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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 Trigon Based Authentication Service Creation with Globus Middleware Ruckmani V 1 Anitha Kumari K 2 Sudha Sadasivam G 3 Dhaarini M P4 Senior Lecturer , MCA, Lecturer, IT, , Professor ,CSE, Lecturer ,IT, Ramakrishna Engineering College, PSG College of Technology, PSG College of Technology, PSG College of Technology Coimbatore, India Coimbatore,India Coimbatore,India Coimbatore,India email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org Abstract— A Grid is built from multi-purpose protocols and virtual organizations boundaries. A VO is a dynamic group interfaces that address fundamental issues as authentication, of individuals, groups, or organizations that have common authorization, resource discovery, and resource access. rules for resource sharing . Confidentiality of information Security is of utmost importance in grid computing in a VO Should also be ensured . The necessity for applications as grid resources are heterogeneous, dynamic, and secure communication between grid entities has motivated multi-domain. Authentication remains as the significant the development of the Grid Security Infrastructure (GSI). security challenge in grid environment. The proposed GSI provides integrity, protection, confidentiality and approach uses a dual authentication protocol in order to authentication for sensitive information transferred over the improve the authentication service in grid environment. The network in addition to the facilities to securely traverse the protocol utilizes the fundamental concepts of trigon and based distinct organizations that are part of collaboration. on the parameters of the trigon the user authentication will be performed. In the proposed protocol, the password is Authentication is done by exchanging proxy credentials and interpreted and alienated into more than one unit and these authorization by mapping to a grid map file. Grid units are stored in two different servers, namely, technologies have adopted the use of X.509 identity Authentication Server and Backend Server. Only when the certificates to support user authentication. SOAP protocol combined authentication scheme from both the servers  is used by the emerging OGSA. This necessitates for authenticates the user, the privilege of accessing the requested support message layer security using XML digital signature resources is obtained by the user. The main advantage of standard and the XML encryption standard . Globus utilizing the dual authentication protocol in grid computing is Toolkit  provides security services for authentication, that an adversary user cannot attain the access privilege by authorization, management of user credentials and user compromising a single consolidated server because of the fact information. Laccetti and G. Schmid  have introduced a that the split password is stored in different servers. Grid unified approach for access control of grid resources. PKI service is stateful and transient web service, which can be (Public Key Infrastructure) and PMI (Privilege Management invoked by clients, and is considered to be the mainstream of Infrastructure) infrastructures were utilized at the grid layer future internet. The creation of Web Services standards is an after authentication and authorization procedures. industry-led initiative, with some of the emerging standards in Czajkowski  have explained about agreement based grid various states of progress through the World Wide Web management. Nagaratnam  have introduced security Consortium (W3C). To achieve reuse of behaviors of this architecture for open grid services. H.-L. Truong define a authentication concept, operations are often grouped together to form a trigon based authentication service. framework for monitoring and analyzing qos metrics of grid Services. The proposed work aims at authenticating the users Keywords— Trigonbasedauthentication, web services, by using trigon concept and to host this operation as a web globus. service. A. Globus Middleware I. INTRODUCTION Globus  provides a software infrastructure that Grid computing has emerged as a significant new field, enables applications to handle distributed heterogeneous distinguished from conventional distributed computing by its computing resources as a single virtual machine. Globus is concentration on large-scale resource sharing, innovative constructed as a layered architecture in which high-level applications, and, in some cases, high-performance global services are built upon essential low-level core local orientation . Grid computing is concentrating on large-scale services. Middleware is generally considered to be the layer resource sharing and collaboration over enterprises and 179 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 of software sandwiched between the operating system and Web Services have certain advantages over other applications, providing a variety of services required by an technologies: application to function correctly. Recently, middleware has Web Services are platform-independent and language- re-emerged as a means of integrating software applications running in distributed heterogeneous environments. In a independent, since they use standard XML languages. This means that my client program can be programmed in C++ Grid, the middleware is used to hide the