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Pulp and Paper Industry


									      Basic Fire & Life Safety
 for Radiation Safety Professionals

Robert Emery, DrPH, CHP, CIH, CSP, RBP, CHMM, CPP, ARM
Vice President for Safety, Health, Environment, Risk Management & Quality Assurance
The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston
Associate Professor of Occupational Health
The University of Texas School of Public Health
      Why do we need fire and
         life safety codes?
According to the NFPA, in 2007 there

   530,500 structure fires – one every minute
   3,000 civilian deaths – one every 2.5 hours
   15,350 civilian injuries – one every 30 minutes
   $10,600,000,000 in property damage
   A fire department responded to a fire every 20

                                                      Slide 2

   Introduce the codes that drive fire and life
    safety compliance

   Overview of fire detection and suppression

   Provide tools to conduct a basic fire and
    life safety assessment
                                                Slide 3
Fire Regulations and Codes
   Safety and Health Regulations
    – OSHA (29 CFR 1910 & 1926)

   Fire and Life Safety Codes
    – International Building Code (IBC)
    – National Fire Protection Association (NFPA)
    – Municipal Requirements

                                                Slide 4
    Additional Requirements
 All codes are minimum requirements
 Insurance company requirements
 Company policies
 The Joint Commission
 State and/or City requirements

                                       Slide 5
How are These Codes Enforced
         Codes are adopted by reference by
         Plans for remodeling or a new
          construction must be approved by
          the authority having jurisdiction
          (AHJ) prior to starting work.
          – State Fire Marshal’s Office
          – Local Fire Department or City Code
          – Designated Local AHJ

         Take Home Message – Know what
          code(s) apply to your operation        Slide 6
        Which do I follow?
   Remodeling or new construction plans
    must be approved by authority having
    jurisdiction (AHJ) prior to starting work

    – State Fire Marshal’s Office
    – Local Fire Department or City Code
    – Designated Local AHJ

                                                Slide 7
Features of Building Fire and Life Safety

    Alarms                  Smoke Control
    Sprinklers              Rated Stairwells
    Rated Corridors         Fireproofing
    Exit Access
    Number of Required
                             Electrical Safety
     Exits                   Construction
    Egress Widths
    Occupant Loads
                             Fire and Smoke
    Elevator Recall
                             Emergency Power
    Fire Rated Doors &
     Frames                  Roof Assemblies
                                                  Slide 8
              Fire Alarm Systems

   Play an Essential Role in
    Protecting Property and
    Lives From Fire.
   Protection Goals Governs
    System Selection
    – Building Occupant Safety
    – Satisfy Building Codes or AHJ
    – Property Protection
    – First Responder Safety
    – Environmental Protection
                                      Slide 9
    – Combination
       Fire Alarm Systems
   IBC references NFPA 72 for installation
    and maintenance

   NFPA 72 – National Fire Alarm Code
   Basic Components
    – Panel
    – Detection
    – Manual Alarm
    – Notification
    – Off-Premises Connection for Supervision   Slide 10
          Fire Alarm Systems
   Fire Alarm System Will Provide
    Three Types of Signals
    – Alarm
    – Trouble – indicates a fault in a
      monitoring circuit or component of the
      fire alarm system
        Bad smoke detector
        Ground fault                              Trouble
    – Supervisory – indicates a problem with
      other fire protection systems being
      monitored by the fire alarm system
        Water valve to sprinkler system closed
        Clean agent system problem                     Slide 11
Off-Premises Connection for

                          Slide 12
    Common Fire Detection
   Smoke Detector
       Ionization
       Photoelectric

   Heat Detectors
       Fixed Temperature
       Rate-of-Rise

                            Slide 13
       Manual Pull Stations
   Manual pull devices will be
    located on the wall

   Activated by pulling on a

   Sends signal to building’s
    fire alarm system which
    places the building into
    alarm                         Slide 14
     Notification Appliances
   Audible alarms (How loud is loud

    – Public – SPL must be 5 dB above any
      ambient noise that lasts 60 sec. or
      more, or 15 dB above the 24-hr
      average, whichever is greater

    – Sleeping quarters – Minimum of 75
                                            Slide 15
     Notification Appliances
   Voice Communication

    – Better to have a larger number of
      lower SPL units vs. a few very
      loud units

    – Intelligibility can be a problem

                                          Slide 16
     Notification Appliances
   Visual alarms
    – Primarily intended to augment
      audible alarms

   Common Locations of Visual
    – Corridors
    – Meeting rooms
    – Restrooms
    – Enclosed elevator lobbies       Slide 17
Fire Alarm System Interfaces
   Heating Ventilation and Air
    – Duct detectors
    – AHU shut-down
 Sprinkler water flow alarms
 Magnetic lock release mechanisms
 Door unlocking devices
 Elevator recall
 Stairwell pressurization           Slide 18
          System Reliability
   Based on Four Elements
    – Design                               Design      Equipment

    – Equipment
        Underwriters Laboratories
                                         Maintenance   Installation
        Factory Mutual Global
    – Installation
    – Maintenance
        Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance are crucial
        Unfortunately, some problems may be identified
         after the previous three have been completed

                                                             Slide 19
         Fire Suppression

   Water Based Suppression

   Clean Agent Systems

   Fire Extinguishers
                              Slide 20
  Water Based Suppression

   – System contains water under pressure at
     all times
   – Series of closed sprinkler heads
   – Heat activates sprinkler head
   – Water is discharged immediately

* Not recommended if system could be exposed to temperatures
  below 40ºF
                                                           Slide 21
            Wet-Pipe System
1.   Main valve
2.   Alarm check valve
3.   Fire department check
4.   Fire department
5.   Water motor alarm
6.   Sprinkler head
7.   Inspector’s test valve

