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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 Priority Based Congestion Control for Multimedia Traffic In 3G Networks Neetu Sharma1, Amit Sharma2 , V.S Rathore3, Durgesh Kumar Mishra4 123 Department of Computer Engineering, Rajasthan, India 13 Rajasthan College of Engineering for women, Rajasthan, India 2 Shri Balagi College of Engineering & Technology, Rajasthan, India 4 Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, MP, India firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com ABSTRACT- There is a growing demand for efficient TCP friendly rate control (TFRC) and Adaptive increase multimedia streaming applications over the Internet and next multiplicative decrease (AIMD) used in networks. These algorithms generation mobile networks. Multimedia streaming services are used for multimedia traffic but not much effective in packet loss. receiving considerable interest in the mobile network business. TCP is the dominant transport protocol in the Internet, and the As communication technology is being developed, the user current stability of the Internet depends on its end-to-end congestion demand for multimedia services raises. The third generation control, which uses an Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (3G) mobile systems are designed to further enhance the (AIMD) algorithm. End-to-end congestion control of best-effort communication by providing high data rates of the order of 2 traffic is required to avoid the congestion collapse of the global Mbps. High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) is an Internet . While TCP congestion control is appropriate for enhancement to 3G networks that supports data rates of several applications such as bulk data transfer, some real-time applications Mbit/s, making it suitable for applications like multimedia, in (that is, where the data is being played out in real-time) find halving addition to traditional services like voice call. Services like the sending rate in response to a single congestion indication to be person-to-person two way video calls or one way video calls, aim unnecessarily severe, For providing a better congestion control with to improve person-to-person communication. Entertainment higher data rates a new effective scheme is used. Congestion control services like gaming, video streaming of a movie, movie trailers is an important issue in both wired and wireless streaming or video clips are also supported in 3G. Many more of such applications. Multimedia applications should use some form of services are possible due to the augmented data rates supported congestion control, both in wired and cellular networks, in order to by the 3G networks and because of the support for Quality of adapt the sending rate to the available bandwidth. Today’s Internet Service (QoS) differentiation in order to efficiently deliver stability is due to TCP and its congestion control algorithm. TCP required quality for different types of services. represents a very efficient transport protocol in general and is suitable for data transfer. However, it has been argued  that TCP This paper present congestion control schemes that are suitable is unsuitable for video streaming because strict delay and jitter for multimedia flows. The problem is that packet losses, during requirements of video streaming are not respected by TCP. bad radio conditions in 3G, not only degrade the multimedia Moreover, some TCP retransmissions are unnecessary for video quality, but render the current congestion control algorithms as when data may miss the arrival deadline and become obsolete. This inefficient. This paper proposed a solution that integrated the has led researchers to look for alternative options. Most of the work congestion control schemes with a priority based multimedia related to congestion control for video flows has either emulated TCP packets to increase the speed of multimedia data and reduce the or has used the TCP model. The well-known TCP-Friendly Rate packet loss that is developed due to congestion in networks Control (TFRC) congestion control consists in an equation based rate Key words: UMTS, CN, BS, TFMCC, UTRAN, RNC control mechanism , designed to keep a relatively steady sending rate while still being responsive to congestion. When used I. INTRODUCTION over wireless links, TFRC and TCP cannot distinguish between the The emerging multimedia application requires a fresh approach for wireless losses and the congestion losses. They both may suffer from congestion control. A widely popular congestion control schemes are the link underutilization if the connection traverses a wireless link. 167 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 This is because they consider dropped packets as a sure sign of UMTS networking architecture is organized in two domains. The congestion and reduce the ending rate significantly. The