heterogeneous nature and provide users and applications with a and running under Windows, while the Web Service is programmed in Java and running under Linux. homogeneous and seamless environment by providing a set of standardized interfaces to a variety of services. Service Processes: This part of the architecture generally involves more than one Web service. For example, discovery belongs in this part of the architecture, since it allows us to locate one particular service from among a collection of Web B. Web Services services. Service Description: One of the most interesting features The term Web Services describes an important emerging of Web Services is that they are self-describing. This means distributed computing paradigm that differs from other that, once you've located a Web Service, you can ask it to approaches such as DCE, CORBA, and Java RMI in its focus 'describe itself' and tell you what operations it supports and on simple, Internet-based standards to address heterogeneous how to invoke it. This is handled by the Web Services distributed computing. Web services define a technique for Description Language (WSDL). describing software components to be accessed, methods for accessing these components, and discovery methods that Service Invocation: Invoking a Web Service (and, in enable the identification of relevant service providers. Once a general, any kind of distributed service such as a CORBA web service is created, it is advertised in a registry called object or an Enterprise Java Bean) involves passing UDDI (Universal Description, Discovery and Integration) messages between the client and the server. SOAP (Simple , where it can be searched. The UDDI will provide the Object Access Protocol) specifies how we should format location to the service provider’s WSDL (Web Services requests to the server, and how the server should format its Description Language)  file that describes the methods responses. In theory, we could use other service invocation that can be invoked and the parameters required. Messages languages (such as XML-RPC, or even some ad hoc XML are exchanged through the protocol SOAP (Simple Object language). However, SOAP is by far the most popular choice Access Protocol) . for Web Services. Transport: Finally, all these messages must be transmitted somehow between the server and the client. The The established standards include: protocol of choice for this part of the architecture is HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), the same protocol used to access conventional web pages on the Internet. Again, in SOAP (XML Protocol). SOAP provides an envelope theory we could be able to use other protocols, but HTTP is which encapsulates XML data for transfer through the Web currently the most used one. infrastructure (e.g. over HTTP, through caches and proxies), with a convention for Remote Procedure Calls (RPCs) and a C. Web Service Definition Language(WSDL) serialization mechanism based on XML Schema data types. Web Services programmers usually only have to SOAP is being developed by W3C in cooperation with the concentrate on writing code in their favorite programming Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). language and, in some cases, in writing WSDL. SOAP code, on the other hand, is always generated and interpreted Web Services Description Language (WSDL). Describes automatically for us. Once we've reached a point where our a service in XML, using an XML Schema; there is also a client application needs to invoke a Web Service, we mapping to the Resource Description Framework (RDF). In delegate that task on a piece of software called a stub. Using some ways WSDL is similar to an interface definition stubs simplifies our applications considerably. We don't have language IDL. WSDL is available as a W3C note [WSDL]. to write a complex client program that dynamically generates Universal Description Discovery and Integration (UDDI). SOAP requests and interprets SOAP responses (and similarly This is a specification for distributed registries of web for the server side of our application). We can simply services, similar to yellow and white pages services. UDDI concentrate on writing the client and/or server code, and supports ‘publish, find and bind’: a service provider leave all the dirty work to the stubs (which, again, we don't describes and publishes the service details to the directory; even have to write ourselves... they can be generated service requestors make requests to the registry to find the automatically from the WSDL description of a web providers of a service; the services ‘bind’ using the technical service).The stubs are generally generated only once. In details provided by UDDI. It also builds on XML and SOAP general, we only go through the discovery step once, then [UDDI]. generate the stubs once (based on the WSDL of the service we've discovered) and then reuse the stubs as many times as we want (unless the maintainers of the Web service decide to 180 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 change the service's interface and, thus, its WSDL description). II. TRIGON BASED AUTHENTICATION ARCHITECTURE When legitimate entities (users) login, the trigon based authentication server splits the password into its components and stores the authentication information in two servers – namely authentication and backend server. Users have to register with the