                              Slide 22
              Wet-Pipe System
         Sprinkler head

                                                          Water is
                                                          deflected in
                                                          a spray

                          As temperature rises
                          the bulb will shatter

 Only  the sprinkler heads heated by the fire activate
 Fire sprinklers spray 18 gallons of water per minute
                                                             Slide 23
Sprinkler Color Codes and Ratings
   Color                        Temperature Rating

    Red          Ordinary            135-170

Yellow/Green   Intermediate          175-225

   Blue            High              250-300

   Purple       Extra High           325-375

   Black        Ultra High           500-575

                                                Slide 24
Field Method for Temporary
Stoppage of Sprinkler Head

                             Slide 25
           Dry-Pipe System
 System   contains air under pressure
   – Compressor on system keeps pressure up
 Sprinkler heads hold the pressure
 A dry-pipe valve holds back the water supply
 Valve opens when pressure falls below a
  predetermined level
 Sprinkler head activation – pressure drop – valve
  opens – water sent to all heads – water discharged
  from activated sprinkler head(s)

* Recommended for areas that could experience freezing
                                                         Slide 26
How do Dry-Pipe Systems Work?
                          1.   Heat Activated

               2.   Pressure Drop

                          3.   Valve Opens

4.   Water sent to all sprinkler heads

        5.   Water Discharges from activated headSlide 27
            Dry-Pipe System
1. Supply check valve
2. Main valve
3. Dry pipe valve
4. Fire department
   check valve
5. Fire department
6. Water motor alarm
7. Sprinkler head
8. Inspector’s test
   valve                      Slide 28
          Pre-action System
 System   contains air under pressure
   – Compressor on system keeps pressure up
 Water   held back by pre-action valve
 System equipped with supplemental detection
 Operation of detection system allows pre-action
  valve to open and water fills the system
 Water not discharged until fire has generated
  sufficient heat to activate a sprinkler head

* Typically found in computer rooms and museums     Slide 29
How do Pre-Action Systems Work?

                         1.   Smoke Detected

                         3.   Valve Opens

4.   Water sent to all sprinkler heads

        5.   Water Discharges from activated head 30
              Pre-action System
1.    Supply check valve
2.    Main valve
3.    Water control or deluge
4.    Fire department check
5.    Fire department
6.    Water motor alarm
7.    Sprinkler head (closed)
8.    Detector
9.    Electrical bell
10.   Manual release station
11.   Control panel
                                  Slide 31
12.   Inspector’s test valve
          Fire Pumps

Firepumps are utilized when the
 hydraulic demand exceeds public
 supply capacity
  – Pump and motor
  – Controllers
  – Jockey pump
  – Water tank
                                   Slide 32
           Water Supply
Standpipe    System
  – Class I – 2 ½ inch hose connection
    intended for fire department use
  – Class II – 1 ½ inch hose
    connections intended for first-aid
    fire fighting
  – Class III – Provided with both 2 ½
    inch and 1 ½ inch hose

Fire   Department Connection
                                         Slide 33
  Suppression Without Water
Halon      – NFPA 12A
    – Being phased out per 1987
      Montreal Protocol

Carbon       Dioxide – NFPA 12
Clean     Agent – NFPA 2001
    – Inert gas formulation
* These systems are often not recognized as
  allowable substitute for water suppression

                                               Slide 34
        Fire Extinguishers
NFPA  10 standard for portable fire
Select appropriate extinguisher for area
  – Class A, B, C, D, and K
Identify hazard      occupancy
  – Light Hazard
      Offices, schools, assembly halls
  – Ordinary Hazard
      Mercantile storage, parking garages
  – High Hazard
                                             Slide 35
      Woodworking area, warehouses
Conducting a Basic Assessment
  Determine       Your Building Occupancy
  Type First

  IBC   Occupancy Classifications
   –   Assembly: Group A-1, A-2, A-3, A-4 and A-5
   –   Business: Group B
   –   Educational: Group E
   –   Factory and Industrial: Groups F-1 and F-2
   –   High Hazard: Groups H-1, H-2, H-3, H-4, and H-5
   –   Institutional: Group I-1, I-2, I-3 and I-4
   –   Mercantile: Group M
   –   Residential: Groups R-1, R-2, R-3 and R-4
   –   Storage: Groups S-1 and S-2
                                                         Slide 36
   –   Utility and Miscellaneous: Group U
Conducting a Basic Assessment
 AdditionalDetailed Requirements
  Based on Use and Occupancy
   –   Covered Mall Buildings
   –   High-Rise Buildings
   –   Atriums
   –   Underground Buildings
   –   Motor-Vehicle-Related Occupancies
   –   Motion Picture Projection Rooms
   –   Stages and Platforms
   –   Special Amusement Buildings
   –   Aircraft-Related Occupancies
   –   Combustible Storage
   –   Hazardous Materials
   –   Drying Rooms
                                           Slide 37
    Know Your Building
Once  occupancy is determined codes
will give you guidance
 – What type of construction is required?
 – Is a sprinkler system required?
 – Is a fire alarm system required?
 – Exiting and egress?
 – Emergency power required?
 – Is a smoke control system required?
 – Is a standpipe system required?
                                            Slide 38
Codes  drive facility fire and life safety
Know what codes apply to your
All codes are MINIMUM requirements
Who is your AHJ?
  – Many things can be left up to this individual’s
Maintainsystems in accordance with
 code requirements and manufacturer’s
 recommendations                      Slide 39
   International Building Code, International
    Code Council
   National Fire Protection Association
   The Joint Commission

                                            Slide 40

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