it sees something; a hundred dogs bark because
    they heard the first dog bark. (Chinese)
•   To hide one lie, a thousand lies are needed. (India)
•   A needle wrapped in a rag will be found in the end. (Vietnamese)
•   Do not seek to escape from the flood by clinging to a tiger's tail.(Chinese)
•   Step by step one ascends the staircase. (Turkey)
•   Little by little the cotton thread becomes a loincloth. (Africa-Dahomey)
•   Anger is a bad adviser. (Hungary)
•   Eggs must not quarrel with stones. (Jamaican)
•   Eyes can see everything except themselves. (Serbo-Croatian)
•   Haste makes waste. (English)
•   Every hill has its valley. (Italian)
Solving Problems.

Time: 15 minutes each problem.

Aim: Ice breaking, developing skills in decision making and reasoning. Language
      skills are used to reveal things about oneself, express agreement and
      disagreement, persuade, defend a point of view, analyze data, and make
      judgments. Different skills are enhanced such as listening, initiating,
      speaking, and reading.
Organization: Whole class.

Procedure: The teacher first presents the class with a problem. The students
          listen and take notes of the problem. A discussion then follows. Each
          student gives his/her opinion and suggests a solution he / she thinks
          is appropriate. The others try to evaluate and if possible make
          improvements.

Should I Marry Him?

I have been with my Fiancé for almost four years, We are going to get married
next year but, there are a couple of concerns I have: one is the fact that he
never talks about his feelings, he keeps everything inside of him. He sometimes
has trouble with expressing his excitement about things also. He never buys me
flowers or takes me out to dinner. He says that he doesn't know why, but he
never thinks of things like that.

I don't know if this is a side affect of depression or, maybe, he is sick of me. He
says that he loves me and that he wants to marry me. If this is true, what is his
problem?

For Friendship or Love?

I'm one of those guys who have "the quite normal" problem: I'm in love with a
girl, but I don't know what to do. I have already had a crush on some girls, never
with any success, but this is something different. My problem is actually that
I'm too cowardly to tell her anything. I know that she likes me and we're very,
very good friends. We've known each other for about three years, and our
friendship has constantly become better. We often get into quarrels, but we
always make up. Another problem is that we often talk about problems with each
other, and so I know she is having problems with her boyfriend (who I think is no
good for her). We meet almost every day. We always have very much fun
together, but is it really so difficult to love someone who has been a good chum
to you until now?

Please Help me and My Family

My family doesn’t get along. It's like we all hate each other. It's my mom, me,
my two brothers and a sister. I am the oldest. We all have certain problems: My
mom wants to quit smoking so she is really stressed out. I am really selfish (I
just can't help it). One of my brothers is too bossy. He thinks he is better than
the rest of us and that he is the only one who helps my mom. My other brother
is kind of abusive and depressed. He always starts fights and he's really spoiled
(my mom doesn't yell at him for doing things wrong and when she does, he laughs
at her); my sister (who's 7) makes messes and doesn't clean them up. I really
want to help because I don't like being upset all of the time and having everyone
hate everyone else. Even when we start to get along, someone will say something
to upset someone else. Please help me and my family.

Hates School

I hate school. I cannot stand my school so I skip it almost every day. Luckily, I
am a smart person and I'm in all of the advanced classes and don't have
reputation as a rebel. Only the people who really know me know about my strange
feelings. My parents don't care - they don't even mention it if I don't go to
school. What I end up doing is sleeping all day and then staying up all night
talking to my girlfriend. I get behind in my work and when I try to go back to
school I get a bunch of crap from my teachers and friends. I just get so
depressed when I think about it. I have given up on trying going back and now am
considering dropping out altogether, but I really don't want to do that because I
realize it would ruin my life. I don't want to go back at all but I also don't want
it to ruin my life. I am so confused and I have really tried to go back and just
can't take it. What should I do? Please help.
Telling Jokes

Aim: Teaching culture through language.

Time: 60 minutes

Procedure: The teacher writes as many jokes as there are students in class on
slips of paper. He then gives each student a slip of paper with a joke on it. The
students are given sometime (05 minutes) to memorise the joke. The teacher
starts telling the whole class jokes and the students follow. The aim here is not
to read but to be able to make the others laugh.