Authentication server, so that it can hold a part of the interpreted password with itself and another part in the Backend server. The block diagram illustrating the registration process of the users is depicted in the Figure 5.As illustrated in Figure5, the users who require services from the VO have to register initially with the Authentication server using their username and password. The Authentication server calculates the Pi as given in (1). Along with this authentication server generates two large prime numbers, namely, a and a’, which are considered as the two sides of a trigon. It is difficult to hack the values of a and a' as they are large prime numbers (as per RSA Factoring Challenge). Here, Pi is taken as the angle between the two the two sides of the trigon a and a’. Now, the Authentication server can easily determine the opposite side of the angle Pi, Fig 1 Flow Diagram termed as a’’. In (4), PAI is the ASCII-interpreted value of the given With these trigon parameters, α, Vaa' and Paa' are password pwi , n is the total number of digits in PAI and PAI found as ( j) represents the first j digits of PAI . The PAI can be calculated by the following steps. Vaa’=a-a’ (1) Change the pwi into its corresponding ASCII value. Paa’ = a * a’ (2) Calculate the three-fourth of total digits of the ASCII value modulo 180, which results the first three digits α = 2P aa’ − a' ' 2 (3) of PAI . where, a, a’ and a' ‘are the three sides of trigon. α is a strengthening parameter used as the index . Vaa' and Paa' are Append the remaining one-fourth of the ASCII digits to the variance and the product of the sides a and a' PAI . respectively. With the parameters a , a' and a' ' as the sides of trigon and Pi be the angle between the sides a and a' the generated trigon will be assumed . After the Then, from Pi the Authentication Server determines calculation of α , Vaa' and Paa' , the authentication server the Authentication index ( AI ) for ui as stores the α value and its corresponding username in a database and forwards Vaa' and Paa' to the Backend server along with the username. Hence, the password is interpreted and alienated into two units and stored in two separate AI(i) = Pi/2 (5) server. The authentication procedure is based on the fundamental concepts of a trigon. Initially, the user who wants the services of VO has to login to the Authentication Then, the Authentication Server searches for the server using the username and password. Here, ui and username index α i for the corresponding ui which has pwi refers to username and password of i th user. The already been stored in the server database during Authentication server calculates the Password index ( Pi ) the process of the registration. Subsequently, α i is from the password as sent to the backend server along with ui . When the Backend server receives the index α i and the username from the Authentication server, it P AI(i) / 10 pow n-2 ; if P AI (i) ≥ 180 searches for Vaa' and Paa' the Variance and the product Pi = of the sides a and a' respectively, which have been saved in the backend server database during the P AI(i)/ 10 pow n-3 ; else (4) process of registration. From these values, 181 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 the Backend server calculates an Authentication Token ATi and sends it to the Authentication server to xmlns:tns="http://www.globus.org/namespaces/add/hello_in authenticate the ui . The ATi can be calculated as stance" AT(i) = αi + Vaa’I * 2Paa‘I (6) xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> <types> In (6), Vaa' and Paa' are pre-calculated <xsd:schema values computed during individual user registration. After targetNamespace="http://www.globus.org/namespaces/add/h retrieval of ATi from the Backend server, the ello_instance" Authentication server authenticates the user based on the token from the Backend server and the index calculated at the Authentication server. The authentication code (or) xmlns:tns="http://www.globus.org/namespaces/add/hello_in stance" condition which authenticates the ui is given by xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema"> Sin AI(i) = ( 1- ATi / 2 ) ½ (7) <xsd:element name="addition"> <xsd:complexType> The authentication process is performed by the <xsd:sequence> authentication condition given in (7). When the condition is satisfied, the user is decided to be valid and the Server sends <xsd:element name="input1" type="xsd:int"/> a token called Token for VO access to the user. <xsd:element name="input2" type="xsd:int"/> </xsd:sequence> III. IMPLEMENTATION - AUTHENTICATION AS </xsd:complexType> SERVICE </xsd:element> <xsd:element name="response" type="xsd:string"/> A service is an entity that provides some capability to its clients by exchanging messages. A service is defined by <xsd:element name="additionrequest" type="xsd:string"/> identifying sequences of specific message exchanges that cause the service to perform some operation. By thus </xsd:schema> defining these operations only in terms of message exchange, we achieve great flexibility in how services are implemented </types> and where they may be located. A service-oriented <message name="AddInputMessage"> architecture is one in which all entities are services, and thus any operation visible to the architecture is the result of <part name="parameters" message exchange. element="tns:additionrequest"/> </message> Prerequisites