inability to user equipment (UE) and the public land mobile network (PLMN). identify a wireless loss followed by unnecessary reduction in sending The UE is used by the subscriber to access the UMTS services. rate results in link underutilization. PLAN is further divided into two land-based infrastructures A. UMTS Introduction (i) UTRAN (UMTS terrestrial radio– access network) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is a third- (ii) CN (core network). generation (3G), wireless cellular network that uses Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) as its radio interface The UTRAN handless all radio-related functionalities and the CN is technology. UMTS offers higher data rates with respect to older 2G responsible for maintaining subscribes data and for connections. and 2.5G networks and, with the Release 5 version, is evolving into UTRAN contain two types of nodes Radio network controller (RNC) an all-IP, wireless network. The increased bandwidth provided by and Node B. Node B is the base station and provides radio coverage UMTS allows for the deployment of a wide range of services, like to one or more cells. Node B connected to UE via Uu interface and to voice, data and multimedia streaming services. In wireless networks, the RNC via Iub interface. Uu is a radio interface based on the congestion control, alone, may not be enough to ensure good quality wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) technology . of multimedia streaming and efficient utilization of the network. The CN consist by two types of general packet radio service support Packet losses due to the high bit error rate not only degrade the nodes (GSNs). That is gateway GSN (GGSN) and serving GSN multimedia quality, but render the current congestion control (SGSN). SGSN provide the routing functionality. It manages a group algorithms as inefficient: these algorithms back-off on every packet of RNCs and interacts with the home location register (HLR). HLR loss even when there is no congestion. We integrate the congestion permanently store the subscriber data. SGSN connected to GGSN via control schemes with an adaptive retransmission scheme in order to the Gn interface. RNC connect to SGSN via Iu interface. Through the selectively retransmit some lost multimedia packets. Fig.1 shows the GGSN the UNTS network connect to external packet data network transmission of multimedia data over a wireless channel. like the internet. Fig. 1 Transmission of Multimedia data Fig.2 General UMTS Network C. 3G/UMTS Problems B. GENERAL UMTS NETWORK: Problems due to the use of IP o IP doesn’t support real time streaming UMTS, the successor of GSM, is evolving toward a future wireless requirements all-IP network. In this paper we present how it supports real-time IP o Overhead due to packet header multimedia services, as these services are expected to drive the Problems due to radio conditions adoption of wireless all-IP networks. o Scarce and time varying bandwidth o Congestion, wireless losses & large delay 168 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 D. UMTS QoS Classes control profiles that may be used with the DCCP transport protocol UMTS defines four QoS classes  and the classified traffic gets the ; TFRC may also be implemented by UDP-based applications treatment inside the UMTS network according to its class. The four wishing to perform congestion control. This paper presents a QoS classes are: simulation study of TFRC over UMTS networks supporting • Conversational class: The traffic from the applications like person- HSDPA. Since we are interested in video streaming applications, we to-person video or voice call is classified into conversational class. evaluate the performance of TFRC in terms of rate stability over The delay and jitter requirements for this type of traffic are very different time scales, and compare it with that of TCP. Several strict. This is because on the both end points there is a human scenarios of MAC-layer scheduling, radio conditions and background expecting the delivery of the voice and/or video data in very short traffic are considered. time after it is sent. This paper proposed a more reliable algorithm that provides • Streaming class: Video on Demand (VoD) falls under this class. congestion control for different multimedia classes. Priority assigned The delay requirements are there but are not as strict as the to each of the packet according to multimedia classes. So whenever conversational class. the congestion occurs in the network the lowest priority packets are dropped. If overall loss rate for lower priority packets is not very • Interactive class: The interactive traffic like interactive e-mail or high, then we can safely assume that the congestion loss rate for the web browsing falls under this category. Though there is still some highest priority packets will be insignificant. In such a case, the loss delay requirement, it is