 Here is a selection of old English and British jokes but teachers may choose to
                                   use their own:

 A man walks into a doctor's office. He has a cucumber up his nose, a carrot in
his left ear and a banana in his right ear. "What's the matter with me?" he asks
          the doctor. The doctor replies, "You're not eating properly."




 A man asked for a meal in a restaurant. The waiter brought the food and put it
       on the table. After a moment, the man called the waiter and said:

                    "Waiter! Waiter! There's a fly in my soup!"

 "Please don't speak so loudly, sir," said the waiter, "or everyone will want one."

                ----------------------------------------------------------

                 What is the longest word in the English language?

       "Smiles". Because there is a mile between its first and last letters!

             -------------------------------------------------------------

 There are 5 birds in a tree. A hunter shoots 2 of them dead. How many birds
                                   are left?
                          2 birds. The other 3 fly away!

              ----------------------------------------------------------

 An English teacher wrote these words on the whiteboard: "woman without her
 man is nothing". The teacher then asked the students to punctuate the words
                                  correctly.

             The men wrote: "Woman, without her man, is nothing."

           The women wrote: "Woman! Without her, man is nothing."

                       ----------------------------------------

The woman was in bed with her lover and had just told him how stupid her Irish
 husband was when the door was thrown open and there stood her husband. He
glared at her lover and bellowed, "What are you doing?" "There," said the wife,
                       "didn't I tell you he was stupid?"

              ----------------------------------------------------------

 What's the definition of a pessimist? A pessimist is a well-informed optimist.

             -------------------------------------------------------------

Mark called in to see his friend Angus (a Scotman) to find he was stripping the
wallpaper from the walls. Rather obviously, he remarked "You're decorating, I
             see." to which Angus replied "No. I'm moving house."

             -------------------------------------------------------------

One day an Englishman, a Scotsman, and an Irishman walked into a pub together.
  They each bought a pint of Guinness. Just as they were about to enjoy their
creamy beverage, three flies landed in each of their pints, and were stuck in the
   thick head. The Englishman pushed his beer away in disgust. The Scotsman
    fished the fly out of his beer, and continued drinking it, as if nothing had
happened. The Irishman, too, picked the fly out of his drink, held it out over the
   beer, and started yelling, "SPIT IT OUT, SPIT IT OUT YOU BAS**RD!!!!"

                -------------------------------------------------------

     A man was injected with a deadly poison, but, it did not kill him. Why?
                               He was already dead!

                -------------------------------------------------------

   A Scottish farmer was in his field digging up his tatties (a Scots word for
        potatoes). An American farmer looked over the fence and said
            "In Texas we grow potatoes 5 times larger than that!"

    The Scotsman replied " Ah but we just grow them for our own mouths!"

             -------------------------------------------------------------

                1st Eskimo: Where did your mother come from?

                                2nd Eskimo: Alaska

                  1st Eskimo: Don't bother, I'll ask her myself!

             -------------------------------------------------------------

Charles was getting annoyed and shouted upstairs to his wife," Hurry up or we'll
                                     be late."
 "Oh, be quiet," replied his wife. "Haven't I been telling you for the last hour
                         that I'll be ready in a minute?"

             -------------------------------------------------------------

Five Englishmen boarded a train just behind five Scots, who, as a group had only
  purchased one ticket. Just before the conductor came through, all the Scots
  piled into the toilet stall at the back of the car. As the conductor passed the
 stall, he knocked and called"Tickets, please!" and one of the Scots slid a ticket
  under the door. It was punched, pushed back under the door, and when it was
      safe all the Scots came out and took their seats. The Englishmen were
   tremendously impressed by the Scots' ingenuity. On the trip back, the five
Englishmen decided to try this themselves and purchased only one ticket. They
noticed that, oddly, the Scots had not purchased any tickets this time. Anyway,
again, just before the conductor came through, the Scots piled into one of the
 toilet stalls, the Englishmen into the other. Then one of the Scots leaned out,
 knocked on the Englishmen's stall and called "Ticket, Please!" When the ticket
        slid out under the door, he picked it up and quickly closed the door

             -------------------------------------------------------------
                Why did the bald man paint rabbits on his head?

                 Because from a distance they looked like hares!