are: <message name="AddOutputMessage"> <part name="resp" element="tns:response"/> build.xml </message> globus-build-service.sh <portType name="authPortType" > <operation name="addition"> 1. Creation of auth.wsdl File <input message="tns:AddInputMessage"/> <output message="tns:AddOutputMessage"/> <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> </operation> <definitions name="auth" </portType> </definitions> targetNamespace="http://www.globus.org/namespaces/add/h 2. Create namespace2package.mappings for mapping ello_instance" instances ,bindings and services. xmlns="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/wsdl/" 182 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 3. Write Implementation program . : http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/TriggerService : 4.Create deploy-server.wsdd http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/gsi/AuthenticationS [globus@g20 service]$ vi deploy-server.wsdd ervice : http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/TestRPCService 5.Create deploy-jndi-config.xml : [globus@g20 service]$ vi deploy-jndi-config.xml http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/ManagedMultiJobSe rvice 6.Build the service 9.Write Client Program for authentication. [globus@g20 ~example]$ sh globus-build-service.sh -d 10. Before running the compiler, make sure to run the org/add/service/ -s schema/add/hello.wsdl following: 7. After the successful building Grid Archive(GAR) file source $GLOBUS_LOCATION/etc/globus-devel-env.sh has been created. Now we have to deploy the GAR file using The globus-devel-env.sh script takes care of putting all globus-deploy-gar command. the Globus libraries into your CLASSPATH. [globus@g20~example]$ globus-deploy-gar [globus@gcluster example]$ source /usr/local/globus- org_add_service.gar 4.0.7/etc/globus-devel-env.sh 8. After successful deployment of the GAR file start the 11.[globus@gcluster example]$ javac globus container. org/add/client/Client.java [globus@g20 ~]$ globus-start-container 12. [globus@gcluster example]$ java org/add/client/Client Fig 3. GUI – Valid User Fig 2. GUI – Server side authentication : http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/DefaultTriggerServi ce : http://192.168.100.3:8443/wsrf/services/TrigonBasedAuth enticationService 183 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 lib/enus/dnglobspec/html/wssecureconversation.asp (accessed on 2002). The user is invalid since the username and password  Eastlake, D. and Reagle, J. (Eds.) (2002) XML Encryption Syntax haven’t stored in authentication and backend file. First time and Processing. W3C Recommendation, available at when user login his/her trigon value of the password gets http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlenc-core/ (accessed on December 2002). stored in the respective files. Next time when they login they  Foster. I., Kesselman. C. and Tuecke. S, “The Anatomy of the Grid: gets authenticated and token gets issued . Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations”, International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications”, vol. 15, no.3, pp. 200- 222, 2001.  I. Foster, C. Kesselman, J. Nick, and S. Tuecke. The physiology of the grid: An open grid services architecture for distributed systems IV. CONCLUSION integration, 2002.  I. foster, Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago ,carl kesselman, Information Sciences Institute, University of The Internet is a reasonable model for the Grid, providing Southern California ”THE GRID 2 blueprint for a new computing both an early version of its services and a platform from infrastructure”,2004 which to evolve. The authentication protocol, proposed here,  Graham, S., Simeonov, S., Boubez, T. etc, “Building Web Service enhanced the grid security as the authentication mechanism with Java: Making Sense of XML, SOAP, WSDL and UDDI”, Indianapolis, IN: Sams Publishing, 2002. utilized two servers for authentication. This simple trigon  Gudgin, M., Hadley, M., Mendelsohn, N., Moreau, J-J. and Nielsen, concept utilization in the authentication protocol introduced a H.F. (2003) SOAP Version 1.2 Part 1: Messaging Framework. W3C novel and revolutionary idea in the authentication Recommendation, Available at http://www.w3.org/TR/soap12-part1/ mechanism as well as in grid environment. The (accessed on June 2003). implementation of our dual authentication protocol showed  Grid Archive Creation: http://gdp.globus.org/gt4- its effective performance in pinpointing the adversaries and tutorial/multiplehtml/ch08s02.html. paving the way to valid users for access with the VO for  G. Laccetti and G. Schmid, "A framework model for grid security”, resource sharing. So by hosting this authentication as a Future Generation Computer Systems, vol. 23, no. 5, pp.702-713, June 2007. service it make the grid environment more secure. In future these services will be located by type instead by names.  