less strict than the conversational and of highest priority packets will be mainly due to wireless errors. streaming classes. Moreover, since the traffic mostly pertains to data Thus, it is to be expected that, in general, there is a good correlation applications, the bit error rate should be very low. between wireless packet loss rate and the total loss rate of highest • Background class: This class is the most insensitive to delay. It priority packets. includes the traffic from background applications like background email and SMS. Though, the bit error rate, like the Interactive class, 2. THE PROPOSED SCHEME should be very low. This paper provides a mechanism of congestion control for the D Congestion Control for Multimedia data multimedia transmission over UMTS. We analyze TCP friendly multicast congestion control (TFMCC) over UMTS and generalize it TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC) is an end-to-end congestion to different multimedia classes . We design a novel mechanism control mechanism, whose goal is to provide rate control for unicast for congestion control that is Content Sensitive TCP Friendly flows in IP networks. The main feature of TFRC is its ability to Multicast Congestion Control (CSTFMCC). We perform a little smoothly adapt the sending rate of a flow to network conditions, modification in UMTS network and the packet field. At various level while competing for bandwidth with TCP flows in a relatively fair of network we provide the control mechanism that prevents the manner. TFRC was designed to offer a more stable sending rate than network from the congestion. Multimedia Class I traffic includes TCP on wired, best-effort networks, making it suitable for video and audio traffic from users equipped with an adjustable rate. applications like multimedia streaming. We evaluate the performance Class II traffic includes non-real time data traffic such as e-mail, file of TFRC, compare it with that of TCP and new TFRC for different transfer and web browsing traffic. These two classes contain different multimedia classes, under different scenarios of MAC-layer multimedia traffic that is more delay sensitive or less delay sensitive. scheduling, radio conditions and background traffic. So class I traffic support the real time applications and more delay TFRC  is an end-to-end congestion control mechanism sensitive. Due to congestion, if any loss of the packet or the delay suitable for applications with constraints on rate stability, like voice between the packets can reduce the quality of received video/audio. or streaming media. It has been designed to adapt the sending rate of Whether in class II traffic, if congestion occur it is acceptable to a flow in a smooth manner, while trying to fairly share the available buffer non-real time data at a network node or at the user station and bandwidth with competing TCP flows. TFRC is an Internet standard transmit them at a slower rate. In a large multicast group, there will , and it has been adopted at the IETF as one of the congestion usually be at least one receiver that has experienced a recent packet 169 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 loss. If the congestion control mechanisms require that the sender If (incoming request for higher priority packets) If (there is a free channel) then reduces its sending rate in response to each loss, as in TCP, then allocate the free channel there is little potential for the construction of scalable multicast else If (lower priority packets) congestion control. put in a buffer If (there is free channel again) In wireless communication systems like UMTS, the packet loss may allocate the free channel to lower not mean network congestion. The quality of wireless link may be priority packets else degrading due to signal fading. During a fading period, the bit error Ignore request rate of wireless link may become very high but after that period the endif else wireless link is expected to recover. TFMCC uses a feed back Ignore request scheme which allows the receiver to calculating the slowest endif ignore request transmission rate to always reach the sender. endif endif End. A. Sender end: Fragmentation of data packets perform at the sender end. The sender fragment the data packet with on bit of priority. Fig.3 Algorithm For proposed model There are two parts of the data (i) packet header and (ii) payload. The size of header part change by one bit shows the priority of packet. So Fig. 4 shows the flow chart for the proposed model. Flow chart shows the arrival of packet and priority check by the routers at there is only one bit modification perform in the size of data packet layer2. According to this priority the packets is being processed. and it increases the speed of multimedia packets. Packet Arrival B. Multimedia Packet Size: Multimedia packet size depends on the High Check priority of Packets? Low multimedia classes. The proposed