             -------------------------------------------------------------

 An English man and an Irish man are driving head on , at night, on a twisty, dark
 road. Both are driving too fast for the conditions and collide on a sharp bend in
 the road. To the amazement of both, they are unscathed, though their cars are
    both destroyed. In celebration of their luck, both agree to put aside their
dislike for the other from that moment on. At this point, the Englishman goes to
 the boot and fetches a 12 year old bottle of whisky. He hands the bottle to the
Irish man, whom exclaims,'' may the Irish and the English live together forever,
in peace, and harmony.'' The Irish man then tips the bottle and gulps half of the
bottle down. Still flabbergasted over the whole thing, he goes to hand the bottle
  to the Englishman, whom replies: '' no thanks, I'll just wait till the Police get
                                      here!''

             -------------------------------------------------------------

           Why do cows have horns? Because their horns don't work!

              ------------------------------------------------------------

There was an Scotsman, an Englishman and Claudia Schiffer sitting together in a
   carriage in a train going through Wales. Suddenly the train went through a
tunnel and as it was an old style train,there were no lights in the carriages and it
went completely dark. Then there was this kissing noise and the sound of a really
   loud slap. When the train came out of the tunnel, Claudia Schiffer and the
  Scotsman were sitting as if nothing had happened and the Englishman had his
                   hand against his face as he had been slapped.

   The Englishman was thinking: 'The Scottish fella must have kissed Claudia
             Schiffer and she missed him and slapped me instead.'

Claudia Schiffer was thinking: 'The English fella must have tried to kiss me and
             actually kissed the Scotsman and got slapped for it.'

  And the Scotsman was thinking: 'This is great. The next time the train goes
through a tunnel I'll make that kissing noise and slap that English b**tard again .

             -------------------------------------------------------------
              What kind of ears does an engine have? Engineers

            -------------------------------------------------------------

Jim was speeding along the road one fine day when the local policeman, a friend
of his, pulled him over. "What's wrong, Eric?" Jim asked. "Well didn't you know,
 Jim, that your wife fell out of the car about five miles back?" said Eric. "Ah,
          praise God!" he replied with relief. "I thought I'd gone deaf!"

            -------------------------------------------------------------

                      How do you count a herd of cattle?

                               With a cowculator.

            -------------------------------------------------------------

  A Scots boy came home from school and told his mother he had been given a
 part in the school play. "Wonderful," says the mother, "What part is it?" The
boy says "I play the part of the Scottish husband!" The mother scowls and says:
            "Go back and tell your teacher you want a speaking part."

            -------------------------------------------------------------

An Irishman had no idea his wife was having an affair, so he was mad with grief
  when coming home early one day he surprised her and her lover in the act.

 He grabbed a pistol and pointed it at his head, which made his wife burst out
                                   laughing.

        "What do you think you're laughing at," he cried, "you're next."

            -------------------------------------------------------------

An Englishman, roused by a Scot's scorn of his race, protested that he was born
an Englishman and hoped to die an Englishman. "Man," scoffed the Scot, "hiv ye
                    nae ambeetion (Have you no ambition)?"

            -------------------------------------------------------------

Mike and his pregnant wife live on a farm in a rural area in the west of England.
No running water, no electricity, etc. One night, Mikes' wife is begins to deliver
 the baby. The local doctor is there in attendance. "What d'ya want me to do,
Doctor?" "Hold the lantern, Mike. Here it comes!" the doctor delivers the child
                  and holds it up for the proud father to see.
"Mike, you're the proud father of a fine strapping boy." "Saints be praised, I..."
Before Mike can finish the Doctor interrupts, "Wait a minute. Hold the lantern,
 Mike." Soon the doctor delivers the next child. "You've a full set now, Mike. A
                           beautiful baby daughter."
                                "Thanks be to..."
 Again the Doctor cuts in, "Hold the lantern, Mike, Hold the lantern!" Soon the
                   Doctor delivers a third child. The doctor
                    holds up the baby for Mike's inspection.
   "Doctor," asks Mike, "Do you think it's the light that's attracting them?"

             -------------------------------------------------------------

At an auction in Manchester a wealthy American announced that he had lost his
 wallet containing £10,000 and would give a reward of £100 to the person who
                                   found it.
      From the back of the hall a Scottish voice shouted, "I'll give £150!"