Li, Y., Jin, H., Zou, D., Chen, J. and Han, Z. (2007) ‘A scalable service scheme for secure group communication in grid’, 31st Annual International Computer Software and Applications Conference (COMPSAC 2007). ACKNOWLEDGMENT  Li, Y., Jin, H., Zou, D., Liu, S. and Han, Z. (2008) ‘An authenticated encryption mechanism for secure group communication in grid’, 2008 International Conference on Internet Computing in Science and Our thanks to Dr.R.Rudramoorthy,Principal,PSG Engineering. College of Technology and Mr.K.Chidambaram, Director,  Li Hongweia, Sun Shixina and Yang Haomiaoa, “Identity-based Grid and Cloud systems group, Yahoo software authentication protocol for grid”, Journal of Systems Engineering and Electronics, Vol. 19, no. 4, pp.860-865, August 2008. development, India Private Limited for their support. This  Nagaratnam, N., Janson, P., Dayka, J., Nadalin, A., Siebenlist, F., project is carried out in Grid and Cloud lab, PSG College of Welch, V., Foster, I., and Tuecke, S., Security architecture for Open Technology. Grid Services, 2002. Available at www.globus.org/ogsa/Security/draft-ggf-ogsa-sec-arch-01.pdf.  Open Grid Services Architecture Data Access and Integration (OGSA-DAI) Project: www.ogsa-dai.org.uk. REFERENCES  K. Rochford, B. A. Coghlan, and J. Walsh. An agent-based approach to grid service monitoring. In Proc. International Symposium on  S. Albayrak, S. Kaiser, and J. Stender. Advanced grid management Parallel and Distributed Computing (ISPDC 2006), July July, 2006. software for seamless services. Multiagent Grid Syst., 1(4):263.270,  Shirasuna, S., Nakada, H., Matsuoka, S., and Sekiguchi, S., 2005. Evaluating Web services based implementations of GridRPC, in 11th  Andrew Johnson, Carl Kesselman, Jason Leigh, and Steven Tuecke, IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Application Experiences with the Globus Toolkit, Seventh IEEE Computing, Edinburgh, Scotland. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Alamitos, CA, 2001. Computing (HPDC-7 ... T).  Siebenlist, F., Welch, V., Tuecke, S., Foster, I., Nagaratnam, N.,  Antonioletti, M., and Jackson, M., OGSA-DAI Product Overview, Janson, P., Dayka, J., and Nadalin, A., Roadmap towards a secure 2003. Available at www.ogsa-dai.org.uk/downloads/docs/OGSA- OGSA. Global Grid Forum, draft, 2002. DAI-USER-M3-PRODUCTOVERVIEW.pdf.  Shengxian Luo, Xiaochuan Peng, Shengbo Fan Peiyu Zhang,Study on  Christensen, E., Curbera, F., Meredith, G., and Weerawarana, S., Web Computing Grid Distributed Middleware and Its Services Description Language (WSDL) 1.1, W3C, Note 15, 2001. 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In E- SCIENCE '06: Proceedings of the Second IEEE International 184 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 Conference on e-Science and Grid Computing, page 65, Washington, Cloud Computing. She has presented 1 paper in National Conference. She DC, USA, 2006. IEEE Computer Society. is the Best Outgoing Student in MTech 2010-2011 in PSG College of  UDDI. The UDDI technical white paper, http://www.uddi.org/, 2000. Technology. You may contact her at email@example.com  Von Welch, Frank Siebenlist, Ian Foster, John Bresnahan, Karl Czajkowski, Jarek Gawor, Carl Kesselman, Sam Meder, Laura Pearlman and Steven Tuecke, “Security for Grid Services”, in proceedings of the 12th IEEE International Symposium on High Performance Distributed Computing, pp.48- 57, June 2003.  W3C Note "Web Services Definition Language (WSDL) 1.1", http://www.w3.org/TR/WSDL.  W3C Note “Simple Object Access Protocol(SOAP) 1.1”,http://swww.w3.org/TR/WSDL. AUTHORS PROFILE Dr G Sudha Sadasivam is working as a Professor in Department of Computer Science and Engineering in PSG College of Technology, India. Her areas of interest include, Distributed Systems, Distributed Object Technology, Grid and Cloud Computing. She has published 20 papers in referred journals and 32 papers in National and International Conferences. She has coordinated two AICTE – RPS projects in Distributed and Grid Computing areas. She is also the coordinator for PSG- Yahoo Research on Grid and Cloud computing. You may contact her at firstname.lastname@example.org V Ruckmani received B. Sc, MCA and M. Phil degrees from the department of computer science, Bharathiar University, India in 1994, 1997 and 2003 respectively. She is currently pursuing the Ph. D degree, working closely with Prof. G. Sudha Sadasivam. From 1997 to 2000 she worked at PSG College of Arts and Science in the department of Computer Science. Since December 2000 she is working as a senior lecturer in Department of Computer Applications in Sri Ramakrishna Engineering College, India. She works in the field of Grid Computing specializing in the area of security. You may contact her at email@example.com K Anitha Kumari received BE(CSE) from Department of Computer Science ,Avinashilingam Deemed University and ME(SE) from Department of Computer Science ,Anna University. She is working as a Lecturer in Department of Information Technology in PSG College of Technology, India. Her areas of interest include Grid and Cloud Computing. She has published 1 paper in referred international journal and 5 papers in National and International Conferences. She is the Best Outgoing Student in ME 2010- 2011 in PSG College of Technology. She awarded Gold Medal in BE(CSE) in Avinashilingam Deemed University . You may contact her at firstname.lastname@example.org M P Dhaarini received BTech(IT) from Department of Information Technology ,Anna University and MTech(IT) from Department of Information Technology, Anna University. She is working as a Lecturer in Department of Information Technology in PSG College of Technology, India. Her areas of interest include 185 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500
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