scheme redesigns the multimedia Process the higher priority Process the packets lower priority packets packets. It increases the multimedia packet size by one bit. This bit shows the priority of multimedia packets. The highest priority Any Free No Any Free Yes Channel? Channel? packets serve first by the routers at the layer 2. So the size of the Yes No Yes Buffer full ? packet is increased by one bit. No Accept packet and Block (reject) Buffer the Accept packet and assign channel the packet packet assign the channel C. Routing Scenario: For fast transmission of multimedia information the proposed scheme give the priority to all multimedia Fig. 4 Flow Chart for the proposed model packets. When a user want to send multimedia data the data framing perform at the sender end. The sender constructs the frame with a priority bit. This information stored in the header of the packet for Receiving End: At the receiving end defragmentation perform. The priority access to the router. Sender sends the packets towards its receiving data packet reaches at the destination and multimedia destination. Multimedia packets reach at the network. At layer two information is available for the user respectively the router checks the destination address and priority bit of the A. Simulation Platform packet. If a higher priority packet arrives then router serves first to the packet which contains a highest priority. This increases the speed The simulation that we use for this is EURANE (NS-2 of multimedia packets and decreases the congestion in the networks. Extension). Following fig. 3 shows the simulation topology to increase the multimedia quality. This paper focuses on the problem For implementing this scenario the changes perform in the size of of evaluating the subjective video quality and presents the quality packets and in routers. Following algorithm shows the scenario for estimation tool that we employed. a performance evaluation study routing the various packets according to priority. Fig. 3 shows the done with the well known ns-2 network simulator algorithm for the proposed model. 170 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010  Ljiljana Trajkovic and S. Jamaloddin Golestant” Congestion Control for Multimedia Services” proc of IEEE INFOCOM 1992  Antonios Alexiou, Dimitrios Antonellis and Chritos Bouras “Equation Based Congestion Control for Video Transmission Over WCDMA Networks”proc of IEEE Fig:3 Simulation Topology AINA’06 Vienna, Austria, pp .445-450. the video packet trace file is fed to the ns-2 simulator (compiled with the EURANE extensions). This trace file serves as a traffic generator  Minghua Chen and Avideh Zakhor “Rate Control for during the simulation. A simulation script allows defining the Streaming Video over Wireless” proc of IEEE particular scenario under consideration (network topology, INFOCOM 2004 simulation parameters, and so on). When the simulation is run, an  Kamal Deep Singh*, Árpád Huszák., David Ros§, César output trace file is produced which contains delay- and loss-related Viho* and Gábor Jeney. information for every video packet sent by the (simulated) video “Congestion Control and Adaptive Retransmission for server. Multimedia Streaming over Wireless Networks” The Conclusion Second International Conference on Next Generation Mobile Applications, Services, and Technologies This paper represents to design a multicast group congestion control  Kamal Deep Singh∗, Julio Orozco†, David Ros‡ and mechanism over the UMTS networks. This mechanism is content sensitive and optimized for multimedia traffic. This paper performs Gerardo Rubino “Improving perceived streaming-video some changes in existing UMTS architecture and the packet field of quality in High Speed Downlink Packet Access” proc of data packet. User equipment (UE) has some additional function to IEEE IEEE "GLOBECOM" 2008 detect the multimedia class type. The additional functionality of UE  S. Floyd and K. Fall. Promoting the Use of End-to-end and the field of data packet has main target to remove the packet loss Congestion Control in the Internet. IEEE/ACM and congestion. Transactions on Networking, Aug. 1999.  R. Jain, K. Ramakrishnan, and D. Chiu. Congestion Refrences Avoidance in Computer Networks with a  Holma. H. and Toskala, A. “WCDMA for UMTS: Radio Connectionless Network Layer. Tech. Rep. DEC-TR- Access for Third Generation Mobile Communications” 506, Digital Equipment Corporation, August 1987. rd (3 Edition),Wiley,2004.  S. Floyd, M. Handley, J. Padhye, and J. Widmer .Equation  Antonios Alexiou, Dimitrios Antonellis and Chritos based congestion control for unicast applications., In Bouras” A Study of Multicast Congestion Control for Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM 2000, pages 43.56, UMTS” proc Int. J. Commun. Sys. (2009) Stockholm, Aug. 2000.  