             -------------------------------------------------------------

A customer ordered some coffee in a cafe. The waitress arrived with the coffee
  and placed it on the table. After a few moments, the customer called for the
waitress "Waitress," he said, "there's dirt in my coffee!". "That's not surprising,
         sir, replied the waitress, "It was ground only half an hour ago."

             -------------------------------------------------------------

    Two Americans are talking. One asks: "What's the difference between
                          capitalism and communism?"
"That's easy" says the other one. "In capitalism man exploits man! In communism
                          it is the other way around!"

             -------------------------------------------------------------

 An English man, Irishman and a Scottishman are sitting in a pub full of people.
 The Englishman says, "The pubs in England are the best. You can buy one drink
  and get a second one free". Everyone in the pub agreed and gave a big cheer.
The Scottishman says,"..yeah. That's quite good but in Scotland you can buy one
drink and get another 2 for free." Again, the crowd in the pub gave a big cheer.
  The Irish man says "Your two pubs are good, but they are not as good as the
ones in Ireland. In Ireland you can buy one pint, get another 3 for free and then
                     get taken into the backroom for a shag"
The English says "WOW! Did that happen to you?" and the Irishman replies "No,
                       but it happened to my sister."

                  ------------------------------------------------------
The Rejoinders & Replies Activity

Organisation: Whole Class

Time: 60 minutes

Aim: A typically native utterance is the one that comes off the top of the head,
      without much thought given to it. This type of expression could well come
      under the heading of "small talk", and a common example is "Great
      weather, isn't it".

       The idea of this activity is to get the students to reply as naturally as
        possible to a relatively empty comment or statement like above. Their
        reply will lack in formal correctness, because that is not the aim of the
        class. (Much native-native banter is said to be formally incorrect).
        Another very important factor to tell them is that their reply does not
        have to be a logical follow-up remark; they should say the first thing that
        comes into their heads. By saying the first thing that comes into their
        heads, they are actually behaving collaboratively with the initial speaker.
        To this end, the reply should also be quite short, although there are no
        hard and fast rules when people's personal interpretations are involved.

Procedure: Tell the students that they are with friends in, say, a cafeteria. It
           is a cloudy day outside and there is a lull in the conversation.
           Someone is reading a paper; another person could be day-dreaming,
           and another people-watching. Silence reigns, and then one of the
           group says something, which is not directed at anyone in particular,
           off the top of his head.

              The teacher can utter the following remarks with the tone he sees
              fit. He can direct the utterance at the students one by one, or at
              the group of students, but all the students must then reply.

   •    Hey! It's the end of the month!
   •    Ouch! I've cut my finger on this page.
   •    Someone looking at a newspaper: You know guys, this town we live in really
        IS a beautiful place.
   •    Someone looking at a holiday photo of himself: Jeez, I look awful here.
   •    Someone who is broke: I'd have another coffee, only I don't have any
        money left.
   •    Someone looking at a newspaper: That was a terrible accident in X, wasn't
        it?
  •   Someone looking towards the street: It must be raining, I see an umbrella
      up outside.
  •   Someone whispering: See that man over at the counter, he's just put a
      cake into his pocket.
  •   Someone looking at a newspaper: Actors are lucky people, aren't they?
  •   Someone looking at the TV in the cafeteria: People watch too much TV.
  •   Someone watching a mother/father with young children: They shouldn't
      allow kids in here.
  •   Etc...

Notes:

  •   The teacher can say the spontaneous comments and then get the students
      to reply spontaneously.
  •   You can change the setting to, say, a meeting, a hospital, a school ...
  •   I found that students tended to take too long, and ended up constructing
      wonderful, logical, grammatical sentences (not to mention polite). For
      example, to "Ouch! I've cut my finger", I got: "You must go to hospital"!
      and "Cover it" (?)
  •   Fair enough, you can also opt to just practise simple, correct sentences,
      but what the activity wants to encourage is realistic, fast replies, which
      are elliptical in many cases like in native-native exchanges.
  •   You could even allow the students to give their long-pondered sentences,
      and then remind them that they are with friends, that interlocutors in
      real-life don't normally wait 20 seconds for a reply to a spontaneous
      remark. I actually did this, and found that people understood the point,
      accepted it and enjoyed thinking up more CASUAL replies
  •   After a while, I was getting the following:
          o "It's the end of the month" Reply: "Yes, and we're getting older"
          o " ... this town we live in is beautiful ..." Reply: "yeah, a shop window"
              (nice from the outside)
  •   Get them to be creative and to get themselves into an appropriate frame
      of mind. They must forget they are in a classroom.
  •   As a bonus, you may even be able to digress (let them know this, tell them
      it is a time-out) and actually debate a reply (for example, the one about
      the town being a shop window. Why is it?).