Miiighua Clien and Avitleh Zaklior”Rate Control for  S. Floyd, E. Kohler, and J. Padhye, .Profile for Datagram Streaming Video over wireless “proc of IEEE Congestion Control Protocol (DCCP) Congestion Control INFOCOM 2004 Hong Kong China ID 3: TCP-Friendly Rate Control (TFRC)., RFC 4342, IETF, Mar. 2006.  J. Widmer, R. Denda, M. Mauve “A Survey on TCP- Friendly Congestion Control” IEEE Network,15(3),  M. Handley, S. Floyd, J. Padhye, and J. Widmer. TCP May-June 2001 Friendly Rate Control (TFRC): Protocol Specification.  Cui-Quing Yang and Alapati V.S. Reddy “A Taxonomy Internet Standards Track RFC 3448, IETF, Jan. 2003. for congestion control algorithms in packet switching  Ns-2 . Network Simulator, networks”proc IEEE 1995 http:///www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/index.html 171 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 Authors Profile Architecture, Operating System Fundamentals, DBMS & RDBMS (Oracle, DB2, SQL Server, MS- Ms. Neetu Sharma, Reader Access, DBASE, etc.), Data Structures, Programming Languages (C, C++, Java (J2SE, J2ME, J2EE), VB, COBOL), Networking Technologies (Data Communications, Internet & Intranet, E-Commerce, Network Security, Cryptology etc.), Software Engineering, System Analysis & Design, Management Information System, Decision Support System, Artificial Intelligence, E-Governance, Computer Center Management, UNIX, etc.. He is the member of Biography: Mrs. Neetu Sharma obtained her renowned society like ISTE. Engineering degree from University of Rajasthan and Masters Degree from Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Dr. Durgesh Kumar Mishra Udiapur securing First division with honors in both. Professor (CSE) and Dean (R&D), Currently she is pursuing Ph.D. (CSE) in Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Congestion Control in 3G from Gyanvihar Indore, MP, India, Ph - +91 9826047547, +91-731-4730038 University, Jaipur, India. She has been Reader and Email: firstname.lastname@example.org HOD of the department of CSE at Rajasthan College of Engineering for Women, Jaipur, India. Chairman IEEE Computer Society, Bombay Chapter She has extensively worked in various field of Vice Chairman IEEE MP Subsection Computer Engineering. She has published many national papers in the reputed journals and conferences. She is an author of the book 'System Software Engineering' for B.Tech. students. She is the member of renowned societies like IEEE, IEEE computer society, ISTE and CSI also. Dr. Vijay Rathore, Associate Professor Biography: Dr. Durgesh Kumar Mishra has received M.Tech. degree in Computer Science from DAVV, Indore in 1994 and PhD degree in Computer Engineering in 2008. Presently he is working as Professor (CSE) and Dean (R&D) in Acropolis Institute of Technology and Research, Indore, MP, India. He is having around 21 Yrs of teaching experience and more than 7 Yrs of research experience. He has completed his research Biography: Dr. Vijay Singh Rahore obtained his work with Dr. M. Chandwani, Director, IET-DAVV MCA and Ph.D. (CSE) from University of Indore, MP, India in Secure Multi- Party Rajasthan, India. He is an Associate Professor, Computation. He has published more than 60 Shree Karni College, Jaipur, India. He has more papers in refereed International/National Journal than 10 years of industrial and teaching experience. and Conference including IEEE, ACM etc. He is a His areas of interest are Computer Organization & Senior Member of IEEE, Chairman of IEEE 172 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500 (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 8, No. 6, September 2010 Computer Society, Bombay Chapter, India. Dr. Mishra has delivered his tutorials in IEEE International conferences in India as well as other countries also. He is also the programme committee member of several International conferences. He visited and delivered his invited talk in Taiwan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Malaysia, Bali-Indonesia, Singapore, Sri Lanka, USA and UK etc in Secure Multi-Party Computation of Information Security. He is an author of one book also. He is also the reviewer of tree International Journal of Information Security. He is a Chief Editor of Journal of Technology and Engineering Sciences. He has been a consultant to industries and Government organization like Sale tax and Labor Department of Government of Madhya Pradesh, India. Mr. Amit Sharma, Assistant Professor Biography: Mr. Amit sharma obtained his MCA from University of Rajasthan and aboout to complete his M.Tech.(CSE) from Rajasthan Technical University. He is an Assistant Professor in Sri Balaji College of Engineering & Technology, Jaipur. He has more than 5 years of industrial and teaching experience. His areas of interest are Open Source, Networking, Advance Computer Architecture and Information Security. He is the member of renowned society like ISTE. 173 http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ ISSN 1947-5500
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