In summary, encourage:

  •   Imagination.
  •   Ellipsis.
  •   Spontaneity.
•   Appropriate frame of mind. Get into context.
•   Accuracy is not that important.
Puzzles.

Aim: Teaching vocabulary related to food, argumentation and reasoning
Tme: 30 minutes
Procedure: There are eleven related facts listed below for this logic puzzle.
            After reading them, help the waitress who is serving the table to
            figure out the answer to the following question:
           Who ordered the cola, cheeseburger with pickles, and French
           fries?
              The teacher first reads the puzzle and explains any difficult
               vocabulary items. He then sets the class to work, walks around and
               helps.
The Puzzle:
1. Six friends went to a hamburger drive-in and decided to eat inside the
    restaurant.
2.The friends sat in a booth, three people on each side of the table.
3.They ordered six different meals.
4. Jack sat next to Jill.
5. Jill sat opposite the boy who sat next to Betty.
6.Archie ordered cola, a plain hamburger and French fries and sat across from
    Jane.
7.The boy who had the vanilla milk shake and two hot dogs sat across from
    Betty.
8.The girl who ordered the diet cola, fish sandwich, and onion rings sat between
    Archie and Reggie.
9. Reggie didn’t order a diet cola, grilled chicken sandwich, and French fries or a
    cola and taco salad.
10.The girl who ordered the diet cola, grilled chicken sandwich, and French fries
    sat across from Archie.
11.The girl who sat next to Jack had a cola and taco salad.
Who had the cola, cheeseburger with pickles, and French fries?

Follow up: Students may present their own puzzles
What's the Meaning?

Aim: Building students’ vocabulary

Organisaton: whole class

Time: 50 minutes

Procedure: You, the teacher, may need a dictionary do this activity.

   •   Choose a word which is long, difficult, and unknown to the students, a
       good word to begin with is: warmonger.
   •   Without using a dictionary, your students write down a definition. (They
       can work out the definition in groups of three). Allow them a few minutes
       to think and write.
   •   Collect the definitions and read them aloud.
   •   When you have finished reading, they will have to vote which of those is
       the correct one. (It doesn't matter if none of them is the correct one)
   •   After they have voted and none of the groups guessed the meaning you
       read the correct one aloud.

The idea of this game is to let students be creative and practice writing skills.

Then you can have the students to discuss their writings.
Advertisement.

              Why do we buy the things we do? Are we influenced by the
              product’s packaging or advertising? What is the impact of
              advertising on our lives and consumer habits?

Aim: Discussion: Recognize techniques used by advertisers to sell toys and snack
      foods. Increase awareness of consumer habits and media influences.
      Differentiate between information and selling.
Materials: Packaging for snack food and/or toy products
             Paper, scissors, glue, coloured pens or crayons
Time: 60 minutes
Procedure: Have students examine the product packages. And ask them to
             analyze           the messages on the package and techniques used to
             attract their attention.
Discuss the following:
-What item(s) are pictured on the package?

-What item(s) are actually in the package?

-What item(s) (if any) are pictured on the package that aren’t in the box?

-Are there extra food items? Extra toys?
-How does the size of the package compare to the size of what is inside

the package? What message does the size of the package send?
-Who is this item targeted to? What evidence from the package lets you

know who the target audience is (e.g. colour, font, cartoon characters or
gender of people shown using the product)?
-What words and images are used to attract your attention?

-Do you think you would like or dislike this product? Why or why not?

-If it is a food product, do you think it’s nutritious? Why or why not? How

would you find out for sure whether it is or isn’t nutritious?
After the class discussion, have students engage in one of the two following
activities.
Truth in package design: If students have discovered a product with
misleading information on it, have them redesign the package with complete and
truthful information about the product. Compare and contrast the original
package with the students’ designs.
Target Audience: After determining the target audience for a particular
product, have students redesign the product packaging aimed at a different
target audience (i.e. kids versus adults). Have them compare and contrast the
original box and new design. What elements did the students keep? What
elements are different?

				
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